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Sample records for reduce whole-body vibration

  1. Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONATI, P.

    2002-05-01

    Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

  2. Whole-body vibration perception thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, K. C.; Griffin, M. J.

    1988-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory experiments concerned with perception thresholds for whole-body vibration. The nature of absolute perception thresholds is discussed and a method of determining vibration thresholds, based upon signal detection theory, is proposed. Thresholds of subjects exposed to x-, y- and z-axis sinusoidal vibration were determined for sitting and standing subjects (from 2 to 100 Hz). Perception thresholds have also been determined for supine subjects exposed to vertical ( x-axis) sinusoidal vibration (10-63 Hz). In additional experiments the effects of complex (e.g., random) vibration and the effects of duration on the perception thresholds were investigated. The relation between perception thresholds and vibration levels, said by subjects to be unacceptable if they occurred in their own homes, was investigated as well as the effects of subjects' personality and the visual and acoustic conditions in the laboratory. For the vertical vibration of seated subjects no significant differences were found between the responses of male and female subjects. Significant differences were found between perception thresholds for sitting and standing postures. The median threshold was approximately 0·01 m/s 2 r.m.s. between 2 and 100 Hz. Perception thresholds for x-axis and y-axis vibration were not significantly different in either sitting or standing subjects but significant differences in thresholds were found between sitting and standing positions for both x-axis and y-axis vibration. Subjects tended to be more sensitive to vibration when lying than when sitting or standing. The results suggested that the perception of random vibrations can be predicted from a knowledge of the perception of its component vibrations. The number of cycles of vibration did not affect perception thresholds for vibration durations of more than about 0·25 s. Some assessments suggested that vibration at more than twice the perception threshold may not

  3. Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G

    1998-09-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence. PMID:9755785

  4. Numerical assessment of fore-and-aft suspension performance to reduce whole-body vibration of wheel loader drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Gérard; Mistrot, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    While driving off-road vehicles, operators are exposed to whole-body vibration acting in the fore-and-aft direction. Seat manufacturers supply products equipped with fore-and-aft suspension but only a few studies report on their performance. This work proposes a computational approach to design fore-and-aft suspensions for wheel loader seats. Field tests were conducted in a quarry to analyse the nature of vibration to which the driver was exposed. Typical input signals were recorded to be reproduced in the laboratory. Technical specifications are defined for the suspension. In order to evaluate the suspension vibration attenuation performance, a model of a sitting human body was developed and coupled to a seat model. The seat model combines the models of each suspension component. A linear two-degree-of-freedom model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the sitting driver. Model parameters are identified by fitting the computed apparent mass frequency response functions to the measured values. Model extensions are proposed to investigate postural effects involving variations in hands and feet positions and interaction of the driver's back with the backrest. Suspension design parameters are firstly optimized by computing the seat/man model response to sinusoidal acceleration. Four criteria including transmissibility, interaction force between the driver's back and the backrest and relative maximal displacement of the suspension are computed. A new suspension design with optimized features is proposed. Its performance is checked from calculations of the response of the seat/man model subjected to acceleration measured on the wheel loader during real work conditions. On the basis of the computed values of the SEAT factors, it is found possible to design a suspension that would increase the attenuation provided by the seat by a factor of two.

  5. Action slips during whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, Kazuma; Meland, Anders; Hansen, Tor Are S; Kåsin, Jan Ivar; Wagstaff, Anthony S

    2016-07-01

    Helicopter aircrew members engage in highly demanding cognitive tasks in an environment subject to whole-body vibration (WBV). Sometimes their actions may not be according to plan (e.g. action slips and lapses). This study used a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) to examine whether action slips were more frequent during exposure to WBV. Nineteen participants performed the SART in two blocks. In the WBV block participants were exposed to 17 Hz vertical WBV, which is typical of larger helicopter working environments. In the No-WBV block there was no WBV. There were more responses to the rare no-go digit 3 (i.e. action slips) in the WBV block, and participants responded faster in the WBV block. These results suggest that WBV influences response inhibition, and can induce impulsive responding. WBV may increase the likelihood of action slips, mainly due to failure of response inhibition. PMID:26611989

  6. Neural systemic impairment from whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Insidious brain microinjury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (WBV) has not yet been investigated. For a long time we have believed that WBV would cause cumulative brain microinjury and impair cerebral function, which suggests an important risk factor for motor vehicle accidents and secondary cerebral vascular diseases. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 8): 1) 2-week normal control group, 2) 2-week sham control group (restrained in the tube without vibration), 3) 2-week vibration group (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and 0.5g acceleration for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks), 4) 4-week sham control group, 5) 4-week vibration group, 6) 8-week sham control group, and 7) 8-week vibration group. At the end point, all rats were evaluated in behavior, physiological, and brain histopathological studies. The cerebral injury from WBV is a cumulative process starting with vasospasm squeezing of the endothelial cells, followed by constriction of the cerebral arteries. After the 4-week vibration, brain neuron apoptosis started. After the 8-week vibration, vacuoles increased further in the brain arteries. Brain capillary walls thickened, mean neuron size was obviously reduced, neuron necrosis became prominent, and wide-ranging chronic cerebral edema was seen. These pathological findings are strongly correlated with neural functional impairments. PMID:25557339

  7. Whole body vibration and cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Sean A.; Guiliano, Anthony M.; Starmer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this review is to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration on outcomes in patients with cerebral palsy. The findings in this review may help clinicians make evidence informed decisions on the use of whole body vibration for cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was conducted on April 29, 2014.The following search terms were used to search of several databases: (whole body vibration OR whole-body vibration OR whole body-vibration OR WBV) AND (cerebral palsy). Articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Scottish intercollegiate guidelines network (SIGN) rating system to assess the methodology and bias of the articles for randomized control trials. Results: The search produced 25 articles, of which 12 duplicates were identified and removed. Another seven articles were not considered since they did not fit the inclusion criteria, leaving a total of five studies for review. Four of the articles analyzed the effects of WBV in children while the other study focused on adults with cerebral palsy. There was one low quality article, four acceptable quality articles and one high quality article when assessed using the SIGN criteria. Conclusions: It appears that whole body vibration has the potential to provide symptomatic relief for patients with cerebral palsy. Whole body vibration may improve spasticity, muscle strength and coordination. There is a lack of research to conclusively determine whether it does alter bone mineral density. PMID:26500358

  8. Wireless Network for Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Diogo; Chiaramonte, Marilda S.; Balbinot, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the development of a system integrated to a ZigBee network to measure whole-body vibration. The developed system allows distinguishing human vibrations of almost 400Hz in three axes with acceleration of almost 50g. The tests conducted in the study ensured the correct functioning of the system for the project's purpose.

  9. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  10. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

    1998-08-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  11. Mathematical equations and system identification models for a portable pneumatic bladder system designed to reduce human exposure to whole body shock and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Ayyad, Ezzat

    A mathematical representation is sought to model the behavior of a portable pneumatic foam bladder designed to mitigate the effects of human exposure to shock and whole body random vibration. Fluid Dynamics principles are used to derive the analytic differential equations used for the physical equations Model. Additionally, combination of Wiener and Hammerstein block oriented representation techniques have been selected to create system identification (SID) block oriented models. A number of algorithms have been iterated to obtain numerical solutions for the system of equations which was found to be coupled and non-linear, with no analytic closed form solution. The purpose is to be able to predict the response of such system due to random vibrations and shock within reasonable margin of error. The constructed models were found to be accurate within accepted confidence level. Beside the analytic set of physical equations model representation, a linear SID model was selected to take advantage of the available vast amount of mathematical tools available to further analyze and redesign the bladder as a dynamic system. Measured field-test and lab test data have been collected from several helicopter and land terrain vehicle experiments. Numerous excitation and response acceleration measurement records were collected and used to prove the agreement with predictions. The estimation of two selected models were later applied to standard metrics in the frequency domain realization and compared with measurement responses. The collected test records are obtained from measured data at the US Army fields and facilities and at UNLV-CMEST environmental lab. The emerged models have been validated for conformity with actual accelerometer measurement responses and found within accepted error tolerance that is in both time and frequency domains. Further, standard metrics have been used to further confirm the confidence in the validation results. When comparing model prediction with

  12. Acute effects of whole-body vibration. Stabilography and electrogastrography.

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, A; Wikström, B O

    1987-06-01

    The influence of whole-body vibration on postural control and stomach motility was investigated. Fifteen subjects were exposed to two vibration signals (3 and 6 Hz random) while sitting for 1 h on a vibration simulator. A control situation, ie, sitting for 1 h without vibration, was also included. Stabilographic recordings before and 1 and 15 min after the sitting showed that exposure to these frequencies had no effect on postural control. Electrogastrographic (EGG) measurements before and during the sitting showed that, for 3 Hz, there was an initial increase in activity which decreased towards normal values. For 6 Hz there was a significant increase in activity for EGG frequencies of 0.05 and 0.13 Hz. The results imply that stomach motility can be affected by whole-body vibration in certain frequency ranges. PMID:3616553

  13. Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

    1998-08-01

    Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

  14. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’. PMID:26327887

  15. Measurement of whole-body vibration in taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Mitsuhiko; Taoda, Kazushi; Tsujimura, Hiroji; Nishiyama, Katsuo

    2004-03-01

    In a previous epidemiological study we reported that the prevalence (45.8%) of low-back pain (LBP) and the two-year incidence (25.9%) of LBP in 284 male taxi drivers in Japan was comparable with rates reported for other occupational drivers in which LBP frequently occurs. LBP was significantly related with the level of uncomfortable road vibrations, and, importantly, increased with total mileage. The aim of this study was to measure whole-body vibration (WBV) on the driver's seat pan of 12 taxis operating under actual working conditions. The results were evaluated according to the health guidelines in International Standard ISO 2631-1:1997. Finally, the relation between total mileage and WBV was investigated. The majority of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of the taxis fell into the "potential health risks" zone, under ISO 2631-1:1997. It was clear that the taxi drivers were exposed to serious WBV magnitudes. Therefore, occupational health and safety management should be carried out to help prevent adverse health effects in taxi drivers. In particular, reduction of WBV in taxis and shortening of driving time to reduce duration of WBV exposure should be considered. Moreover, because many taxi drivers work 18 h every other day, the shortening of working hours and taking of rest breaks while working should be considered. Frequency-weighted r.m.s. accelerations of taxis had a tendency to decrease as total mileage increased. The relation between total mileage and WBV should be investigated by taking measurements on the floor and the back rest in addition to the seat pan. PMID:15090686

  16. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery

    PubMed Central

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery. PMID:27390415

  17. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    PubMed

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery. PMID:27390415

  18. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  19. Whole-body vibration and health effects in the agricultural machinery drivers.

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, M; Maeda, S; Inaoka, T; Nagano, M; Shono, M; Miyakita, T

    1998-04-01

    Recently farm mechanization has been widespread and developing rapidly, in particular riding farm machines are increasingly used in paddy fields in Japan. We have no information available on the actual situation regarding whole-body vibration on the seats of these farm machines from the standpoint of labour protection. Measurement and evaluation of whole-body vibration was performed on the seats of popular riding agricultural machineries. Whole-body vibration on the seats of combine harvesters and wheel tractors exceeded exposure limits and the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary limit of 8 hr and also shortened the reduced comfort boundary limits of ISO 2631 (1985). Some combines, tractors and carieers had only less than one hour exposure duration as compared with the ISO 2631-1 standard (1997). On the other hand a questionnaire was also performed on the subject of agricultural machine operators. Any specific injury or other effects, i.e. low back injuries were not found among the group of operators as compared with those in non-operator farmers. It seems to be difficult to find out the health effects of whole-body vibration itself, because there may be a lot of causes, i.e. working posture, operating heavy materials, in farm working conditions. PMID:9583309

  20. Effect of whole body vibration applied on upper extremity muscles.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, G; Rácz, L; Di Giminiani, R; Tihanyi, József

    2013-03-01

    The acute residual effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on upper extremity muscles and testosterone secretion was studied. Eight highly (G1), nine moderately trained gymnasts (G2) and seven physically active persons (CG) were recruited for the investigation. The intervention occurred in push-up position with the elbow flexed at 90°. G1 and G2 received 30 s, 30 Hz and 6 mm amplitude vibration repeated five times. Subjects were tested before and after one and ten minutes intervention in push-up movement. Contact time (Tc), fly time (Tf), TF/Tc ratio and impulse was measured from the ground reaction force-time curves recorded during self-selected (SSRM) and full range of motion (FRM). Testosterone level in urine was also determined. Tf increased significantly in SSRM for G1 and decreased in SSRM and FRM for G2. Tf/Tc ratio in FRM and impulse in SSRM increased significantly for G1 only. No significant alteration in testosterone level was observed. We concluded that WBV is a reasonable training modality for influencing dynamic work of upper extremity muscle, but the reaction to WBV is training and individual dependent. It seems that WBV do not influence dynamic work through increased testosterone secretion because of the relatively low mass of the involved muscles. PMID:23232701

  1. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  2. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

  3. Whole Body Vibration Immediately Decreases Lower Extremity Loading During the Drop Jump.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zong-Rong; Peng, Hsien-Te; Siao, Sheng-Wun; Hou, Yan-Ting; Wang, Li-I

    2016-09-01

    Chen, Z-R, Peng, H-T, Siao, S-W, Hou, Y-T, and Wang, L-I. Whole body vibration immediately decreases lower extremity loading during the drop jump. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2476-2481, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on lower extremity loading during the drop jump (DJ). Fifteen male collegiate physical education students randomly completed 3 experimental sessions on 3 separate days with 4 days interval between sessions (performing 3 trials of DJ from 30-, 40-, and 50-cm drop heights before WBV and 4 minutes after WBV). Eight cameras and 2 force platforms were used to record kinematic and kinetic data, respectively. Peak impact force and loading rate significantly decreased after WBV during DJ from 40 and 50 cm. Knee angular displacements significantly increased after WBV during DJ from 30, 40, and 50 cm. Whole body vibration may help immediately reduce lower extremity loading. PMID:26849793

  4. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  5. Transmission of whole-body vibration and its effect on muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Tankisheva, Ekaterina; Jonkers, Ilse; Boonen, Steven; Delecluse, Christophe; van Lenthe, G Harry; Druyts, Hans L J; Spaepen, Pieter; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2013-09-01

    The aim of current study was to measure the transmission of whole-body vibration through the entire body and to relate this to body posture and induced muscular activation. Eight clinically healthy subjects performed 3 static body postures-high squat (135°), deep squat (110°), and erect stance, whereas vibration transmission was assessed over a wide range of accelerations (from 0.33 to 7.98 g) and frequencies (from 30 to 50 Hz). To assess the vibration transmission, 9 triaxial accelerometers were attached from the ankle up to the head and the root mean square of acceleration signal of each site-specific body point was calculated. Additionally, muscle activity from 7 lower limb muscles was recorded. The results showed a significant attenuation of the platform accelerations transmitted from the feet to the head. Compared with erect stance, knee bent posture significantly diminished vibration transmission at the hip, spine, and the head (p < 0.05). Vibration transmission to the spine was significantly lower in deep vs. high squat (p < 0.05), suggesting that further knee bending may reduce the risk of overloading the spine. Vibration increased the muscle activity in most leg and hip muscles during both squat postures, although, on average, no clear dose-response relationship between the acceleration and/or frequency and muscle response was found. The muscular activation of vastus medialis and rectus femoris showed clear negative correlation to the vibration transmission at the sternum. The specific vibration parameters used in the present study can be considered as safe and suitable for a training program. Moreover, the present results contribute to optimize the most advantageous whole-body vibration protocol and to determine the beneficial effects on muscle and bone. PMID:23222086

  6. Power absorbed during whole-body vertical vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have quantified the power absorbed in the seated human body during exposure to vibration but have not investigated the effects of body posture or the power absorbed at the back and the feet. This study investigated the effects of support for the feet and back and the magnitude of vibration on the power absorbed during whole-body vertical vibration. Twelve subjects were exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random vertical vibration (0.25-20 Hz) while sitting on a rigid seat in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest. Force and acceleration were measured at the seat, the feet, and the backrest to calculate the power absorbed at these three locations. At all three interfaces (seat, feet, and back) the absorbed power increased in proportion to the square of the magnitude of vibration, with most power absorbed from vibration at the seat. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Supporting the feet with the footrest reduced the total absorbed power at the seat, with greater reductions with higher footrests. It is concluded that contact between the thighs and the seat increases the power absorbed at the seat whereas a backrest can either increase or decrease the power absorbed at the seat.

  7. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

  8. Neurocognitive responses to a single session of static squats with whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Amonette, William E; Boyle, Mandy; Psarakis, Maria B; Barker, Jennifer; Dupler, Terry L; Ott, Summer D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the head accelerations using a common whole body vibration (WBV) exercise protocol acutely reduced neurocognition in healthy subjects. Second, we investigated differential responses to WBV plates with 2 different delivery mechanisms: vertical and rotational vibrations. Twelve healthy subjects (N = 12) volunteered and completed a baseline (BASE) neurocognitive assessment: the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). Subjects then participated in 3 randomized exercise sessions separated by no more than 2 weeks. The exercise sessions consisted of five 2-minute sets of static hip-width stance squats, with the knees positioned at a 45° angle of flexion. The squats were performed with no vibration (control [CON]), with a vertically vibrating plate (vertical vibration [VV]), and with a rotational vibrating plate (rotational vibration [RV]) set to 30 Hz with 4 mm of peak-to-peak displacement. The ImPACT assessments were completed immediately after each exercise session and the composite score for 5 cognitive domains was analyzed: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, and impulse control. Verbal memory scores were unaffected by exercise with or without vibration (p = 0.40). Likewise, visual memory was not different (p = 0.14) after CON, VV, or RV. Significant differences were detected for visual motor speed (p = 0.006); VV was elevated compared with BASE (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences (p = 0.26) in reaction time or impulse control (p = 0.16) after exercise with or without vibration. In healthy individuals, 10 minutes of 30 Hz, 4-mm peak-to-peak displacement vibration exposure with a 45° angle of knee flexion did not negatively affect neurocognition. PMID:25536489

  9. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men: a 15 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whole-body-vibrations are often associated with adverse health effect but the long term effects are less known. This study investigates the association between occupational exposures to whole-body vibrations, and subsequent transition to disability pension. Methods A total of 4215 male employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions Exposure to whole-body-vibrations predicts subsequent disability pension retirement. Continued reduction of whole-body-vibrations may reduce the number of new cases of disability pension. PMID:20525268

  10. Benefits of helmet-mounted display image stabilisation under whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Wells, M J; Griffin, M J

    1984-01-01

    The effects of whole-body vertical vibration in the range 2.5-25 Hz on visual performance with two types of raster scan helmet-mounted display have been determined. The benefit of an image stabilisation system on numeral reading performance during vibration was also assessed with both display systems. Increases in mean reading time of over 130%/m . s-2 R.M.S. and increases in percentage reading error of more than 30%/m . s-2 R.M.S. were recorded with unstabilised displays. With vertical and horizontal image stabilisation, these decrements in performance were reduced to less than 40%/m . s-2 R.M.S. increase in reading time and less than 10%/m . s-2 R.M.S. increase in reading error. Data on the transmission of vibration from the seat to the head and from the head to the helmet were also obtained. These indicate a relation between biodynamic behaviour and visual performance during vibration. PMID:6696690

  11. Whole-body vibration transmissibility in supine humans: effects of board litter and neck collar.

    PubMed

    Meusch, John; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2014-05-01

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a stressor to supine patients during medical transportation. The transmissibility between the input platform acceleration and the output acceleration of the head, sternum, pelvis, head-sternum, and pelvis-sternum of eight supine subjects were investigated. Vibration files were utilized in the fore-aft, lateral, and vertical directions. The power spectral density across the bandwidth of 0.5-20 Hz was approximately flat for each file. A comparison between a baseline rigid-support and a support with a long spinal board strapped to a litter has shown that the latter has considerable effects on the transmitted motion in all directions with a double magnification in the vertical direction around 5 Hz. The results also showed that the neck-collar has increased the relative head-sternum flexion-extension because of the input fore-aft vibration, but reduced the head-sternum extension-compression due to the input vertical vibration. PMID:24075288

  12. Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, H C; Bongers, P M; Hulshof, C T

    1990-01-01

    A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly agricultural tractors) and back pain has been analyzed. The prevalence of reported back pain is approximately 10% higher in the tractor drivers than in workers not exposed to vibration. The increase is mainly due to more pain in the lower back and more pain lasting at least several days. A vibration dose was calculated by assigning each vehicle driven a vibration magnitude, estimated on the base of vibration measurements. The prevalence of back pain increases with the vibration dose. The highest prevalence odds ratios are found for the more severe types of back pain. These prevalence odds ratios do not increase with the vibration dose. This might be due to health-related selection which is more pronounced for severe back pain than for back pain in general. The two components of the vibration dose, duration of exposure and estimated mean vibration magnitude, have also been considered separately. Back pain increases with duration of exposure but it does not increase with the estimated mean magnitude of vibration. This is probably due to the inaccuracy of this estimate. The higher prevalence of back pain in tractor drivers might be (partly) caused by whole-body vibration, but prolonged sitting and posture might also be of influence. PMID:2139012

  13. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Parraca, Jose A.; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Gusi, Narcis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials. PMID:26351517

  14. Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, N.; Griffin, M. J.

    2003-11-01

    Seated human subjects have been exposed to vertical whole-body vibration so as to investigate the non-linearity in their biodynamic responses and quantify the response in directions other than the direction of excitation. Twelve males were exposed to random vertical vibration in the frequency range 0.25-25 Hz at four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 r.m.s.). The subjects sat in four sitting postures having varying foot heights so as to produce differing thigh contact with the seat (feet hanging, feet supported with maximum thigh contact, feet supported with average thigh contact, and feet supported with minimum thigh contact). Forces were measured in the vertical, fore-and-aft, and lateral directions on the seat and in the vertical direction at the footrest. The characteristic non-linear response of the human body with reducing resonance frequency at increasing vibration magnitudes was seen in all postures, but to a lesser extent with minimum thigh contact. Appreciable forces in the fore-and-aft direction also showed non-linearity, while forces in the lateral direction were low and showed no consistent trend. Forces at the feet were non-linear with a multi-resonant behaviour and were affected by the position of the legs. The decreased non-linearity with the minimum thigh contact posture suggests the tissues of the buttocks affect the non-linearity of the body more than the tissues of the thighs. The forces in the fore-and-aft direction are consistent with the body moving in two directions when exposed to vertical vibration. The non-linear behaviour of the body, and the considerable forces in the fore-aft direction should be taken into account when optimizing vibration isolation devices.

  15. Benefits of whole body vibration training in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations - a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with stable COPD show improvements in exercise capacity and muscular function after the application of whole body vibration. We aimed to evaluate whether this modality added to conventional physiotherapy in exacerbated hospitalised COPD patients would be safe and would improve exercise capacity and quality of life. Methods 49 hospitalised exacerbated COPD patients were randomized (1:1) to undergo physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy with the addition of whole body vibration. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the 6-minute walking test (day of discharge – day of admission). Secondary assessments included chair rising test, quality of life, and serum marker analysis. Results Whole body vibration did not cause procedure-related adverse events. Compared to physiotherapy alone, it led to significantly stronger improvements in 6-minute walking test (95.55 ± 76.29 m vs. 6.13 ± 81.65 m; p = 0.007) and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.43 ± 14.25 vs. 5.59 ± 19.15, p = 0.049). Whole body vibration increased the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1-α and serum levels of irisin, while it decreased serum interleukin-8. Conclusion Whole body vibration during hospitalised exacerbations did not cause procedure-related adverse events and induced clinically significant benefits regarding exercise capacity and health-related quality of life that were associated with increased serum levels of irisin, a marker of muscle activity. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005979. Registered 17 March 2014. PMID:24725369

  16. Vibration transmission to lower extremity soft tissues during whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Lienhard, Karin; Vienneau, Jordyn; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-09-22

    In order to evaluate potential risks of whole-body vibration (WBV) training, it is important to understand the transfer of vibrations from the WBV platform to the muscles. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the transmissibility of vibrations from the WBV platform to the triceps surae and quadriceps soft tissue compartments. Sixteen healthy, male participants were exposed to side-altering WBV at 2.5mm amplitude and frequencies of 10, 17 and 28 Hz. Acceleration signals were measured at the platform and at the soft tissue compartments using tri-axial accelerometers. Transmissibility of peak acceleration and peak amplitude for both tested soft tissue compartments was high at 10 Hz (2.1-2.3), moderate at 17 Hz (1.1-1.9) and low at 28 Hz (0.5-1.2). The average peak acceleration was 125.4 ms(-2) and 46.5 ms(-2) for the triceps surae and quadriceps at 28 Hz, respectively. The muscles' vibration frequency was equal to the input frequency of the WBV platform (p<0.05). The transfer of vibrations to the muscles is strongly dependent on the platform frequency and the particular muscle of interest. The acceleration measured at the triceps surae was higher than the corresponding accelerations related to soft tissue injury in animal studies but neither existing regulations nor the comparison to available animal studies seem appropriate to make inferences on injury risk. More realistic animal or computational muscle models may use the current data to evaluate potentially unwanted side effects of WBV training. PMID:25128392

  17. Exploring the effects of seated whole body vibration exposure on repetitive asymmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/min for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting movement, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending movement of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted farther (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure. PMID:25264920

  18. The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Ross D; Provan, Sally; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

    2011-12-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency. WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies on single musculotendinous units. We investigated the effects of WBV at two amplitudes on balance, joint position sense (JPS) and cutaneous sensation in young healthy subjects. Eighteen adults (24.3 ± 1.5 years, 15 females) were assessed before WBV (five 1 min bouts, 30 Hz) then immediately, 15 and 30 min afterwards. Two amplitudes (4 and 8 mm peak to peak) were investigated on different occasions. Standing balance was assessed with feet together and eyes closed, and standing on one leg with eyes open and closed. JPS at the knee and ankle was assessed by repositioning tasks while cutaneous sensation was recorded from six sites in the lower limb using pressure aesthesiometry. Neither amplitude affected JPS (P > 0.05). There were minimal effects on balance only in the vertical plane and only 30 min after WBV (P < 0.05). Low amplitude vibration only reduced sensation at the foot and ankle immediately after WBV (P < 0.008). High amplitude vibration impaired sensation at the foot, ankle and posterior shank for the entire test period (P < 0.008). In young healthy individuals WBV did not affect JPS or static balance, but reduced cutaneous sensation. These data may have implications for older and clinical populations with compromised postural control. PMID:21455611

  19. Exposure to whole-body vibration in open-cast mines in the Barents region

    PubMed Central

    Burström, Lage; Hyvärinen, Ville; Johnsen, Magnar; Pettersson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to measure and evaluate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among drivers of mining vehicles in the Barents region. Study design In the period from November 2012 to August 2014, this cross-sectional study was carried out at 3 mines in Finland, Norway and Sweden as part of the MineHealth project. Methods Measurements of WBV were conducted on the surface of the driver's seat during normal work in accordance with international standards. Personal data on daily exposure times were collected by a questionnaire. Results Measurements were conducted on 95 different mining vehicles both as root mean square (RMS) value and vibration dose value (VDV) representing different manufacturers, models and capacities. Of the 453 miners who answered the questionnaire, 232 indicated that they were exposed to WBV during their working day. The results show that the mean daily exposure time varies between 1.9 and 6.7 h for different vehicles. The calculated mean A(8) could be found in an interval between 0.2 and 1.0 m/s2 and the corresponding 8-h VDV fell between 7 and 17 m/s1.75. Conclusions Exposure to WBV among operators of mining vehicles may be a serious health and safety problem in the mines studied. The employers ought, therefore, take active steps to reduce exposure in accordance with the European vibration directive. Moreover, since some groups of drivers are exposed to vibration that is close to or exceeds the exposure limit values, the employer should take immediate action to reduce exposure below these values. PMID:26864832

  20. Whole-body vibration training improves the walking ability of a moderately impaired child with cerebral palsy: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Yabumoto, Tamotsu; Shin, Sohee; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yusuke; Naka, Toru; Oguri, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Strength training is recommended for children with cerebral palsy. However, it is difficult for moderately impaired children with cerebral palsy, who require crutches for ambulation, to participate in this type of training. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-body vibration training is an effective method of strengthening in a moderately impaired child with cerebral palsy. [Subject and Methods] This report describes an 8-year-old Japanese boy with cerebral palsy, who was ambulatory with crutches. The subject participated in physical therapy twice a week for 5 weeks. Whole-body vibration training was selected to complement the standing practice. The patient’s crutch-walking ability, gross motor function, and spasticity were evaluated. [Results] The number of steps and walking duration were reduced in a 5-m walk test with crutches and gross motor function was improved. Further, the spasticity was reduced. [Conclusion] Whole-body vibration training is an effective physical therapy intervention in moderately impaired children with cerebral palsy, who are unable to walk without crutches. PMID:26504349

  1. Influence of Combined Whole-Body Vibration Plus G-Loading on Visual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D.; Beutter, Brent Robert; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Stone, Leland S.; Anderson, Mark R.; Renema, Fritz; Paloski, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent engineering analyses of the integrated Ares-Orion stack show that vibration levels for Orion crews have the potential to be much higher than those experienced in Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle vehicles. Of particular concern to the Constellation Program (CxP) is the 12 Hz thrust oscillation (TO) that the Ares-I rocket develops during the final 20 seconds preceding first-stage separation, at maximum G-loading. While the structural-dynamic mitigations being considered can assure that vibration due to TO is reduced to below the CxP crew health limit, it remains to be determined how far below this limit vibration must be reduced to enable effective crew performance during launch. Moreover, this "performance" vibration limit will inform the operations concepts (and crew-system interface designs) for this critical phase of flight. While Gemini and Apollo studies provide preliminary guidance, the data supporting the historical limits were obtained using less advanced interface technologies and very different operations concepts. In this study, supported by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Human Research Program, we investigated display readability-a fundamental prerequisite for any interaction with electronic crew-vehicle interfaces-while observers were subjected to 12 Hz vibration superimposed on the 3.8 G loading expected for the TO period of ascent. Two age-matched groups of participants (16 general population and 13 Crew Office) performed a numerical display reading task while undergoing sustained 3.8 G loading and whole-body vibration at 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g in the eyeballs in/out (x-axis) direction. The time-constrained reading task used an Orion-like display with 10- and 14-pt non-proportional sans-serif fonts, and was designed to emulate the visual acquisition and processing essential for crew system monitoring. Compared to the no-vibration baseline, we found no significant effect of vibration at 0.15 and 0.3 g on task error rates (ER

  2. Predicting discomfort from whole-body vertical vibration when sitting with an inclined backrest.

    PubMed

    Basri, Bazil; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Current methods for evaluating seat vibration to predict vibration discomfort assume the same frequency weightings and axis multiplying factors can be used at the seat surface and the backrest irrespective of the backrest inclination. This experimental study investigated the discomfort arising from whole-body vertical vibration when sitting on a rigid seat with no backrest and with a backrest inclined at 0° (upright), 30°, 60°, and 90° (recumbent). Within each of these five postures, 12 subjects judged the discomfort caused by vertical sinusoidal whole-body vibration (at frequencies from 1 to 20 Hz at magnitudes from 0.2 to 2.0 m s(-2) r.m.s.) relative to the discomfort produced by a reference vibration (8 Hz at 0.4 m s(-2) r.m.s.). With 8-Hz vertical vibration, the subjects also judged vibration discomfort with each backrest condition relative to the vibration discomfort with no backrest. The locations in the body where discomfort was experienced were determined for each frequency at two vibration magnitudes. Equivalent comfort contours were determined for the five conditions of the backrest and show how discomfort depends on the frequency of vibration, the presence of the backrest, and the backrest inclination. At frequencies greater than about 8 Hz, the backrest increased vibration discomfort, especially when inclined to 30°, 60°, or 90°, and there was greater discomfort at the head or neck. At frequencies around 5 and 6.3 Hz there was less vibration discomfort when sitting with an inclined backrest. PMID:23190680

  3. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  4. Whole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Games, Kenneth E.; Sefton, JoEllen M.; Wilson, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. Objective: To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Study Selection: Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Data Extraction: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. Data Synthesis: We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation

  5. Research on simultaneous impact of hand-arm and whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Piotr; Zając, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of laboratory tests on the combined effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) and hand-arm vibration (HAV). The reactions of subjects exposed to various combinations of vibration were recorded. The vibrotactile perception threshold (VPT) test identified changes caused by exposure to vibration. Ten male subjects met the criteria of the study. There were 4 series of tests: a reference test and tests after exposure to HAV, WBV, and after simultaneous exposure to HAV and WBV. An analysis of the results (6000 ascending and descending VPTs) showed that the changes in VPTs were greatest after simultaneous exposure to both kinds of vibration. The increase in VPT, for all stimulus frequencies, was then higher than after exposure to HAV or WBV only. PMID:22429529

  6. Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

  7. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1). PMID:24959797

  8. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  9. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males.

    PubMed

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Laudani, L; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  10. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  11. Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

  12. An iOS Application for Evaluating Whole-body Vibration Within a Workplace Risk Management Process.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, James; Burgess-Limerick, R; Lynas, D

    2015-01-01

    Workplace management of whole-body vibration exposure requires systematic collection of whole-body vibration data in conjunction with the numerous variables which influence vibration amplitudes. The cost and complexity of commercially available measurement devices is an impediment to the routine collection of such data by workplaces. An iOS application (WBV) has been developed which allows an iPod Touch to be used to measure whole-body vibration exposures. The utility of the application was demonstrated by simultaneously obtaining 98 pairs of whole-body vibration measurements from both the iPod Touch application and a commercially available whole-body vibration device during the operation of a variety of vehicles and mobile plant in operation at a surface coal mine. The iOS application installed on a fifth-generation iPod Touch was shown to provide a 95% confidence of +/- 0.077 m/s(2) r.m.s. constant error for the vertical direction. Situations in which vibration levels lay within the ISO2631.1 health guidance caution zone were accurately identified, and the qualitative features of the frequency spectra were reproduced. The low cost and relative simplicity of the application has potential to facilitate its use as a screening tool to identify situations in which musculoskeletal disorders may arise as a consequence of exposure to whole-body vibration. PMID:25625605

  13. Can an iPod Touch be used to assess whole-body vibration associated with mining equipment?

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Di Corleto, Luke; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-11-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of ±0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 × standard deviation of the constant error). PMID:25106947

  14. Whole body vibration may have immediate adverse effects on the postural sway of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ki Jin; Ryu, Young Uk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study applied whole body vibration (WBV) at different vibration frequencies to chronic stroke patients and examined its immediate effect on their postural sway. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 (5 males, 9 females) stroke patients participated. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two vibration frequency groups (10 Hz and 40 Hz). Right before and after the application of WBV, the subjects performed quiet standing for 30 seconds, and COP parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The 10 Hz WBV did not affect the postural sway of stroke patients. The 40 Hz WBV increased postural sway in the ML direction. [Conclusion] The results suggest that WBV application to stroke patients in the clinical field may have adverse effects and therefore caution is necessary. PMID:27064678

  15. Whole body vibration may have immediate adverse effects on the postural sway of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ki Jin; Ryu, Young Uk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study applied whole body vibration (WBV) at different vibration frequencies to chronic stroke patients and examined its immediate effect on their postural sway. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 (5 males, 9 females) stroke patients participated. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two vibration frequency groups (10 Hz and 40 Hz). Right before and after the application of WBV, the subjects performed quiet standing for 30 seconds, and COP parameters (range, total distance, and mean velocity) were analyzed. [Results] The 10 Hz WBV did not affect the postural sway of stroke patients. The 40 Hz WBV increased postural sway in the ML direction. [Conclusion] The results suggest that WBV application to stroke patients in the clinical field may have adverse effects and therefore caution is necessary. PMID:27064678

  16. Equal sensation curves for whole-body vibration expressed as a function of driving force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Neil J.; Maeda, Setsuo

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the seated human is most sensitive to whole-body vertical vibration at about 5 Hz. Similarly, the body shows an apparent mass resonance at about 5 Hz. Considering these similarities between the biomechanical and subjective responses, it was hypothesized that, at low frequencies, subjective ratings of whole-body vibration might be directly proportional to the driving force. Twelve male subjects participated in a laboratory experiment where subjects sat on a rigid seat mounted on a shaker. The magnitude of a test stimulus was adjusted such that the subjective intensity could be matched to a reference stimulus, using a modified Bruceton test protocol. The sinusoidal reference stimulus was 8-Hz vibration with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 rms (or 0.25 m/s2 rms for the 1-Hz test); the sinusoidal test stimuli had frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 16, and 32 Hz. Equal sensation contours in terms of seat acceleration showed data similar to those in the literature. Equal sensation contours in terms of force showed a nominally linear response at 1, 2, and 4 Hz, but an increasing sensitivity at higher frequencies. This is in agreement with a model derived from published subjective and objective fitted data. .

  17. Whole body vibration exposures in metropolitan bus drivers: A comparison of three seats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blood, R. P.; Ploger, J. D.; Yost, M. G.; Ching, R. P.; Johnson, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a repeated measures study design, three different seats were evaluated as 12 metropolitan bus drivers drove a standardized test route including city streets, old and new freeways, and a street segment containing 10 large speed humps. Three comparisons were made: (1) comparing seats made by different manufactures (Seats 1 and 2), (2) comparing seats with a standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans, and (3) comparing WBV exposures based on individual factors such as seat pressure settings and body weight. Whole body vibration (WBV) exposures were measured using a tri-axial seat pan accelerometer and the attenuation capabilities of each seat were evaluated by comparing the vibrations measured at the floor and seat of the bus. There were significant WBV exposure differences between the various street types, which was shown across all seat types. The city street and older freeway segments had the highest WBV exposures with both segments producing WBV exposures slightly above the action limit for vibration dose value (VDV). Relative to Seat 2, Seat 1 performed better at attenuating impulsive and shock related WBV exposures; however, neither seat performed significantly better when average vibration ( A w) and VDV WBV exposures were compared. In addition, no performance differences were seen between the standard foam (Seat 2) and silicone foam (Seat 3) seat pans. Seat suspension stiffness (air pressure) was also examined, and the results indicated that the higher the seat air pressure the lower the A w, VDV, and static compressive dose ( S ed) vibration exposures. This study provided a unique opportunity to evaluate on-the-job whole body vibration exposures in a standardized, controlled setting.

  18. Three-dimensional modeling of supine human and transport system under whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2013-06-01

    The development of predictive computer human models in whole-body vibration has shown some success in predicting simple types of motion, mostly for seated positions and in the uniaxial vertical direction. The literature revealed only a handful of papers that tackled supine human modeling in response to vertical vibration. The objective of this work is to develop a predictive, multibody, three-dimensional human model to simulate the supine human and underlying transport system in response to multidirectional whole-body vibration. A three-dimensional dynamic model of a supine human and its underlying transport system is presented in this work to predict supine-human biodynamic response under three-dimensional input random whole-body vibration. The proposed supine-human model consists of three interconnected segments representing the head, torso-arms, and pelvis-legs. The segments are connected via rotational and translational joints that have spring-damper components simulating the three-dimensional muscles and tissuelike connecting elements in the three x, y, and z directions. Two types of transport systems are considered in this work, a rigid support and a long spinal board attached to a standard military litter. The contact surfaces between the supine human and the underlying transport system are modeled using spring-damper components. Eight healthy supine human subjects were tested under combined-axis vibration files with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 (rms) and a frequency content of 0.5-16 Hz. The data from seven subjects were used in parameter identification for the dynamic model using optimization schemes in the frequency domain that minimize the differences between the magnitude and phase of the predicted and experimental transmissibility. The predicted accelerations in the time and frequency domains were comparable to those gathered from experiments under different anthropometric, input vibration, and transport conditions under investigation. Based on the

  19. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  20. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Reijne, Aaffien C; Ciapaite, Jolita; van Dijk, Theo H; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A; Groen, Albert K; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  1. Musculoskeletal Response to Whole-Body Vibration During Fracture Healing in Intact and Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Stuermer, Ewa K.; Werner, Carsten; Wicke, Michael; Kolios, Leila; Sehmisch, Stephan; Tezval, Mohammad; Utesch, Clara; Mangal, Orzala; Zimmer, Sebastian; Dullin, Christian; Stuermer, Klaus M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of vibration on bone healing and muscle in intact and ovariectomized rats. Thirty ovariectomized (at 3 months of age) and 30 intact 5-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral metaphyseal osteotomy of tibia. Five days later, half of the ovariectomized and of the intact rats were exposed to whole-body vertical vibration (90 Hz, 0.5 mm, 4 × g acceleration) for 15 min twice a day during 30 days. The other animals did not undergo vibration. After decapitation of rats, one tibia was used for computed tomographic, biomechanical, and histological analyses; the other was used for gene expression analyses of alkaline phosphatase (Alp), osteocalcin (Oc), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 1, and insulinlike growth factor 1. Serum Alp and Oc were measured. Mitochondrial activity, fiber area and distribution, and capillary densities were analyzed in M. gastrocnemius and M. longissimus. We found that vibration had no effect on body weight and food intake, but it improved cortical and callus densities (97 vs. 99%, 72 vs. 81%), trabecular structure (9 vs. 14 trabecular nodes), blood supply (1.7 vs. 2.1 capillaries/fiber), and oxidative metabolism (17 vs. 23 pmol O2/s/mg) in ovariectomized rats. Vibration generally increased muscle fiber size. Tibia biomechanical properties were diminished after vibration. Oc gene expression was higher in vibrated rats. Serum Alp was increased in ovariectomized rats. In ovariectomized rats, vibration resulted in an earlier bridging; in intact rats, callus bridging occurred later after vibration. The chosen vibration regimen (90 Hz, 0.5 mm, 4 × g acceleration, 15 min twice a day) was effective in improving musculoskeletal tissues in ovariectomized rats but was not optimal for fracture healing. PMID:20532877

  2. Whole-body vibration improves cognitive functions of an adult with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van den Bos, Meinris; Regterschot, G Ruben H; Zeinstra, Edzard B; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; van der Zee, Eddy A; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with a variety of cognitive impairments, which were shown to affect academic achievement and quality of life. Current treatment strategies, such as stimulant drug treatment, were demonstrated to effectively improve cognitive functions of patients with ADHD. However, most treatment strategies are associated with a number of disadvantages in a considerable proportion of patients, such as unsatisfactory effects, adverse clinical side effects or high financial costs. In order to address limitations of current treatment strategies, whole-body vibration (WBV) might represent a novel approach to treat cognitive dysfunctions of patients with ADHD. WBV refers to the exposure of the whole body of an individual to vibration and was found to affect physiology and cognition. In the present study, WBV was applied on 10 consecutive days to an adult diagnosed with ADHD. Neuropsychological assessments were performed repeatedly at three different times, i.e., the day before the start of the treatment, on the day following completion of treatment and 14 days after the treatment have been completed (follow-up). An improved neuropsychological test performance following WBV treatment points to the high clinical value of WBV in treating patients with neuropsychological impairments such as ADHD. PMID:25031090

  3. Whole body vibration training in patients with COPD: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gloeckl, Rainer; Heinzelmann, Inga; Kenn, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown that whole body vibration training (WBVT) may be a beneficial training mode in a variety of chronic diseases and conditions such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, or chronic low back pain. However, a systematic review on the effects of WBVT in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been performed yet. An extensive literature search was performed using various electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and PEDro). They were searched from inception until September 20, 2014, using key words like "COPD" and "whole body vibration training." A total of 91 studies could be identified and were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers. Six studies were included in a qualitative analysis. Trials studied either the effects of WBVT versus an inactive control group, versus sham WBVT, during an acute COPD exacerbation or as a modality on top of conventional endurance and strength training. All randomized trials reported a significantly superior benefit on exercise capacity (6-minute walking distance) in favor of the WBVT group. Although there are only few studies available, there is some preliminary evidence that WBVT may be an effective exercise modality to improve functional exercise capacity in patients with COPD. PMID:25904085

  4. Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on physical fitness in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cabello, A; González-Agüero, A; Ara, I; Casajús, J A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration (WBV) training has a beneficial effect on physical fitness in elderly people. Forty-nine non-institutionalized elderly (75.0 ± 4.7 years) participated in the study. Twenty-four of them trained on a vibration platform for 11 weeks. Physical fitness included balance, lower- and upper-body strength and flexibility, agility, walking speed and endurance. In the WBV group most of the physical tests improved through the intervention (all P < 0.01) while in the control group only an increment was detected in lower-body strength (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a short-term WBV training is beneficial for physical fitness among elderly people. PMID:23312489

  5. Tri-axial forces at the seat and backrest during whole-body vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, N.; Griffin, M. J.

    2004-10-01

    During exposure of seated subjects to vertical whole-body vibration, forces in the fore-and-aft, lateral and vertical directions at the seat and backrest have been measured. The responses at the seat have been compared with those measured previously on a seat without a backrest. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration in the frequency range 0.25-20 Hz. The subjects sat on a rigid seat with a rigid backrest and were exposed to a 16 different conditions: four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 r.m.s.) and four sitting postures (with varying thigh contact with the seat). Although the excitation was vertical, considerable dynamic forces were found in the fore-and-aft direction on both the seat and the backrest. In the vertical direction on the backrest, and in the lateral direction on the seat and the backrest, the forces were low. At both the seat and the backrest, forces in all directions showed a non-linear behaviour. The presence of the backrest modified the forces on the seat in both the vertical and fore-and-aft directions: in all four postures there was an increase in the resonance frequency of the apparent mass when using the backrest. The effect of the backrest on fore-and-aft forces on the seat depended on whether the feet were supported or not. The results show the importance of considering the backrest when studying the response of the human body to whole-body vertical vibration.

  6. Whole-body vibration training induces hypertrophy of the human patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-08-01

    Animal studies suggest that regular exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) induces an anabolic response in bone and tendon. However, the effects of this type of intervention on human tendon properties and its influence on the muscle-tendon unit function have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV training on the patellar tendon mechanical, material and morphological properties, the quadriceps muscle architecture and the knee extension torque-angle relationship. Fifty-five subjects were randomized into either a vibration, an active control, or an inactive control group. The active control subjects performed isometric squats on a vibration platform without vibration. Muscle and tendon properties were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Vibration training induced an increase in proximal (6.3%) and mean (3.8%) tendon cross-sectional area, without any appreciable change in tendon stiffness and modulus or in muscle architectural parameters. Isometric torque at a knee angle of 90° increased in active controls (6.7%) only and the torque-angle relation remained globally unchanged in all groups. The present protocol did not appreciably alter knee extension torque production or the musculo-tendinous parameters underpinning this function. Nonetheless, this study shows for the first time that WBV elicits tendon hypertrophy in humans. PMID:26173589

  7. Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

  8. Predictive discomfort of supine humans in whole-body vibration and shock environments.

    PubMed

    DeShaw, Jonathan; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a predictive model to evaluate discomfort associated with supine humans during transportation, where whole-body vibration and repeated shock are predominant. The proposed model consists of two parts: (i) static discomfort resulting from body posture, joint limits and ambient discomfort; and (ii) dynamic discomfort resulting from the relative motion between the body segments as a result of transmitted vibration. Twelve supine subjects were exposed to single and 3D random vibrations and 3D shocks mixed with vibrations. The subjects' reported discomfort and biodynamic response were analysed under different support conditions, including a rigid surface, a stretcher and a stretcher with a spinal backboard. The results demonstrated good correlations between the predictive discomfort and the reported discomfort for the different conditions under consideration, with R(2) = 0.69-0.94 for individual subjects and R(2) = 0.94 for the group mean. The results also indicated a strong relationship between the head-neck and trunk angular velocities and discomfort during supine transportation. Practitioner Summary: The quantification of discomfort of supine humans under vibration and shocks by using a predictive model is an important contribution to this field, whereby the efficacy of different transport systems can be compared. The predictive discomfort model can be used as design criteria for ergonomic enhancement in supine transportation of humans. PMID:26280381

  9. Biodynamic characteristics of upper limb reaching movements of the seated human under whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heon-Jeong; Martin, Bernard J

    2013-02-01

    Simulation of human movements is an essential component for proactive ergonomic analysis and biomechanical model development (Chaffin, 2001). Most studies on reach kinematics have described human movements in a static environment, however the models derived from these studies cannot be applied to the analysis of human reach movements in vibratory environments such as in-vehicle operations. This study analyzes three-dimensional joint kinematics of the upper extremity in reach movements performed in static and specific vibratory conditions and investigates vibration transmission to shoulder, elbow, and hand along the body path during pointing tasks. Thirteen seated subjects performed reach movements to five target directions distributed in their right hemisphere. The results show similarities in the characteristics of movement patterns and reach trajectories of upper body segments for static and dynamic environments. In addition, vibration transmission through upper body segments is affected by vibration frequency, direction, and location of the target to be reached. Similarities in the pattern of movement trajectories revealed by filtering vibration-induced oscillations indicate that coordination strategy may not be drastically different in static and vibratory environments. This finding may facilitate the development of active biodynamic models to predict human performance and behavior under whole body vibration exposure. PMID:22814094

  10. Differential effects of whole body vibration durations on knee extensor strength.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James A; Cochrane, Darryl J; Morton, R Hugh

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness and optimality of whole body vibration (WBV) duration on muscular strength is yet to be determined. Hence the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different durations of continuous WBV exposure on isometric right knee extensor strength measured pre and post exposure. The study involved 12 trained male subjects (age 23.7+/-4.2 years, height 1.82+/-0.06m, weight 81.8+/-15.5kg). Pre and post knee extensor strength was measured using the Biodex System 3. Peak and mean torques were recorded over three maximal 2s contractions with 10s intervals. All subjects completed three interventions of WBV lasting 2, 4, or 6min, in a balanced randomized order. Whole body vibration was performed on the Galileo machine set at 26Hz with peak-to-peak amplitude of 4mm. We found significant interaction (durationxpre-post) effects for both peak and mean torque. Two minutes of WBV provided a significantly different (p<0.05) effect (peak torque +3.8%, mean torque +3.6%) compared to 4min (-2.7% and -0.8%, respectively), and compared to 6min (-6.0% and -5.2%, respectively), while 4min produced significantly different results compared to 6min for peak torque measurements only. Two minutes of WBV produced an improvement in isometric right knee extension strength compared to 4 and 6min, both of which produced strength decreases. Nevertheless, the mechanisms and optimal dose-response character of vibration exposure remain unclear. PMID:18078783

  11. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition. Methods Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8–13) participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having the children sit on a chair mounted to a vibrating platform. After each condition (vibration vs. non-vibration), inhibition was measured by using the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Repeated measures analyses were applied in order to explore the effects of WBV treatment on inhibition, and correlations were computed between the treatment effect and participant characteristics in order to explore individual differences in treatment sensitivity. Results Three-minute WBV treatments had significant beneficial effects on inhibition in this sample of healthy children. Especially the repeated application (three times) of WBV treatment appeared beneficial for cognition. Stronger WBV treatment effects were correlated with higher intelligence and younger age, but not with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Conclusions This study demonstrates that especially repeated WBV treatment improves inhibition in healthy children. As this cognitive function is often impaired in children with developmental disorders (e.g. ADHD), future studies should further explore the effects, working mechanism and potential applicability of WBV treatment for this target group. PMID:26524188

  12. Whole-Body Vibration Results in Short-Term Improvement in the Gait of Children With Idiopathic Toe Walking.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cylie M; Michalitsis, Joanne; Murphy, Anna T; Rawicki, Barry; Haines, Terry P

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of multiple doses of whole-body vibration on heel strike, spatial and temporal gait parameters, and ankle range of motion of children with idiopathic toe walking. Whole-body vibration was applied for 5 sets of 1 minute vibration/1 minute rest. Gait measures were collected pre intervention, 1, 5, 10, and 20 minutes postintervention with the GaitRite(®) electronic walkway. Ankle range of motion was measured preintervention, immediately postintervention, and 20 minutes postintervention. The mean (SD) age of the 15 children (n = 10 males) was 5.93 (1.83) years. An immediate increase in heel contact (P = .041) and ankle range of motion (P = .001 and P = .016) was observed. These changes were unsustained 20 minutes postvibration (P > .05). The gait improvement from whole-body vibration could potentially be due to a rapid increase in ankle range of motion or a neuromodulation response. PMID:27071469

  13. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  14. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  15. Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

    2006-12-01

    US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

  16. Fundamental study of lower limb muscle activity using an angled whole body vibration exercise instrument.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Kang, Seung Rok; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    This research was performed to assess the effects of angled whole body vibration on muscle activity of the lower limbs, by examining adults in their twenties during squat exercises, taking into account two variables of exercise intensity (vibration frequency and gradient). Twenty healthy males in their twenties with previous experience of more than 6 month's weight training and no past medical history were included in this study. The experiment was performed by participating in squat exercises which consisted of 3 sets (1 set = 5 seconds x 3 repetitions of exercise), and the muscle activities of the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis were measured with variation in the gradients of 0°, 10°, and 20°, and vibration frequencies of 20, 30, and 40 Hz. At 30 and 40 Hz, the vastus lateralis showed the highest change in muscle activity, while activity of the vastus medialis also increased significantly. Analysis of muscle activity according to the gradient showed a significant increase of the vastus lateralis at 20°, while the highest muscle activity at 20° was observed for the vastus medialis. In comparison of the change in lower limb muscle activity according to simultaneous stimulation, at a gradient of 10°, high activity was shown in muscle, while at 20°, high muscle activities were produced at 40 Hz in the vastus lateralis, 40 Hz in the rectus femoris, and both 30 and 40 Hz in the vastus medialis. PMID:25226944

  17. The influence of whole body vibration on the plantarflexors during heel raise exercise.

    PubMed

    Robbins, D; Goss-Sampson, M

    2013-06-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) during exercise offers potential to augment the effects of basic exercises. However, to date there is limited information on the basic physiological and biomechanical effects of WBV on skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of WBV (40Hz, 1.9mm synchronous vertical displacement) on the myoelectrical activity of selected plantarflexors during heel raise exercise. 3D motion capture of the ankle, synchronised with sEMG of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus, was obtained during repetitive heel raises carried out at 0.5Hz on 10 healthy male subjects (age 27±5 years, height 1.78±0.04m, weight 75.75±11.9kg). During both vibration and non vibration the soleus activation peaked earlier than that of the lateral gastrocnemius. The results indicate that WBV has no effect on the timing of exercise completion or the amplitude of the lateral gastrocnemius activity, however significant increases in amplitudes of the soleus muscle activity (77.5-90.4% MVC P<0.05). WBV had no significant effect on median frequencies of either muscle. The results indicate that the greatest effect of WBV during heel raise activity is in the soleus muscles during the early phases of heel raise. PMID:23261083

  18. Acute Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Warm-up on Footspeed Quickness.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Ryan B; Vingren, Jakob L; Duplanty, Anthony A; Levitt, Danielle E; Luk, Hui-Ying; Kraemer, William J

    2016-08-01

    Donahue, RB, Vingren, JL, Duplanty, AA, Levitt, DE, Luk, H-Y, and Kraemer, WJ. Acute effect of whole-body vibration warm-up on footspeed quickness. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2286-2291, 2016-The warm-up routine preceding a training or athletic event can affect the performance during that event. Whole-body vibration (WBV) can increase muscle performance, and thus the inclusion of WBV to the warm-up routine might provide additional performance improvements. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effect of a WBV warm-up, using a vertical oscillating platform and a more traditional warm-up protocol on feet quickness in physically active men. Twenty healthy and physically active men (18-25 years, 22 ± 3 years, 176.8 ± 6.4 cm, 84.4 ± 11.5 kg, 10.8 ± 1.4% body fat) volunteered for this study. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to examine the effect of 4 warm-up scenarios (no warm-up, traditional warm-up only, WBV warm-up only, and combined traditional and WBV warm-up) on subsequent 3-second Quick feet count test (QFT) performance. The traditional warm-up consisted of static and dynamic exercises and stretches. The WBV warm-up consisted of 60 seconds of vertical sinusoidal vibration at a frequency of 35 Hz and amplitude of 4 mm on a vibration platform. The WBV protocol significantly (p ≤ 0.0005, η = 0.581) augmented QFT performance (WBV: 37.1 ± 3.4 touches; no-WBV: 35.7 ± 3.4 touches). The results demonstrate that WBV can enhance the performance score on the QFT. The findings of this study suggest that WBV warm-up should be included in warm-up routines preceding training and athletic events which include very fast foot movements. PMID:27328378

  19. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on trunk muscle functioning in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiajia; Ng, Gabriel; Yuen, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the immediate effects of different frequencies of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the performance of trunk muscles of healthy young adults. A group of 30 healthy subjects (15 men; 15 women; age, 26.8 ± 3.74 years; body mass index, 21.9 ± 1.802) participated in the study. Each subject received 3 sessions of vibration exercise with different exercise parameters with frequencies of 25 Hz and 40 Hz and sham stimulation in a random order on different days. Before and after each WBV exercise session, subjects were assessed for trunk muscle strength/endurance tests and trunk proprioception tests. There was a significant increase in trunk extensor strength (p ≤ 0.05) after low-frequency (25 Hz) WBV exercise, but high-frequency (40 Hz) vibration exercise had resulted in a significant decrease in trunk extensor endurance (p ≤ 0.05). Statistical gender difference (p = 0.04) was found for trunk extensor endurance with lower WBV training. No change was noted in the trunk proprioception with different frequencies of WBV. In conclusions, the immediate response of the body to WBV was different for low and high frequencies. Low-frequency vibration enhanced trunk extensor strength, but high-frequency vibration would decrease endurance of the trunk extensor muscles. Males are more sensitive than females in trunk extensor endurance for lower frequency WBV exposure. These results indicated that short-term WBV with low frequency was effective to improve trunk extensor strength in healthy adults, and that could be helpful for relevant activities of trunk extensor performing and preventing sport injury. PMID:24714536

  20. Effect of Seating on Exposures to Whole-Body Vibration in Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PADDAN, G. S.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The vibration isolation efficiency of seating has been evaluated in 100 work vehicles in 14 categories (cars, vans, lift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, dumpers, excavators, helicopters, armoured vehicles, mobile cranes, grass rollers, mowers and milk floats). Seat isolation efficiency, expressed by the SEAT value, was determined for all seats (67 conventional seats and 33 suspension seats) from the vertical acceleration measured on the floors and on the seats of the vehicles.For most categories of vehicle, the average SEAT value was less than 100%, indicating that the average seat provided some attenuation of vibration. However, there were large variations in SEAT values between vehicles within categories. Two alternative vibration frequency weightings (Wb from BS 6841, 1987; Wk from ISO 2631, 1997) yielded SEAT values that differed by less than 6%. Overall, the SEAT values determined by two alternative methods (the ratio of r.m.s. values and the ratio of vibration dose values) differed by less than 4·5% when using weighting Wb, although larger differences may be expected in some situations. The median SEAT value for the suspension seats was 84·6%; the median SEAT value for the conventional seats was 86·9% (based on weighting Wb and the ratio of r.m.s. values).Predicted SEAT values were obtained assuming that each seat could be interchanged between vehicles without altering its transmissibility. The calculations suggest that 94% of the vehicles investigated might benefit from changing the current seat to a seat from one of the other vehicles investigated. Although the predictions are based on assumptions that will not always apply, it is concluded that the severity of whole-body vibration exposures in many work environments can be lessened by improvements to seating dynamics.

  1. Comparing consumption oxygen during and after squat exercise in Smith Machine and whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Justo, Ana C G; Saavedra, Francisco J F; Vilaca-Alves, Jose; Rosa, Claudio; Neves, Eduardo B; Reis, Victor M

    2015-08-01

    Currently the physical exercise in whole body vibration platforms has become popular among people that frequenting gym and physiotherapy clinics. The objective of this study was to compare the oxygen consumption in the squat exercise performed at Smith Machine and squat performed on the vibration platform following the protocols usually referenced in both types of exercise (with load of 70% in the Smith Machine and unloaded on the vibration platform). The sample consisted of eight male subjects, with a mean age of 22.75 ± 2.05 years, an average body mass 74.50 ± 9.50kg, a stature of 1.79 ± 0.63m and estimated body fat percentage of 5.01 ± 0.94%. The volunteers performed two exercise sessions, one in the Smith Machine (AGSM) and the other on the vibration platform (AGPP). Each session consisted in 5 sets of 10 repetitions each, with a cadence of 40 beat.min(-1). The load used in the exercise AGSM performance was 70% of 1RM and in the AGPP was used a vibration frequency of 50 Hz, during 60 seconds in high amplitude. The order of the sections was randomized, with seven days apart. The AGPP session presented VO2 absolute = 0.95 ± 0.21L/min, VO2 relative = 12.86 ± 2.43ml/kg/min, and HR = 93.69 ± 10.55 beats/min; and the AGSM session presented VO2 absolute = 1.33 ± 0.29 L/min, VO2 relative = 17.91 ± 2.70 ml/kg/min, and HR = 120.69 ± 14.21 beats/min. The VO2 and HR values of the AGSM session were significantly higher than that found in AGPP session. PMID:26737301

  2. Experimental evidence of the tonic vibration reflex during whole-body vibration of the loaded and unloaded leg.

    PubMed

    Zaidell, Lisa N; Mileva, Katya N; Sumners, David P; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    Increased muscle activation during whole-body vibration (WBV) is mainly ascribed to a complex spinal and supraspinal neurophysiological mechanism termed the tonic vibration reflex (TVR). However, TVR has not been experimentally demonstrated during low-frequency WBV, therefore this investigation aimed to determine the expression of TVR during WBV. Whilst seated, eight healthy males were exposed to either vertical WBV applied to the leg via the plantar-surface of the foot, or Achilles tendon vibration (ATV) at 25 Hz and 50 Hz for 70s. Ankle plantar-flexion force, tri-axial accelerations at the shank and vibration source, and surface EMG activity of m. soleus (SOL) and m. tibialis anterior (TA) were recorded from the unloaded and passively loaded leg to simulate body mass supported during standing. Plantar flexion force was similarly augmented by WBV and ATV and increased over time in a load- and frequency dependent fashion. SOL and TA EMG amplitudes increased over time in all conditions independently of vibration mode. 50 Hz WBV and ATV resulted in greater muscle activation than 25 Hz in SOL when the shank was loaded and in TA when the shank was unloaded despite the greater transmission of vertical acceleration from source to shank with 25 Hz and WBV, especially during loading. Low-amplitude WBV of the unloaded and passively loaded leg produced slow tonic muscle contraction and plantar-flexion force increase of similar magnitudes to those induced by Achilles tendon vibration at the same frequencies. This study provides the first experimental evidence supporting the TVR as a plausible mechanism underlying the neuromuscular response to whole-body vibration. PMID:24386466

  3. The Effect of a Short-Term and Long-Term Whole-Body Vibration in Healthy Men upon the Postural Stability

    PubMed Central

    Piecha, Magdalena; Juras, Grzegorz; Król, Piotr; Sobota, Grzegorz; Polak, Anna; Bacik, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to establish the short-term and long-term effects of whole-body vibration on postural stability. The sample consisted of 28 male subjects randomly allocated to four comparative groups, three of which exercised on a vibration platform with parameters set individually for the groups. The stabilographic signal was recorded before the test commenced, after a single session of whole-body vibration, immediately after the last set of exercises of the 4-week whole-body vibration training, and one week after the training ended. The subjects were exposed to vibrations 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Long-term vibration training significantly shortened the rambling and trembling paths in the frontal plane. The path lengths were significantly reduced in the frontal plane one week after the training end date. Most changes in the values of the center of pressure (COP) path lengths in the sagittal and frontal plane were statistically insignificant. We concluded that long-term vibration training improves the postural stability of young healthy individuals in the frontal plane. PMID:24520362

  4. Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

  5. Occurrence of fatigue induced by a whole-body vibration session is not frequency dependent.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Zory F; Wesley, Aulbrook; Daniel, Keir A; Olivier, Serresse

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether neuromuscular adaptations (magnitude and location) induced by isometric exercise performed on an oscillating platform are dependent on whole-body vibration (WBV) frequency. Eleven young men performed 4 separate fatigue sessions of static squatting exercise at 3 frequencies of WBV (V20, V40, and V60) and 1 session without vibration (V0). Isometric torque and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris were recorded during maximal voluntary and evoked contractions of the knee extensor muscles before and after each fatigue session to examine both peripheral and central adaptations. Isometric torque decreased significantly after each of the 4 frequency sessions (V0: -9.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.003; V20: -8.1 ± 9.9%, p = 0.010; V40: -11.9 ± 12.7%, p = 0.011; and V60: -7.8 ± 9.2%, p = 0.001, respectively), but this reduction was not significantly different between frequencies. The torque produced by evoked contraction significantly decreased from pre-exercise values after each session (V0: -14.9 ± 15.6%, p = 0.012; V20: -15.8 ± 16.4%, p = 0.010; V40: -21.0 ± 14.3%, p = 0.004; and V60: -17.3 ± 11.6%, p = 0.005, respectively); however, there was no effect of vibration frequency. In both conditions, the maximal voluntary contraction torque reduction observed was mainly attributable to peripheral fatigue and was not because of central modifications of the neuromuscular system. The present study demonstrates that the frequency of vibration does not significantly influence the magnitude and location of neuromuscular fatigue, suggesting that adding WBV to static squat exercise (on a vertically oscillating platform) does not provide an additional training stimulus. PMID:23249822

  6. Changes in postural sway frequency and complexity in altered sensory environments following whole body vibrations.

    PubMed

    Dickin, D Clark; McClain, Matthew A; Hubble, Ryan P; Doan, Jon B; Sessford, David

    2012-10-01

    Studies assessing whole body vibration (WBV) have produced largely positive effects, with some neutral, on postural control with frequencies between 25 and 40 Hz. However no conclusive evidence indicates that 25-40 Hz elicits the optimal beneficial effects. To address this issue, a larger range of vibration intensity (10-50 Hz at peak-to-peak amplitudes of 2 and 5mm) was employed while increasing the postural complexity (altered somatosensory and/or visual information) to assess acute effects of 4-min of WBV on postural control. Twelve healthy young adults underwent postural assessment at four time intervals (prior to, immediately following and 10 and 20 min post WBV). Findings revealed both postural sway frequency and sway complexity/regularity were affected by WBV. Baseline posture demonstrated increased sway frequency (p=.04) following WBV with no changes in sway complexity. When the support surface was altered, changes in both the frequency and complexity of sway were elicited (p=.027, .002, respectively). When both somatosensory and visual information were altered delayed improvements in postural control were elicited (p=.05 and .01, for frequency and complexity, respectively). Given the differential acute effects as a function of postural task complexity, future longitudinal studies could determine the overall training effect on sway frequency and complexity. PMID:22516837

  7. Whole body vibration at different exposure frequencies: infrared thermography and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

  8. Physiological response to whole-body vibration in athletes and sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Gojanovic, B; Feihl, F; Gremion, G; Waeber, B

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new exercise method, with good acceptance among sedentary subjects. The metabolic response to WBV has not been well documented. Three groups of male subjects, inactive (SED), endurance (END) and strength trained (SPRINT) underwent a session of side-alternating WBV composed of three 3-min exercises (isometric half-squat, dynamic squat, dynamic squat with added load), and repeated at three frequencies (20, 26 and 32 Hz). VO(2), heart rate and Borg scale were monitored. Twenty-seven healthy young subjects (10 SED, 8 SPRINT and 9 END) were included. When expressed in % of their maximal value recorded in a treadmill test, both the peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) attained during WBV were greatest in the SED, compared to the other two groups (VO(2): 59.3 % in SED vs 50.8 % in SPRINT and 48.0 % in END, p<0.01; HR 82.7 % in SED vs 80.4 % in SPRINT and 72.4 % in END, p<0.05). In conclusions, the heart rate and metabolic response to WBV differs according to fitness level and type, exercise type and vibration frequency. In SED, WBV can elicit sufficient cardiovascular response to benefit overall fitness and thus be a potentially useful modality for the reduction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25157652

  9. Whole-body vibration alters blood flow velocity and neuromuscular activity in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Azael J; Martín, Juan; Martín, Teresa; García-López, David; Garatachea, Nuria; Jiménez, Beatriz; Marín, Pedro J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on blood flow velocity and muscular activity after different vibration protocols in Friedreich's ataxia (FA) patients. After two familiarization sessions ten patients received six 3 min WBV treatments depending on a combination of frequency (10, 20 or 30 Hz) and protocol (constant or fragmented). Femoral artery blood flow velocity, vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) electromyography (EMG), and rate of perceived exertion were registered. Peak blood velocity was increased with respect to basal values after 1, 2 and 3 min of WBV (14·8%, 18·8% and 19·7%, respectively, P<0·001). Likewise, mean blood velocity was increased with respect to basal values after 1, 2 and 3 min of WBV (17·3%, 19·4% and 16·6%, respectively, P<0·001). EMG amplitude of VL and VM was increased (39% and 23%, respectively, P<0·05) and EMG frequencies decreased during the application of WBV. The results of this study suggest that higher frequencies (30 Hz) produce a greater increase in blood flow velocity and rate of perceived exertion. WBV is an effective method to increase blood flow and to activate muscle mass in patients with Friedreich's ataxia, and could therefore be considered to be incorporated in rehabilitation programs of this collective. PMID:21078065

  10. The effects of whole body vibration on mobility and balance in Parkinson disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

    2014-07-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health-compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

  11. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C.; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

  12. The Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Mobility and Balance in Parkinson Disease: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health–compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

  13. Acute Bone Marker Responses to Whole-Body Vibration and Resistance Exercise in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Chrisman, Carmen; Smith, Jessica; Young, Kaelin C.; Singh, Harshvardhan; Bemben, Michael G.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) augments the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise (RE). However, its acute effects on bone turnover markers (BTM) have not been determined. This study examined BTM responses to acute high intensity RE and high intensity RE with WBV (WBV+RE) in young women (n=10) taking oral contraceptives in a randomized, cross-over repeated measures design. WBV+RE exposed subjects to 5 one-minute bouts of vibration (20 Hz, 3.38 peak–peak displacement, separated by 1 minute of rest) prior to RE. Fasting blood samples were obtained before (Pre), immediately post WBV (PostVib), immediately post RE (IP), and 30 minutes post RE (P30). Bone ALP did not change at any time point. TRAP5b significantly (p<0.05) increased from the Pre to PostVib, then decreased from IP to P30 for both conditions. CTX significantly decreased (p<0.05) from Pre to PostVib and from Pre to P30 only for WBV+RE. WBV+RE showed a greater decrease in CTX than RE (-12.6 ± 4.7% vs. -1.13 ± 3.5%). In conclusion, WBV was associated with acute decreases in CTX levels not elicited with resistance exercise alone in young women. PMID:22902255

  14. Whole body vibration exercises and the improvement of the flexibility in patient with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword "flexibility" and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

  15. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

  16. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice.

  17. Whole Body Vibration Improves Insulin Resistance in db/db Mice: Amelioration of Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhai, Mingming; Guo, Fan; Shi, Tengrui; Liu, Jiangzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaodi; Jing, Da; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is one of the most important chronic noncommunicable diseases. Effective and feasible strategies to treat IR are still urgently needed. Previous research studies reported that whole body vibration (WBV) was beneficial for IR in clinical; however, its underlying mechanisms remains unknown. In the present study, db/db mice were treated with WBV administration 60 min/day for 12 weeks and the impaired insulin sensitivity was improved. Besides, liver steatosis was also ameliorated. Further explorations revealed that WBV could reduce the expression of SREBP1c and increase the expression of GSH-Px and consequently suppress oxidative stress. In conclusion, WBV attenuates oxidative stress to ameliorate liver steatosis and thus improves insulin resistance in db/db mice. Therefore, WBV administration is a promising treatment for individuals who suffered from central obesity and IR. PMID:26945578

  18. On the Health Risk of the Lumbar Spine due to Whole-Body VIBRATION—THEORETICAL Approach, Experimental Data and Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, H.; Blüthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.

    1998-08-01

    The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (“internal loads”). The approach enabled the calculation of “equivalent”—with respect to cumulative fatigue failure—combinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different postures—relaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 1·4 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes

  19. Safety and severity of accelerations delivered from whole body vibration exercise devices to standing adults

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Jesse; Kiel, Douglas P.; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) devices are used as a means to augment training, and their potential to treat a range of musculoskeletal diseases and injuries is now being considered. The goal of this work is to determine the degree to which acceleration delivered by WBV devices at the plantar surfaces of a standing human is transmitted through the axial and appendicular skeleton, and how this mechanical challenge corresponds to the safety Threshold Limit Values (TLV) established by the International Standards Organization ISO-2631. Design Non-blinded laboratory assessment of a range of WBV devices as it pertains to acceleration transmission to healthy volunteers. Methods Using skin and bite-bar mounted accelerometers, transmissibility to the tibia and cranium was determined in six healthy adults standing on a programmable WBV device as a function of frequency and intensity. Measures of transmissibility were then made from three distinct types of WBV platforms, which delivered a 50-fold range of peak-to-peak acceleration intensities (0.3 to 15.1g p-p; where 1g is earth’s gravitational field). Results For a given frequency, transmissibility was independent of intensity when below 1g. Transmissibility declined non-linearly with increasing frequency. Depending on the WBV device, vibration ranged from levels considered safe by ISO-2631 for up to eight hours each day (0.3gp-p @ 30Hz), to levels that were seven times higher than what is considered a safe threshold for even one minute of exposure each day (15.1g p-p @ 30Hz). Transmissibility to the cranium was markedly attenuated by the degree of flexion in the knees. Conclusions Vibration can have adverse effects on a number of physiologic systems. This work indicates that readily accessible WBV devices markedly exceed ISO guidelines for safety, and extreme caution must be practiced when considering their use. PMID:23453990

  20. The effects of long-term whole-body vibration and aerobic exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in obese middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-seok; Park, Hun-young; Moon, Hwang-woon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of whole-body passive vibration exercise and its differences from aerobic exercise on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). [Methods] Obese middle-aged women (n=33 out of 45) with 34±3% body fat completed the training protocol. They were randomly assigned into diet (n=9; control group), diet plus whole-body vibration exercise (n=13; vibration group), and diet plus aerobic exercise (n=11; aerobic group) groups and we compared their body composition, BMD, and BMC before and after 9 months of training. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake among groups during the training period. [Results] Relative body fat (%) decreased significantly (p < .05) in all three groups and the exercise groups showed a greater reduction in fat mass than the diet only group. BMD in the whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm were not significantly different among the three groups. Total body BMC increased significantly in the vibration group throughout the first 6 months of training. [Conclusion] Results suggest that long- term vibration training when used in conjunction with a diet program is as effective as aerobic exercise with a diet program in improving body composition of obese middle-aged women without compromising BMC or BMD. Thus, it can be considered a novel and effective method for reducing body fat. PMID:27508150

  1. Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives--an ergonomic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Johanning, Eckardt; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Landsbergis, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 U.S. locomotives (built between 1959 and 2000) was studied during normal revenue service and following international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements (duration mean 155 min, range 84-383 min) on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation (aw rms), the vector sum (av), the maximum transient vibration value (MTVV/aw), the vibration dose value (VDV/(aw T1/4)), and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor (SEAT) were calculated. The power spectral densities are also reported. The mean basic vibration level (aw rms) was for the fore-aft axis x = 0.18 m/sec2, the lateral axis y = 0.28 m/sec2, and the vertical axis z = 0.32 m/sec2. The mean vector sum was 0.59 m/sec2 (range 0.27 to 1.44). The crest factors were generally at or above 9 in the horizontal and vertical axis. The mean MTVV/aw was 5.3 (x), 5.1 (y), and 4.8 (z), and the VDV/(aw T1/4) values ranged from 1.32 to 2.3 (x-axis), 1.33 to 1.7 (y-axis), and 1.38 to 1.86 (z-axis), generally indicating high levels of shocks. The mean seat transmissibility factor (SEAT) was 1.4 (x) and 1.2 (y) and 1 (z), demonstrating a general ineffectiveness of any of the seat suspension systems. In conclusion, these data indicate that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road/off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support. PMID:12486777

  2. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

  3. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Daniel B.; Griesel, Markus H.; Brockhusen, Bastian; Tezval, Mohammad; Komrakova, Marina; Menger, Bjoern; Wassmann, Marco; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Sehmisch, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV). Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc) of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg) for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm). Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones. PMID:26904278

  4. Effect of training with whole body vibration on the sitting balance of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Shin, Won-Seob; Oh, Bok-Kyun; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Bang, Dae-Hyouk

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of task-oriented training with whole body vibration (WBV) on the sitting balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 stroke patients who were randomly divided into experimental (n1=15) and control (n2=15) groups. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the experimental group practiced an additional task-oriented training program with WBV, which was performed for 15 minutes, five times per week, for four weeks. The center of pressure (COP) path length and average velocity were used to assess subjects static sitting balance, and the Modified Functional Reach Test (MFRT) was used to assess their dynamic sitting balance. The paired t-test was performed to test the significance of differences between before and after the intervention. The independent t-test was conducted to test the significance of differences between the groups. [Results] Following the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant change in MFRT. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that task-oriented training with WBV is feasible and efficacious for stroke patients. PMID:25276025

  5. Effects of whole-body vibration with an unstable surface on muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Marín, P J; Hazell, T J

    2014-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of using an unstable surface during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on leg and trunk muscle activity during a static semi-squat. Twenty-eight recreationally active university students completed 4 different test conditions: 1) stable surface with no WBV; 2) unstable surface with no WBV; 3) unstable surface with 30 Hz WBV low amplitude; and 4) unstable surface with 50 Hz WBV low amplitude. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus abdominis (RA), and multifidus (MF) muscles. Normalized to the stable condition, WBV at 30 Hz and an unstable surface increased EMG in the GM vs the unstable and stable surfaces (~35%; p<0.05). VMO EMG decreased in the unstable vs stable condition (~20%), WBV at 30 Hz and an unstable surface increased EMG vs all other conditions (~20-40%; p<0.05). MF EMG increased with WBV at 30 Hz (25%; p<0.05) vs the stable condition but not vs all other conditions. Using an unstable surface during WBV exposure increases EMG of muscles in the lower extremities and trunk suggesting the combination of an unstable surface combined with WBV may be an effective modality to further increase EMG. PMID:24879025

  6. Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-03-01

    Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

  7. Computation of trunk muscle forces, spinal loads and stability in whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazrgari, B.; Shirazi-Adl, A.; Kasra, M.

    2008-12-01

    Whole-body vibration has been indicated as a risk factor in back disorders. Proper prevention and treatment management, however, requires a sound knowledge of associated muscle forces and loads on the spine. Previous trunk model studies have either neglected or over-simplified the trunk redundancy with time-varying unknown muscle forces. Trunk stability has neither been addressed. A novel iterative dynamic kinematics-driven approach was employed to evaluate muscle forces, spinal loads and system stability in a seated subject under a random vertical base excitation with ˜±1 g peak acceleration contents. This iterative approach satisfied equations of motion in all directions/levels while accounting for the nonlinear passive resistance of the ligamentous spine. The effect of posture, co-activity in abdominal muscles and changes in buttocks stiffness were also investigated. The computed vertical accelerations were in good agreement with measurements. The input base excitation, via inertial and muscle forces, substantially influenced spinal loads and system stability. The flexed posture in sitting increased the net moment, muscle forces and passive spinal loads while improving the trunk stability. Similarly, the introduction of low to moderate antagonistic coactivity in abdominal muscles increased the passive spinal loads and improved the spinal stability. A trade-off, hence, exists between lower muscle forces and spinal loads on one hand and more stable spine on the other. Base excitations with larger peak acceleration contents substantially increase muscle forces/spinal loads and, hence, the risk of injury.

  8. Effect of Training with Whole Body Vibration on the Sitting Balance of Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Shin, Won-Seob; Oh, Bok-Kyun; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Bang, Dae-Hyouk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of task-oriented training with whole body vibration (WBV) on the sitting balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 stroke patients who were randomly divided into experimental (n1=15) and control (n2=15) groups. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the experimental group practiced an additional task-oriented training program with WBV, which was performed for 15 minutes, five times per week, for four weeks. The center of pressure (COP) path length and average velocity were used to assess subjects static sitting balance, and the Modified Functional Reach Test (MFRT) was used to assess their dynamic sitting balance. The paired t-test was performed to test the significance of differences between before and after the intervention. The independent t-test was conducted to test the significance of differences between the groups. [Results] Following the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant change in MFRT. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that task-oriented training with WBV is feasible and efficacious for stroke patients. PMID:25276025

  9. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Daniel B; Griesel, Markus H; Brockhusen, Bastian; Tezval, Mohammad; Komrakova, Marina; Menger, Bjoern; Wassmann, Marco; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Sehmisch, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV). Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc) of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg) for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm). Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones. PMID:26904278

  10. Effects of whole body vibration on hormonal & functional indices in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Eftekhari, Elham; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which affects the patients’ mobility, and exercise training is considered to be beneficial for these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 10 wk of low intensity exercise and whole body vibration (WBV) training on fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone in MS patients. Methods: Thirty four MS patients with mild to moderate disability were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, the training group (n=17) and control group (n=17). Patients in the training group did low intensity exercise and WBV training programme three times a week for 10 wk. The control group continued their routine life. Intended variables like expanded disability status scale (EDSS), fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices consisted of balance, walking speed, functional mobility, functional muscle endurance, and walking endurance, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone were measured before and after the protocol. Results: Thirty subjects completed the study (23 females, 7 males; mean age =38.80 ± 9.50 yr). Statistical analysis demonstrated that EDSS in the WBV training group was significantly decreased (P=0.01), balance (P=0.01), and walking endurance significantly increased (P=0.01) in MS patients (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that low intensity exercise and WBV training have some beneficial impact on functional and physical indices of MS patients. PMID:26609037

  11. Whole-body vibration influences lower extremity circulatory and neurological function.

    PubMed

    Games, K E; Sefton, J M

    2013-08-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is currently used to enhance performance and treat injuries even though we lack an understanding of how WBV influences physiological processes. An improved understanding of the physiological effects of WBV could lead to protocols to speed healing or treat pathologies. This study examined the acute effects of WBV on peripheral blood perfusion, muscle oxygenation, motoneuron pool excitability, and sensory nerve conduction velocity. Fourteen healthy participants [9 women (21.7 ± 2.4 years); 5 men (20.8 ± 1.1 years)] completed a 5 min bout of WBV (50 Hz, 2 mm amplitude). Measures were assessed pre-treatment and at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min post-treatment. WBV significantly increased superficial skin temperature (P < 0.0005) and total hemoglobin (P = 0.009), had no effect of oxyhemoglobin (P = 0.186), increased deoxyhemoglobin (P < 0.0005), inhibited the soleus Hoffmann reflex (P = 0.007), and had no effect on sural sensory nerve conduction velocity (P = 0.695). These results suggest that an acute bout of WBV influences physiological processes in both the circulatory and the nervous systems. PMID:22107331

  12. Effects of Different Magnitudes of Whole-Body Vibration on Dynamic Squatting Performance.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; García Rioja, Javier; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects (a) of different whole-body vibration (WBV) accelerations when applied simultaneously during a set of squats on performance and perceived exertion and (b) of different linear increases and decreases of vibrations during the squats. It is a randomized, crossover experimental design. Undergraduate students (3 female; 16 male) participated. Each participant completed 5 laboratory sessions in this study (4 familiarization and 1 test session). The test session then had each participant complete one 20-second set of dynamics quarter-squats for 5 separate conditions followed by 5 minutes of rest. Squatting was performed at maximum speed from full extension knee with plantar-flexion ankle to a knee angle of 70° (0° = anatomic position) with dorsiflexion ankle. All sets were performed on the WBV platform in random order, where the 5 different conditions were (a) no WBV-sham, (b) 30 Hz (30 Hz low amplitude), (c) 50 Hz (50 Hz high amplitude), (d) 30-50 Hz (increasing frequency from 30 to 50 Hz; 1 Hz per second with high amplitude), and (e) 50-30 Hz (decreasing frequency from 50 to 30 Hz; 1 Hz per second). There was a significant decrease in the mean velocity of squatting performed during the 30- to 50-Hz condition compared with all other conditions (p ≤ 0.05). There were a significantly lower amount of repetitions performed during the 30- to 50-Hz exposure compared with the no-WBV and 30-Hz conditions. There was a significantly lower Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during the 30-Hz condition compared with the no-WBV, 50-Hz, 30-50-Hz, and 50-30-Hz conditions. PMID:25807029

  13. Whole-body vibration-induced muscular reflex: Is it a stretch-induced reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Cidem, Muharrem; Sebik, Oguz; Yilmaz, Gizem; Karamehmetoglu, Safak Sahir; Kara, Sadik; Karacan, Ilhan; Türker, Kemal Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Whole-body vibration (WBV) can induce reflex responses in muscles. A number of studies have reported that the physiological mechanisms underlying this type of reflex activity can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test whether the WBV-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) can be explained as a stretch-induced reflex. [Subjects and Methods] The present study assessed 20 healthy males using surface electrodes placed on their right soleus muscle. The latency of the tendon reflex (T-reflex) as a stretch-induced reflex was compared with the reflex latency of the WBV-IMR. In addition, simulations were performed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 Hz to determine the stretch frequency of the muscle during WBV. [Results] WBV-IMR latency (40.5 ± 0.8 ms; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.0–41.9 ms) was significantly longer than T-reflex latency (34.6 ± 0.5 ms; 95% CI: 33.6–35.5 ms) and the mean difference was 6.2 ms (95% CI of the difference: 4.7–7.7 ms). The simulations performed in the present study demonstrated that the frequency of the stretch signal would be twice the frequency of the vibration. [Conclusion] These findings do not support the notion that WBV-IMR can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. PMID:26310784

  14. Long-term effect of whole body vibration training on jump height: meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Hamlin, Michael J; Ross, Jenny J; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan

    2014-06-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is widely promoted as a means of improving muscle strength, but the evidence of a performance benefit is unclear with some reporting improvements and others finding none. The objective of this study was to analyze the current evidence for the effectiveness of WBV on jump height. We included randomized controlled trials or matched design studies comparing the effect of WBV training on countermovement and squat jump (SJ) height, which were gathered from MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, Sciencedirect, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus databases. The overall effect of WBV training (from the 15 studies included) compared with having no additional exercise on countermovement jump height yielded a positive standardized mean difference of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.99). The effect of WBV training on SJ height was 0.68 (0.08-1.11). Vibration exercise consisting of a higher frequency (>30 Hz, 0.86, 0.62-1.10), higher amplitude (>3 mm, 0.84, 0.52-1.17), longer exposure duration (>10 minutes per session, 0.92, 0.48-1.36), longer training period (>12 weeks, 0.87, 0.56-1.19) and among nonathletes (0.96, 0.63-1.30) had greater benefit for jump height improvement than a lower frequency (≤ 30 Hz, 0.56, 0.13-0.99), lower amplitude (≤ 3 mm, 0.66, 0.35-0.98), shorter exposure duration (≤ 10 minutes per session, 0.68, 0.45-0.92), intermediate training period (4-12 weeks, 0.72, 0.35-1.09), shorter training period (<4 weeks, 0.58, -0.08 to -1.23) and in athletes (0.59, 0.31-0.88). The effect of WBV training compared with a standard cardiovascular-type exercise group from 4 studies was 0.63 (0.10-1.15). In conclusion, WBV training produces a moderate-to-large effect on jump height. Vibration training protocols with higher frequencies, higher amplitudes, longer exposures per session, and longer training periods are more likely to enhance muscle power. PMID:24276295

  15. The acute effect of different frequencies of whole-body vibration on countermovement jump performance.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony P; Sanderson, Mark F; Attwood, Lynda A

    2011-06-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to elicit acute and chronic improvements in neuromuscular function; however, there is little conclusive evidence regarding an optimum protocol for acute WBV. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute exposure to different frequencies of WBV on countermovement jump (CMJ) height. Twelve recreationally trained men (age, 31 ± 8 years; height, 177 ± 12 cm; weight, 83.0 ± 6.9 kg) completed maximal CMJs pre- and post-WBV in a half-squat position for 30 seconds. In a blinded design with randomized testing order, participants were exposed on different days to frequencies of 0, 30, 35, and 40 Hz. Significant main effects were found for time (pre-to-post WBV, p < 0.01) and frequency * time interaction (p < 0.01), with post hoc analysis highlighting that there was a significant mean improvement of 6% in CMJ as a result of WBV at 40 Hz but no significant change at other frequencies. This study demonstrates that for recreationally trained men, an acute 30-second bout of vertical WBV at 40 Hz and 8-mm peak-to-peak displacement significantly enhances explosive jumping performance in comparison to other frequencies. Acute vertical WBV for 30 seconds at 40 Hz may be incorporated into strength and conditioning training to enhance explosive power; however, the exact mechanisms for improvements remain to be elucidated and further well-controlled investigations on chronic WBV training and using well-trained athletes are recommended. PMID:21358422

  16. Long-term whole-body vibration training in two late-onset Pompe disease patients.

    PubMed

    Montagnese, Federica; Thiele, Simone; Wenninger, Stephan; Schoser, Benedikt

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) relies on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and physiotherapy but the most appropriate exercise program is not yet established. Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) has showed promising results, improving motor performances in various populations. Our aim is to assess the effects of WBVT performed by two LOPD patients in addition to ERT and physiotherapy. A side-alternating WBVT lasting 2 years; clinical assessments included: manual muscle testing (MRC sumscore), knee extension and arm flection isometric strength (multi-muscle tester M3diagnos), timed function tests (10 m walking, standing-up from chair, ascending 4-steps), 6 min walking (6 MWT), motor disability (Walton Gardner-Medwin scale), pulmonary function. Follow-up evaluations performed for 9 years since ERT start (pre-WBVT and post-WBVT) are reported for comparison. MRC sumscore improved in both patients (Pt.1:41 → 48, Pt.2:42 → 47) as isometric strength of knee extension (Pt.1: + 62 %, Pt.2: + 26 %) and arm flection (Pt.1: + 88 %, Pt.2: + 66 %), 6 MWT improved in Pt.1 (+75 m). Timed function tests did not greatly change. Patients reported no significant CK elevation or WBVT-related complaints. WBVT may be safely used in LOPD and seems to moderately boost muscle strength in patients receiving ERT and physiotherapy for more than 3 years. Larger cohorts should be studied to better assess WBVT potential as adjunctive exercise tool in LOPD. PMID:27193587

  17. Whole-body vibration applied during upper body exercise improves performance.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Herrero, Azael J; Milton, John G; Hazell, Tom J; García-López, David

    2013-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has exercisers perform static and dynamic resistance training exercises on a ground-based platform. Exposure to WBV exposure has demonstrated benefits and no effect on lower body strength, power, and performance. The aim of this study was to determine if WBV exposure (50 Hz, 2.51 mm) has any potentiating effects postexercise by measuring the kinematic variables of a set of upper body elbow-extensor exercise (70% one-repetition maximum [1RM]) to volitional exhaustion. Sixteen recreationally active students (12 male and 4 female) performed 3 different experimental conditions on separate days. Each condition had the subjects perform 1 set of elbow-extension exercise to fatigue with 1 of 3 WBV treatments: WBV simultaneously during the set (AE); 60 seconds after application of WBV for 30 seconds (RE); and no WBV (CTRL). Kinematic parameters of each repetition were monitored by linking a rotary encoder to the highest load plate. The mean velocity and acceleration throughout the set and perceived exertion were analyzed. A significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in the mean velocity for the whole set in the AE condition vs. the CTRL condition. The mean acceleration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the AE condition in comparison with RE (increased by 45.3%) and CTRL (increased by 50.4%) conditions. The positive effect induced by WBV on upper-limb performance is only achieved when the stimulus is applied during the exercise. However, WBV applied 60 seconds before upper body exercise results in no benefit. PMID:23085972

  18. Effects of whole body vibration on strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Turpin, J A; Zmijewski, P; Jimenez-Olmedo, J M; Jové-Tossi, M A; Martínez-Carbonell, A; Suárez-Llorca, C; Andreu-Cabrera, E

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  19. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  20. Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

    2013-03-15

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI. PMID:23157611

  1. Anaerobic power in road cyclists is improved after 10 weeks of whole-body vibration training.

    PubMed

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; Viedge, Alison; McVeigh, Joanne; Avidon, Ingrid

    2013-02-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has previously improved muscle power in various athletic groups requiring explosive muscle contractions. To evaluate the benefit of including WBV as a training adjunct for improving aerobic and anaerobic cycling performance, road cyclists (n = 9) performed 3 weekly, 10-minute sessions of intermittent WBV on synchronous vertical plates (30 Hz) while standing in a static posture. A control group of cyclists (n = 8) received no WBV training. Before and after the 10-week intervention period, lean body mass (LBM), cycling aerobic peak power (Wmax), 4 mM lactate concentration (OBLA), VO2peak, and Wingate anaerobic peak and mean power output were determined. The WBV group successfully completed all WBV sessions but reported a significant 30% decrease in the weekly cycling training time (pre: 9.4 ± 3.3 h·wk(-1); post: 6.7 ± 3.7 h·wk(-1); p = 0.01) that resulted in a 6% decrease in VO2peak and a 4% decrease in OBLA. The control group reported a nonsignificant 6% decrease in cycling training volume (pre: 9.5 ± 3.6 h·wk(-1); 8.6 ± 2.9 h·wk(-1); p = 0.13), and all measured variables were maintained. Despite the evidence of detraining in the WBV group, Wmax was maintained (pre: 258 ± 53 W; post: 254 ± 57 W; p = 0.43). Furthermore, Wingate peak power increased by 6% (668 ± 189 to 708 ± 220 W; p = 0.055), and Wingate mean power increased by 2% (553 ± 157 to 565 ± 157 W; p = 0.006) in the WBV group from preintervention to postintervention, respectively, without any change to LBM. The WBV training is an attractive training supplement for improving anaerobic power without increasing muscle mass in road cyclists. PMID:22531614

  2. Acute Cardiovascular Response during Resistance Exercise with Whole-body Vibration in Sedentary Subjects: A Randomized Cross-over Trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, Thaisa; Polito, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the acute cardiovascular responses during and after resistance exercise with and without whole-body vibration. Nineteen sedentary adults randomly performed one session of isometric squats without vibration and the same exercise with vibration. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were measured. SBP, DBP and HR were also measured for 20 min after the sessions. The exercise with vibration demonstrated significant values ​​(P < 0.05) for SBP (second to sixth sets), DBP (third to sixth sets) and SVR (second to sixth sets) compared with the exercise without vibration. After the sessions, the values ​​of SBP for both exercises were significantly lower than the respective resting values; with no difference between the sessions. In conclusion, exercise with vibration caused increases in SBP, DBP and SVR compared with exercise with no vibration in sedentary adults. PMID:26031551

  3. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22) in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16) in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27) compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key points

  4. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.22) in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.16) in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta(2) = 0.27) compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key

  5. The influence of vibration type, frequency, body position and additional load on the neuromuscular activity during whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Gollhofer, Albert; Kramer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of different whole body vibration (WBV) determinants on the electromyographic (EMG) activity during WBV in order to identify those training conditions that cause highest neuromuscular responses and therefore provide optimal training conditions. In a randomized cross-over study, the EMG activity of six leg muscles was analyzed in 18 subjects with respect to the following determinants: (1) vibration type (side-alternating vibration (SV) vs. synchronous vibration (SyV), (2) frequency (5-10-15-20-25-30 Hz), (3) knee flexion angle (10°-30°-60°), (4) stance condition (forefoot vs. normal stance) and (5) load variation (no extra load vs. additional load equal to one-third of the body weight). The results are: (1) neuromuscular activity during SV was enhanced compared to SyV (P < 0.05); (2) a progressive increase in frequency caused a progressive increase in EMG activity (P < 0.05); (3) the EMG activity was highest for the knee extensors when the knee joint was 60° flexed (P < 0.05); (4) for the plantar flexors in the forefoot stance condition (P < 0.05); and (5) additional load caused an increase in neuromuscular activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, large variations of the EMG activation could be observed across conditions. However, with an appropriate adjustment of specific WBV determinants, high EMG activations and therefore high activation intensities could be achieved in the selected muscles. The combination of high vibration frequencies with additional load on an SV platform led to highest EMG activities. Regarding the body position, a knee flexion of 60° and forefoot stance appear to be beneficial for the knee extensors and the plantar flexors, respectively. PMID:22538279

  6. Wearable Ballistocardiography: Preliminary Methods for Mapping Surface Vibration Measurements to Whole Body Forces

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Andrew; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo; Inan, Omer T.

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of ballistocardiogram (BCG) measurement and interpretation technologies has led to a wide range of powerful tools available for unobtrusively assessing mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health at home. Researchers have demonstrated a multitude of modern BCG measurement modalities, including beds, chairs, weighing scales, and wearable approaches. However, many modalities produce significant variations in the morphology of the measured BCG, creating confusion in the analysis and interpretation of the signals. This paper creates a framework for comparing wearable BCG measurements to whole body measurements—such as taken with a weighing scale system—to eventually allow the same analysis and interpretation tools that have been developed for whole body systems to be applied in the future to wearable systems. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the first attempt to morphologically compare vertical acceleration recordings measured on different locations on the torso to whole body displacements measured by BCG instrumentation. PMID:25571158

  7. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable. PMID:26834381

  8. Contribution of individual components of a job cycle on overall severity of whole-body vibration exposure: a study in Indian mines.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bibhuti B; Mansfield, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Drivers of earth-moving machines are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). In mining operations there can be a combination of relatively high magnitudes of vibration and long exposure times. Effective risk mitigation requires understanding of the main aspects of a task that pose a hazard to health. There are very few published studies of WBV exposure from India. This paper reports on a study that considered the contribution of the component phases of dumper operations, on the overall vibration exposure of the drivers. It shows that vibration magnitudes are relatively high, and that haulage tasks are the main contributor to the exposure. It is recommended that driver speed, haul road surfaces and vehicle maintenance/selection are optimized to ensure minimization of vibration. If this is not sufficient, operation times might need to be reduced in order to ensure that the health guidance caution zone from Standard No. ISO 2631-1:1997 is not exceeded. PMID:26652833

  9. Good Vibrations – Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Attention in Healthy Individuals and Individuals with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV) might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD. Methods Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control) was measured with a color-word interference paradigm. Results A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed. PMID:24587412

  10. Whole body massage for reducing anxiety and stabilizing vital signs of patients in cardiac care unit

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Abasi, Ali; Rajabi-Beheshtabad, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients admitted in coronary care units face various stressors. Ambiguity of future life conditions and unawareness of caring methods intensifies the patients’ anxiety and stress. This study was conducted to assess the effects of whole body massage on anxiety and vital signs of patients with acute coronary disorders. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 patients. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group received a session of whole body massage and the control group received routine care. The levels of State, Trait and overall anxiety and vital signs were assessed in both groups before and after intervention. Independent sample t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests were used for data analysis. Results: The baseline overall mean score of anxiety was 79.43±29.34 in the intervention group and was decreased to 50.38±20.35 after massage therapy (p=0.001). However, no significant changes were occurred in the overall mean anxiety in the control group during the study. The baseline diastolic blood pressure was 77.05±8.12 mmHg and was decreased to 72.18±9.19 mmHg after the intervention (p=0.004). Also, significant decreases were occurred in heart rate and respiration rate of intervention group after massage therapy (p=0.001). However, no significant changes were occurred in vital signs of the control group during the study. Conclusion: The results suggest that whole body massage was effective in reducing anxiety and stabilizing vital signs of patients with acute coronary disorders. PMID:25405113

  11. Combined whole-body vibration training and l-citrulline supplementation improves pressure wave reflection in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexei; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kinsey, Amber W; Spicer, Maria T; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have increased wave reflection (augmentation pressure (AP) and index (AIx)) and reduced muscle function that predispose them to cardiac diseases and disability. Our aim was to examine the combined and independent effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and l-citrulline supplementation on aortic hemodynamics and plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 3 groups: l-citrulline, WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo for 8 weeks. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, AP, AIx, AIx adjusted to 75 beats/min (AIx@75), and NOx were measured before and after 8 weeks. All groups similarly decreased (P < 0.05) brachial and aortic pressures as well as AP, and similarly increased (P < 0.05) NOx levels. AIx and AIx@75 decreased (P < 0.01) in the WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo groups, but not in the l-citrulline group. The improvement in AIx@75 (-10.5% ± 8.8%, P < 0.05) in the WBVT+l-citrulline group was significant compared with the l-citrulline group. l-Citrulline supplementation and WBVT alone and combined decreased blood pressures. The combined intervention reduced AIx@75. This study supports the effectiveness of WBVT+l-citrulline as a potential intervention for prevention of hypertension-related cardiac diseases in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26863234

  12. [The effect of betahistine on histological changes in rabbit brain in model of whole body wide-frequency vibration].

    PubMed

    Shimkus, Iu Iu; Sapegin, I D

    2013-01-01

    In acute experiments in conscious rabbits was studied protective action of selective blocker of histamine H3-receptor betahistine (2mg/kg i/v) against histological changes in precentral and postcentral gyrus, as well as in temporal lobe of cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, arising in case of modeling of whole body wide-frequency vibration. Betahistine attenuates edematous and degenerative changes in neurons and reciprocal glial reaction, caused by vibration, but does not eliminate edema in perivascular spaces. This effect may be related to the improvement of blood supply as a result of of vasodilatory action and decrease of oxygen consumption via vestibuloprotective effect. PMID:24003483

  13. Does short-term whole-body vibration training affect arterial stiffness in chronic stroke? A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yule, Christie E.; Stoner, Lee; Hodges, Lynette D.; Cochrane, Darryl J.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have shown that stroke is associated with increased arterial stiffness that can be diminished by a program of physical activity. A novel exercise intervention, whole-body vibration (WBV), is reported to significantly improve arterial stiffness in healthy men and older sedentary adults. However, little is known about its efficacy in reducing arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Six participants with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of WBV training or control followed by cross-over after a 2-week washout period. WBV intervention consisted of 3 sessions of 5 min intermittent WBV per week for 4 weeks. Arterial stiffness (carotid arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity [PWV], pulse and wave analysis [PWA]) were measured before/after each intervention. [Results] No significant improvements were reported with respect to carotid arterial stiffness, PWV, and PWA between WBV and control. However, carotid arterial stiffness showed a decrease over time following WBV compared to control, but this was not significant. [Conclusion] Three days/week for 4 weeks of WBV seems too short to elicit appropriate changes in arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. However, no adverse effects were reported, indicating that WBV is a safe and acceptable exercise modality for people with chronic stroke. PMID:27134400

  14. Does short-term whole-body vibration training affect arterial stiffness in chronic stroke? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yule, Christie E; Stoner, Lee; Hodges, Lynette D; Cochrane, Darryl J

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have shown that stroke is associated with increased arterial stiffness that can be diminished by a program of physical activity. A novel exercise intervention, whole-body vibration (WBV), is reported to significantly improve arterial stiffness in healthy men and older sedentary adults. However, little is known about its efficacy in reducing arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Six participants with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of WBV training or control followed by cross-over after a 2-week washout period. WBV intervention consisted of 3 sessions of 5 min intermittent WBV per week for 4 weeks. Arterial stiffness (carotid arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity [PWV], pulse and wave analysis [PWA]) were measured before/after each intervention. [Results] No significant improvements were reported with respect to carotid arterial stiffness, PWV, and PWA between WBV and control. However, carotid arterial stiffness showed a decrease over time following WBV compared to control, but this was not significant. [Conclusion] Three days/week for 4 weeks of WBV seems too short to elicit appropriate changes in arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. However, no adverse effects were reported, indicating that WBV is a safe and acceptable exercise modality for people with chronic stroke. PMID:27134400

  15. Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Trunk and Neck Muscle Activity in Consideration of Different Vibration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Perchthaler, Dennis; Hauser, Simon; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian; Hein, Tobias; Grau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study was to systematically analyze the impact of biomechanical parameters in terms of different peak-to-peak displacements and knee angles on trunk and neck muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV). 28 healthy men and women (age 23 ± 3 years) performed four static squat positions (2 peak-to-peak displacements x 2 knee angles) on a side alternating vibration platform with and without vibration stimulus. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record the neuromuscular activity of the erector spinae muscle, the rectus abdominis muscle, and of the splenius muscle. EMG levels normalized to maximal voluntary contractions ranged between 3.2 – 27.2 % MVC during WBV. The increase in muscle activity caused by WBV was significant, particularly for the back muscles, which was up to 19.0 % MVC. The impact of the factor ‘condition’ (F-values ranged from 13.4 to 132.0, p ≤ 0.001) and of the factor ‘peak-to-peak displacement’ (F-values ranged from 6.4 to 69.0 and p-values from < 0.001 to 0.01) were statistically significant for each muscle tested. However, the factor ‘knee angle’ only affected the back muscles (F-value 10.3 and 7.3, p ≤ 0.01). The results of this study should give more information for developing effective and safe training protocols for WBV treatment of the upper body. Key points The maximum levels of muscle activity were significantly reached at high amplitudes at a vibration frequency of 30 Hz. WBV leads to a higher muscle activation of the lower back muscles than of the abdominal muscles. Both knee angles of 30° and 45° have similar effects on the vibration load and represent safe positions to prevent any actual harm. Certain combinations of the biomechanical variables have similar effects on the level of muscle activity. PMID:25729303

  16. Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajús, Jose A; Hazell, Tom J; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity. PMID:22406015

  17. Whole-body vibration induces pain and lumbar spinal inflammation responses in the rat that vary with the vibration profile.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Martha E; Kartha, Sonia; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is linked epidemiologically to neck and back pain in humans, and to forepaw mechanical allodynia and cervical neuroinflammation in a rodent model of WBV, but the response of the low back and lumbar spine to WBV is unknown. A rat model of WBV was used to determine the effect of different WBV exposures on hind paw behavioral sensitivity and neuroinflammation in the lumbar spinal cord. Rats were exposed to 30 min of WBV at either 8 or 15 Hz on days 0 and 7, with the lumbar spinal cord assayed using immunohistochemistry at day 14. Behavioral sensitivity was measured using mechanical stimulation of the hind paws to determine the onset, persistence, and/or recovery of allodynia. Both WBV exposures induce mechanical allodynia 1 day following WBV, but only the 8 Hz WBV induces a sustained decrease in the withdrawal threshold through day 14. Similarly, increased activation of microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes in the superficial dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord is only evident after the painful 8 Hz WBV. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-phosphorylation is most robust in neurons and astrocytes of the dorsal horn, with the most ERK phosphorylation occurring in the 8 Hz group. These findings indicate that a WBV exposure that induces persistent pain also induces a host of neuroimmune cellular activation responses that are also sustained. This work indicates there is an injury-dependent response that is based on the vibration parameters, providing a potentially useful platform for studying mechanisms of painful spinal injuries. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1439-1446, 2016. PMID:27571442

  18. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Hawkey, A, Griffiths, K, Babraj, J, and Cobley, JN. Whole-body vibration training and its application to age-related performance decrements: an exploratory analysis. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 555-560, 2016-Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations. PMID:26244828

  19. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  20. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: biodynamic responses to sinusoidal and random vibration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of biodynamic responses of the seated human body on the frequency, magnitude and waveform of vertical vibration has been studied in 20 males and 20 females. With sinusoidal vibration (13 frequencies from 1 to 16 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.1-1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s.) and with random vibration (1-16 Hz) at the same magnitudes, the apparent mass of the body was similar with random and sinusoidal vibration of the same overall magnitude. With increasing magnitude of vibration, the stiffness and damping of a model fitted to the apparent mass reduced and the resonance frequency decreased (from 6.5 to 4.5 Hz). Male and female subjects had similar apparent mass (after adjusting for subject weight) and a similar principal resonance frequency with both random and sinusoidal vibration. The change in biodynamic response with increasing vibration magnitude depends on the frequency of the vibration excitation, but is similar with sinusoidal and random excitation. PMID:24730687

  1. Effect of phase on discomfort caused by vertical whole-body vibration and shock-Experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yasunao; Griffin, Michael J.

    2002-03-01

    An experimental study has investigated the effect of ``phase'' on the subjective responses of human subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration and shock. The stimuli were formed from two frequency components: 3 and 9 Hz for continuous vibrations and 3 and 12 Hz for shocks. The two frequency components, each having 1.0 ms-2 peak acceleration, were combined to form various waveforms. The effects of the vibration magnitude on the discomfort caused by the input stimuli were also investigated with both the continuous vibrations and the shocks. Various objective measurements of acceleration and force at the seat surface, the effects of different frequency weightings and second and fourth power evaluations were compared with judgments of the discomfort of the stimuli. It was found that a 6% to 12% increase in magnitude produced a statistically significant increase in discomfort with both the continuous vibrations and the shocks. Judgments of discomfort caused by changes in vibration magnitude were highly correlated with all of the objective measurements used in the study. The effects on discomfort of the phase between components in the continuous vibrations were not statistically significant, as predicted using evaluation methods with a power of 2. However, small changes in discomfort were correlated with the vibration dose value (VDV) of the Wb frequency-weighted acceleration. The effect of phase between frequency components within the shocks was statistically significant, although no objective measurement method used in the study was correlated with the subjective judgments.

  2. Effects of Short-Period Whole-Body Vibration of 20 Hz on Selected Blood Biomarkers in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Carmo, Fernanda Santos do; Bernardo, Raquel Mattos; Pacheco, Raphaelle; Arnóbio, Adriano; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Unger, Marianne; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2015-08-31

    There is a growing interest in the use of vibration generated by oscillating/vibratory platforms - also known as whole-body vibration (WBV) - for achieving therapeutic, preventative and/or physical performance goals. This study investigated the effects of vibration generated by an oscillating platform on the concentration of blood biomarkers in rats. Wistar rats (n = 8) were divided in 2 groups, sedated and individually positioned on an oscillating platform. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 20 Hz for one min per day for one week while the control group (CG) experienced no vibration. Samples of heparinized whole blood were drawn by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine were determined. White blood cell count and a platelet hemogram were also performed. Following seven sessions of exposure to the vibration, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in γGT, VLDL and leukocytes was found. A weekly 1-min/day exposure of 20 Hz vibration can was shown to alter the concentrations of selected blood biomarkers in rats. The action mechanism associated with these effects seems highly complex, but the findings might contribute to the understanding of these mechanisms related to the exposure to 20 Hz vibration. PMID:26211644

  3. Individual and combined effects of noise-like whole-body vibration and parathyroid hormone treatment on bone defect repair in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and exposure to whole-body vibration on osteoporotic fracture healing has been previously investigated, but data on their concurrent use are lacking. Thus, we evaluated the effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, whole-body vibration, and their combination on bone repair in osteoporotic mice. Noise-like whole-body vibration with a broad frequency range was used instead of conventional sine-wave whole-body vibration at a specific frequency. Mice were ovariectomized at 9 weeks of age and subjected to drill-hole surgery in the right tibial diaphysis at 11 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 12 each): a control group, and groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, noise-like whole-body vibration, and both. From postoperative day 2, the groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were subcutaneously administered parathyroid hormone at a dose of 30 µg/kg/day. The groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were exposed to noise-like whole-body vibration at a root mean squared acceleration of 0.3g and frequency components of 45-100 Hz for 20 min/day. Following 18 days of interventions, the right tibiae were harvested, and the regenerated bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and nanoindentation testing. Compared with the control group, callus volume fraction was 40% higher in groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and 73% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and callus thickness was 35% wider in groups treated with both

  4. Combined whole body vibration and balance training using Vibrosphere®: improvement of trunk stability, muscle tone, and postural control in stroke patients during early geriatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Merkert, J; Butz, S; Nieczaj, R; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Eckardt, R

    2011-08-01

    Strokes are a leading cause of disability, immobility, and reduced ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) among the elderly. Balance and postural control are often affected in stroke patients. Physical therapy for the lower back to improve posture, mobility, and ADLs can be very time consuming. In this randomized, controlled study of 66 geriatric patients (mean age 74.5 years) with stroke-related paresis or hemiplegia, it was demonstrated that stroke patients may benefit more from 3 additional weeks of combined whole body vibration and balance training than from a comprehensive inpatient geriatric rehabilitation program in terms of trunk stability, postural control, and muscle tone. PMID:21505939

  5. Increased Gs Signaling in Osteoblasts Reduces Bone Marrow and Whole-Body Adiposity in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Cain, Corey J; Valencia, Joel T; Ho, Samantha; Jordan, Kate; Mattingly, Aaron; Morales, Blanca M; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-04-01

    Bone is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ that can regulate systemic hormones and metabolism through secreted factors. Although bone loss and increased adiposity appear to be linked clinically, whether conditions of increased bone formation can also change systemic metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we examined how increased osteogenesis affects metabolism by using an engineered G protein-coupled receptor, Rs1, to activate Gs signaling in osteoblastic cells in ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) transgenic mice. We previously showed that these mice have dramatically increased bone formation resembling fibrous dysplasia of the bone. We found that total body fat was significantly reduced starting at 3 weeks of age. Furthermore, ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) mice showed reduced O2 consumption and respiratory quotient measures without effects on food intake and energy expenditure. The mice had significantly decreased serum triacylglycerides, leptin, and adiponectin. Resting glucose and insulin levels were unchanged; however, glucose and insulin tolerance tests revealed increased sensitivity to insulin. The mice showed resistance to fat accumulation from a high-fat diet. Furthermore, ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) mouse bones had dramatically reduced mature adipocyte differentiation, increased Wingless/Int-1 (Wnt) signaling, and higher osteoblastic glucose utilization than controls. These findings suggest that osteoblasts can influence both local and peripheral adiposity in conditions of increased bone formation and suggest a role for osteoblasts in the regulation of whole-body adiposity and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:26901092

  6. Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Todd, Neil P M; Bell, Steven L; Paillard, Aurore C; Griffin, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms(-2) (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

  7. Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Steven L.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms−2 (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

  8. Microcirculation of skeletal muscle adapts differently to a resistive exercise intervention with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations.

    PubMed

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; Weber, Tobias; Rosenberger, André; Gehlert, Sebastian; Herrera, Frankyn; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Zange, Jochen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2015-11-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0.76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P < 0.001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0.007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P < 0.01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P < 0.001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0.61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites. PMID:25041226

  9. Analyses of biodynamic responses of seated occupants to uncorrelated fore-aft and vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandapuram, Santosh; Rakheja, Subhash; Marcotte, Pierre; Boileau, Paul-Émile

    2011-08-01

    The apparent mass and seat-to-head-transmissibility response functions of the seated human body were investigated under exposures to fore-aft ( x), vertical ( z), and combined fore-aft and vertical ( x and z) axis whole-body vibration. The coupling effects of dual-axis vibration were investigated using two different frequency response function estimators based upon the cross- and auto-spectral densities of the response and excitation signals, denoted as H1 and Hv estimators, respectively. The experiments were performed to measure the biodynamic responses to single and uncorrelated dual-axis vibration, and to study the effects of hands support, back support and vibration magnitude on the body interactions with the seatpan and the backrest, characterized in terms of apparent masses and the vibration transmitted to the head. The data were acquired with 9 subjects exposed to two different magnitudes of vibration applied along the individual x- and z-axis (0.25 and 0.4 m/s 2 rms), and along both the axis (0.28 and 0.4 m/s 2 rms along each axis) in the 0.5-20 Hz frequency range. The two methods resulted in identical single-axis responses but considerably different dual-axis responses. The dual-axis responses derived from the Hv estimator revealed notable effects of dual-axis vibration, as they comprised both the direct and cross-axis responses observed under single axis vibration. Such effect, termed as the coupling effect, was not evident in the dual-axis responses derived using the commonly used H1 estimator. The results also revealed significant effects of hands and back support conditions on the coupling effects and the measured responses. The back support constrained the upper body movements and thus showed relatively weaker coupling compared to that observed in the responses without the back support. The effect of hand support was also pronounced under the fore-aft vibration. The results suggest that a better understanding of the seated human body responses to

  10. Long duration measurements of whole-body vibration exposures associated with surface coal mining equipment compared to previous short-duration measurements.

    PubMed

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Lynas, Danellie

    2016-01-01

    Previous measurements of whole-body vibration associated with earth-moving equipment at surface coal mines have highlighted the significance of the hazard. Considerable variability in measurement amplitudes, even within the same equipment type operated at the same site, has been noted. However, the measurements have previously been undertaken for relatively short durations. Fifty-nine measurements were collected from a range of earth-moving equipment in operation at a surface coal mine. Measurement durations ranged from 100-460 min (median = 340 min). The results indicate that the measurements previously observed are not an artifact of the relatively short durations and confirm that operators of dozers and off-road haul trucks, in particular, are frequently exposed to vertical whole-body vibration levels which lie within, or above, the Health Guidance Caution Zone defined by ISO2631.1. Further investigations are justified to identify opportunities for reducing operators' exposure to high amplitude vibrations. PMID:26771238

  11. The effects of whole-body vibration on the Wingate test for anaerobic power when applying individualized frequencies.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Rachel K; Wang, Henry; Nagelkirk, Paul R; Frame, Jeffrey W; Dickin, D Clark

    2014-07-01

    Recently, individualized frequency (I-Freq) has been introduced with the notion that athletes may elicit a greater reflex response at differing levels (Hz) of vibration. The aim of the study was to evaluate acute whole-body vibration as a feasible intervention to increase power in trained cyclists and evaluate the efficacy of using I-Freq as an alternative to 30Hz, a common frequency seen in the literature. Twelve highly trained, competitive male cyclists (age, 29.9 ± 10.0 years; body height, 175.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass, 77.3 ± 13.9 kg) participated in the study. A Wingate test for anaerobic power was administered on 3 occasions: following a control of no vibration, 30 Hz, or I-freq. Measures of peak power, average power (AP), and the rate of fatigue were recorded and compared with the vibration conditions using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Peak power, AP, and the rate of fatigue were not significantly impacted by either the 30 Hz or I-Freq vibration interventions (p > 0.05). Given the trained status of the individuals in this study, the ability to elicit an acute response may have been muted. Future studies should further refine the vibration parameters used and assess changes in untrained or recreationally trained populations. PMID:24378660

  12. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  13. Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (30–36 kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites. PMID:25136473

  14. Benefits of whole-body vibration with an oscillating platform for people with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Cameron, Michelle H; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration on people with multiple sclerosis (MS). PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases were systematically searched for studies on the use of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in people with MS. These searches were supplemented with material identified in the references and in the authors' personal files. A qualitative analysis was performed to summarize the findings. Five studies with a total of seventy-one subjects were identified. All of these studies had small numbers of subjects (3-25), and two of the studies had no control groups. Some investigations have shown significant improvements of the muscle strength, of the functional mobility, and of the timed get up and go test in patients with MS. The number of publications found in the databanks searched is small, and in general, they have limitations in the design of protocols with a weakness to the interpretation of the findings. However, the analysis of the findings in these studies permits to conclude that some papers indicate that WBV exercises could benefit patients with MS. In addition, we suggest further larger scale investigations with controlled parameters and well-designed protocols into the effects of WBV exercises in people with MS. PMID:22685660

  15. Benefits of Whole-Body Vibration with an Oscillating Platform for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Cameron, Michelle H.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration on people with multiple sclerosis (MS). PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases were systematically searched for studies on the use of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in people with MS. These searches were supplemented with material identified in the references and in the authors' personal files. A qualitative analysis was performed to summarize the findings. Five studies with a total of seventy-one subjects were identified. All of these studies had small numbers of subjects (3–25), and two of the studies had no control groups. Some investigations have shown significant improvements of the muscle strength, of the functional mobility, and of the timed get up and go test in patients with MS. The number of publications found in the databanks searched is small, and in general, they have limitations in the design of protocols with a weakness to the interpretation of the findings. However, the analysis of the findings in these studies permits to conclude that some papers indicate that WBV exercises could benefit patients with MS. In addition, we suggest further larger scale investigations with controlled parameters and well-designed protocols into the effects of WBV exercises in people with MS. PMID:22685660

  16. Nonlinear subjective and biodynamic responses to continuous and transient whole-body vibration in the vertical direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yasunao; Griffin, Michael J.

    2005-11-01

    The effect of the magnitude of continuous and transient whole-body vibration in the vertical direction on both subjective and biodynamic responses of human subjects has been investigated experimentally. Additionally, the relation between the subjective responses and the dynamic responses has also been studied. Twelve subjects were exposed to sinusoidal continuous vibrations at five frequencies (3.15-8.0 Hz) and at three magnitudes (0.5-2.0 m s -2 rms). They were also exposed to transient vibrations that were modulated one-and-half cycle sinusoidal waveforms at the same frequencies as the continuous vibrations and at three magnitudes corresponding to the magnitudes used for the continuous vibrations. Discomfort was measured by the method of magnitude estimation with reference stimuli having frequency components in the middle of the frequency range used in this study. The driving-point dynamic responses (the ratio between the force and the motion, i.e., acceleration and velocity, at the driving point) were also measured and divided by the responses to the reference stimuli used in the measurement of discomfort so as to allow the comparison of the dynamic responses with the discomfort responses. Both the discomfort estimates and the normalised driving-point dynamic responses were influenced by the stimuli magnitudes, especially with the continuous vibration. At 3.15 and 4.0 Hz, the discomfort estimates and the normalised mechanical impedance and apparent mass increased significantly with increases in vibration magnitude from 0.5-2.0 m s -2 rms. Magnitude estimates for discomfort were correlated with the normalised mechanical impedance and apparent mass in the frequency range investigated. For the transient vibrations, the discomfort estimates and the driving-point dynamic responses were interpreted as responses in frequency bands around the fundamental frequency of the input motion. The results indicate similar nonlinearities in discomfort and driving-point dynamic

  17. Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YONG-QIANG; QI, MENG-CHUN; XU, JIANG; XU, JUAN; LIU, HUA-WEI; DONG, WEI; LI, JIN-YUAN; HU, MIN

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri-implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole-body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone-to-implant contact, peri-implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4-week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

  18. Quantitative evaluation of distortion in sketching under mono and dual axes whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Bhiwapurkar, M K; Saran, V H; Harsha, S P

    2011-01-01

    Performance of sedentary activities such as reading and writing, in trains is known to be affected by the vibrations. An experimental study was therefore initiated to investigate the interference perceived in sketching task under low frequency random vibration in both mono and dual axes. Thirty healthy male subjects participated in the study. Random vibration stimuli were excited in various axes in frequency range of 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 m/s(2). The task required the subjects to sketch the given geometric figures such as circle, rectangle and triangle under vibration environment in two subject postures (sketch pad on lap and on table). Three performance methods were used to measure the effect of vibration stimuli and posture. They consisted of two specifically designed objective methods for percentage distortion measurement and one subjective method using Borg CR10 scale. The results revealed that the percentage distortion and difficulty in sketching increased with an increase in vibration magnitude and was found to be higher for vibration in Y- and Z-axis. Similar trend was observed for percentage distortion and difficulty in sketching for dual axes also. The perceived difficulty and impairment in sketching performance was greater while sketching on lap for X-axis, while the effect was just the reverse for other axes. PMID:21697628

  19. The effects of whole-body vibration in isolation or combined with strength training in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Preatoni, Ezio; Colombo, Alessandro; Verga, Monica; Galvani, Christel; Faina, Marcello; Rodano, Renato; Preatoni, Ennio; Cardinale, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the behavior of a vibrating platform under different conditions and to compare the effects of an 8-week periodized training program with whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with conventional strength training (ST). Vibrating frequencies, displacements, and peak accelerations were tested through a piezoelectric accelerometer under different conditions of load and subjects' position. Eighteen national-level female athletes were assigned to 1 of 3 different groups performing WBV, conventional ST, or a combination of the 2 (WBV + ST). Isometric maximal voluntary contraction, dynamic maximal concentric force, and vertical jump tests were performed before and after the conditioning program. Vibrating displacements and maximum accelerations measured on the device were not always consistent with their expected values calculated from the display and manufacturers' information (sinusoidal waveforms). The WBV alone or in combination with low-intensity resistance exercise did not seem to induce significant enhancements in force and power when compared with ST. It appears that WBV cannot substitute parts of ST loading in a cohort of young female athletes. However, vibration effects might be limited by the behavior of the commercial platforms as the one used in the study. More studies are needed to analyze the performances of devices and the effectiveness of protocols. PMID:22067255

  20. Power absorbed during whole-body fore-and-aft vibration: Effects of sitting posture, backrest, and footrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the discomfort or injury associated with whole-body vibration cannot be predicted directly from the power absorbed during exposure to vibration, the absorbed power may contribute to understanding of the biodynamics involved in such responses. From measurements of force and acceleration at the seat, the feet, and the backrest, the power absorbed at these three locations was calculated for subjects sitting in four postures (feet hanging, maximum thigh contact, average thigh contact, and minimum thigh contact) both with and without a rigid vertical backrest while exposed to four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) of random fore-and-aft vibration. The power absorbed by the body at the supporting seat surface when there was no backrest showed a peak around 1 Hz and another peak between 3 and 4 Hz. Supporting the back with the backrest decreased the power absorbed at the seat at low frequencies but increased the power absorbed at high frequencies. Foot support influenced both the magnitude and the frequency of the peaks in the absorbed power spectra as well as the total absorbed power. The measurements of absorbed power are consistent with backrests being beneficial during exposure to low frequency fore-and-aft vibration but detrimental with high frequency fore-and-aft vibration.

  1. The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

  2. Acute bone response to whole body vibration in healthy pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R; Ward, K; Lee, E; Razaghi, H; Horne, C; Bishop, N J

    2015-06-01

    The skeleton responds to mechanical stimulation. We wished to ascertain the magnitude and speed of the growing skeleton's response to a standardised form of mechanical stimulation, vibration. 36 prepubertal boys stood for 10 minutes in total on one of two vibrating platforms (high (>2 g) or low (<1 g) magnitude vibration) on either 1, 3 or 5 successive days (n=12 for each duration); 15 control subjects stood on an inactive platform. Blood samples were taken at intervals before and after vibration to measure bone formation (P1NP, osteocalcin) and resorption (CTx) markers as well as osteoprotegerin and sclerostin. There were no significant differences between platform and control groups in bone turnover markers immediately after vibration on days 1, 3 and 5. Combining platform groups, at day 8 P1NP increased by 25.1% (CI 12.3 to 38.0; paired t-test p=0.005) and bone resorption increased by 10.9% (CI 3.6 to 18.2; paired t-test p=0.009) compared to baseline. Osteocalcin, osteoprotogerin and sclerostin did not change significantly. The growing skeleton can respond quickly to vibration of either high or low magnitude. Further work is needed to determine the utility of such "stimulation-testing" in clinical practice. PMID:26032203

  3. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    Nonlinear biodynamic responses are evident in many studies of the apparent masses of sitting and standing subjects in static postures that require muscle activity for postural control. In the present study, 12 male subjects adopted a relaxed semi-supine posture assumed to involve less muscle activity than during static sitting and standing. The supine subjects were exposed to two types of vertical vibration (in the x-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m s -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 10.35 to 7.32 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 m s -2 rms. This nonlinear response was apparent in both the vertical ( x-axis) apparent mass and in the horizontal ( z-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. As the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 m s -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass with intermittent random vibration decreased from 9.28 to 8.06 Hz whereas, over the same range of magnitudes with continuous random vibration, the resonance frequency decreased from 9.62 to 7.81 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms) was 1.37 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 1.71 with the continuous random vibration. With the intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration of the same magnitudes. The response was typical of thixotropy that may be a primary cause of the nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration.

  4. A comparison of training intensity between whole-body vibration and conventional squat exercise.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Delecluse, Christophe; Garatachea, Nuria

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate surface electromyographic activity (sEMG) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during semi-squat exercise on vibration platform compared with semi-squat exercise performed on a Smith machine. Twenty-three recreationally active students (15 males and 8 females) were exposed to six different loads in one of both exercise modes: vibration or Smith machine. The subject performed a squat in six experimental conditions; the load differed per experimental condition. For each subject the exercise mode (n=2) and the different loads per mode (n=6) were assigned in a random order to check the influence of vibration magnitude (acceleration: ms(-2)) as well as weight (kg) on sEMG and RPE. Two-way ANOVA for RPE, lumbar and lower-body sEMG revealed a significant weight main effect (P<0.01) and a significant acceleration main effect (P<0.01). The results from this study demonstrate that the training stimulus resulting from an isometric semi-squat exercise on a vibration platform (acceleration: from 12 to 89 ms(-2)) is similar to the training stimulus of an isometric semi-squat exercise on Smith machine (weight: from 20 to 70 kg) according to lower-body sEMG and RPE. However, the impact of semi-squat on vibration platform exercise for lumbar muscle is relatively small compared with semi-squat on Smith machine. PMID:21306916

  5. Effects of different magnitudes of whole-body vibration on arm muscular performance.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Herrero, Azael J; Sáinz, Nuria; Rhea, Matthew R; García-López, David

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different vibration magnitudes via feet on the number of repetitions performed, mean velocity, and perceived exertion during a set of elbow-extension exercise to failure (70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] load). Twenty recreationally active students (14 men and 6 women) performed, in 3 different days, 1 elbow-extension set applying randomly 1 of the 3 experimental conditions: high magnitude (HM; 50 Hz and 2.51 mmp-p; 98.55 mxs-2), low magnitude (LM; 30 Hz and 1.15 mmp-p; 20.44 m.s-2) or control (Control, without vibration stimulus). Results indicate that the vibration via feet provides superimposed stimuli for elbow-extensor performance, enhancing the total number of repetitions performed in the HM and LM conditions, which was significantly higher (p vibration generates more neuromuscular facilitation than an LM. These data suggest that a vibration stimulus applied to the feet can result in positive improvements in upper body resistance exercise performance. PMID:20802289

  6. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular responses in older individuals: implications for prescription of vibratory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Herrero, Azael J; García-López, David; Rhea, Matthew R; López-Chicharro, José; González-Gallego, Javier; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze surface electromyography activity (sEMG) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses in different muscles while standing on a vibrating platform producing oscillations of different frequencies and amplitudes. Twenty community-dwelling older adults (79.6 ± 3.2 years) took part in the research. Subjects were exposed to 12 different vibration treatments of 15 seconds separated by 1 minute of rest in random order to check the influence of frequency (25, 35, and 45 Hz) and amplitude (1 mm [low] and 3.1 mm [high]) vibration on sEMG signal and RPE. Additionally, the use of a soft pad was also examined for its influence on these measures. Three-factor analysis of variance for RPE and both lower and whole-body sEMGs revealed a significant amplitude main effect (p < 0.01), and soft mat effect (p < 0.01), and a significant frequency main effect (p < 0.01). The major findings were that sEMG and RPE increased with the acceleration of the vibration; moreover, the increments of sEMG were highly correlated with RPE. The results of this study suggest that using the RPE method after each exercise would allow exercise and health professionals to assess the intensity levels that correspond to the level of the vibratory program in older adults. PMID:22158143

  7. Effect of Phase on Human Responses to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration and SHOCK—ANALYTICAL Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-03-01

    The effect of the “phase” on human responses to vertical whole-body vibration and shock has been investigated analytically using alternative methods of predicting subjective responses (using r.m.s., VDV and various frequency weightings). Two types of phase have been investigated: the effect of the relative phase between two frequency components in the input stimulus, and the phase response of the human body. Continuous vibrations and shocks, based on half-sine and one-and-a-half-sine accelerations, each of which had two frequency components, were used as input stimuli. For the continuous vibrations, an effect of relative phase was found for the vibration dose value (VDV) when the ratio between two frequency components was three: about 12% variation in the VDV of the unweighted acceleration was possible by changing the relative phase. The effect of the phase response of the body represented by frequency weightings was most significant when the frequencies of two sinusoidal components were about 3 and 9 Hz. With shocks, the effect of relative phase was observed for all stimuli used. The variation in the r.m.s. acceleration and in the VDV caused by variations in the relative phase varied between 3 and 100%, depending on the nature of stimulus and the frequency weighting. The phase of the frequency weightings had a different effect on the r.m.s. and the VDV.

  8. Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunribido, O. O.; Magnusson, M.; Pope, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and 59 who did not. The intention was to reflect a wide range of exposures with the lower end of the exposure spectrum defined as that of non-manual workers who do not drive as part of their job. Based on the questionnaire responses and direct measurements of vibration exposure, personal aggregate measures of exposure were computed for each of the respondents, i.e., total vibration dose (TVD), posture score (PS) and manual handling score (MHS). Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for back pain were obtained from logistics regression models and log-linear backward elimination analysis was performed. The findings showed that 'combined exposure' due to posture and one or both of vibration and MMH, rather than the individual exposure to one of the three factors (WBV, posture, MMH) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of LBP.

  9. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during longitudinal horizontal whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    The resonance frequencies in frequency response functions of the human body (e.g. apparent mass and transmissibility) decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear biodynamic response is found with various sitting and standing postures requiring postural control. The present study measured the apparent mass of the body in a relaxed semi-supine posture with two types of longitudinal horizontal vibration (in the z-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ms -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 3.7 to 2.4 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. A nonlinear response was apparent in both the horizontal ( z-axis) apparent mass and the vertical ( x-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. With intermittent random vibration, as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass decreased from 3.2 to 2.5 Hz whereas, with continuous random vibration over the same range of magnitudes, the resonance frequency decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms) was 0.6 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 0.9 Hz with the continuous random vibration. With intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration at the same magnitudes. The responses were consistent with passive thixotropy being a primary cause of nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration, although reflex activity of the muscles may also have an influence.

  10. INDIVIDUAL OPTIMAL FREQUENCY IN WHOLE BODY VIBRATION: EFFECT OF PROTOCOL, JOINT ANGLE AND FATIGUING EXERCISE.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Flaminia; Felici, Francesco; Piccinini, Alberto; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2013-04-12

    Recent studies have shown the importance of individualizing the vibration intervention in order to produce greater effects on the neuromuscular system in less time. The purpose of this study was to assess theindividualoptimalvibration frequency (O.V.F.)corresponding to the highestmuscle activation (RMSmax) duringvibrationat differentfrequencies, comparing different protocols. Twenty-nine university students underwent 3 Continuous (C) and 2 Random (R) different vibrating protocols, maintaining a squat position on a vibration platform. The C protocol lasted 50 seconds and involved the succession of ascending frequencies from 20 to 55 Hz, every 5 seconds. The same protocol was performed twice, having the knee angle at 120° (C) and 90° (C90), in order to assess the effect of joint angle, and after a fatiguing squatting exercise (CF) to evaluate the influence of fatigue on O.V.F. assessment. In therandomprotocols vibration time was 20 seconds with a 2-minute (R2) and a 4-minute (R4) pauses between tested frequencies. Muscle activation and O.V.F. values did not differ significantly in the C, R2 and R4 protocols. RMSmax was higher in C90 (p< 0.001) and in CF (p = 0.04) compared to the Cprotocol. Joint angle and fatiguing exercise had no effect on optimalvibration frequency. In conclusion, the shorter C protocol produced similar myoelectrical activity in the R2 and the R4 protocols and therefore could be equally valid in identifying the O.V.F. with considerable time efficiency. Knee joint angle and fatiguing exercise had an effect on sEMG response during vibration but did not affect significantly O.V.F. identification. PMID:23588483

  11. Feasibility of using whole body vibration as a means for controlling spasticity in post-stroke patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miyara, Kodai; Matsumoto, Shuji; Uema, Tomohiro; Hirokawa, Takuya; Noma, Tomokazu; Shimodozono, Megumi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2014-02-01

    To examine the feasibility of adapting whole body vibration (WBV) in the hemiplegic legs of post-stroke patients and to investigate the anti-spastic effects, and the improvement of motor function and walking ability. Twenty-five post-stroke patients with lower-limb spasticity were enrolled in the study. Each subject sat with hip joint angles to approximately 90° of flexion, and with knee joint angles to 0° of extension. WBV was applied at 30 Hz (4-8 mm amplitude) for 5 min on hamstrings, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The modified Ashworth scale was significantly decreased, active and passive range of motion (A-ROM, P-ROM) for ankle dorsiflexion and straight leg raising increased, and walking speed and cadence both improved during the 5-min intervention. Our proposed therapeutic approach could therefore be a novel neuro-rehabilitation strategy among patients with various severities. PMID:24439649

  12. Low-back disorders in agricultural tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration and postural stress.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Betta, A

    1994-08-01

    The occurrence of low-back pain (LBP) was investigated in a population of 1155 tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural stress (response rate 91.2%) and in a control group of 220 office workers (response rate 92.2%). The subjects were questioned about several types of low-back symptom (LBP, sciatic pain, acute LBP, transient and chronic LBP) and various work- and individual-related risk factors, by using a standardized questionnaire. Vibration measurements were performed on a representative sample of the vehicles driven by the tractor drivers in the last ten years. Vibration magnitude and duration of exposure were used to calculate a vibration dose for each tractor driver. Perceived postural load was assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. The prevalence of LBP was found to be greater in the tractor drivers than in the controls. After controlling for potential confounders by logistic modelling, low-back disorders were found to be significantly associated with both vibration dose and postural load. Back accidents and age were also significant predictors for LBP. Quantitative regression analysis indicated that vibration exposure and postural load were independent contributors to the increased risk for LBP according to a multiplicative model. The exposure levels for WBV recently recommended by a proposal of European Directive on physical agents seem to be more adequate to prevent long-term health effects on the lower back than the exposure limits suggested by the International Standard ISO 2631/1. PMID:15676973

  13. Does whole-body vibration training have acute residual effects on postural control ability of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Flaminia; Mazzà, Claudia; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate acute residual effects of a single vibration session on balance control in a group of elderly women. Several studies, in fact, have shown that whole-body vibration (WBV) training may improve balance in the elderly, but possible side effects of acute exposure to WBV, such as temporary reduction of balance control ability because of perturbations of the vestibular system, have not been investigated. Twenty-two healthy elderly women (71.8 ± 4.7 years of age) were trained with a 9.5-minute bout of static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises executed on a vibrating platform (Well-net Vibe Revolution). The vibration frequency was set at 35 Hz. A subgroup of 14 subjects performed the same exercise protocol also without the vibrations to discriminate between vibration and exercise effects. Balance control ability was assessed through computerized posturography: a force plate (Bertec Co, Columbus, OH, USA) was used to measure the center of pressure trajectories during 4 different experimental trials: before, immediately after, 15 minutes after, and 60 minutes after the training. A set of postural parameters, typically adopted to assess elderly subjects, was then computed and 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences between values found in the 4 postural tests (level of significance p = 0.05) in the 2 groups. The results showed no significant variations in the postural parameters recorded during the 4 sessions. A significant group effect was found for 2 postural parameters, with no interaction between the 2 factors. In conclusion, the proposed single bout of WBV does not induce dangerous acute effects on elderly women balance control ability and could be safely administered as part of a long-term intervention program. PMID:21088549

  14. Myoelectric Response of Back Muscles to Vertical Random Whole-Body Vibration with Different Magnitudes at Different Postures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BLÜTHNER, R.; SEIDEL, H.; HINZ, B.

    2002-05-01

    Back muscle forces contribute essentially to the whole-body vibration-induced spinal load. The electromyogram (EMG) can help to estimate these forces during whole-body vibration (WBV). Thirty-eight subjects were exposed to identical random low-frequency WBV (0·7, 1·0 and 1·4 m/s-2 r.m.s. weighted acceleration) at a relaxed, erect and bent forward postures. The acceleration of the seat and the force between the seat and the buttocks were measured. Six EMGs were derived from the right side of the m. trapezius pars descendens, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars lumborum; m. longissimus thoracis pars thoracis, m. longissimus thoracis pars lumborum, and lumbar multifidus muscle. All data were filtered for anti-aliasing and sampled with 1000 Hz. Artefacts caused by the ECG in the EMG were identified and eliminated in the time domain using wavelets. The individually rectified and normalized EMGs were averaged across subjects. The EMGs without WBV exhibited characteristic patterns for the three postures examined. The coherence and transfer functions indicated characteristic myoelectric responses to random WBV with several effects of posture and WBV magnitude. A comprehensive set of transfer functions from the seat acceleration or the mean normalized input force to the mean processed EMG was presented.The results can be used for the development of more sophisticated models with a separate control of various back muscle groups. However, the EMG-force relationship under dynamic conditions needs to be examined in more detail before the results can be implemented. Since different reflex mechanisms depending on the frequency of WBV are linked with different types of active muscle fibres, various time delays between the EMG and muscle force may be necessary.

  15. The effects of adding different whole-body vibration frequencies to preconditioning exercise on subsequent sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Ellefsen, Stian

    2011-12-01

    Rønnestad, BR and Ellefsen, S. The effects of adding different whole-body vibration frequencies to preconditioning exercise on subsequent sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3306-3310, 2011-The phenomenon postactivation potentiation can possibly be used to acutely improve sprint performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adding whole-body vibration (WBV) to body-loaded half-squats, performed as preconditioning activity to the 40-m sprint test. Nine male amateur soccer players performed 1 familiarization session and 6 separate test sessions. Each session included a standardized warm-up followed by 1 of the after preconditioning exercises: 30-seconds of half-squats with WBV at either 50 or 30 Hz or half-squats without WBV. The 40-m sprint was performed 1 minute after the preconditioning exercise. For each subject, each of the 3 protocols was repeated twice on separate days in a randomized order. Mean values were used in the statistical analysis. Performing the preconditioning exercise with WBV at a frequency of 50 Hz resulted in a superior 40-m sprint performance compared to preconditioning exercise without WBV (5.48 ± 0.19 vs. 5.52 ± 0.21 seconds, respectively, p < 0.05). There was no difference between preconditioning exercise with WBV at a frequency of 30 Hz and the no-WBV condition. In conclusion, preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 50 Hz seems to enhance 40-m sprint performance in recreationally trained soccer players. The present findings suggest that coaches can incorporate such exercise into the warm-up to improve sprint performance or the quality of the sprint training. PMID:22076085

  16. Psychophysical relationships characterizing human response to whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation determined that the psychophysical relationships between subjective discomfort evaluations to vibratory stimuli and subjective evaluations of the intensity of vibratory stimuli can be expressed in a linear fashion. Furthermore, significant differences were found to exist between discomfort and intensity subjective response for several but not all discrete frequencies investigated. The implication of these results is that ride quality criteria based upon subjective evaluation of vibration intensity should be applied cautiously in the development of criteria for human comfort.

  17. Assessment and prediction of whole-body vibration exposure in transport truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Nitti, Rocco; De Santis, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The European Directive 2002/44/EC on the minimum Health and Safety prescriptions regarding the exposure of workers to vibrations, was implemented in Italy through the Legislative Decree 187/2005, recently amended by the Legislative Decree 81/2008. The Decrees contain legal obligations and minimum requirements for the evaluation by direct measurement, which is the reference method, although not always appropriate or necessary, and by means of vibration data banks or information provided by equipment manufacturers. The values assessed must be representative of the actual working environment: in order to adapt assessed values to real working conditions it may be useful to adopt some statistical models. Statistically significant relationships were observed by means of a multiple linear regression on a limited set of measures on different models of trucks, in different operating conditions and settings: the relative influence of predictor variables was then assessed. Finally a short digression about the evolution of the suspension fitting has been made in order to briefly describe the historical context of WBV exposure level reduction and the state of the art of industrial vehicle comfort improvement technologies. PMID:20953079

  18. Whole body heat loss is reduced in older males during short bouts of intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Larose, Joanie; Wright, Heather E; Stapleton, Jill; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Hardcastle, Stephen; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-09-15

    Studies in young adults show that a greater proportion of heat is gained shortly following the start of exercise and that temporal changes in whole body heat loss during intermittent exercise have a pronounced effect on body heat storage. The consequences of short-duration intermittent exercise on heat storage with aging are unclear. We compared evaporative heat loss (HE) and changes in body heat content (ΔHb) between young (20-30 yr), middle-aged (40-45 yr), and older males (60-70 yr) of similar body mass and surface area, during successive exercise (4 × 15 min) and recovery periods (4 × 15 min) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) and under fixed environmental conditions (35 °C/20% relative humidity). HE was lower in older males vs. young males during each exercise (Ex1: 283 ± 10 vs. 332 ± 11 kJ, Ex2: 334 ± 10 vs. 379 ± 5 kJ, Ex3: 347 ± 11 vs. 392 ± 5 kJ, and Ex4: 347 ± 10 vs. 387 ± 5 kJ, all P < 0.02), whereas HE in middle-aged males was intermediate to that measured in young and older adults (Ex1: 314 ± 13, Ex2: 355 ± 13, Ex3: 371 ± 13, and Ex4: 365 ± 8 kJ). HE was not significantly different between groups during the recovery periods. The net effect over 2 h was a greater ΔHb in older (267 ± 33 kJ; P = 0.016) and middle-aged adults (245 ± 16 kJ; P = 0.073) relative to younger counterparts (164 ± 20 kJ). As a result of a reduced capacity to dissipate heat during exercise, which was not compensated by a sufficiently greater rate of heat loss during recovery, both older and middle-aged males had a progressively greater rate of heat storage compared with young males over 2 h of intermittent exercise. PMID:23883671

  19. The effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training in recreationally active men on the excitability of the central and peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, Daria; Piecha, Magdalena; Błaszczak, Edward; Król, Piotr; Smykla, Agnieszka; Juras, Grzegorz

    2014-06-28

    Vibration training has become a popular method used in professional sports and recreation. In this study, we examined the effect of whole-body vibration training on the central nervous system and muscle excitability in a group of 28 active men. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of two experimental groups with different variables of vibrations. The chronaximetry method was used to evaluate the effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training on the excitability of the rectus femoris and brachioradialis muscles. The examination of the fusing and flickering frequencies of the light stimulus was performed. An increase in the excitability of the quadriceps femoris muscle due to low intensity vibrations (20 Hz frequency, 2 mm amplitude) was noted, and a return to the initial values was observed 30 min after the application of vibration. High intensity vibrations (60 Hz frequency, 4 mm amplitude) caused elongations of the chronaxy time; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Neither a low intensity vibration amplitude of 2 mm (frequency of 20 Hz) nor a high intensity vibration amplitude of 4 mm (frequency of 60 Hz) caused a change in the excitability of the central nervous system, as revealed by the average frequency of the fusing and flickering of the light stimulus. A single session of high intensity whole-body vibration did not significantly decrease the excitability of the peripheral nervous system while the central nervous system did not seem to be affected. PMID:25114735

  20. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Michael A.; Kimball, Amy L.; McHenry, Colleen L.; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Methods: Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. Results: We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05); while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05). Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05), but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05) while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold) and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative

  1. Validation of Intra-Subject Variation in Biodynamic Responses of Seated Human Exposed to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Min Soo; Yoshimura, Takuya; Tamaoki, Gen

    Many studies have been conducted to investigate the change in human response under various experimental conditions. Usually, these experiments were conducted using many subjects and the inter-subject variation was evaluated. However, the intra-subject variation in human response is also necessary for understanding the change in an individual's physical response to whole-body vibration (WBV). The aim of this study is to investigate the intra-subject variation in biodynamic responses (both apparent mass and seat-to-head transmissibility) of a seated human exposed to vertical whole-body vibration over time. In the experiments, nine male subjects were exposed to vertical random vibration (0.2-0.3 m/s2 in r.m.s.) in the 0-30Hz frequency range. The measurement variation was also evaluated, wherein the measurements were repeated five times without any change to form the “baseline” for each subject, and the intra-subject variations were evaluated by comparing their responses with these “baseline.” The intra-subject variation was examined from two different viewpoints: variation “within a day” and that “over several days.” To determine the intra-subject variation “within a day”, the five measurements were obtained at two-hour intervals on the same day. In the intra-subject variation “over several days”, the five measurements were obtained again, but at the same time of the day on five consecutive days. The results show that the intra-subject variations (both “within a day” and “over several days”) in biodynamic responses are larger than the “baseline.” However, when the variation “within a day” in biodynamic responses is compared to that “over several days,” no common trend is observed among subjects. Although the magnitude of intra-subject variation in biodynamic responses depends on each subject, both variations “within a day” and that “over several days” have a similar range of variation.

  2. Effects of Eight Months of Whole-Body Vibration Training on the Muscle Mass and Functional Capacity of Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria

    2015-07-01

    Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm² and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm²) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm² and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm²), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women. PMID:26102257

  3. A whole body vibration perception map and associated acceleration loads at the lower leg, hip and head.

    PubMed

    Sonza, Anelise; Völkel, Nina; Zaro, Milton A; Achaval, Matilde; Hennig, Ewald M

    2015-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has become popular in recent years. However, WBV may be harmful to the human body. The goal of this study was to determine the acceleration magnitudes at different body segments for different frequencies of WBV. Additionally, vibration sensation ratings by subjects served to create perception vibration magnitude and discomfort maps of the human body. In the first of two experiments, 65 young adults mean (± SD) age range of 23 (± 3.0) years, participated in WBV severity perception ratings, based on a Borg scale. Measurements were performed at 12 different frequencies, two intensities (3 and 5 mm amplitudes) of rotational mode WBV. On a separate day, a second experiment (n = 40) included vertical accelerometry of the head, hip and lower leg with the same WBV settings. The highest lower limb vibration magnitude perception based on the Borg scale was extremely intense for the frequencies between 21 and 25 Hz; somewhat hard for the trunk region (11-25 Hz) and fairly light for the head (13-25 Hz). The highest vertical accelerations were found at a frequency of 23 Hz at the tibia, 9 Hz at the hip and 13 Hz at the head. At 5 mm amplitude, 61.5% of the subjects reported discomfort in the foot region (21-25 Hz), 46.2% for the lower back (17, 19 and 21 Hz) and 23% for the abdominal region (9-13 Hz). The range of 3-7 Hz represents the safest frequency range with magnitudes less than 1 g(*)sec for all studied regions. PMID:25962379

  4. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Paschalis, Vassilis; Chanou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm) and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm). After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin) were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality. PMID:26240654

  5. The influence of a 5-wk whole body vibration on electrophysiological properties of rat hindlimb spinal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Baczyk, M; Hałuszka, A; Mrówczyński, W; Celichowski, J; Krutki, P

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed at determining the influence of a whole body vibration (WBV) on electrophysiological properties of spinal motoneurons. The WBV training was performed on adult male Wistar rats, 5 days a week, for 5 wk, and each daily session consisted of four 30-s runs of vibration at 50 Hz. Motoneuron properties were investigated intracellularly during experiments on deeply anesthetized animals. The experimental group subjected to the WBV consisted of seven rats, and the control group of nine rats. The WBV treatment induced no significant changes in the passive membrane properties of motoneurons. However, the WBV-evoked adaptations in excitability and firing properties were observed, and they were limited to fast-type motoneurons. A significant decrease in rheobase current and a decrease in the minimum and the maximum currents required to evoke steady-state firing in motoneurons were revealed. These changes resulted in a leftward shift of the frequency-current relationship, combined with an increase in slope of this curve. The functional relevance of the described adaptive changes is the ability of fast motoneurons of rats subjected to the WBV to produce series of action potentials at higher frequencies in a response to the same intensity of activation. Previous studies proved that WBV induces changes in the contractile parameters predominantly of fast motor units (MUs). The data obtained in our experiment shed a new light to possible explanation of these results, suggesting that neuronal factors also play a substantial role in MU adaptation. PMID:23486208

  6. Predictive discomfort of non-neutral head-neck postures in fore-aft whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Rahmatalla, Salam; Deshaw, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    It seems obvious that human head-neck posture in whole-body vibration (WBV) contributes to discomfort and injury risk. While current mechanical measures such as transmissibility have shown good correlation with the subjective-reported discomfort, they showed difficulties in predicting discomfort for non-neutral postures. A new biomechanically based methodology is introduced in this work to predict discomfort due to non-neutral head-neck postures. Altogether, 10 seated subjects with four head-neck postures--neutral, head-up, head-down and head-to-side--were subjected to WBV in the fore-aft direction using discrete sinusoidal frequencies of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 Hz and their subjective responses were recorded using the Borg CR-10 scale. All vibrations were run at constant acceleration of 0.8 m/s² and 1.15 m/s². The results have shown that the subjective-reported discomfort increases with head-down and decreases with head-up and head-to-side postures. The proposed predictive discomfort has closely followed the reported discomfort measures for all postures and rides under investigation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Many occupational studies have shown strong relevance between non-neutral postures, discomfort and injury risk in WBV. With advances in computer human modelling, the proposed predictive discomfort may provide efficient ways for developing reliable biodynamic models. It may also be used to assess discomfort and modify designs inside moving vehicles. PMID:21390956

  7. The effect of whole-body vibration on jump height and active range of movement in female dancers.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Lucille C; Wyon, Matthew A

    2012-03-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to have beneficial effects on strength and power indices in sedentary and moderately trained individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 4 weeks of WBV on jump height, active range of motion (AROM), and leg anthropometry in conservatoire dance students. Seventeen female dancers were randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. The intervention group trained for 30 seconds per position at a 35-Hz frequency, 8-mm displacement in the first 2 weeks, and 40 seconds at 40 Hz for the final 2 weeks, whereas the control group carried out the same exercises but without vibration stimulation. A significant (p < 0.01) difference in the intervention group was noted over time for vertical jump and active ROM. No significant changes over time were noted in the anthropometric data. In conclusion, WBV can be used as a beneficial supplemental training intervention to increase jump and active flexibility in highly trained dancers without corresponding increases in relative anthropometric data. PMID:22310513

  8. Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

    1998-08-01

    It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

  9. Random Whole Body Vibration over 5 Weeks Leads to Effects Similar to Placebo: A Controlled Study in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gaßner, Heiko; Janzen, Annette; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Jansen, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background. Random whole body vibration (WBV) training leads to beneficial short-term effects in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effect of WBV lasting several weeks is not clear. Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess a random WBV training over 5 weeks in PD. Methods. Twenty-one participants with PD were allocated to either an experimental or a placebo group matched by age, gender, and Hoehn&Yahr stage. The WBV training consisted of 5 series, 60 s each. In the placebo group, vibration was simulated. The primary outcome was the change of performance in Functional reach test (FRT), step-walk-turn task, biomechanical Gait Analysis, Timed up and go test (TUG), and one leg stance. Findings. In most of the parameters, there was no significant interaction of “time∗group.” Both groups improved significantly in Gait parameters, TUG, and one leg stance. Only in the FRT [F(1,15) = 8.397; P < 0.05] and in the TUG [F(1,15) = 4.971; P < 0.05] the experimental group performed significantly better than the placebo group. Conclusions. Random WBV training over 5 weeks seems to be less effective than reported in previous studies performing short-term training. The slight improvements in the FRT and TUG are not clinically relevant. PMID:25371843

  10. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions. PMID:25625530

  11. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in a sitting position prior to therapy on muscle tone and upper extremity function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Jung-A; Moon, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Min; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration exercise in a sitting position prior to therapy in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen chronic stroke patients were included in this study. Prior to occupational therapy, whole-body exercise was performed for 10 minutes, 5 times per week, for a total of 8 weeks. Muscle tone and upper extremity function were measured. The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used to measure muscle tone, and the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FugM) were used to measure upper extremity function. [Results] MAS score was significantly decreased, and MFT and FugM were significantly increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that whole-body vibration exercise in a sitting position prior to therapy had a positive effect on muscle tone, and upper extremity function in stroke patients. PMID:27065354

  12. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in a sitting position prior to therapy on muscle tone and upper extremity function in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Boo, Jung-A; Moon, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Min; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration exercise in a sitting position prior to therapy in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen chronic stroke patients were included in this study. Prior to occupational therapy, whole-body exercise was performed for 10 minutes, 5 times per week, for a total of 8 weeks. Muscle tone and upper extremity function were measured. The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used to measure muscle tone, and the Manual Function Test (MFT) and Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FugM) were used to measure upper extremity function. [Results] MAS score was significantly decreased, and MFT and FugM were significantly increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that whole-body vibration exercise in a sitting position prior to therapy had a positive effect on muscle tone, and upper extremity function in stroke patients. PMID:27065354

  13. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  14. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

    2010-12-01

    The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed. PMID:21088545

  15. Escape conditioning and low-frequency whole-body vibration - The effects of frequency, amplitude, and controls for noise and activation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wike, E. L.; Wike, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    Seven experiments are reported on low-frequency whole-body vibration and rats' escape conditioning in a modified Skinner box. In the first three studies, conditioning was observed but was independent of frequency. In experiment four, the number of escape responses was directly related to vibration amplitude. Experiment five was a control for vibration noise and noise termination; experiments six and seven studied vibration-induced activation. Noise termination did not produce conditioning. In experiment six, subjects made more responses when responding led to termination than when it did not. In experiment seven, subjects preferred a bar which terminated vibration to one which did not.

  16. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: discomfort caused by sinusoidal vibration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Frequency weightings for predicting vibration discomfort assume the same frequency-dependence at all magnitudes of vibration, whereas biodynamic studies show that the frequency-dependence of the human body depends on the magnitude of vibration. This study investigated how the frequency-dependence of vibration discomfort depends on the acceleration and the force at the subject-seat interface. Using magnitude estimation, 20 males and 20 females judged their discomfort caused by sinusoidal vertical acceleration at 13 frequencies (1-16 Hz) at magnitudes from 0.1 to 4.0 ms(-2) r.m.s. The frequency-dependence of their equivalent comfort contours depended on the magnitude of vibration, but was less dependent on the magnitude of dynamic force than the magnitude of acceleration, consistent with the biodynamic non-linearity of the body causing some of the magnitude-dependence of equivalent comfort contours. There were significant associations between the biodynamic responses and subjective responses at all frequencies in the range 1-16 Hz. Practitioner Summary: Vertical seat vibration causes discomfort in many forms of transport. This study provides the frequency-dependence of vibration discomfort over a range of vibration magnitudes and shows how the frequency weightings in the current standards can be improved. PMID:24730710

  17. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3–20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II–III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm2; p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm2; p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm2; p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  18. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3-20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II-III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm(2); p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm(2); p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm(2); p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  19. Wavelet analysis of lumbar muscle oxygenation signals during whole-body vibration: implications for the development of localized muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Li, Zengyong; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Guoqiang; Luo, Site; Liu, Feifei; Li, Jianping

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on lumbar muscle oxygenation oscillations in healthy men based on the wavelet transform of near-infrared spectroscopy signals. Twelve healthy participants were exposed to WBV at frequencies of 3, 4.5 and 6 Hz while muscle oxygenation signal was monitored before, during and recovery from WBV. With spectral analysis based on wavelet transform of NIR signal, six frequency intervals were identified (I, 0.005-0.0095 Hz; II, 0.0095-0.02 Hz; III, 0.02-0.06 Hz; IV, 0.06-0.16 Hz; V, 0.16-0.40 Hz and VI, 0.40-2.0 Hz). It was found that the muscle oxygenation oscillations at 4.5 Hz in the frequency intervals I, II and III was lower during WBV compared with that of at 3 Hz. Present results demonstrated WBV at 4.5 Hz induced lower oscillatory activities than that of at 3 Hz. The lower oscillatory activities might indicate a decrease in the efficiency of oxygen supply to the oxygenated tissue and such mechanism might contribute to the development of local muscle fatigue. PMID:22210560

  20. Reactions of the rat musculoskeletal system to compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and whole body vibration (WBV) therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A; Pick, C; Harrach, R; Stein, G; Bendella, H; Ozsoy, O; Ozsoy, U; Schoenau, E; Jaminet, P; Sarikcioglu, L; Dunlop, S; Angelov, D N

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a loss of locomotor function with associated compromise of the musculo-skeletal system. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potential therapy following SCI, but little is known about its effects on the musculo-skeletal system. Here, we examined locomotor recovery and the musculo-skeletal system after thoracic (T7-9) compression SCI in adult rats. Daily WBV was started at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after injury (WBV1-WBV28 respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats, rats with SCI but no WBV (sham-treated) and a group that received passive flexion and extension (PFE) of their hind limbs served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, neither WBV nor PFE improved motor function. Only WBV14 and PFE improved body support. In line with earlier studies we failed to detect signs of soleus muscle atrophy (weight, cross sectional diameter, total amount of fibers, mean fiber diameter) or bone loss in the femur (length, weight, bone mineral density). One possible explanation is that, despite of injury extent, the preservation of some axons in the white matter, in combination with quadripedal locomotion, may provide sufficient trophic and neuronal support for the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26032204

  1. Effective seat-to-head transmissibility in whole-body vibration: Effects of posture and arm position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; DeShaw, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Seat-to-head transmissibility is a biomechanical measure that has been widely used for many decades to evaluate seat dynamics and human response to vibration. Traditionally, transmissibility has been used to correlate single-input or multiple-input with single-output motion; it has not been effectively used for multiple-input and multiple-output scenarios due to the complexity of dealing with the coupled motions caused by the cross-axis effect. This work presents a novel approach to use transmissibility effectively for single- and multiple-input and multiple-output whole-body vibrations. In this regard, the full transmissibility matrix is transformed into a single graph, such as those for single-input and single-output motions. Singular value decomposition and maximum distortion energy theory were used to achieve the latter goal. Seat-to-head transmissibility matrices for single-input/multiple-output in the fore-aft direction, single-input/multiple-output in the vertical direction, and multiple-input/multiple-output directions are investigated in this work. A total of ten subjects participated in this study. Discrete frequencies of 0.5-16 Hz were used for the fore-aft direction using supported and unsupported back postures. Random ride files from a dozer machine were used for the vertical and multiple-axis scenarios considering two arm postures: using the armrests or grasping the steering wheel. For single-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed method was very effective in showing the frequencies where the transmissibility is mostly sensitive for the two sitting postures and two arm positions. For multiple-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed effective transmissibility indicated higher values for the armrest-supported posture than for the steering-wheel-supported posture.

  2. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pekünlü, E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes. PMID:26060334

  3. An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

  4. a Modal Analysis of Whole-Body Vertical Vibration, Using a Finite Element Model of the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1997-02-01

    A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies below 10 Hz, the model produced seven modes which coincided well with the measurements. The principal resonance of the driving point response at about 5 Hz consisted of an entire body mode, in which the head, spinal column and the pelvis move almost rigidly, with axial and shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis occurring in phase with a vertical visceral mode. The second principal resonance at about 8 Hz corresponded to a rotational mode of the pelvis, with a possible contribution from a second visceral mode. A shift of the principal resonance of the driving point response, when changing posture, was achieved only by changing the axial stiffness of the buttocks tissue. It is suggested that an increase in contact area between the buttocks and the thighs and the seat surface, when changing posture from erect to slouched, may decrease the axial stiffness beneath the pelvis, with a non-linear force-deflection relationship of tissue resulting in decreases in the natural frequencies. A change in posture from erect to slouched also increased shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis in the entire body mode, and the natural frequency was decreased as a result of the much lower shear stiffness of tissue compared to the axial stiffness.

  5. High-acceleration whole body vibration stimulates cortical bone accrual and increases bone mineral content in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Gnyubkin, Vasily; Guignandon, Alain; Laroche, Norbert; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Malaval, Luc; Vico, Laurence

    2016-06-14

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a promising tool for counteracting bone loss. Most WBV studies on animals have been performed at acceleration <1g and frequency between 30 and 90Hz. Such WBV conditions trigger bone growth in osteopenia models, but not in healthy animals. In order to test the ability of WBV to promote osteogenesis in young animals, we exposed seven-week-old male mice to vibration at 90Hz and 2g peak acceleration for 15min/day, 5 days/week. We examined the effects on skeletal tissues with micro-computed tomography and histology. We also quantified bone vascularization and mechanosensitive osteocyte proteins, sclerostin and DMP1. Three weeks of WBV resulted in an increase of femur cortical thickness (+5%) and area (+6%), associated with a 25% decrease of sclerostin expression, and 35% increase of DMP1 expression in cortical osteocytes. Mass-structural parameters of trabecular bone were unaltered in femur or vertebra, while osteoclastic parameters and bone formation rate were increased at both sites. Three weeks of WBV resulted in higher blood vessel numbers (+23%) in the distal femoral metaphysis. After 9-week WBV, we have not observed the difference in structural cortical or trabecular parameters. However, the tissue mineral density of cortical bone was increased by 2.5%. Three or nine weeks of 2g/90Hz WBV treatment did not affect longitudinal growth rate or body weight increase under our experimental conditions, indicating that these are safe to use. These results validate a potential of 2g/90Hz WBV to stimulate trabecular bone cellular activity, accelerate cortical bone growth, and increase bone mineral density. PMID:27178020

  6. Study protocol: the effect of whole body vibration on acute unilateral unstable lateral ankle sprain- a biphasic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely caused by damage to passive structures and neuromuscular impairment. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a neuromuscular training method improving those impaired neurologic parameters. The aim of this study is to compare the current gold standard functional treatment to functional treatment plus WBV in patients with acute unilateral unstable inversion ankle sprains. Methods/Design 60 patients, aged 18–40 years, presenting with an isolated, unilateral, acute unstable inversion ankle sprain will be included in this bicentric, biphasic, randomized controlled trial. Samples will be randomized by envelope drawing. All patients will be allowed early mobilization and pain-dependent weight bearing, limited functional immobilization by orthosis, PRICE, NSARDs as well as home and supervised physiotherapy. Supervised physical therapy will take place twice a week, for 30 minutes for a period of 6 weeks, following a standardized intervention protocol. During supervised physical therapy, the intervention group will perform exercises similar to those of the control group, on a side-alternating sinusoidal vibration platform. Two time-dependent primary outcome parameters will be assessed: short-term outcome after six weeks will be postural control quantified by the sway index; mid-term outcome after one year will be assessed by subjective instability, defined by the presence of giving-way attacks. Secondary outcome parameters include: return to pre-injury level of activities, residual pain, recurrence, objective instability, energy/coordination, Foot and Ankle Disability Index and EQ 5D. Discussion This is the first trial investigating the effects of WBV in patients with acute soft tissue injury. Inversion ankle sprains often result in ankle instability, which is most likely due to damage of neurological structures. Due to its unique, frequency dependent, influence on various neuromuscular parameters, WBV

  7. What is the most effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities during whole-body vibration exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Yuka; Iwamoto, Jun; Iwashita, Kosui; Shinjo, Takuma; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is widely used for training and rehabilitation. However, the optimal posture for training both the upper and lower extremities simultaneously remains to be established. Objectives The objective of this study was to search for an effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities while performing WBV exercises without any adverse effects. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers (age: 22–34 years) were enrolled in the study. To measure the magnitude of vibration, four accelerometers were attached to the upper arm, back, thigh, and calf of each subject. Vibrations were produced using a WBV platform (Galileo 900) with an amplitude of 4 mm at two frequencies, 15 and 30 Hz. The following three postures were examined: posture A, standing posture with the knees flexed at 30°; posture B, crouching position with no direct contact between the knees and elbows; and posture C, crouching position with direct contact between the knees and elbows. The ratio of the magnitude of vibration at the thigh, back, and upper arm relative to that at the calf was used as an index of vibration conduction. Results Posture B was associated with a greater magnitude of vibration to the calf than posture A at 15 Hz, and postures B and C were associated with greater magnitudes of vibration than posture A at 30 Hz. Posture C was associated with a vibration conduction to the upper arm that was 4.62 times and 8.26 times greater than that for posture A at 15 and 30 Hz, respectively. Conclusion This study revealed that a crouching position on a WBV platform with direct contact between the knees and elbows was effective for conducting vibration from the lower to the upper extremities. PMID:26793008

  8. Triaxial modulation of the acceleration induced in the lower extremity during whole-body vibration training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N; James, Darren C; Zaidell, Lisa N; Goss, Victor G; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz) and 2 amplitudes (VA: low, 1.5 mm or high, 3 mm). Accelerations induced by the platform were recorded simultaneously at the shank and the thigh using triaxial accelerometers positioned at the segmental center of mass. Root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration amplitude and transmission ratios between the platform and the leg segments were calculated and compared between the experimental conditions. An alpha level of 0.05 was set to establish significance. Shank vertical acceleration was greatest at the lower VF (p = 0.028), higher VA (p = 0.028), and deeper squat (p = 0.048). Thigh vertical acceleration was not affected by depth of squat (p = 0.25), but it was greatest at higher VA (p = 0.046) and lower VF (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral shank acceleration was greatest at higher VF and deeper squat (both p = 0.046) and at higher VA (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral thigh acceleration was positively related to both VF (p = 0.046) and VA (p = 0.028) but was not affected by knee angle (p = 0.46). Anterior-posterior shank acceleration was higher at deeper squat (p = 0.046) and at lower VF and higher VA (both p = 0.028). Anterior-posterior thigh acceleration was related positively to the VA (p = 0.028), inversely to the VF (p = 0.028), and not dependent on knee angle (p = 0.75). Identification of specific vibration parameters and posture, which underpin WBV training efficacy, will enable coaches and athletes to design WBV training programs to specifically target shank or thigh muscles for enhanced performance. PMID:20040893

  9. Comparison of the apparent masses and cross-axis apparent masses of seated humans exposed to single- and dual-axis whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Neil J.; Maeda, Setsuo

    2006-12-01

    Humans are exposed to whole-body vibration in many types of environment. In almost all cases, the vibration to which the human is exposed comprises multi-axis vibration, such that vibration occurs in all directions simultaneously. Despite the complex nature of vibration to which humans are exposed in the workplace, almost all laboratory studies investigating the biomechanical response of the person have been completed using single-axis simulators. This paper presents a study whereby 15 male subjects were exposed to single-axis whole-body vibration in the x-, y- and z-directions and dual-axis vibration in the xy-, xz-, and yz-directions using a 6 degree-of-freedom vibration simulator. All vibration magnitudes were 0.4 ms -2 rms in each axis. Acceleration and force was measured in the x-, y-, and z-direction during all trials. Subjects sat in two postures ('back-on' and 'back-off') on a flat rigid seat. Apparent masses measured using single-axis and dual-axis vibration stimuli showed comparable results; similarly, cross-axis apparent masses (i.e. the ratio of the force in one direction to the acceleration in another direction) were almost identical for the single- and dual-axis vibration stimuli. All results were in agreement with data previously published using single-axis vibration. In most cases, the peaks in the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass occurred at a slightly lower frequency for the dual-axis vibration than for the single-axis vibration. It is hypothesised that this change is due to a nonlinear effect, analogous to that which occurs with increasing vibration magnitude for single-axis vibration.

  10. Factors affecting perception thresholds of vertical whole-body vibration in recumbent subjects: Gender and age of subjects, and vibration duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Maeda, S.; Iwane, Y.; Iwata, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Some factors that may affect human perception thresholds of the vertical whole-body vibrations were investigated in two laboratory experiments with recumbent subjects. In the first experiment, the effects of gender and age of subjects on perception were investigated with three groups of 12 subjects, i.e., young males, young females and old males. For continuous sinusoidal vibrations at 2, 4, 8, 16, 31.5 and 63 Hz, there were no significant differences in the perception thresholds between male and female subjects, while the thresholds of young subjects tended to be significantly lower than the thresholds of old subjects. In the second experiment, the effect of vibration duration was investigated by using sinusoidal vibrations, at the same frequencies as above, modulated by the Hanning windows with different lengths (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 s) for 12 subjects. It was found that the peak acceleration at the threshold tended to decrease with increasing duration of vibration. The perception thresholds were also evaluated by the running root-mean-square (rms) acceleration and the fourth power acceleration method defined in the current standards. The differences in the threshold of the transient vibrations for different durations were less with the fourth power acceleration method. Additionally, the effect of the integration time on the threshold was investigated for the running rms acceleration and the fourth power acceleration. It was found that the integration time that yielded less differences in the threshold of vibrations for different durations depended on the frequency of vibration.

  11. Whole-body vibration decreases the proliferative response of TCD4+ cells in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tossige-Gomes, R.; Avelar, N.C.P.; Simão, A.P.; Neves, C.D.C.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.; Coimbra, C.C.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Lacerda, A.C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding whole-body vibration (WBV; frequency = 35 to 40 Hz; amplitude = 4 mm) to squat training on the T-cell proliferative response of elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which the selected variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training. Twenty-six subjects (72 ± 5 years of age) were divided into three groups: 1) squat training with WBV (WBV, N = 8); 2) squat training without WBV (N = 10), and 3) a control group (N = 8). Women who were ≥60 years of age and had been diagnosed with OA in at least one knee were eligible. The intervention consisted of 12 uninterrupted weeks of squatting exercise training performed 3 times/week. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood collected before and after training. The proliferation of TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester fluorescence decay before and after the intervention (Δ). The proliferative response of TCD4+ cells (P = 0.02, effect size = 1.0) showed a significant decrease (23%) in the WBV group compared to the control group, while there was no difference between groups regarding the proliferative response of TCD8+ cells (P = 0.12, effect size = 2.23). The data suggest that the addition of WBV to squat exercise training might modulate T-cell-mediated immunity, minimizing or slowing disease progression in elderly patients with OA of the knee. PMID:22948377

  12. Bone mineral density, microarchitectural and mechanical alterations of osteoporotic rat bone under long-term whole-body vibration therapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pengfei; Tang, Zhurong; Qing, Fangzhu; Chen, Xuening; Zhu, Xiangdong; Fan, Yujiang; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xingdong

    2016-01-01

    Low-magnitude, high-frequency whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as a non-pharmacological anti-osteoporosis approach. However, the long-term effect of WBV therapy is seldom studied. In this study, the efficacy of 16-week WBV (0.3g, 30 Hz) on bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitectural parameters and mechanical properties of ovariectomized rat femur were examined by in vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), ex vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and fracture test. To the best of our knowledge, 16 weeks of WBV administration (20 min/day) is currently the longest duration on rodent. The longitudinal BMD change showed that positive effect of WBV on ovariectomized rat femoral neck diminished with prolonged administration duration. In addition, 16-week of WBV treatment was found to cause significantly reduction in the mean BMD, trabecular BMD (Tb.BMD), trabecular bone volume ration (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and maximum load in femoral neck of ovariectomized rat. Metaphyseal Tb.BMD and BV/TV were also significantly decreased in WBV treated ovariectomized group than non-treated controls. Whole-femur DMA was demonstrated as a sensitive tool in distinguishing osteoporotic femur from healthy aged-matched controls, in terms of decreased storage modulus (E') and loss factor (tan δ). However, E' and tan δ are not enhanced by 16-week WBV treatment. Together, these findings indicate that administration duration played an important role in the effect of WBV. 16-week WBV may exacerbate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rat femur, especially in trabecular-rich femoral neck region. An optimal WBV protocol including administration duration should be established prior to long-term clinical practice. PMID:26398779

  13. Muscle activity, cross-sectional area, and density following passive standing and whole body vibration: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Masani, Kei; Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Sayenko, Dimitry G.; Zariffa, Jose; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora; Popovic, Milos R.; Catharine Craven, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of intermittent passive standing (PS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the electromyography (EMG) activity, cross-sectional area, and density of lower extremity muscles in individuals with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Case series. Methods Seven adult men with chronic (≥2 years), thoracic motor complete (AIS A–B) SCI completed a 40-week course of thrice-weekly intermittent PS-WBV therapy, in a flexed knee posture (160°), for 45 minutes per session at a frequency of 45 Hz and 0.6–0.7 mm displacement using the WAVE® Pro Plate, with an integrated EasyStand™ standing frame. EMG was measured in major lower extremity muscles to represent muscle activity during PS-WBV. The cross-sectional area and density of the calf muscles were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the widest calf cross-section (66% of the tibia length) at pre- and post-intervention. All measured variables were compared between the pre- and post-intervention measurements to assess change after the PS-WBV intervention. Results PS-WBV acutely induced EMG activity in lower extremity muscles of SCI subjects. No significant changes in lower extremity EMG activity, muscle cross-sectional area, or density were observed following the 40-week intervention. Conclusions Although acute exposure to PS-WBV can induce electrophysiological activity of lower extremity muscles during PS in men with motor complete SCI, the PS-WBV intervention for 40 weeks was not sufficient to result in enhanced muscle activity, or to increase calf muscle cross-sectional area or density. PMID:25059652

  14. The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HULSHOF, C. T. J.; VAN DER LAAN, G.; BRAAM, I. T. J.; VERBEEK, J. H. A. M.

    2002-05-01

    Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four European Union countries have decided to recognize and compensate LBP and certain spinal disorders as an occupational disease. In this paper, we review the criteria currently in use for the recognition of this occupational disease. A search of the literature was performed; additional information was obtained in work visits to national occupational disease institutes in Germany, France and Belgium, in annual reports and national statistics on occupational diseases. Belgium was the first country to add WBV injury to the official list of occupational diseases (1978), followed by Germany (1993), the Netherlands (1997), and France (1999). The incidence of newly recognized cases in 1999 varied considerably: 763 in Belgium, 269 in France, 16 in Germany, and 10 reported cases in the Netherlands. The findings of this review indicate that significant differences exist in the established and applied diagnostic and exposure criteria in the four EU countries. This is illustrated by the case of Mrs Robinson, a 41-year-old forklift driver with LBP, who would probably get recognition and compensation in the Netherlands and Belgium but would be rejected in France and Germany. The development of uniform internationally accepted criteria is recommended, also from an epidemiological point of view, as many data are collected in the process of recognition of this occupational disease.

  15. Effects of whole body vibration plus diet on insulin-resistance in middle-aged obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Bellia, A; Sallì, M; Lombardo, M; D'Adamo, M; Guglielmi, V; Tirabasso, C; Giordani, L; Federici, M; Lauro, D; Foti, C; Sbraccia, P

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the early effects of whole body vibration (WBV) added to hypocaloric diet on insulin-resistance and other parameters associated with glucose regulation in sedentary obese individuals. We randomly assigned 34 patients to WBV plus hypocaloric diet (WBV group) or diet alone (CON group) for 8 weeks. Fasting and post-load glucose, insulin, lipids, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, adiponectin were assessed. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was derived from oral-glucose-tolerance test. Body composition was evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both groups lost approximately 5% of weight, with greater reduction of body fat in WBV than in CON (-7.1±1.2 Kg vs. -5.3±1.0 Kg, p=0.003). Percent variation of ISI was more pronounced in WBV than in CON group (+35±4% vs. + 22±5%, p=0.002), accompanied by slight improvement in post-load glucose (-1.07±0.02 vs. - 0.12±0.01 mmol/l, p=0.031) but without changes in fasting levels. Adiponectin significantly increased in WBV group compared with CON (p=0.021 for comparison) whereas no differences in leptin and inflammatory markers were observed. In middle-aged sedentary obese subjects, WBV added to hypocaloric diet for 8 weeks improved body composition, insulin-resistance, glucose regulation and adiponectin levels to a greater extent compared with diet alone. Efficacy and feasibility of this approach in the long term need to be ascertained. PMID:24227120

  16. Assessment of whole-body vibration levels of coal miners. Volume 3. Low-frequency vibration exposure and seat performance. Open File report, November 1979-April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, P.J.

    1984-11-01

    The field data gathered as part of the measurements described in Volumes I and II were reanalyzed in the low frequency regime (.1 Hz to 1 Hz) where motion sickness normally occurs. These data were compared to the International Standard 2631 Addendum 2: Evaluation of exposure to whole-body Z-axis vertical vibration in the frequency range of 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. For both underground mining machines and surface-mining machines, the results showed that one would not expect motion sickness to be a severe problem. New field data were gathered on the vibration reduction performance of various seat designs found on surface-coal-mining machines. The vibration during normal operation was simultaneously measured on the seat using the standard seat-pad accelerometer packaged described in the previous two volumes, and on the floor of the machine at the base of the seat. Preliminary indications are that the so-called high performance seats used for operator vibration reduction do not offer significant improvement over conventional seats.

  17. Characterization of the frequency and muscle responses of the lumbar and thoracic spines of seated volunteers during sinusoidal whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Dorman, Daniel B; Bulka, Ben A; Shivers, Bethany L; Chancey, Valeta C; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-10-01

    Whole body vibration has been postulated to contribute to the onset of back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and corresponding muscle responses of seated male volunteers during whole body vibration exposures along the vertical and anteroposterior directions to define the transmissibility and associated muscle activation responses for relevant whole body vibration exposures. Seated human male volunteers underwent separate whole body vibration exposures in the vertical (Z-direction) and anteroposterior (X-direction) directions using sinusoidal sweeps ranging from 2 to 18 Hz, with a constant amplitude of 0.4 g. For each vibration exposure, the accelerations and displacements of the seat and lumbar and thoracic spines were recorded. In addition, muscle activity in the lumbar and thoracic spines was recorded using electromyography (EMG) and surface electrodes in the lumbar and thoracic region. Transmissibility was determined, and peak transmissibility, displacement, and muscle activity were compared in each of the lumbar and thoracic regions. The peak transmissibility for vertical vibrations occurred at 4 Hz for both the lumbar (1.55 ± 0.34) and thoracic (1.49 ± 0.21) regions. For X-directed seat vibrations, the transmissibility ratio in both spinal regions was highest at 2 Hz but never exceeded a value of 1. The peak muscle response in both spinal regions occurred at frequencies corresponding to the peak transmissibility, regardless of the direction of imposed seat vibration: 4 Hz for the Z-direction and 2-3 Hz for the X-direction. In both vibration directions, spinal displacements occurred primarily in the direction of seat vibration, with little off-axis motion. The occurrence of peak muscle responses at frequencies of peak transmissibility suggests that such

  18. Does whole-body vibration training in the horizontal direction have effects on motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors? A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, GyuChang

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) in the horizontal direction on the motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-one individuals with chronic stroke from an inpatient rehabilitation center participated in the study. The participants were allocated to either the WBV training group or the control group. The WBV training group (n = 12) received whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction (15 min/day, 3 times/week, 6 wks) followed by conventional rehabilitation (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks); the control group (n = 9) received conventional rehabilitation only (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks). Motor function was measured by using the Fugl-Meyer assessment, and balance was measured by using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test before and after the interventions. [Results] After the interventions, all variables improved significantly compared with the baseline values in the WBV training group. In the control group, no significant improvements in any variables were noted. In addition, the BBS score in the WBV training group increased significantly compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] WBV training with whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction may be a potential intervention for improvement of motor function and balance in patients who previously experienced a stroke. PMID:25995573

  19. Does whole-body vibration training in the horizontal direction have effects on motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lee, GyuChang

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) in the horizontal direction on the motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-one individuals with chronic stroke from an inpatient rehabilitation center participated in the study. The participants were allocated to either the WBV training group or the control group. The WBV training group (n = 12) received whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction (15 min/day, 3 times/week, 6 wks) followed by conventional rehabilitation (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks); the control group (n = 9) received conventional rehabilitation only (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks). Motor function was measured by using the Fugl-Meyer assessment, and balance was measured by using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test before and after the interventions. [Results] After the interventions, all variables improved significantly compared with the baseline values in the WBV training group. In the control group, no significant improvements in any variables were noted. In addition, the BBS score in the WBV training group increased significantly compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] WBV training with whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction may be a potential intervention for improvement of motor function and balance in patients who previously experienced a stroke. PMID:25995573

  20. Low-magnitude whole body vibration with resistive exercise as a countermeasure against cardiovascular deconditioning after 60 days of head-down bed rest.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Mickael; Yuan, Ming; Demiot, Claire; Bai, Yanqiang Q; Jiang, Shizhong Z; Li, Yongzhi Z; Arbeille, Philippe; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Levrard, Thibaud; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Li, Yinghui H

    2011-12-01

    Whole body vibration with resistive exercise is a promising countermeasure against some weightlessness-induced dysfunctions. Our objective was to study whether the combination of low-magnitude whole body vibration with a resistive exercise can prevent the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by a nonstrict 60-day head-down bed rest (Earth Star International Bed Rest Experiment Project). Fourteen healthy men participated in this study. We recorded electrocardiograms and blood pressure waves by means of a noninvasive beat-by-beat measurement system (Cardiospace, integrated by Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and Astronaut Center of China) during an orthostatic test (20 min of 75-degree head-up tilt test) before and immediately after bed rest. We estimated heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, baroreflex sensitivity, and heart rate variability. Low-magnitude whole body vibration with resistive exercise prevented an increase of the sympathetic index (reflecting the sympathovagal balance of cardiac autonomic control) and limited the decrease of the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity induced by 60 days of head-down bed rest. However, this countermeasure had very little effect on cardiac hemodynamics and did not improve the orthostatic tolerance. This combined countermeasure did not efficiently prevent orthostatic intolerance but prevents changes in the autonomic nervous system associated with cardiovascular deconditioning. The underlying mechanisms remain hypothetical but might involve cutaneous and muscular mechanoreceptors. PMID:21900640

  1. Do whole-body vibration exercise and resistance exercise modify concentrations of salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A?

    PubMed

    Roschel, H; Barroso, R; Batista, M; Ugrinowitsch, C; Tricoli, V; Arsati, F; Lima-Arsati, Y B; Araújo, V C; Moreira, A

    2011-06-01

    A single bout of resistance exercise (RE) induces hormonal and immune responses, playing an important role in a long-term adaptive process. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has also been shown to affect hormonal responses. Evidence suggests that combining WBV with RE may amplify hormonal and immune responses due to the increased neuromuscular load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol (Scortisol) and salivary IgA (SIgA) concentrations following a RE session combined or not with WBV. Nine university students (22.9 ± 5.1 years, 175.8 ± 5.2 cm, and 69.2 ± 7.3 kg) performed five sets of squat exercise (70% one-repetition-maximum) combined (R+V30) or not (R) with WBV at 30 Hz. Saliva samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects also rated their effort according to the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE). Data were analyzed by a mixed model. RPE was higher after R+V30 (8.3 ± 0.7) compared to R (6.2 ± 0.7). However, Scortisol (pre: 10.6 ± 7.6 and 11.7 ± 7.6, post: 8.3 ± 6.3 and 10.2 ± 7.2 ng/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) and SIgA concentrations (pre: 98.3 ± 22.6 and 116.1 ± 51.2, post: 116.6 ± 64.7 and 143.6 ± 80.5 µg/mL for R and R+V30, respectively) were unaffected. No significant correlations were observed between Scortisol and RPE (r = 0.45, P = 0.22; r = 0.30, P = 0.42, for R and R+V30, respectively). On the basis of these data, neither protocol modified salivary cortisol or IgA, although RPE was higher after R+V30 than R. PMID:21584438

  2. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  3. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P < .001), with no changes in control and PP. Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy. PMID:26215362

  4. Effect of combining passive muscle stretching and whole body vibration on spasticity and physical performance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Tupimai, Teeraporn; Peungsuwan, Punnee; Prasertnoo, Jitlada; Yamauchi, Juinichiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the immediate and short-term effects of a combination of prolonged passive muscle stretching (PMS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the spasticity, strength and balance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized two-period crossover trial was designed. Twelve subjects with cerebral palsy aged 10.6 ± 2.4 years received both PMS alone as a control group (CG) and a combination of PMS and WBV as an experimental group (EG). After random allocation to the trial schedules of either EG-CG or CG-EG, CG received prolonged PMS while standing on a tilt-table for 40 minutes/day, and EG received prolonged PMS for 30 minutes, followed by 10 minutes WBV. Both CG and EG received the treatment 5 days/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Immediately after one treatment, EG resulted in better improvement in scores on the Modified Ashworth Scale than CG. After the 6-week intervention, EG also showed significantly decreased scores on the Modified Ashworth Scale compared to CG. Both CG and EG showed significantly reduced the performance times in the five times sit to stand test, and EG also showed significantly increased scores on the pediatric balance scale. [Conclusion] This study showed that 6 weeks of combined prolonged PMS and WBV had beneficial effects on the spasticity, muscle strength and balance of children and adolescents with CP. PMID:26957720

  5. Effect of combining passive muscle stretching and whole body vibration on spasticity and physical performance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Tupimai, Teeraporn; Peungsuwan, Punnee; Prasertnoo, Jitlada; Yamauchi, Juinichiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the immediate and short-term effects of a combination of prolonged passive muscle stretching (PMS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the spasticity, strength and balance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized two-period crossover trial was designed. Twelve subjects with cerebral palsy aged 10.6 ± 2.4 years received both PMS alone as a control group (CG) and a combination of PMS and WBV as an experimental group (EG). After random allocation to the trial schedules of either EG-CG or CG-EG, CG received prolonged PMS while standing on a tilt-table for 40 minutes/day, and EG received prolonged PMS for 30 minutes, followed by 10 minutes WBV. Both CG and EG received the treatment 5 days/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Immediately after one treatment, EG resulted in better improvement in scores on the Modified Ashworth Scale than CG. After the 6-week intervention, EG also showed significantly decreased scores on the Modified Ashworth Scale compared to CG. Both CG and EG showed significantly reduced the performance times in the five times sit to stand test, and EG also showed significantly increased scores on the pediatric balance scale. [Conclusion] This study showed that 6 weeks of combined prolonged PMS and WBV had beneficial effects on the spasticity, muscle strength and balance of children and adolescents with CP. PMID:26957720

  6. A Comparative Study of Whole Body Vibration Training and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Women's Stress Urinary Incontinence: Three- Month Follow- Up

    PubMed Central

    Farzinmehr, Azizeh; Moezy, Azar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Kashanian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether Whole Body Vibration Training (WBVT) is effective at improving pelvic floor muscles strength in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). Materials and methods: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. 43 women with SUI were randomly assigned in two groups; WBVT and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training (PFMT) and received interventions for four weeks. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, quality of life and incontinence intensity were evaluated. All measurements were conducted pre and post intervention and also after 3 months in all participants. The ANOVA and the independent sample t test were applied respectively to determine the differences in each group and between the groups. Results: This study showed the WBVT protocol in this study was effective in pelvic floor muscles strength similar to PFMT, and also in reducing the severity of incontinence and increasing I-QOL questionnaire score. We found significant differences in each group pre and post intervention (p = 0.0001); but no significant difference in comparison of two groups' outcomes. Also after three-month follow up, there was no significant difference between groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the beneficial effects of WBVT in improving pelvic floor muscles strength and quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence in four-week treatment period and after three months follow up. PMID:27047560

  7. Energy Expenditure and Substrate Oxidation in Response to Side-Alternating Whole Body Vibration across Three Commonly-Used Vibration Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Elie-Jacques; Charrière, Nathalie; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim There is increasing recognition about the importance of enhancing energy expenditure (EE) for weight control through increases in low-intensity physical activities comparable with daily life (1.5–4 METS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) increases EE modestly and could present both a useful adjuvant for obesity management and tool for metabolic phenotyping. However, it is unclear whether a “dose-response” exists between commonly-used vibration frequencies (VF) and EE, nor if WBV influences respiratory quotient (RQ), and hence substrate oxidation. We aimed to investigate the EE-VF and RQ-VF relationships across three different frequencies (30, 40, and 50Hz). Methods EE and RQ were measured in 8 healthy young adults by indirect calorimetry at rest, and subsequently during side-alternating WBV at one of 3 VFs (30, 40, and 50 Hz). Each frequency was assessed over 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest), separated by 5 min seated rest. During the WBV participants stood on the platform with knees flexed sufficiently to maintain comfort, prevent transmission of vibration to the upper body, and minimise voluntary physical exertion. Repeatability was assessed across 3 separate days in a subset of 4 individuals. In order to assess any sequence/habituation effect, an additional group of 6 men underwent 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest) at 40 Hz, separated by 5 min seated rest. Results Side-alternating WBV increased EE relative to standing, non-vibration levels (+36%, p<0.001). However, no differences in EE were observed across VFs. Similarly, no effect of VF on RQ was found, nor did WBV alter RQ relative to standing without vibration. Conclusion No relationship could be demonstrated between EE and VF in the range of 30-50Hz, and substrate oxidation did not change in response to WBV. Furthermore, the thermogenic effect of intermittent WBV, whilst robust, was quantitatively small (<2 METS). PMID:26974147

  8. Anti-LPS antibodies reduce endotoxemia in whole body Co-60 irradiated primates - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.T.; Gaffin, S.L.; Wessels, B.C.; Brock-Utne, J.G.; Jordaan, J.P. )

    1990-09-01

    A previously established primate model was used to evaluate the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) in radiation sickness. Vervet monkeys were Co-60 irradiated with an LD100 exposure and had periodic blood samples taken for the determination of LPS and anti-LPS lgG antibodies and for bacteriological studies. On day 2 postirradiation, primates were treated with either sterile 0.9 percent saline, or equine anti-LPS hyperimmune plasma, or tripotassium-dicitrato-bismuthate (Denol). Results indicate that anti-LPS-treated animals survived significantly longer than both the other groups and, since LPS may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and headaches, it is suggested that Anti-LPS administration may be of value in reducing plasma LPS concentration in humans and improving their performance and survivability. 24 refs.

  9. [Simultaneous whole-body PET-MRI in pediatric oncology : More than just reducing radiation?].

    PubMed

    Gatidis, S; Gückel, B; la Fougère, C; Schmitt, J; Schäfer, J F

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in pediatric oncology with regard to diagnosis, therapy-planning, and the follow-up of solid tumors. The current imaging standard in pediatric oncology includes a variety of radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities depending on the specific tumor entity. The introduction of combined simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up new diagnostic options in pediatric oncology. This novel modality combines the excellent anatomical accuracy of MRI with the metabolic information of PET. In initial clinical studies, the technical feasibility and possible diagnostic advantages of combined PET-MRI have been in comparison with alternative imaging techniques. It was shown that a reduction in radiation exposure of up to 70 % is achievable compared with PET-CT. Furthermore, it has been shown that the number of imaging studies necessary can be markedly reduced using combined PET-MRI. Owing to its limited availability, combined PET-MRI is currently not used as a routine procedure. However, this new modality has the potential to become the imaging reference standard in pediatric oncology in the future. This review article summarizes the central aspects of pediatric oncological PET-MRI based on existing literature. Typical pediatric oncological PET-MRI cases are also presented. PMID:27306199

  10. Alternative to traditional stretching methods for flexibility enhancement in well-trained combat athletes: local vibration versus whole-body vibration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of local vibration (LV) and whole body vibration (WBV) on lower body flexibility and to assess whether vibration treatments were more effective than traditionally used static and dynamic stretching methods. Twenty-four well-trained male combat athletes (age: 22.7 ± 3.3 years) performed four exercise protocols – LV (30 Hz, 4 mm), WBV (30 Hz, 4 mm), static stretching (SS), and dynamic stretching (DS) – in four sessions of equal duration 48 hours apart in a randomized, balanced order. During a 15-minute recovery after each protocol, subjects performed the stand and reach test (S&R) at the 15th second and the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 15th minute. There was a similar change pattern in S&R scores across the 15-minute recovery after each protocol (p = 0.572), remaining significantly elevated throughout the recovery. A significant main protocol effect was found for absolute change in S&R scores relative to baseline (p = 0.015). These changes were statistically greater in LV than WBV and DS. Changes in SS were not significantly different from LV, but were consistently lower than LV with almost moderate effect sizes. After LV, a greater percentage of subjects increased flexibility above the minimum detectable change compared to other protocols. Subjects with high flexibility (n = 12) benefited more from LV compared with other methods (effect size ≥ 0.862). In conclusion, LV was an effective alternative exercise modality to acutely increase lower extremity flexibility for well-trained athletes compared with WBV and traditional stretching exercises. PMID:26424926

  11. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers

    PubMed Central

    Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of

  12. Effect of whole-body vibration in the vertical axis on cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in piglets.

    PubMed

    Perremans, S; Randall, J M; Rombouts, G; Decuypere, E; Geers, R

    2001-04-01

    Vibration, being a consequence of motion during transport, may impair the welfare of pigs. Therefore, the primary objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate during transport simulation the use of ACTH and cortisol plasma levels, which are part of a basic adaptation mechanism of pigs and 2) to define comfort conditions for pigs related to the frequency and acceleration of vibration. Pigs with a body weight between 20 and 25 kg were vibrated in the vertical direction for 2 h at 2, 4, 8, and 18 Hz, in combination with root mean square acceleration magnitudes of 1 or 3 m/s2. Blood was sampled at regular intervals before, during, and after vibration as the pig's behaviors were recorded. Data on ACTH, cortisol, and behavior could be collected from 104 vibrated pigs and 21 controls. In addition, eight animals (3 controls, 5 vibrated) were treated with 0.1 mg of dexamethasone/kg BW, eight animals (3 controls, 8 vibrated) with 0.1 mg naloxone/kg BW, and six (2 controls, 4 vibrated) with a physiological salt solution. Blood samples were taken and products were administrated via an intravenous catheter. The pigs spent less time lying during both hours of vibration treatment than during control conditions. Compared with 2 and 4 Hz, time spent lying was 10 times shorter at 8 Hz and 18 times shorter at 18 Hz. At 1030, ACTH levels were significantly higher than basal levels in animals vibrated at 2 (P < 0.0001), 4 (P < 0.002), and 18 Hz (P < 0.0006). After 1 h, levels returned to basal values. Cortisol levels increased very rapidly after the beginning of vibration (P < 0.0001) and remained higher until 1 h after cessation of vibration (P < 0.003). An inferrence of the lines of equal responses for ACTH and cortisol indicated that, in the beginning of vibration exposure, pigs were extremely susceptible to vibrations at lower frequencies (2 and 4 Hz), whereas at the end of vibration exposure the responses were higher at 18 Hz. The application of dexamethasone and naloxone

  13. The effect of low-magnitude whole body vibration on bone density and microstructure in men and women with chronic motor complete paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Wuermser, Lisa-Ann; Beck, Lisa A.; Lamb, Jeffry L.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Amin, Shreyasee

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of low-magnitude whole body vibration on bone density and microstructure in women and men with chronic motor complete paraplegia. Methods We studied nine subjects (four women and five men) with motor complete paraplegia of 2 years duration or more, age 20–50 years. Subjects were instructed to stand on a low-magnitude vibration plate within a standing frame for 20 minutes per day, 5 days a week, and for 6 months. Bone density at the proximal femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone microstructure at the distal tibia by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography were assessed at four timepoints over 12 months (baseline, at 3 months and 6 months while on intervention, and after 6 months off intervention). Results Standing on the low-magnitude vibration plate with a standing frame was well tolerated by participants. However, most subjects did not show an improvement in bone density or microstructure after 6 months of intervention, or any relevant changes 6 months following the discontinuation of the low-magnitude vibration. Conclusion We were unable to identify an improvement in either bone density or microstructure following 6 months use of a low-magnitude vibration plate in women or men with chronic motor complete paraplegia. Longer duration of use may be necessary, or it is possible that this intervention is of limited benefit following chronic spinal cord injury. PMID:24621040

  14. Acute IGF-I infusion stimulates whole body protein synthesis but does not reduce proteolysis in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis increases in response to a physiological rise in total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in neonatal pigs. To determine the response of whole body protein synthesis and degradation to IGF-I, fasted 7-day-old pigs (n=4/dose) were infused with IGF-I (0, 20, or 50 ...

  15. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and

  16. Nonlinearity in apparent mass and transmissibility of the supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-07-01

    Resonance frequencies evident in the apparent mass and the transmissibility of the human body decrease with increasing vibration magnitude, but the mechanisms responsible for this nonlinearity have not been established. This experiment was designed to explore the effects of body location on the nonlinearity of the body in supine postures. In a group of 12 male subjects, the apparent mass and transmissibility to the sternum, upper abdomen, and lower abdomen were measured in three postures (relaxed semi-supine, flat supine and constrained semi-supine) with vertical random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at seven vibration magnitudes (nominally 0.0313, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 ms -2 rms). In all three postures, the apparent mass resonance frequencies and the primary peak frequencies in the transmissibilities to the upper and lower abdomen decreased with increases in vibration magnitude from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. Nonlinearity generally apparent in transmissibility to the abdomen was less evident in transmissibility to the sternum and less evident in transmissibilities to the abdomen at vibration magnitudes less than 0.125 ms -2 rms. The nonlinearity was more apparent in the flat supine posture than in the semi-supine postures. The findings are consistent with the nonlinearity being associated with the response of soft tissues, more likely a consequence of passive thixotropy than muscle activity.

  17. Seven Day Insertion Rest in Whole Body Vibration Improves Multi-Level Bone Quality in Tail Suspension Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Fan, Yubo

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days on bone quality at multiple levels. Methods Forty-nine three-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups, namely, vibrational loading for X day followed by X day rest (VLXR, X = 1, 3, 5, 7), vibrational loading every day (VLNR), tail suspension (SPD), and baseline control (BCL). One week after tail suspension, rats were loaded by vibrational loading (35 Hz, 0.25 g, 15 min/day) except SPD and BCL. Fluorescence markers were used in all rats. Eight weeks later, femora were harvested to investigate macromechanical properties, and micro-computed tomography scanning and fluorescence test were used to evaluate microarchitecture and bone growth rate. Atomic force microscopy analyses and nanoindentation test were used to analyze the nanostructure and mechanical properties of bone material, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative chemical analyses. Results Microarchitecture, mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate and macromechanical properties were improved in VL7R. Grain size and roughness were significantly different among all groups. No statistical difference was found for the mechanical properties of the bone material, and the chemical composition of all groups was almost similar. Conclusions Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration with rest days altered bone microarchitecture and macro-biomechanical properties, and VL7R was more efficacious in improving bone loss caused by mechanical disuse, which provided theoretical basis and explored the mechanisms of vibration for improving bone quality in clinics. PMID:24637608

  18. Assessment of whole-body vibration exposures and influencing factors for quarry haul truck drivers and loader operators

    PubMed Central

    Mayton, Alan G.; Jobes, Christopher C.; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    To further assess vibration exposure on haul trucks (HTs) and front-end wheel loaders (FELs), follow-up investigations were conducted at two US crushed stone operations. The purpose was to: 1) evaluate factors such as load/no-load conditions, speed, load capacity, vehicle age, and seat transmissibility relative to vibration exposure; 2) compare exposure levels with existing ISO/ANSI and EUGPG guidelines. Increasing HT speed increased recorded vibration at the chassis and seat as expected. Neither vehicle load nor vehicle speed increased transmissibility. Increasing HT size and age did show transmissibility decreasing. HT dominant-axis wRMS levels (most often the y-axis, lateral or side-to-side direction) were predominantly within the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). However, several instances showed vibration dose value (VDV) above the exposure limit value (ELV) for the ISO/ANSI guidelines. VDV levels (all dominant x-axis or fore-aft) were within and above the HGCZ for the EUGPG and above the HGCZ for ISO/ANSI guidelines. PMID:26361493

  19. The effects of whole-body vibration exercise on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on squatting position

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeyuong; Park, Yunjin; Seo, Yonggon; Kang, Gyumin; Park, Sangseo; Cho, Hyeyoung; Moon, Hyunghoon; Kim, Myungki; Yu, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on different squatting positions. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy adult men who did not exercise regularly between the ages of 27 and 34. [Methods] WBVE was performed with high squat position (SP), middle SP, and low SP. Before and after the intervention, isokinetic muscular function of the knees and jump performance were measured. [Results] Knee flexion peak torque at 60°/s and total work at 180°/s were significantly increased after implementing WBVE. Jump height also significantly increased after completing the exercise at all positions in comparison with the pre-exercise programs. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that SP during WBVE is an important factor stimulating positive effects on muscular function. PMID:26957749

  20. The effects of whole-body vibration exercise on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on squatting position.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyuong; Park, Yunjin; Seo, Yonggon; Kang, Gyumin; Park, Sangseo; Cho, Hyeyoung; Moon, Hyunghoon; Kim, Myungki; Yu, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on different squatting positions. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy adult men who did not exercise regularly between the ages of 27 and 34. [Methods] WBVE was performed with high squat position (SP), middle SP, and low SP. Before and after the intervention, isokinetic muscular function of the knees and jump performance were measured. [Results] Knee flexion peak torque at 60°/s and total work at 180°/s were significantly increased after implementing WBVE. Jump height also significantly increased after completing the exercise at all positions in comparison with the pre-exercise programs. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that SP during WBVE is an important factor stimulating positive effects on muscular function. PMID:26957749

  1. DOSE-RESPONSE Relationships Between Whole-Body Vibration and Lumbar Disk DISEASE—A Field Study on 388 Drivers of Different Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarze, S.; Notbohm, G.; Dupuis, H.; Hartung, E.

    1998-08-01

    In a longitudinal study, the dose-response relationships between long term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration and degenerative processes in the lumbar spine caused by the lumbar disks were examined. From 1990 to 1992, 388 vibration-exposed workers from different driving jobs were examined medically and by lumbar X-ray. For each individual, a history of all exposure conditions was recorded, and a cumulative vibration dose was calculated allowing comparisons between groups of low, middle, and high intensity of exposure. 310 subjects were selected for a follow-up four years later, of whom 90·6% (n=281) agreed to participate. In comparing the exposure groups, the results indicate that the limit value ofazw(8h)=0·8 m/s2should be reviewed. The best fit between the lifelong vibration dose and the occurrence of a lumbar syndrome was obtained by applying a daily reference ofazw(8h)=0·6 ms2as a limit value. The results became more distinct still when only those subjects were included in the statistical analysis who had had no lumbar symptoms up to the end of the first year of exposure. The prevalence of lumbar syndrome is 1·55 times higher in the highly exposed group when compared to the reference group with low exposure (CI95%=1·24/1·95). Calculating the cumulative incidence of new cases of lumbar syndrome in the follow-up period yields a relative risk ofRRMH=1·37 (CI95%=0·86/2·17) for the highly exposed group. It is concluded that the limit value for the calculation of an individual lifelong vibration dose should be based on a daily reference exposure ofazw(8h)=0·6 m/s2. With increasing dose it is more and more probable that cases of lumbar syndrome are caused by exposure to vibration.

  2. The effect of adding whole body vibration training to strengthening training in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bokaeian, Hamid Reza; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Moghimi, Jamile

    2016-04-01

    Strengthening training (ST) and whole body vibration training (WBV) alone may improve symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. In this study, we investigated the effect of adding WBV training to quadriceps and hamstring muscles strengthening training on functional activity, pain, quality of life and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis. 28 volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups; 1) quadriceps and hamstring muscles strengthening training (ST group, 13 patients) and 2) quadriceps and hamstring muscles strengthening training along with WBV training (ST + WBV group, 15 patients). The treatment protocol for both groups involved 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. All measurements were performed before and after intervention. The measurements included: pain by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS), quality of life by means of the WOMAC scale, functional activity by the 2 min walking test (2MWT), time up & go test (TUGT) and 50-foot walking test (50FWT) and the muscle peak torque (MPT), total work (TW) and muscle power (MP) as muscle performance of quadriceps and hamstring muscles by an Isokinetic Biodex machine. After intervention, the comparison of mean changes between two groups showed improvement in the WBV + ST group in terms of 2MWT, MPT, TW and MP variables (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the experimental groups in term of pain, quality of life, TUGT and 50FWT. These results suggest that adding whole body vibration training to strengthening training may provide better treatment effects for patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27210851

  3. Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

  4. Comparison between whole-body vibration, light-emitting diode, and cycling warm-up on high-intensity physical performance during sprint bicycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Teles, Maria C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Martins, Jeanne B; de Carvalho, Marielle M; Xavier, Murilo; Costa, Sidney J; de Avelar, Núbia C P; Ribeiro, Vanessa G C; Salvador, Fabiano S; Augusto, Leonardo; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Lacerda, Ana C R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation and whole-body vibration (WBV) delivered either in isolation or combination (LED + WBV), warm-up (WU), and a control (C) treatment on performance during a sprint bicycle exercise. Ten cyclists performed a 30-second sprint cycle test under these conditions. The LED light was applied at 4 points bilaterally. Whole-body vibration consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV. LED + WBV consisted of WBV followed by LED therapy. Warm-up consisted of 17 minutes of moderate-intensity bicycle exercise. Control consisted of 10 minutes at rest. Blood lactate (BL) and ammonia (BA) levels and skin temperature (ST) were determined. Peak power (842 ± 117 vs. 800 ± 106 vs. 809 ± 128 W [p = 0.02 and p = 0.01]), relative power (12.1 ± 1.0 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 vs. 11.6 ± 1.0 W·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.02]), and relative work (277 ± 23 vs. 263 ± 24 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.003]) were higher in the WU group compared with the control and LED groups. In the LED + WBV group, peak (833 ± 115 vs. 800 ± 106 W [p = 0.02]) and relative (11.9 ± 0.9 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 W·kg [p = 0.02]) power were higher than those in the control group, and relative work (272 ± 22 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02]) were improved compared with the LED group. There were no differences for BL, BA, and ST. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of a warm-up as a preparatory activity and demonstrated that LED + WBV and WBV were as effective as WU in improving cyclist performance during a sprint bicycle exercise. PMID:25764492

  5. Whole-body vibration improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Braz Júnior, Donato S; Dornelas de Andrade, Arméle; Teixeira, Andrei S; Cavalcanti, Cléssyo A; Morais, André B; Marinho, Patrícia EM

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance is a common development in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is little data on the use of an isolated program using vibration platform training on functional capacity in these patients, which is an area that deserves investigation. Aim To investigate the effect of training on a vibrating platform (whole-body vibration [WBV]) on functional performance and quality of life of subjects with COPD. Methods A randomized controlled crossover pilot study with eleven subjects with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]% predicted =14.63±11.14; forced vital capacity [FVC]% predicted =48.84±15.21; FEV1/FVC =47.39±11.63) underwent a 12-week WBV training program. Participants were randomized into the intervention group (IG) undergoing three sessions per week for a total of 12 weeks and control group (CG) without intervention. We evaluated the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), distance walked (DW), duration of the walk (TW), and index of perceived exertion (IPE), quality of life using St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and developed a 12-week program of training on a vibrating platform. Results The mean age was 62.91±8.82 years old (72.7% male). The DW increased at the end of training with a difference between groups of 75 m; all domains of the SGRQ improved at the end of training. The effect size Cohen’s d ranged from small to large for all the measured results. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that WBV may potentially be a safe and feasible way to improve functional capacity in the 6MWT of patients with COPD undergoing a training program on the vibrating platform as well as in all domains of the SGRQ quality of life. However, further studies with a larger number of patients are needed to establish the long-term effect on functional capacity and quality of life in these patients. PMID:25624756

  6. Factors affecting the perception of whole-body vibration of occupational drivers: an analysis of posture and manual materials handling and musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Raffler, Nastaran; Ellegast, Rolf; Kraus, Thomas; Ochsmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high cost of conducting field measurements, questionnaires are usually preferred for the assessment of physical workloads and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study compares the physical workloads of whole-body vibration (WBV) and awkward postures by direct field measurements and self-reported data of 45 occupational drivers. Manual materials handling (MMH) and MSDs were also investigated to analyse their effect on drivers' perception. Although the measured values for WBV exposure were very similarly distributed among the drivers, the subjects' perception differed significantly. Concerning posture, subjects seemed to estimate much better when the difference in exposure was significantly large. The percentage of measured awkward trunk and head inclination were significantly higher for WBV-overestimating subjects than non-overestimators; 77 and 80% vs. 36 and 33%. Health complaints in terms of thoracic spine, cervical spine and shoulder-arm were also significantly more reported by WBV-overestimating subjects (42, 67, 50% vs. 0, 25, 13%, respectively). Although more MMH was reported by WBV-overestimating subjects, there was no statistical significance in this study. PMID:26114619

  7. Whole-body vibration effects on the muscle activity of upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing in recreational baseball hitters.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Gabriel F; Dickin, D Clark; Crusat, Nolan J K; Dolny, Dennis G

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the muscle recruitment of selected upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing. Participants were recreationally trained males (n = 16, 22 +/- 2 years, 181.4 +/- 7.4 cm, 84.7 +/- 9.0 kg), with previous baseball experience. Subjects participated in three randomized sessions on separate days, consisting of three sets of five swings offa hitting tee. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements) with or without WBVexposure were performed between swing sets. During each swing, the gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii were evaluated for electromyographic (EMG) activity. EMG values were normalized to EMG measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in EMG activity across the three treatments. In addition, the results displayed a specific muscle recruitment order during the swing, starting with the lower body followed by the upper body muscles. This study was the first to report the recruitment order during the baseball swing. Although acute exposure to WBV did not significantly alter the muscle recruitment, these results may prove useful for practitioners looking to enhance baseball swing performance. PMID:22303781

  8. Benefits of Whole-Body Vibration, as a Component of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation, in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Narrative Review with a Suitable Approach.

    PubMed

    Sá-Caputo, Danubia; Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Morel, Danielle Soares; Marconi, Eloá Moreira; Fróes, Patrícia; Rufino, Rogério; Costa, Cláudia Henrique; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Arnóbio, Adriano; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Furness, Trentham; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Appropriate management, including pulmonary rehabilitation, associated with correct diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients can contribute to improving clinical conditions of these patients. Physical activity is recommended for COPD patients. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a modality of physical activity. Putting together the biological effects and safe use of WBV, it may be a potentially feasible intervention to add to pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review studies regarding the effects of WBV, as a component of the pulmonary rehabilitation, in patients with COPD. Results. A total of six publications met inclusion for review. There was evidence to support the beneficial use of WBV to improve functional performance of the lower limbs and quality of life. However, the appropriateness of and descriptors of WBV methods were poorly described. Conclusions. The results of this review support the use of WBV as a component of pulmonary rehabilitation to assist management of patients with COPD. However, future research should examine the dose-response curve and optimal dosing regimen of WBV according to standard reporting recommendations for people with COPD. Such an approach will allow comparison among studies and the potential of meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PMID:27190529

  9. Benefits of Whole-Body Vibration, as a Component of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation, in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Narrative Review with a Suitable Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sá-Caputo, Danubia; Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Morel, Danielle Soares; Marconi, Eloá Moreira; Fróes, Patrícia; Rufino, Rogério; Costa, Cláudia Henrique; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Arnóbio, Adriano; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Furness, Trentham; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Appropriate management, including pulmonary rehabilitation, associated with correct diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients can contribute to improving clinical conditions of these patients. Physical activity is recommended for COPD patients. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a modality of physical activity. Putting together the biological effects and safe use of WBV, it may be a potentially feasible intervention to add to pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review studies regarding the effects of WBV, as a component of the pulmonary rehabilitation, in patients with COPD. Results. A total of six publications met inclusion for review. There was evidence to support the beneficial use of WBV to improve functional performance of the lower limbs and quality of life. However, the appropriateness of and descriptors of WBV methods were poorly described. Conclusions. The results of this review support the use of WBV as a component of pulmonary rehabilitation to assist management of patients with COPD. However, future research should examine the dose-response curve and optimal dosing regimen of WBV according to standard reporting recommendations for people with COPD. Such an approach will allow comparison among studies and the potential of meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PMID:27190529

  10. Factors affecting the perception of whole-body vibration of occupational drivers: an analysis of posture and manual materials handling and musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raffler, Nastaran; Ellegast, Rolf; Kraus, Thomas; Ochsmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high cost of conducting field measurements, questionnaires are usually preferred for the assessment of physical workloads and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study compares the physical workloads of whole-body vibration (WBV) and awkward postures by direct field measurements and self-reported data of 45 occupational drivers. Manual materials handling (MMH) and MSDs were also investigated to analyse their effect on drivers' perception. Although the measured values for WBV exposure were very similarly distributed among the drivers, the subjects' perception differed significantly. Concerning posture, subjects seemed to estimate much better when the difference in exposure was significantly large. The percentage of measured awkward trunk and head inclination were significantly higher for WBV-overestimating subjects than non-overestimators; 77 and 80% vs. 36 and 33%. Health complaints in terms of thoracic spine, cervical spine and shoulder–arm were also significantly more reported by WBV-overestimating subjects (42, 67, 50% vs. 0, 25, 13%, respectively). Although more MMH was reported by WBV-overestimating subjects, there was no statistical significance in this study. PMID:26114619

  11. The effects of whole body vibration in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Caroline C.; Barreto, Rodrigo P. G.; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Plentz, Rodrigo D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) has been used to increase physical activity levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the effects of WBV on the glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity of patients with T2DM. Method: MEDLINE, LILACS, PEDro, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to June 1st, 2015. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV, compared to control or other intervention, on blood glucose levels, blood and physical cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity in adult individuals with T2DM. Two independent reviewers extracted the data regarding authors, year of publication, number of participants, gender, age, WBV parameters and description of intervention, type of comparison, and mean and standard deviation of pre and post assessments. Results: Out of 585 potentially eligible articles, two studies (reported in four manuscripts) were considered eligible. WBV interventions provided a significant reduction of 25.7 ml/dl (95% CI:-45.3 to -6.1; I2: 19%) in 12 hours fasting blood glucose compared with no intervention. Improvements in glycated hemoglobin, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity were found only at 12 weeks after WBV intervention in comparison with no intervention. Conclusion: WBV combined with exercise seems to improve glycemic control slightly in patients with T2DM in an exposure-dependent way. Large and well-designed trials are still needed to establish the efficacy and understand whether the effects were attributed to vibration, exercise, or a combination of both. PMID:26578253

  12. Effect of voluntary periodic muscular activity on nonlinearity in the apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical random whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    The principal resonance frequency in the driving-point impedance of the human body decreases with increasing vibration magnitude—a nonlinear response. An understanding of the nonlinearities may advance understanding of the mechanisms controlling body movement and improve anthropodynamic modelling of responses to vibration at various magnitudes. This study investigated the effects of vibration magnitude and voluntary periodic muscle activity on the apparent mass resonance frequency using vertical random vibration in the frequency range 0.5-20 Hz. Each of 14 subjects was exposed to 14 combinations of two vibration magnitudes (0.25 and 2.0 m s -2 root-mean square (rms)) in seven sitting conditions: two without voluntary periodic movement (A: upright; B: upper-body tensed), and five with voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending; D: folding-stretching arms from back to front; E: stretching arms from rest to front; F: folding arms from elbow; G: deep breathing). Three conditions with voluntary periodic movement significantly reduced the difference in resonance frequency at the two vibration magnitudes compared with the difference in a static sitting condition. Without voluntary periodic movement (condition A: upright), the median apparent mass resonance frequency was 5.47 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.39 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. With voluntary periodic movement (C: back-abdomen bending), the resonance frequency was 4.69 Hz at the low vibration magnitude and 4.59 Hz at the high vibration magnitude. It is concluded that back muscles, or other muscles or tissues in the upper body, influence biodynamic responses of the human body to vibration and that voluntary muscular activity or involuntary movement of these parts can alter their equivalent stiffness.

  13. A model of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent mass of the human body reflects gross movements caused by whole-body vibration and can be used to predict the influence of body dynamics on seat transmissibility. With vertical excitation, various models fit the measured vertical apparent mass of the human body, but experiments also show high fore-and-aft forces on the seat (the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass) that have not influenced current models. This paper defines a model that predicts the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical excitation. A three degree-of-freedom model with vertical, fore-and-aft and rotational (i.e. pitch) degrees of freedom has been developed with twelve model parameters (representing inertia, stiffness, damping, and geometry) optimised to the measured vertical apparent mass and the measured fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the body. The model provides close fits to the moduli and phases for both median data and the responses of 12 individual subjects. The optimum model parameters found by fitting to the median apparent mass of 12 subjects were similar to the medians of the same parameters found by fitting to the individual apparent masses of the same 12 subjects. The model suggests the seated human body undergoes fore-and-aft motion on a seat when exposed to vertical excitation, with the primary resonance frequency of the apparent mass arising from vertical motion of the body. According to the model, changes in the vertical, fore-and-aft, or rotational degree of freedom have an effect on the resonance in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass.

  14. Changes in Bone Biomarkers, BMC, and Insulin Resistance Following a 10-Week Whole Body Vibration Exercise Program in Overweight Latino Boys

    PubMed Central

    Erceg, David N.; Anderson, Lindsey J.; Nickles, Chun M.; Lane, Christianne J.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Schroeder, E. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: With the childhood obesity epidemic, efficient methods of exercise are sought to improve health. We tested whether whole body vibration (WBV) exercise can positively affect bone metabolism and improve insulin/glucose dynamics in sedentary overweight Latino boys. Methods: Twenty Latino boys 8-10 years of age were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or 3 days/wk WBV exercise (VIB) for 10-wk. Results: Significant increases in BMC (4.5±3.2%; p=0.01) and BMD (1.3±1.3%; p<0.01) were observed for the VIB group when compared to baseline values. For the CON group BMC significantly increased (2.0±2.2%; p=0.02), with no change in BMD (0.8±1.3%; p=0.11). There were no significant between group changes in BMC or BMD. No significant change was observed for osteocalcin and (collagen type I C-telopeptide) CTx for the VIB group. However, osteocalcin showed a decreasing trend (p=0.09) and CTx significantly increased (p<0.03) for the CON group. This increase in CTx was significantly different between groups (p<0.02) and the effect size of between-group difference in change was large (-1.09). There were no significant correlations between osteocalcin and measures of fat mass or insulin resistance for collapsed data. Conclusion: Although bone metabolism was altered by WBV training, no associations were apparent between osteocalcin and insulin resistance. These findings suggest WBV exercise may positively increase BMC and BMD by decreasing bone resorption in overweight Latino boys. PMID:26078710

  15. Efficacy of a whole-body vibration intervention to effect exercise tolerance and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory condition characterised by dyspnoea, excessive sputum production, chronic cough, bronchitis and emphysema. Functionally, exercise tolerance is poor for people with COPD and is linked to difficulty in performing daily tasks. More specifically, exercise difficulties are due partly to dyspnoea and lower limb skeletal muscle dysfunction. The benefit of exercise that does not exacerbate the disease while improving exercise tolerance is salient. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a mode of physical activity known to improve muscular function of the lower limbs, yet efficacy has not been investigated for a WBV intervention conducted in a home-based setting for people with COPD. Methods/design This clinically registered trial is a non-randomised placebo cross-over intervention based in the home of each participant (ACTRN12612000508875). Participants diagnosed with COPD will complete a six-week WBV intervention and then after a two-week washout period, will complete a six-week placebo training intervention. Participants will complete sessions twice a week. The duration of the trial is 14 weeks. Community-dwelling older adults with COPD will provide informed voluntary consent to participate. Outcome measures will include immediate, acute, and long-term responses to exercise. Discussion Quantifying responses to WBV among people with COPD will allow discussion of efficacy of WBV as a mode of physical activity. The skill required by the participant to perform physical activity with WBV is not demanding and may enhance habitual sustainability. The results of this trial could be used to support further research in both clinical and community settings. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR12612000508875) PMID:23181339

  16. Effect of Concurrent Use of Whole-Body Vibration and Parathyroid Hormone on Bone Structure and Material Properties of Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Itamochi, Shinya; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) and intermittent parathyroid hormone (iPTH) in combination against estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis. Female C57BL/6J mice were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX, n = 40) or sham-operated (sham-OVX, n = 8) at 9 weeks of age. Two weeks later, the OVX mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each): the control group (c-OVX) and groups treated with iPTH (p-OVX), WBV (w-OVX) and both (pw-OVX). The p-OVX and pw-OVX groups were given human PTH (1-34) at a dose of 30 µg/kg/day. The w-OVX and pw-OVX groups were exposed to WBV at an acceleration of 0.3 g and 45 Hz for 20 min/day. All mice were euthanized after the 18-day treatment, and the left tibiae were harvested. The proximal metaphyseal region was µCT-scanned, and its cortical bone cross-section was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing. A single application of iPTH or WBV to OVX mice had no effect on bone structure or material properties of cortical bone, which were compromised in comparison to those in sham-OVX mice. The combination of iPTH and WBV improved trabecular bone volume, thickness, and connectivity in OVX mice. Although the combined treatment failed to improve cortical bone structure, its mineral maturity and hardness were restored to the levels observed in sham-OVX mice. There was no evidence of interaction between the two treatments, and the combined effects seemed to be additive. These results suggest combining WBV with iPTH has great potential for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26746476

  17. Influence of Whole-Body Vibration Training Without Visual Feedback on Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength of the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Lai, Chung-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ling; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Lee, Meng-Chih; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) training without visual feedback on balance and lower-extremity muscle strength in the elderly.Elderly subjects who did not exercise regularly participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a WBV with eyes open group, a visual feedback-deprived plus WBV (VFDWBV) group, and a control group (0 Hz, eyes open). WBV training was provided over a 3-month period, 3 times per week for 5 min each session. Balance performance was measured with the limits of stability test, and muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer.A total of 45 elderly subjects with an average age of 69.22  ±  3.97 years, divided into a WBV group (n = 14), a VFDWBV group (n = 17), and a control group (n = 14), completed the trial. Statistically significant differences were found in the balance performance of the 3 groups at different time points (time × group interaction: F = 13.213, P < 0.001), and the VFDWBV group had more improvement in balance than the WBV and control groups. The strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles had time × group interactions: F = 29.604, P < 0.001 and F = 4.684, P = 0.015, respectively; the VFDWBV group had more improvement on lower-extremity muscle strength than the WBV and control groups. The 6-month follow-up showed that the rates of hospital visits for medical services due to falls were 0% in the WBV group (0/14), 0% in the VFDWBV group (0/17), and 28.57% in the control group (4/14).Results showed that WBV training at 20  Hz without visual feedback can significantly improve the balance performance and lower-extremity muscle strength of the elderly. PMID:26844514

  18. Influence of Whole-Body Vibration Training Without Visual Feedback on Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength of the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Lai, Chung-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ling; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Lee, Meng-Chih; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) training without visual feedback on balance and lower-extremity muscle strength in the elderly. Elderly subjects who did not exercise regularly participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a WBV with eyes open group, a visual feedback-deprived plus WBV (VFDWBV) group, and a control group (0 Hz, eyes open). WBV training was provided over a 3-month period, 3 times per week for 5 min each session. Balance performance was measured with the limits of stability test, and muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. A total of 45 elderly subjects with an average age of 69.22 ± 3.97 years, divided into a WBV group (n = 14), a VFDWBV group (n = 17), and a control group (n = 14), completed the trial. Statistically significant differences were found in the balance performance of the 3 groups at different time points (time × group interaction: F = 13.213, P < 0.001), and the VFDWBV group had more improvement in balance than the WBV and control groups. The strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles had time × group interactions: F = 29.604, P < 0.001 and F = 4.684, P = 0.015, respectively; the VFDWBV group had more improvement on lower-extremity muscle strength than the WBV and control groups. The 6-month follow-up showed that the rates of hospital visits for medical services due to falls were 0% in the WBV group (0/14), 0% in the VFDWBV group (0/17), and 28.57% in the control group (4/14). Results showed that WBV training at 20 Hz without visual feedback can significantly improve the balance performance and lower-extremity muscle strength of the elderly. PMID:26844514

  19. Modelling the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration on low-back pain and its long-term consequences for sickness absence and associated work disability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdorf, A.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    2006-12-01

    BackgroundExposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP). Little is known about the long-term course of back pain in workers exposed to WBV and the consequences for (temporary) disability, due to lack of cohort studies with sufficiently long follow-up periods. MethodsA systematic review of the literature was performed to assess associations between exposure to WBV and LBP, sickness absence due to low-back disorders and permanent disability. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalences of LBP and sickness absence due to low-back disorders in occupational populations, depending on relevant exposure characteristics. These prevalences were converted into probabilities for transitions between no complaints, LBP, sickness due to LBP, and disability. A Markov model was applied to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of workers without LBP at the start of the cohort and a follow-up of 40 years (40 cycles of 1 year) to reflect a long-life career with continuous exposure to WBV. ResultsIn this hypothetical cohort it was estimated that among workers with the highest exposure to WBV on average about 47 weeks of their working life were lost due to sick leave because of LBP, which is approximately 2.5% of their working life. When all workers on prolonged sick leave for 52 weeks would remain disabled for the rest of their working life, a maximum of 23.4% of their working life could be lost due to high WBV exposure. Among workers without or low exposure to WBV the corresponding losses were 0.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ConclusionThe approach to assess years of work lost due to an occupational exposure may provide a more adequate description for stakeholders than the traditional measures of relative risk or attributable risk fraction. The concept of work years lost may also facilitate a better appreciation of the potential benefits of preventive measures.

  20. Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Drill Operators in Iron Ore Mines and Role of Machine-Related, Individual, and Rock-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Dhanjee Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Chau, Nearkasen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among large blast hole drill machine operators with regard to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommended threshold values and its association with machine- and rock-related factors and workers' individual characteristics. Methods The study population included 28 drill machine operators who had worked in four opencast iron ore mines in eastern India. The study protocol comprised the following: measurements of WBV exposure [frequency weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration (m/s2)], machine-related data (manufacturer of machine, age of machine, seat height, thickness, and rest height) collected from mine management offices, measurements of rock hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and density, and workers' characteristics via face-to-face interviews. Results More than 90% of the operators were exposed to a higher level WBV than the ISO upper limit and only 3.6% between the lower and upper limits, mainly in the vertical axis. Bivariate correlations revealed that potential predictors of total WBV exposure were: machine manufacturer (r = 0.453, p = 0.015), age of drill (r = 0.533, p = 0.003), and hardness of rock (r = 0.561, p = 0.002). The stepwise multiple regression model revealed that the potential predictors are age of operator (regression coefficient β = −0.052, standard error SE = 0.023), manufacturer (β = 1.093, SE = 0.227), rock hardness (β = 0.045, SE = 0.018), uniaxial compressive strength (β = 0.027, SE = 0.009), and density (β = –1.135, SE = 0.235). Conclusion Prevention should include using appropriate machines to handle rock hardness, rock uniaxial compressive strength and density, and seat improvement using ergonomic approaches such as including a suspension system. PMID:26929838

  1. Early Adolescence: Whole Body Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Roger K., Jr.; Padilla, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    "Whole body" denotes using the entire body to sense and experience a concept or idea. Typical whole body learning activities involve use of several senses: muscle sense, temperature, pain, pressure, and sense of equilibrium. Four whole body science activities are described, including identifying trees by touch. (Author/JN)

  2. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  3. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  4. The relative contribution of intramyocellular lipid to whole body fat oxidation is reduced with age, but subsarcolemmal lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are only associated with overweight individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Shannon, Chris E.; Burns, Aisling; Selby, Anna L.; Wilkinson, Daniel; Smith, Kenneth; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Stephens, Francis B.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is closely related to intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation, and both are associated with increasing age. It remains to be determined to what extent perturbations in IMCL metabolism are related to the ageing process per se. On two separate occasions whole-body and muscle insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp with 2-deoxyglucose) and fat utilisation during 1 h of exercise at 50% VO2max ([U-13C]palmitate infusion combined with electron microscopy of IMCL) were determined in young lean (YL), old lean (OL), and old overweight (OO) males. OL displayed comparable IMCL content and insulin sensitivity to YL, whereas OO were markedly insulin resistant and had over 2-fold greater IMCL in the subsarcolemmal (SSL) region. Indeed, whereas the plasma free fatty acid rate of appearance and disappearance was twice that of YL in both OL and OO, SSL only increased during exercise in OO. Thus, skeletal muscle insulin resistance and lipid accumulation often observed in older individuals are likely due to lifestyle factors, rather than inherent ageing of skeletal muscle as usually reported. However, age per se appears to cause exacerbated adipose tissue lipolysis, suggesting that strategies to reduce muscle lipid delivery and improve adipose tissue function may be warranted in older overweight individuals. The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is most apparent in older people (1), and it is estimated that the number of people over 65 years of age with diabetes will have increased 4.5 fold by 2050 (2). Gaining mechanistic insight of age related insulin resistance and strategies to improve insulin sensitivity with age are clearly warranted. Although ageing is associated with insulin resistance, age per se does not appear to cause insulin resistance (3, 4, 5). Several factors that likely contribute to age related insulin resistance include increased abdominal adiposity and reduced physical activity (3, 4), along with declines in muscle mass (6

  5. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of myeloid leukemia induced by a single whole-body radiation in C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Inoue, T; Nojima, K; Hirabayashi, Y; Sado, T

    1997-03-18

    Dietary restriction, especially caloric restriction, is a major modifier in experimental carcinogenesis and is known to decrease significantly the incidence of neoplasms. Gross and Dreyfuss [Gross, L. & Dreyfuss, Y. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7596-7598; Gross, L. & Dreyfuss, Y. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 7928-7931] reported that a 36% restriction in caloric intake dramatically decreased the radiation-induced solid tumors and/or leukemias. Their protocol predominantly produced lymphatic neoplasms. It is of interest to observe the effect of caloric restriction on radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, because the disease was observed to have been increased in the survivors of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia in C3H/He male mice is 1%, and the incidence increased to 23.3% when 3 Gy of whole-body x-ray irradiation was given. However, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was found to be significantly decreased by caloric restriction; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the onset of the myeloid leukemia in both restricted groups was prolonged to a greater extent as compared with the control diet group. Caloric restriction demonstrated a significant prolongation of the life span in the groups on a restricted diet after having been exposed to irradiation, either before or after dietary restriction, in comparison with mice that were only irradiated. PMID:9122244

  6. Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997. PMID:23558167

  7. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. a Comparison of Evaluations and Assessments Obtained Using Alternative Standards for Predicting the Hazards of Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. H.; Griffin, M. J.

    1998-08-01

    There are three current standards that might be used to assess the vibration and shock transmitted by a vehicle seat with respect to possible effects on human health: ISO 2631/1 (1985), BS 6841 (1987) and ISO 2631-1 (1997). Evaluations have been performed on the seat accelerations measured in nine different transport environments (bus, car, mobile crane, fork-lift truck, tank, ambulance, power boat, inflatable boat, mountain bike) in conditions that might be considered severe. For each environment, limiting daily exposure durations were estimated by comparing the frequency weighted root mean square (i.e., r.m.s.) accelerations and the vibration dose values (i.e.,VDV), calculated according to each standard with the relevant exposure limits, action level and health guidance caution zones. Very different estimates of the limiting daily exposure duration can be obtained using the methods described in the three standards. Differences were observed due to variations in the shapes of the frequency weightings, the phase responses of the frequency weighting filters, the method of combining multi-axis vibration, the averaging method, and the assessment method. With the evaluated motions, differences in the shapes of the weighting filters results in up to about 31% difference in r.m.s. acceleration between the “old” and the “new” ISO standard and up to about 14% difference between BS 6841 and the “new” ISO 2631. There were correspondingly greater differences in the estimates of safe daily exposure durations. With three of the more severe motions there was a difference of more than 250% between estimated safe daily exposure durations based on r.m.s. acceleration and those based on fourth power vibration dose values. The vibration dose values provided the more cautious assessments of the limiting daily exposure duration.

  9. The effect of whole body vibration exposure on balance and functional mobility in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Orr, Rhonda

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the effect of WBV exposure alone on balance and functional mobility in older adults. A literature search of randomized controlled trials (RCT) reporting the effects of WBV on balance or functional mobility outcomes in older adults, was conducted using multiple databases. WBV-plus-exercise was only included if the control group performed the same exercises as the WBV group, but without vibration. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis was performed if three or more studies measured the same outcome. Twenty RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Eight RCTs compared WBV-only with control and eight RCTs compared WBV-plus-exercise with the same-exercise only group. Meta-analysis indicated that WBV improved single-leg stance (p=0.05) and timed up and go (p=0.004) measures compared with controls. WBV improved other balance and mobility outcomes with inconsistent results. Although balance and mobility appeared to be responsive to WBV-plus-exercise, particularly in lower-functioning patients, compared with WBV-only, caution is required when interpreting the findings. Although there is some evidence for an overall effect of WBV on selected balance and mobility measures, its impact remains inconclusive. Robust RCTs examining WBV-only exposure on balance and functional mobility in older adults are warranted. PMID:25631348

  10. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOEpatents

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  11. Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons) Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

  12. The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new

  13. Whole body bone scan. Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.E.; Morayati, S.J.; Carichner, S.; Winkes, B.; Cassisi, R.; McGraw, R.; Schane, E.

    1988-03-01

    The authors present the case example of a patient whose bone scan did not reveal an ulnar abnormality because the ulnae were not included on the whole body scan image. This interesting case demonstrates the importance of positioning the patient for the whole body scan to include the entire skeleton or obtaining additional spot views of the appendicular or axial skeleton not included on whole body images.

  14. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  15. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, Charles J.; Rhudy, Ralph G.; Bushman, Ralph E.

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  16. Dietary Blueberry Attenuates Whole-Body Insulin Resistance in High Fat-Fed Mice by Reducing Adipocyte Death and Its Inflammatory Sequelae1–3

    PubMed Central

    DeFuria, Jason; Bennett, Grace; Strissel, Katherine J.; Perfield, James W.; Milbury, Paul E.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Obin, Martin S.

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation promotes insulin resistance (IR) and other obesity complications. AT inflammation and IR are associated with oxidative stress, adipocyte death, and the scavenging of dead adipocytes by proinflammatory CD11c+ AT macrophages (ATMΦ). We tested the hypothesis that supplementation of an obesitogenic (high-fat) diet with whole blueberry (BB) powder protects against AT inflammation and IR. Male C57Bl/6j mice were maintained for 8 wk on 1 of 3 diets: low-fat (10% of energy) diet (LFD), high-fat (60% of energy) diet (HFD) or the HFD containing 4% (wt:wt) whole BB powder (1:1 Vaccinium ashei and V. corymbosum) (HFD+B). BB supplementation (2.7% of total energy) did not affect HFD-associated alterations in energy intake, metabolic rate, body weight, or adiposity. We observed an emerging pattern of gene expression in AT of HFD mice indicating a shift toward global upregulation of inflammatory genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, inducible nitric oxide synthase), increased M1-polarized ATMΦ (CD11c+), and increased oxidative stress (reduced glutathione peroxidase 3). This shift was attenuated or nonexistent in HFD+B-fed mice. Furthermore, mice fed the HFD+B were protected from IR and hyperglycemia coincident with reductions in adipocyte death. Salutary effects of BB on adipocyte physiology and ATMΦ gene expression may reflect the ability of BB anthocyanins to alter mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB stress signaling pathways, which regulate cell fate and inflammatory genes. These results suggest that cytoprotective and antiinflammatory actions of dietary BB can provide metabolic benefits to combat obesity-associated pathology. PMID:19515743

  17. Toward a whole-body neuroprosthetic.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurological diseases, and limb loss. Considerable progress has been achieved in BMIs that enact arm movements, and initial work has been done on BMIs for lower limb and trunk control. These developments put Duke University Center for Neuroengineering in the position to develop the first BMI for whole-body control. This whole-body BMI will incorporate very large-scale brain recordings, advanced decoding algorithms, artificial sensory feedback based on electrical stimulation of somatosensory areas, virtual environment representations, and a whole-body exoskeleton. This system will be first tested in nonhuman primates and then transferred to clinical trials in humans. PMID:21867793

  18. Benefits of adopting good radiation practices in reducing the whole body radiation dose to the nuclear medicine personnel during 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shashwat; Kheruka, Subhash Chand; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Narvesh; Gambhir, Sanjay; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography has been established as an important imaging modality in the management of patients, especially in oncology. The higher gamma radiation energy of positron-emitting isotopes poses an additional radiation safety problem. Those working with this modality may likely to receive higher whole body doses than those working only in conventional nuclear medicine. The radiation exposure to the personnel occurs in dispensing the dose, administration of activity, patient positioning, and while removing the intravenous (i.v.) cannula. The estimation of radiation dose to Nuclear Medicine Physician (NMP) involved during administration of activity to the patient and technical staff assisting in these procedures in a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) facility was carried out. Materials and Methods: An i.v access was secured for the patient by putting the cannula and blood sugar was monitored. The activity was then dispensed and measured in the dose calibrator and administered to the patient by NMP. Personnel doses received by NMP and technical staff were measured using electronic pocket dosimeter. The radiation exposure levels at various working locations were assessed with the help of gamma survey meter. Results and Discussion: The radiation level at working distance while administering the radioactivity was found to be 106–170 μSv/h with a mean value of 126.5 ± 14.88 μSv/h which was reduced to 4.2–14.2 μSv/h with a mean value of 7.16 ± 2.29 μSv/h with introduction of L-bench for administration of radioactivity. This shows a mean exposure level reduction of 94.45 ± 1.03%. The radiation level at working distance, while removing the i.v. cannula postscanning was found to be 25–70 μSv/h with a mean value of 37.4 ± 13.16 μSv/h which was reduced to 1.0–5.0 μSv/h with a mean value of 2.77 ± 1.3 μSv/h with introduction of L-bench for removal of i.v cannula. This shows a mean exposure level reduction of

  19. WHOLE BODY COUNTING AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition of the human body can be described using a number of different models. The most basic is the atomic model. This chapter describes several nuclear-based techniques that have been used to obtain direct in vivo chemical assays of the whole body of humans. In particular, the body's co...

  20. Whole Body Melanoma Transcriptome Response in Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred; Shen, Yingjia; Maurus, Katja; Walter, Ron; Tomlinson, Chad; Wilson, Richard K.; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wesley C.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase each year with poor prognosis for survival in many relapse cases. To reverse this trend, whole body response measures are needed to discover collaborative paths to primary and secondary malignancy. Several species of fish provide excellent melanoma models because fish and human melanocytes both appear in the epidermis, and fish and human pigment cell tumors share conserved gene expression signatures. For the first time, we have examined the whole body transcriptome response to invasive melanoma as a prelude to using transcriptome profiling to screen for drugs in a medaka (Oryzias latipes) model. We generated RNA-seq data from whole body RNA isolates for controls and melanoma fish. After testing for differential expression, 396 genes had significantly different expression (adjusted p-value <0.02) in the whole body transcriptome between melanoma and control fish; 379 of these genes were matched to human orthologs with 233 having annotated human gene symbols and 14 matched genes that contain putative deleterious variants in human melanoma at varying levels of recurrence. A detailed canonical pathway evaluation for significant enrichment showed the top scoring pathway to be antigen presentation but also included the expected melanocyte development and pigmentation signaling pathway. Results revealed a profound down-regulation of genes involved in the immune response, especially the innate immune system. We hypothesize that the developing melanoma actively suppresses the immune system responses of the body in reacting to the invasive malignancy, and that this mal-adaptive response contributes to disease progression, a result that suggests our whole-body transcriptomic approach merits further use. In these findings, we also observed novel genes not yet identified in human melanoma expression studies and uncovered known and new candidate drug targets for further testing in this malignant melanoma medaka model. PMID

  1. Whole Body Melanoma Transcriptome Response in Medaka.

    PubMed

    Schartl, Manfred; Shen, Yingjia; Maurus, Katja; Walter, Ron; Tomlinson, Chad; Wilson, Richard K; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wesley C

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase each year with poor prognosis for survival in many relapse cases. To reverse this trend, whole body response measures are needed to discover collaborative paths to primary and secondary malignancy. Several species of fish provide excellent melanoma models because fish and human melanocytes both appear in the epidermis, and fish and human pigment cell tumors share conserved gene expression signatures. For the first time, we have examined the whole body transcriptome response to invasive melanoma as a prelude to using transcriptome profiling to screen for drugs in a medaka (Oryzias latipes) model. We generated RNA-seq data from whole body RNA isolates for controls and melanoma fish. After testing for differential expression, 396 genes had significantly different expression (adjusted p-value <0.02) in the whole body transcriptome between melanoma and control fish; 379 of these genes were matched to human orthologs with 233 having annotated human gene symbols and 14 matched genes that contain putative deleterious variants in human melanoma at varying levels of recurrence. A detailed canonical pathway evaluation for significant enrichment showed the top scoring pathway to be antigen presentation but also included the expected melanocyte development and pigmentation signaling pathway. Results revealed a profound down-regulation of genes involved in the immune response, especially the innate immune system. We hypothesize that the developing melanoma actively suppresses the immune system responses of the body in reacting to the invasive malignancy, and that this mal-adaptive response contributes to disease progression, a result that suggests our whole-body transcriptomic approach merits further use. In these findings, we also observed novel genes not yet identified in human melanoma expression studies and uncovered known and new candidate drug targets for further testing in this malignant melanoma medaka model. PMID

  2. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  3. Complex effects of stable noise, sinusoidal vs stochastic low frequency whole-body vibration and dynamic muscular work in temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTS) at a dry-bulb temperature of 30/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Manninen, O.

    1982-01-01

    In the metal industry occupational loss of hearing occurred twice as often among those working with vibrating equipment than among those not exposed to vibration. Occupational loss of hearing also occurred frequently in miners. In the same pits, hearing loss occurred less often among those engaged in pit-propping and among other specialist workers. The generation and development of occupational hearing loss in miners is, in fact, said to depend critically upon vibration, to the effects of which coal-face workers are particularly exosed when drilling. No absolute conclusions can, however, be drawn from these observations, since in many cases the number of different environmental factors prevailing in production life is very large and varies in each stage of production. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine under controlled laboratory conditions the temporary hearing thresholds (TTS) of subjects who, during dynamic muscular work, are exposed at slightly elevated ambient temperature to either noise or vibration separately or to combinations of these factors.

  4. Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.

    PubMed

    Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

    2010-07-01

    Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia. PMID:20558844

  5. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti

  6. Whole body radiotherapy: A TBI-guideline

    PubMed Central

    Quast, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is one main component in the interdisciplinary treatment of widely disseminated malignancies predominantly of haematopoietic diseases. Combined with intensive chemotherapy, TBI enables myeloablative high dose therapy and immuno-ablative conditioning treatment prior to subsequent transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow stem cells or peripheral blood progenitor stem cells. Jointly prepared by DEGRO and DGMP, the German Society of Radio-Oncology, and the German Association of Medical Physicists, this DEGRO/DGMP-Leitlinie Ganzkoerper-Strahlenbehandlung - DEGRO/DGMP Guideline Whole Body Radiotherapy, summarises the concepts, principles, facts and common methods of Total Body Irradiation and poses a set of recommendations for reliable and successful application of high dose large-field radiotherapy as essential part of this interdisciplinary, multi-modality treatment concept. The guideline is geared towards radio-oncologists, medical physicists, haematooncolo-gists, and all contributing to Whole Body Radiotherapy. To guide centres intending to start or actualise TBI criteria are included. The relevant treatment parameters are defined and a sample of a form is given for reporting TBI to international registries. PMID:21206634

  7. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section...

  14. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  15. Whole-body MRI in paediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Littooij, Annemieke S

    2016-05-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and follow-up of paediatric malignancies. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has been the imaging technique of choice in children with cancer, but nowadays there is an increasing interest in the use of functional imaging techniques like positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography. These later techniques are often combined with CT allowing for simultaneous acquisition of image data on the biological behaviour of tumour, as well as the anatomical localisation and extent of tumour spread. Because of the small but not negligible risk of radiation induced secondary cancers and the significantly improved overall survival rates of children with cancer, there is an increasing interest in the use of alternative imaging techniques that do not use ionising radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging tool that allows for acquiring images with a high spatial resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast throughout the body. Moreover, recent technological advances have resulted in fast diagnostic sequences for whole-body MR imaging (WB-MRI), including functional techniques such as diffusion weighted imaging. In this review, the current status of the technique and major clinical applications of WB-MRI in children with cancer will be discussed. PMID:26631075

  16. Central nervous system effects of whole-body proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Tara Beth; Panda, Nirlipta; Hein, Amy M; Das, Shoshana L; Hurley, Sean D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

    2014-07-01

    Space missions beyond the protection of Earth's magnetosphere expose astronauts to an environment that contains ionizing proton radiation. The hazards that proton radiation pose to normal tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS), are not fully understood, although it has been shown that proton radiation affects the neurogenic environment, killing neural precursors and altering behavior. To determine the time and dose-response characteristics of the CNS to whole-body proton irradiation, C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1 GeV/n proton radiation at doses of 0-200 cGy and behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical end points were analyzed over a range of time points (48 h-12 months) postirradiation. These experiments revealed that proton radiation exposure leads to: 1. an acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, with significant differences detected at doses as low as 10 cGy; 2. a persistent effect on proliferation in the subgranular zone, at 1 month postirradiation; 3. a decrease in neurogenesis at doses as low as 50 cGy, at 3 months postirradiation; and 4. a decrease in hippocampal ICAM-1 immunoreactivity at doses as low as 10 cGy, at 1 month postirradiation. The data presented contribute to our understanding of biological responses to whole-body proton radiation and may help reduce uncertainty in the assessment of health risks to astronauts. These findings may also be relevant to clinical proton beam therapy. PMID:24937778

  17. Reduced elbow extension torque during vibrations.

    PubMed

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Coza, Aurel; Nigg, Benno M

    2012-08-31

    Impact sports and vibration platforms trigger vibrations within soft tissues and the skeleton. Although the long-term effects of vibrations on the body have been studied extensively, the acute effects of vibrations are little understood. This study determined the influence of acute vibrations at different frequencies and elbow angles on maximal isometric elbow extension torque and muscle activity. Vibrations were generated by a pneumatic vibrator attached to the lever of a dynamometer, and were applied on the forearm of 15 healthy female subjects. The subjects were instructed to push maximally against the lever at three different elbow angles, while extension torque and muscle activity were quantified and compared between vibration and non-vibration (control) conditions. A change in vibration frequency had no significant effects on torque and muscle activity although vibrations in general decreased the maximal extension torque relative to the control by 1.8% (±5.7%, p>0.05), 7.4% (±7.9%, p<0.01), and 5.0% (±8.2%, p<0.01) at elbow angles of 60°, 90°, and 120°, respectively. Electromyographic activity increased significantly between ∼30% and 40% in both triceps and biceps with vibrations. It is speculated that a similar increase in muscle activity between agonist and antagonist, in combination with an unequal increase in muscle moment arms about the elbow joint, limit the maximal extension torque during exposure to vibrations. This study showed that maximal extension torque decreased during vibration exposure while muscle activity increased and suggests that vibrations may be counterproductive during activities requiring maximal strength but potentially beneficial for strength training. PMID:22771229

  18. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 (5). The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M

  19. Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 5. The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size 6, which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria 5. A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m3 whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm3) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m3). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpreand Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics of Whole-Body Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics for whole-body aircraft flowfield simulations is described. Recent advances in geometry modeling, surface and volume grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to accurate flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for the design and development of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of transport and fighter aircraft flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future, inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology, and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  1. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter....

  2. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter....

  3. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter....

  4. Protein dynamics in whole body and in splanchnic and leg tissues in type I diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, K S; Ford, G C; Ekberg, K; Fernqvist-Forbes, E; Wahren, J

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of insulin's anticatabolic effect in humans, protein dynamics were evaluated in the whole-body, splanchnic, and leg tissues in six C-peptide-negative type I diabetic male patients in the insulin-deprived and insulin-treated states using two separate amino acid models (leucine and phenylalanine). L-(1-13C,15N)leucine, L-(ring-2H5)phenylalanine, and L-(ring-2H2) tyrosine were infused intravenously, and isotopic enrichments of [1-13C,15N]-leucine, (13C)leucine, (13C)ketoisocaproate, (2H5)phenylalanine, [2H4]tyrosine, (2H2)tyrosine, and 13CO2 were measured in arterial, hepatic vein, and femoral vein samples. Whole-body leucine flux, phenylalanine flux, and tyrosine flux were decreased (< 0.01) by insulin treatment, indicating an inhibition of protein breakdown. Moreover, insulin decreased (< 0.05) the rates of leucine oxidation and leucine transamination (P < 0.01), but the percent rate of ketoisocaproate oxidation was increased by insulin (P < 0.01). Insulin also reduced (< 0.01) whole-body protein synthesis estimated from both the leucine model (nonoxidative leucine disposal) and the phenylalanine model (disposal of phenylalanine not accounted by its conversion to tyrosine). Regional studies demonstrated that changes in whole body protein breakdown are accounted for by changes in both splanchnic and leg tissues. The changes in whole-body protein synthesis were not associated with changes in skeletal muscle (leg) protein synthesis but could be accounted for by the splanchnic region. We conclude that though insulin decreases whole-body protein breakdown in patients with type I diabetes by inhibition of protein breakdown in splanchnic and leg tissues, it selectively decreases protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues, which accounted for the observed decrease in whole-body protein synthesis. Insulin also augmented anabolism by decreasing leucine transamination. Images PMID:7769135

  5. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  6. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37

  7. Dose esclation in radioimmunotherapy based on projected whole body dose

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, R.L.; Kaminski, M.S.; Regan, D.

    1994-05-01

    A variety of approaches have been utilized in conducting phase I radioimmunotherapy dose-escalation trials. Escalation of dose has been based on graded increases in administered mCi; mCi/kg; or mCi/m2. It is also possible to escalate dose based on tracer-projected marrow, blood or whole body radiation dose. We describe our results in performing a dose-escalation trial in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma based on escalating administered whole-body radiation dose. The mCi dose administered was based on a patient-individualized tracer projected whole-body dose. 25 patients were entered on the study. RIT with 131 I anti-B-1 was administered to 19 patients. The administered dose was prescribed based on the projected whole body dose, determined from patient-individualized tracer studies performed prior to RIT. Whole body dose estimates were based on the assumption that the patient was an ellipsoid, with 131 antibody kinetics determined using a whole-body probe device acquiring daily conjugate views of 1 minute duration/view. Dose escalation levels proceeded with 10 cGy increments from 25 cGy whole-body and continues, now at 75 cGy. The correlation among potential methods of dose escalation and toxicity was assessed. Whole body radiation dose by probe was strongly correlated with the blood radiation dose determined from sequential blood sampling during tracer studies (r=.87). Blood radiation dose was very weakly correlated with mCi dose (r=.4) and mCi/kg (r=.45). Whole body radiation dose appeared less well-correlated with injected dose in mCi (r=.6), or mCi/kg (r=.64). Toxicity has been infrequent in these patients, but appears related to increasing whole body dose. Non-invasive determination of whole-body radiation dose by gamma probe represents a non-invasive method of estimating blood radiation dose, and thus of estimating bone marrow radiation dose.

  8. Kinematic features of whole-body reaching movements underwater: Neutral buoyancy effects.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, T; Bourdin, C; Buloup, F; Mille, M-L; Sainton, P; Sarlegna, F R; Taillebot, V; Vercher, J-L; Weiss, P; Bringoux, L

    2016-07-01

    Astronauts' training is conventionally performed in a pool to reproduce weightlessness by exploiting buoyancy which is supposed to reduce the impact of gravity on the body. However, this training method has not been scientifically validated yet, and requires first to study the effects of underwater exposure on motor behavior. We examined the influence of neutral buoyancy on kinematic features of whole-body reaching underwater and compared them with those produced on land. Eight professional divers were asked to perform arm reaching movements toward visual targets while standing. Targets were presented either close or far from the subjects (requiring in the latter case an additional whole-body displacement). Reaching movements were performed on land or underwater in two different contexts of buoyancy. The divers either wore a diving suit only with neutral buoyancy applied to their center of mass or were additionally equipped with a submersible simulated space suit with neutral buoyancy applied to their body limbs. Results showed that underwater exposure impacted basic movement features, especially movement speed which was reduced. However, movement kinematics also differed according to the way buoyancy was exerted on the whole-body. When neutral buoyancy was applied to the center of mass only, some focal and postural components of whole-body reaching remained close to land observations, notably when considering the relative deceleration duration of arm elevation and concomitant forward trunk bending when reaching the far target. On the contrary, when neutral buoyancy was exerted on body segments, movement kinematics were close to those reported in weightlessness, as reflected by the arm deceleration phase and the whole-body forward displacement when reaching the far target. These results suggest that astronauts could benefit from the application of neutral buoyancy across the whole-body segments to optimize underwater training and acquire specific motor skills which

  9. A piezoelectric vibration-based syringe for reducing insertion force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. C.; Tsai, M. C.; Lin, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    Puncturing of the human skin with a needle is perhaps the most common invasive medical procedure. Clinical studies have revealed that tissue deformation and needle deflection are the primary problem for needle misplacement in percutaneous procedures. To avoid this, various techniques for reducing insertion forces during needle insertion have been considered. This paper presents a piezoelectric vibration-based syringe to reduce insertion force. AC power was applied to the piezoelectric elements to vibrate the needle with high frequency and thereby reduce the friction and cutting forces between the needle and tissue. Vibration mode shapes of the needle were observed by finite element analysis and verified by experimental results. Effects of reducing insertion force via the vibrating needle were also confirmed by inserting the needle into the porcine tissues. The proposed syringe, which minimizes the insertion force and overcomes limitations of needle materials, can be widely utilized in robot-assisted needle insertion systems.

  10. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish {sup 137}Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. {sup 137}Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. {sup 137}Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average {sup 137}Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22{+-}4 {mu}Sv. For Utirik, the dose was 33{+-} 3 {mu}Sv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2{+-}2 {mu}Sv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 {mu}Sv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab. (MHB)

  11. Fingertip and whole body exposure to nuclear medicine personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Lis, G.A.; Zu'bi, S.M.; Brahmavar, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    We calculate radiation exposure to the nuclear medicine technologist for all common sources of exposure. Special attention is given to exposure received by fingertips. We include typical exposure rates for patient injections, reagent preparations, generator handling and elution, patient positioning, and other phases of nuclear medicine. The cumulative exposure to fingertips and whole body is estimated. When every precaution is taken to minimize exposure in our laboratory, the unavoidable annual exposure to the fingertips is 11 R; to the whole body it is 1 R from all sources. When precautions are not taken, the annual exposure to the fingertips may exceed 170 R and the whole body dose may then approach 2 R. Our nuclear medicine laboratory averages about 1000 injections per technologist per year.

  12. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  13. Design specification for the whole-body algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary requirements and guidelines for the construction of a computer program of the whole-body algorithm are presented. The minimum subsystem models required to effectively simulate the total body response to stresses of interest are (1) cardiovascular (exercise/LBNP/tilt); (2) respiratory (Grodin's model); (3) thermoregulatory (Stolwijk's model); and (4) long-term circulatory fluid and electrolyte (Guyton's model). The whole-body algorithm must be capable of simulating response to stresses from CO2 inhalation, hypoxia, thermal environmental exercise (sitting and supine), LBNP, and tilt (changing body angles in gravity).

  14. Whole-Body Clinical Applications of Digital Tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Machida, Haruhiko; Yuhara, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Mieko; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko; Nye, Katelyn; Sabol, John M

    2016-01-01

    With flat-panel detector mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy systems, digital tomosynthesis (DT) has been recently introduced as an advanced clinical application that removes overlying structures, enhances local tissue separation, and provides depth information about structures of interest by providing high-quality tomographic images. DT images are generated from projection image data, typically using filtered back-projection or iterative reconstruction. These low-dose x-ray projection images are easily and swiftly acquired over a range of angles during a single linear or arc sweep of the x-ray tube assembly. DT is advantageous in a variety of clinical contexts, including breast, chest, head and neck, orthopedic, emergency, and abdominal imaging. Specifically, compared with conventional mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy, as a result of reduced tissue overlap DT can improve detection of breast cancer, pulmonary nodules, sinonasal mucosal thickening, and bone fractures and delineation of complex anatomic structures such as the ostiomeatal unit, atlantoaxial joint, carpal and tarsal bones, and pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal tracts. Compared with computed tomography, DT offers reduced radiation exposure, better in-plane resolution to improve assessment of fine bony changes, and less metallic artifact, improving postoperative evaluation of patients with metallic prostheses and osteosynthesis materials. With more flexible patient positioning, DT is also useful for functional, weight-bearing, and stress tests. To optimize patient management, a comprehensive understanding of the clinical applications and limitations of whole-body DT applications is important for improvement of diagnostic quality, workflow, and cost-effectiveness. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163590

  15. Input Shaping to Reduce Solar Array Structural Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael J.; Tolson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural vibrations induced by actuators can be minimized using input shaping. Input shaping is a feedforward method in which actuator commands are convolved with shaping functions to yield a shaped set of commands. These commands are designed to perform the maneuver while minimizing the residual structural vibration. In this report, input shaping is extended to stepper motor actuators. As a demonstration, an input-shaping technique based on pole-zero cancellation was used to modify the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) actuator commands for the Lewis satellite. A series of impulses were calculated as the ideal SADA output for vibration control. These impulses were then discretized for use by the SADA stepper motor actuator and simulated actuator outputs were used to calculate the structural response. The effectiveness of input shaping is limited by the accuracy of the knowledge of the modal frequencies. Assuming perfect knowledge resulted in significant vibration reduction. Errors of 10% in the modal frequencies caused notably higher levels of vibration. Controller robustness was improved by incorporating additional zeros in the shaping function. The additional zeros did not require increased performance from the actuator. Despite the identification errors, the resulting feedforward controller reduced residual vibrations to the level of the exactly modeled input shaper and well below the baseline cases. These results could be easily applied to many other vibration-sensitive applications involving stepper motor actuators.

  16. BABYSCAN: a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Yamanaka, Shunji; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2014-09-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for (137)Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described. PMID:25118889

  17. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  18. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2008-01-01

    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

  19. Small-animal whole-body photoacoustic tomography: a review

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of small animals for biomedical studies, in vivo small-animal whole-body imaging plays an increasingly important role. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging whole-body imaging modality that shows great potential for preclinical research. As a hybrid technique, PAT is based on the acoustic detection of optical absorption from either endogenous tissue chromophores, such as oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin, or exogenous contrast agents. Because ultrasound scatters much less than light in tissue, PAT generates high-resolution images in both the optical ballistic and diffusive regimes. Using near-infrared light, which has relatively low blood absorption, PAT can image through the whole body of small animals with acoustically defined spatial resolution. Anatomical and vascular structures are imaged with endogenous hemoglobin contrast, while functional and molecular images are enabled by the wide choice of exogenous optical contrasts. This paper reviews the rapidly growing field of small-animal whole-body PAT and highlights studies done in the past decade. PMID:24108456

  20. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  1. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200–870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000–20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  2. Towards Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Obrig, Hellmuth; Steinbrink, Jens; Mehnert, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF) whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i) allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii) can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (∼10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively). When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases. PMID:24391820

  3. Different ways of reducing vibrations induced by cryogenic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizon, J. L.; Jakob, G.; de Marneffe, B.; Preumont, A.

    2010-07-01

    The infrared instruments and most of the detectors have to be operated at cryogenics temperatures. Today, this is generally achieved using mechanical coolers. Compared to traditional nitrogen systems, these coolers, which large implementation started 15 years ago, have the advantage of reducing considerably the operation effort at the observatories. Depending of the technology, these coolers are all generating a level of vibration which in most of the cases is not compatible with the extremely high stability requirement of the large size telescope. This paper described different ways which have been used at ESO to reduce the vibration caused by the large IR instruments. We show how we reached the goal to have the cryogenic instruments so quiet that they do not affect the operation of the interferometry mode of the VLT. The last section of the paper reports on a unique system based on a counter vibration principle.

  4. Post-stressed concrete foundation may reduce machinery vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fistedis, S. H.

    1967-01-01

    Post-stressing concrete mat foundation reduces excessive vibrations in machinery. The mat is stressed in compression after the machinery is mounted, thus closing any cracks in it, altering the distribution of the soil subgrade reaction on the mat, and changing the mat-subgrade natural frequency.

  5. The development of a whole-body algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The whole-body algorithm is envisioned as a mathematical model that utilizes human physiology to simulate the behavior of vital body systems. The objective of this model is to determine the response of selected body parameters within these systems to various input perturbations, or stresses. Perturbations of interest are exercise, chemical unbalances, gravitational changes and other abnormal environmental conditions. This model provides for a study of man's physiological response in various space applications, underwater applications, normal and abnormal workloads and environments, and the functioning of the system with physical impairments or decay of functioning components. Many methods or approaches to the development of a whole-body algorithm are considered. Of foremost concern is the determination of the subsystems to be included, the detail of the subsystems and the interaction between the subsystems.

  6. Whole body simultaneous PET/MRI: one-stop-shop?

    PubMed

    Maseeh-uz-Zaman; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza

    2014-02-01

    Beginning of this century is hallmarked by arrival of hybrid imaging PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computerized tomography) which has become a standard of care primarily in oncology in a short span of time. Continuous research and development by industry and academia for exploiting the excellent soft tissue contrast, spectroscopy and precise measurement of various functional parameters by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with PET has resulted in emergence of whole body PET/MRI. It is expected this new hybrid modality would be warmly welcomed due to high magnitude of functional and morphostructural information at molecular level with low radiation dose which is indeed a point of concern for young and paediatric population. This short technical report for nuclear medicine readers will focus upon the various configuration and acquisition sequences of PET/MRI, attenuation correction and clinical applications of whole body simultaneous PET/MRI. PMID:24640813

  7. Quantitative whole-body autoradiography: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Andrew; Henson, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Traditional bioanalytical measurements determine concentrations of drug and metabolites in plasma; however, most drugs exert their effects in defined target tissues. As there is no clear relation between concentrations in plasma and those in tissue, alternative methods must be employed to study the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties of new therapeutic agents. Quantitative whole-body autoradiography is used in the drug development process to determine the distribution and concentrations of radiolabeled test compounds in laboratory animals. Quantitative whole-body autoradiography can provide information on tissue PKs, penetration, accumulation and retention. Although the technique is considered the industry standard for performing preclinical tissue distribution studies, it is perhaps timely, 60 years after the first reported use of the method, to re-assess the technique against modern alternatives. PMID:25826137

  8. Reduction of a Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Stabilise the Bayesian Analysis of Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Thierry; Tsamandouras, Nikolaos; Dumitras, Swati; Pigeolet, Etienne; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are increasingly used in drug development for their ability to predict drug concentrations in clinically relevant tissues and to extrapolate across species, experimental conditions and sub-populations. A whole-body PBPK model can be fitted to clinical data using a Bayesian population approach. However, the analysis might be time consuming and numerically unstable if prior information on the model parameters is too vague given the complexity of the system. We suggest an approach where (i) a whole-body PBPK model is formally reduced using a Bayesian proper lumping method to retain the mechanistic interpretation of the system and account for parameter uncertainty, (ii) the simplified model is fitted to clinical data using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques and (iii) the optimised reduced PBPK model is used for extrapolation. A previously developed 16-compartment whole-body PBPK model for mavoglurant was reduced to 7 compartments while preserving plasma concentration-time profiles (median and variance) and giving emphasis to the brain (target site) and the liver (elimination site). The reduced model was numerically more stable than the whole-body model for the Bayesian analysis of mavoglurant pharmacokinetic data in healthy adult volunteers. Finally, the reduced yet mechanistic model could easily be scaled from adults to children and predict mavoglurant pharmacokinetics in children aged from 3 to 11 years with similar performance compared with the whole-body model. This study is a first example of the practicality of formal reduction of complex mechanistic models for Bayesian inference in drug development. PMID:26538125

  9. Contributions of working muscle to whole body lipid metabolism are altered by exercise intensity and training.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Anne L; Jacobs, Kevin A; Fattor, Jill A; Horning, Michael A; Hagobian, Todd A; Bauer, Timothy A; Wolfel, Eugene E; Brooks, George A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of working muscle to whole body lipid oxidation, we examined the effects of exercise intensity and endurance training (9 wk, 5 days/wk, 1 h, 75% Vo(2 peak)) on whole body and leg free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics in eight male subjects (26 +/- 1 yr, means +/- SE). Two pretraining trials [45 and 65% Vo(2 max) (45UT, 65UT)] and two posttraining trials [65% of pretraining Vo(2 peak) (ABT), and 65% of posttraining Vo(2 peak) (RLT)] were performed using [1-(13)C]palmitate infusion and femoral arteriovenous sampling. Training increased Vo(2 peak) by 15% (45.2 +/- 1.2 to 52.0 +/- 1.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P < 0.05). Muscle FFA fractional extraction was lower during exercise (EX) compared with rest regardless of workload or training status ( approximately 20 vs. 48%, P < 0.05). Two-leg net FFA balance increased from net release at rest ( approximately -36 micromol/min) to net uptake during EX for 45UT (179 +/- 75), ABT (236 +/- 63), and RLT (136 +/- 110) (P < 0.05), but not 65UT (51 +/- 127). Leg FFA tracer measured uptake was higher during EX than rest for all trials and greater during posttraining in RLT (716 +/- 173 micromol/min) compared with pretraining (45UT 450 +/- 80, 65UT 461 +/- 72, P < 0.05). Leg muscle lipid oxidation increased with training in ABT (730 +/- 163 micromol/min) vs. 65UT (187 +/- 94, P < 0.05). Leg muscle lipid oxidation represented approximately 62 and 30% of whole body lipid oxidation at lower and higher relative intensities, respectively. In summary, training can increase working muscle tracer measured FFA uptake and lipid oxidation for a given power output, but both before and after training the association between whole body and leg lipid metabolism is reduced as exercise intensity increases. PMID:16896167

  10. Whole-body response to pure lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Lessley, David; Shaw, Greg; Parent, Daniel; Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kindig, Matthew; Riley, Patrick; Purtsezov, Sergey; Sochor, Mark; Gochenour, Thomas; Bolton, James; Subit, Damien; Crandall, Jeff; Takayama, Shinichi; Ono, Koshiro; Kamiji, Koichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband. Following the impact the subject was captured in an energy-absorbing net that provided a controlled non-injurious deceleration. The wall maintained nearly constant velocity throughout the impact event. One of the tested subjects sustained 16 rib fractures as well as injury to the struck shoulder while the other two tested subjects sustained no injuries. The collected response data suggest that the shoulder injury may have contributed to the rib fractures in the injured subject. The results suggest that the shoulder presents a substantial load path and may play an important role in transmitting lateral forces to the spine, shielding and protecting the ribcage. This characterization of whole-body, lateral impact response provides quantified subject responses and boundary condition interactions that are currently unavailable for whole-body, lateral impacts at impact speeds less than 6.7 m/s. PMID:21512913

  11. A new technological approach to radiant heat whole body hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Robins, H I; Woods, J P; Schmitt, C L; Cohen, J D

    1994-05-16

    A new methodology for administering radiant heat whole body hyperthermia (WBH) in humans is described. The technology utilized circulates hot water in a cylinder constructed from copper tubing; the design incorporates a counter current distribution system to maintain thermal constancy. The tubing is coated with a temperature resistant high emissivity finish. Other features include a humidification system to eliminate evaporative heat losses. Data accrued from initial evaluation of this apparatus with a canine model shows that there was no detectable WBH-related hematological, biochemical or physiological toxicity. The perceived advantages of this WBH-system are discussed. PMID:8019971

  12. Simulation of surface EMG for the analysis of muscle activity during whole body vibratory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Antonio; Bifulco, Paolo; Romano, Maria; Clemente, Fabrizio; Cesarelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to reproduce the effect of motor-unit synchronization on surface EMG recordings during vibratory stimulation to highlight vibration evoked muscle activity. The authors intended to evaluate, through numerical simulations, the changes in surface EMG spectrum in muscles undergoing whole body vibration stimulation. In some specific bands, in fact, vibration induced motion artifacts are also typically present. In addition, authors meant to compare the simulated EMGs with respect to real recordings in order to discriminate the effect of synchronization of motor units discharges with vibration frequencies from motion artifacts. Computations were performed using a model derived from previous studies and modified to consider the effect of vibratory stimulus, the motor unit synchronization and the endplates-electrodes relative position on the EMG signal. Results revealed that, in particular conditions, synchronization of MUs' discharge generates visible peaks at stimulation frequency and its harmonics. However, only a part of the total power of surface EMGs might be enclosed within artifacts related bands (± 1 Hz centered at the stimulation frequency and its superior harmonics) even in case of strong synchronization of motor units discharges with the vibratory stimulus. PMID:24183387

  13. Integrating Cellular Metabolism into a Multiscale Whole-Body Model

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Markus; Schaller, Stephan; Borchers, Steffen; Findeisen, Rolf; Lippert, Jörg; Kuepfer, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Cellular metabolism continuously processes an enormous range of external compounds into endogenous metabolites and is as such a key element in human physiology. The multifaceted physiological role of the metabolic network fulfilling the catalytic conversions can only be fully understood from a whole-body perspective where the causal interplay of the metabolic states of individual cells, the surrounding tissue and the whole organism are simultaneously considered. We here present an approach relying on dynamic flux balance analysis that allows the integration of metabolic networks at the cellular scale into standardized physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models at the whole-body level. To evaluate our approach we integrated a genome-scale network reconstruction of a human hepatocyte into the liver tissue of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of a human adult. The resulting multiscale model was used to investigate hyperuricemia therapy, ammonia detoxification and paracetamol-induced toxication at a systems level. The specific models simultaneously integrate multiple layers of biological organization and offer mechanistic insights into pathology and medication. The approach presented may in future support a mechanistic understanding in diagnostics and drug development. PMID:23133351

  14. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy. PMID:20161620

  15. Whole body protein metabolism in children with cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Daley, S E; Pearson, A D; Craft, A W; Kernahan, J; Wyllie, R A; Price, L; Brock, C; Hetherington, C; Halliday, D; Bartlett, K

    1996-01-01

    Whole body protein synthesis and catabolism were measured using the [ring-2H5]phenylalanine and [1-13C]leucine primed constant infusion technique in 32 paediatric patients with cancer at different stages of treatment. Rates of synthesis (S) and catabolism (C) derived from the [ring-2H5]phenylalanine and [1-13C]leucine models were 4.7 (SD 1.3) (S) and 6.0 (1.5) (C) g/d/kg, and 5.5 (0.8) (S) and 6.8 (1.2) (C) g/d/kg, respectively. These results show that these two tracer techniques give similar results in this study population. Comparison of these values with results previously reported for groups of control children using the [ring-2H5]phenylalanine model (S = 3.69 and 3.93; C = 4.09 and 4.28 g/d/kg) and the [1-13C]leucine model (S = 4.32; C = 4.85 g/d/kg) show that rates of synthesis and catabolism were higher in cancer patients than in controls. Thus whole body protein turnover is increased in children under treatment for cancer. Other indices of metabolism such as plasma amino acids and intermediary metabolites were also measured and showed that, although subjects were in isotopic steady state, there were significant metabolic changes during the course of the primed constant infusions used to measure protein turnover. PMID:8984910

  16. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    , was employed along with extensive Monte Carlo simulations and an initial clinical 18F-deoxyglucose patient dataset to validate and demonstrate the potential of the proposed statistical estimation methods. Both simulated and clinical results suggest that hybrid regression in the context of whole-body Patlak Ki imaging considerably reduces MSE without compromising high CNR. Alternatively, for a given CNR, hybrid regression enables larger reductions than OLS in the number of dynamic frames per bed, allowing for even shorter acquisitions of ˜30 min, thus further contributing to the clinical adoption of the proposed framework. Compared to the SUV approach, whole-body parametric imaging can provide better tumor quantification, and can act as a complement to SUV, for the task of tumor detection.

  17. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  18. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bowen; Avila, Jesus I.; Ng, Bennett K.; Fan, Bo; Loo, Victoria; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Lappe, Joan; Oberfield, Sharon; Winer, Karen; Zemel, Babette; Shepherd, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity and its consequences, such as diabetes, are global health issues that burden about 171 × 106 adult individuals worldwide. Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2), and percent fat mass may be useful to evaluate under- and overnutrition and muscle development in a clinical or research environment. This proof-of-concept study tested whether frontal whole-body silhouettes could be used to accurately measure body composition parameters using active shape modeling (ASM) techniques. Methods: Binary shape images (silhouettes) were generated from the skin outline of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scans of 200 healthy children of ages from 6 to 16 yr. The silhouette shape variation from the average was described using an ASM, which computed principal components for unique modes of shape. Predictive models were derived from the modes for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat using stepwise linear regression. The models were compared to simple models using demographics alone [age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ)]. Results: The authors found that 95% of the shape variation of the sampled population could be explained using 26 modes. In most cases, the body composition variables could be predicted similarly between demographics-only and shape-only models. However, the combination of shape with demographics improved all estimates of boys and girls compared to the demographics-only model. The best prediction models for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat agreed with the actual measures with R2 adj. (the coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of parameters used in the model equation) values of 0.86, 0.95, and 0.75 for boys and 0.90, 0.89, and 0.69 for girls, respectively. Conclusions: Whole-body silhouettes in children may be useful to derive estimates of body composition including FMI, FFMI, and percent fat. These results support the feasibility of measuring body composition variables from simple

  19. Damping element for reducing the vibration of an airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Marra, John J

    2013-11-12

    An airfoil (10) is provided with a tip (12) having an opening (14) to a center channel (24). A damping element (16) is inserted within the opening of the center channel, to reduce an induced vibration of the airfoil. The mass of the damping element, a spring constant of the damping element within the center channel, and/or a mounting location (58) of the damping element within the center channel may be adjustably varied, to shift a resonance frequency of the airfoil outside a natural operating frequency of the airfoil.

  20. Emergency treatment of exertional heatstroke and comparison of whole body cooling techniques.

    PubMed

    Costrini, A

    1990-02-01

    This manuscript compares the whole body cooling techniques in the emergency treatment of heatstroke. Historically, the use of cold water immersion with skin massage has been quite successful in rapidly lowering body temperature and in avoiding severe complications or death. Recent studies have suggested alternative therapies, including the use of a warm air spray, the use of helicopter downdraft, and pharmacological agents. While evidence exists to support these methods, they have not been shown to reduce fatalities as effectively as ice water immersion. Although several cooling methods may have clinical use, all techniques rely on the prompt recognition of symptoms and immediate action in the field. PMID:2406541

  1. A 2-Tesla active shield magnet for whole body imaging and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, F.J.; Elliott, R.T.; Hawksworth, D.G. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on the development and testing of a 2T superconducting Active Shield magnet, with a 0.99m diameter warm bore for whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. The magnet and cryostat were designed to meet the same performance standards as existing MRI magnets, but with the volume of the stray field region reduced to less than 4% of that for an unshielded magnet. The 0.5 mT stray field contour is within 5m axially and 3m radially of the magnet center. The system weight is only 14 tonnes.

  2. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating palm-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Peterson, Donald R.; Xu, Xueyan S.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Asaki, Takafumi; Kudernatsch, Simon; Brammer, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been increasingly used to help reduce vibration exposure, but it remains unclear how effective these gloves are. The purpose of this study was to estimate tool-specific performances of VR gloves for reducing the vibrations transmitted to the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions (3-D) in an attempt to assess glove effectiveness and aid in the appropriate selection of these gloves. Four typical VR gloves were considered in this study, two of which can be classified as anti-vibration (AV) gloves according to the current AV glove test standard. The average transmissibility spectrum of each glove in each direction was synthesized based on spectra measured in this study and other spectra collected from reported studies. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were considered in the estimations, which were also measured in this study or collected from reported studies. The glove performance assessments were based on the percent reduction of frequency-weighted acceleration as is required in the current standard for assessing the risk of vibration exposures. The estimated tool-specific vibration reductions of the gloves indicate that the VR gloves could slightly reduce (<5%) or marginally amplify (<10%) the vibrations generated from low-frequency (<25 Hz) tools or those vibrating primarily along the axis of the tool handle. With other tools, the VR gloves could reduce palm-transmitted vibrations in the range of 5%–58%, primarily depending on the specific tool and its vibration spectra in the three directions. The two AV gloves were not more effective than the other gloves with some of the tools considered in this study. The implications of the results are discussed. Relevance to industry Hand-transmitted vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves are considered as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. This study provides useful information

  3. Applications of quantitative whole body autoradiographic technique in radiopharmaceutical research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Yonekura, Y.; Meyer, M.A.; Fand, I.; Brill, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The routine evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals involves dissecting tissue distribution studies (DTDS) and gamma or positron imaging. DTDS have the following disadvantages: since not all tissues can always be sampled, sites of radiopharmaceutical uptake may be missed and because the procedure involves weighing of dissected tissue samples, the spatial resolution of this method is low and determined by the smallest amount that can be weighed accurately. Gamma camera imaging and positron emission tomography though more comprehensive in evaluating the global distribution of a compound, have relative low spatial resolution. Whole body autoradiography of small animals has a much higher spatial resolution as compared to the above and depicts the global distribution of radiopharmaceuticals. A computer-assisted quantification method of WBARG applied to positron, beta, and gamma emitters will complement the method by producing quantitative values comparable to those obtained by dissection and direct tissue counting, with the advantages of depicting the global distribution at high spatial resolution.

  4. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  5. Whole-body mathematical model for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Penar, Paul L. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor); Tranmer, Bruce I. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A whole-body mathematical model (10) for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics. In one embodiment, model (10) includes 17 interacting compartments, of which nine lie entirely outside of intracranial vault (14). Compartments (F) and (T) are defined to distinguish ventricular from extraventricular CSF. The vasculature of the intracranial system within cranial vault (14) is also subdivided into five compartments (A, C, P, V, and S, respectively) representing the intracranial arteries, capillaries, choroid plexus, veins, and venous sinus. The body's extracranial systemic vasculature is divided into six compartments (I, J, O, Z, D, and X, respectively) representing the arteries, capillaries, and veins of the central body and the lower body. Compartments (G) and (B) include tissue and the associated interstitial fluid in the intracranial and lower regions. Compartment (Y) is a composite involving the tissues, organs, and pulmonary circulation of the central body and compartment (M) represents the external environment.

  6. Integrated Whole Body MR/PET: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging systems have recently become available for clinical use and are currently being used to explore whether the combined anatomic and functional capabilities of MR imaging and the metabolic information of PET provide new insight into disease phenotypes and biology, and provide a better assessment of oncologic diseases at a lower radiation dose than a CT. This review provides an overview of the technical background of combined MR/PET systems, a discussion of the potential advantages and technical challenges of hybrid MR/PET instrumentation, as well as collection of possible solutions. Various early clinical applications of integrated MR/PET are also addressed. Finally, the workflow issues of integrated MR/PET, including maximizing diagnostic information while minimizing acquisition time are discussed. PMID:25598673

  7. Vertebrate Growth and Form: A Whole-Body Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J.

    The problems of growth and form in organic systems remain largely unsolved. Field methods applied to the whole body provide an alternative to the genetic approach. Cells cohere according to the electrical forces between cell membranes; and an obvious place to begin applying field methods is to the major electrical pathways of the cerebrospinal system. This paper describes the author's private research into morphogenesis, involving computer modelling of AC and DC fields associated with the spinal and autonomic nerve chains. The 2D and 3D models considered here assume the existence of a stable pattern of electrical sources throughout development, and that expresses itself in different ways according to the overall size. The concept of electrical resonance is basic to this study, and has wide implications, involving earth and solar fields. It is also relevant to the growing use of ELF oscillators in medicine.

  8. Integrated whole body MR/PET: where are we?

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Jeong Min

    2015-01-01

    Whole body integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging systems have recently become available for clinical use and are currently being used to explore whether the combined anatomic and functional capabilities of MR imaging and the metabolic information of PET provide new insight into disease phenotypes and biology, and provide a better assessment of oncologic diseases at a lower radiation dose than a CT. This review provides an overview of the technical background of combined MR/PET systems, a discussion of the potential advantages and technical challenges of hybrid MR/PET instrumentation, as well as collection of possible solutions. Various early clinical applications of integrated MR/PET are also addressed. Finally, the workflow issues of integrated MR/PET, including maximizing diagnostic information while minimizing acquisition time are discussed. PMID:25598673

  9. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  10. Whole body bone scintigraphy in osseous hydatosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Abdolali; Assadi, Majid; Saghari, Mohsen; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Gholami, Amir; Ghasemikhah, Reza; Assadi, Sakineh

    2007-01-01

    Hydatid disease is common in many parts of the world, and causes considerable health and economic loss. This disease may develop in almost any part of the body. Bone involvement is often asymptomatic, and its diagnosis is primarily based on radiographic findings. A whole body bone scan is able to show the extent and distribution of lesions. We describe an unusual case of multifocal skeletal hydatosis and also explain the clinical and diagnostic points. We hope to stimulate a high index of suspicion among clinicians to facilitate early diagnosis and to consider this disease as a differential diagnosis in cases of multiple abnormal activity in bone scintigraphy especially among people in endemic areas. PMID:17880713

  11. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  12. Whole-body imaging at 7T: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J Thomas; Snyder, Carl J; DelaBarre, Lance J; Bolan, Patrick J; Tian, Jinfeng; Bolinger, Lizann; Adriany, Gregor; Andersen, Peter; Strupp, John; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of whole-body imaging at 7T. To achieve this objective, new technology and methods were developed. Radio frequency (RF) field distribution and specific absorption rate (SAR) were first explored through numerical modeling. A body coil was then designed and built. Multichannel transmit and receive coils were also developed and implemented. With this new technology in hand, an imaging survey of the "landscape" of the human body at 7T was conducted. Cardiac imaging at 7T appeared to be possible. The potential for breast imaging and spectroscopy was demonstrated. Preliminary results of the first human body imaging at 7T suggest both promise and directions for further development. PMID:19097214

  13. Application of whole-body autoradiography in toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Benard, P.; Burgat, V.; Rico, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Whole-body autoradiography enables the drugs and toxicants to be distributed throughout the animal. Good results are obtained with this technique. However, certain artifacts can occur that could lead to misinterpretation, and these must be known. These artifacts are described. From the metabolic point of view, autoradiography provides data on the distribution kinetics of a compound and the elimination of radioactivity in various organs. These data are a guide for quantitative research into the metabolism of a compound. From the toxicological point of view, it must be admitted that the main purpose of this technique is to reveal the sites of retention of radioactivity. Such specific organ retention could be the consequence of the activation of a minor metabolite into a very reactive compound. If this is so, it is a specific organ effect which could not be studied by other techniques and could lead the way to a more specific organ effect which could not be studied by other techniques and could lead the way to a more appropriate line of research in the study of chronic toxicity. However, it must be recalled that the fact that a compound is retained by a specific organ does not always mean that the compound exerts a toxic effect upon the said organ. With this technique, distribution study can be performed on pregnant animals, and it provides us with more data concerning the transplacental passage of radioactive metabolites. All these aspects of the technique clearly indicate that whole-body autoradiography should be insisted upon during the early stages of development of new molecules. Successive experiments could then lead to selecting the best experimental conditions for metabolic pharmacokinetics and studies in toxicology. 245 references.

  14. Dual adaptation to sensory conflicts during whole-body rotations.

    PubMed

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Panagiotaki, Panagiota; Berthoz, Alain

    2006-02-01

    A dual adaptation paradigm was used in order to study the adaptation to two conditions of conflicting visual and kinesthetic and vestibular information. Adaptation was induced in humans by modifying visual information during whole-body rotations with the help of a virtual reality set-up. Real rotations' amplitudes were factored by a gain of 0.5 or 1.5. The two conditions were associated to a visual context cue. The aim of the experiment was to provide support for either the feedback or the feedforward model of adaptive states switch. Results show that subjects could adapt to the two conditions of conflict during whole-body rotations. However, the two conflict situations have been found to differ both in their motor dynamics and in their susceptibility to adaptation, as it seems that the adaptation is more complete in the condition of gain 1.5, i.e., faster and more precise. Subjects could be divided into two groups according to their ability to use contextual information to switch between adaptive gains. The visual cues were sufficient for some subjects to switch adaptive state, which corresponds to a context-dependent dual adaptation, or feedforward model of switching. Other subjects showed a switch cost maintained across the experiment, corresponding with a stimulus-dependent adaptation, or feedback model of switching. We are suggesting that the process enabling switching between adaptive states depends on subjects' abilities to use contextual cues of certain types, and thus on their "perceptive styles". This could explain the variability of results obtained in the literature. PMID:16457794

  15. Whole-Body MRI in Children: Current Imaging Techniques and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent and distribution of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Not using ionizing radiation is a major advantage of pediatric whole-body MRI. Coronal and sagittal short tau inversion recovery imaging is most commonly used as the fundamental whole-body MRI protocol. Diffusion-weighted imaging and Dixon-based imaging, which has been recently incorporated into whole-body MRI, are promising pulse sequences, particularly for pediatric oncology. Other pulse sequences may be added to increase diagnostic capability of whole-body MRI. Of importance, the overall whole-body MRI examination time should be less than 30-60 minutes in children, regardless of the imaging protocol. Established and potentially useful clinical applications of pediatric whole-body MRI are described. PMID:26355493

  16. Abatacept Improves Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ursini, Francesco; Russo, Emilio; Letizia Hribal, Marta; Mauro, Daniele; Savarino, Francesca; Bruno, Caterina; Tripolino, Cesare; Rubino, Mariangela; Naty, Saverio; Grembiale, Rosa Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by increased insulin resistance, a well-known risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of abatacept on insulin sensitivity in RA patients with moderate to severe disease despite treatment with methotrexate. Fifteen RA patients were recruited for the present study. Patients were evaluated at time 0 and after 6 months of the treatment with i.v. abatacept at the dosage recommended for weight range. Evaluation included oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at both time points. Insulin sensitivity was estimated with insulin sensitivity index (ISI) by Matsuda, a measure of whole-body insulin sensitivity. ISI significantly increased after the treatment with abatacept from 3.7 ± 2.6 to 5.0 ± 3.2 (P = 0.003) with a mean difference of 1.23. Analysis of glucose and insulin values during OGTT revealed a reduction of both glucose (303.9 ± 73.4 mg/dL min versus 269.2 ± 69.5 mg/dL min, P = 0.009) and insulin (208.4 ± 119.7 mg/dL min versus 158.0 ± 95.3 mg/dL min, P = 0.01) area under the curves (AUCs). Accordingly also glycated hemoglobin significantly improved (5.5 ± 0.4% versus 5.3 ± 0.3%, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found for measures of β-cell function insulinogenic index (1.11 ± 1.19 versus 1.32 ± 0.82, P = 0.77) and oral disposition index (2.0 ± 5.4 versus 6.0 ± 6.0, P = 0.25). Treatment with abatacept seems to be able to improve whole-body insulin sensitivity in RA patients without affecting β-cell function. PMID:26020396

  17. Shaping inputs to reduce vibration for suspended payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.; Jansen, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how to reduce the vibrational motion of an object transported by an overhead crane. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that oscillation-damped transport and swing-free stops are possible by properly programming the acceleration of the transporting crane. The main objective of this paper is to generalize the theory associated with oscillation-damped trajectories for simply suspended objects based on the work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Further, the results are applied to a full-scale implementation of the damped oscillation methods for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS). Hardware and software requirements and constraints for proper operation are discussed. Finally, test results and lessons learned'' are presented. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below −100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

  19. Characterisation of the PSI whole body counter by radiographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Boschung, M; Meier, K; Laedermann, J-P; Bochud, F O

    2011-03-01

    A joint project between the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) and the Institute of Radiation Physics was initiated to characterise the PSI whole body counter in detail through measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. Accurate knowledge of the detector geometry is essential for reliable simulations of human body phantoms filled with known activity concentrations. Unfortunately, the technical drawings provided by the manufacturer are often not detailed enough and sometimes the specifications do not agree with the actual set-up. Therefore, the exact detector geometry and the position of the detector crystal inside the housing were determined through radiographic images. X-rays were used to analyse the structure of the detector, and (60)Co radiography was employed to measure the core of the germanium crystal. Moreover, the precise axial alignment of the detector within its housing was determined through a series of radiographic images with different incident angles. The hence obtained information enables us to optimise the Monte Carlo geometry model and to perform much more accurate and reliable simulations. PMID:21044999

  20. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  1. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

  2. Whole-body impedance--what does it measure?

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Lukaski, H C

    1996-09-01

    Although the bioelectrical impedance technique is widely used in human nutrition and clinical research, an integrated summary of the biophysical and bioelectrical bases of this approach is lacking. We summarize the pertinent electrical phenomena relevant to the application of the impedance technique in vivo and discuss the relations between electrical measurements and biological conductor volumes. Key terms in the derivation of bioelectrical impedance analysis are described and the relation between the electrical properties of tissues and tissue structure is discussed. The relation between the impedance of an object and its geometry, scale, and intrinsic electrical properties is also discussed. Correlations between whole-body impedance measurements and various bioconductor volumes, such as total body water and fat-free mass, are experimentally well established; however, the reason for the success of the impedence technique is much less clear. The bioengineering basis for the technique is critically presented and considerations are proposed that might help to clarify the method and potentially improve its sensitivity. PMID:8780354

  3. Sex differences in whole body gait kinematics at preferred speeds.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Dustin A; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Goodyear, Chuck D; Bowden, David R; Fullenkamp, Adam M

    2015-02-01

    Studies on human perception have identified pelvis and torso motion as key discriminators between male and female gaits. However, while most observers would advocate that men and women walk differently, consistent findings and explanations of sex differences in gait kinematics across modern empirical studies are rare. In the present study we evaluated sex differences in whole body gait kinematics from a large sample of subjects (55 men, 36 women) walking at self selected speeds. We analyzed the data through comparisons of discrete metrics and whole curve analyses. Results showed that in the frontal plane, women walked with greater pelvic obliquity than men, but exhibited a more stable torso and head. Women had greater transverse plane pelvis and torso rotation as well as greater arm swing. Additional sex differences were noted at the hip and ankle. These kinematic results are in line with anectdotal observations and qualitative studies. In order to understand these observations and substantiate some of the explanations previously set forth in the biomechanics literature, we also explored possible reasons for dynamic sex effects, and suggested applications that may benefit from their consideration. PMID:25548119

  4. Consequences of lethal-whole-body gamma radiation and possible ameliorative role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Mihandoost, Ehsan; Shirazi, Alireza; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Gamma radiation induces the generation of free radicals, leading to serious cellular damages in biological systems. Radioprotectors act as prophylactic agents that are administered to shield normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiation. Melatonin synergistically acts as an immune-stimulator and antioxidant. We investigated the possible radioprotective role of melatonin (100 mg/kg i.p.) against lethal-whole-body radiation- (10 Gy) induced sickness, body weight loss, and mortality in rats. Results of the present study suggest that exposure to lethal-whole-body radiation incurred mortality, body weight loss, and apoptosis and it also depleted the immunity and the antioxidant status of the rats. Our results show that melatonin pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced mortality, oxidative stress, and immune-suppression. The melatonin pretreated irradiated rats showed less change in body weight as compared to radiation only group. On the other hand, melatonin appeared to have another radioprotective role, suggesting that melatonin may reduce apoptosis through a caspase-3-mediated pathway by blocking caspase-3 activity. PMID:25431791

  5. Consequences of Lethal-Whole-Body Gamma Radiation and Possible Ameliorative Role of Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Mihandoost, Ehsan; Shirazi, Alireza; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Gamma radiation induces the generation of free radicals, leading to serious cellular damages in biological systems. Radioprotectors act as prophylactic agents that are administered to shield normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiation. Melatonin synergistically acts as an immune-stimulator and antioxidant. We investigated the possible radioprotective role of melatonin (100 mg/kg i.p.) against lethal-whole-body radiation- (10 Gy) induced sickness, body weight loss, and mortality in rats. Results of the present study suggest that exposure to lethal-whole-body radiation incurred mortality, body weight loss, and apoptosis and it also depleted the immunity and the antioxidant status of the rats. Our results show that melatonin pretreatment provides protection against radiation induced mortality, oxidative stress, and immune-suppression. The melatonin pretreated irradiated rats showed less change in body weight as compared to radiation only group. On the other hand, melatonin appeared to have another radioprotective role, suggesting that melatonin may reduce apoptosis through a caspase-3-mediated pathway by blocking caspase-3 activity. PMID:25431791

  6. Growth hormone and insulin reverse net whole body and skeletal muscle protein catabolism in cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, R F; Pearlstone, D B; Newman, E; Heslin, M J; Gonenne, A; Burt, M E; Brennan, M F

    1992-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of recombinant-human growth hormone (r-hGH) and insulin (INS) administration on protein kinetics in cancer patients. Twenty-eight cancer patients either received r-hGH for 3 days (GH group, n = 12, weight loss = 6 +/- 2%) or were not treated (control [CTL] group, n = 16, weight loss = 11 +/- 2%) before metabolic study. Recombinant-human growth hormone dose was 0.1 mg/kg/day (n = 6) or 0.2 mg/kg/day (n = 6). Patients then underwent measurement of baseline protein kinetics (GH/B, CTL/B) followed by a 2-hour euglycemic insulin infusion (1 mU/kg/minute) and repeat kinetic measurements (GH/INS,CTL/INS). Whole-body protein net balance (mumol leucine/kg/minute) was higher (p less than 0.05) in GH/INS (0.20 +/- 0.06) than in CTL/INS (0.06 +/- 0.03) or GH/B (-0.19 +/- 0.03). Skeletal muscle protein net balance (nmol phenylalanine/100 g/minute) in GH/INS (25 +/- 6) and CTL/INS (19 +/- 5) was higher than CTL/B (-18 +/- 3). Recombinant-human growth hormone and insulin reduce whole-body and skeletal muscle protein loss in cancer patients. Simultaneous use of these agents during nutritional therapy may benefit the cancer patient. PMID:1417177

  7. Creatine transporter deficiency leads to increased whole body and cellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    Perna, Marla K; Kokenge, Amanda N; Miles, Keila N; Udobi, Kenea C; Clark, Joseph F; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J; Khuchua, Zaza; Skelton, Matthew R

    2016-08-01

    Creatine (Cr) is a guanidino compound required for rapid replenishment of ATP in cells with a high-energy demand. In humans, mutations in the Cr transporter (CRT;SLC6A8) prevent Cr entry into tissue and result in a significant intellectual impairment, epilepsy, and aphasia. The lack of Cr on both the whole body and cellular metabolism was evaluated in Crt knockout (Crt (-/y) ) mice, a high-fidelity model of human CRT deficiency. Crt (-/y) mice have reduced body mass and, however, show a twofold increase in body fat. There was increased energy expenditure in a home cage environment and during treadmill running in Crt (-/y) mice. Consistent with the increases in the whole-body metabolic function, Crt (-/y) mice show increased cellular metabolism as well. Mitochondrial respiration increased in skeletal muscle fibers and hippocampal lysates from Crt (-/y) mice. In addition, Crt (-/y) mice had increased citrate synthase activity, suggesting a higher number of mitochondria instead of an increase in mitochondrial activity. To determine if the increase in respiration was due to increased mitochondrial numbers, we measured oxygen consumption in an equal number of mitochondria from Crt (+/y) and Crt (-/y) mice. There were no changes in mitochondrial respiration when normalized to mitochondrial number, suggesting that the increase in respiration observed could be to higher mitochondrial content in Crt (-/y) mice. PMID:27401086

  8. Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain; Hsieh, C.-W.

    2008-07-15

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

  9. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. PMID:25540216

  10. Harbor Seal Vibrissa Morphology Reduces Vortex-Induced Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beem, Heather; Dahl, Jason; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Studies show that harbor seals are adept at tracking small movements in the water, such as those left in the wake of fish, by using their highly sensitive whiskers to detect fluid structures, even without auditory or visual cues. The present work investigates the intriguing claim that the unique morphology of the harbor seal whisker suppresses Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV). This implies that the geometry is specialized to reduce the background noise caused by the whisker's own wake in the detection of the upstream target. Forces on a rigid whisker model (scale: 50x) being towed steadily down a water tank while experiencing imposed oscillations are measured. A range of frequencies and amplitudes are tested, the hydrodynamic lift coefficient in phase with velocity (CL,v) is calculated for each, and values are combined in a contour plot. The region of positive CL,v peaks at an amplitude ratio of 0.1, indicating that the whisker's undulatory, asymmetric structure considerably reduces (but does not entirely suppress) regions where the structure experiences VIV in comparison with a standard cylinder, whose peak reaches an amplitude ratio of 0.8.

  11. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ˜35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.

  12. Self-protective whole body motion for humanoid robots based on synergy of global reaction and local reflex.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshihiko; Saegusa, Ryo; Ikemoto, Shuhei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Metta, Giorgio

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a self-protective whole body motor controller to enable life-long learning of humanoid robots. In order to reduce the damages on robots caused by physical interaction such as obstacle collision, we introduce self-protective behaviors based on the adaptive coordination of full-body global reactions and local limb reflexes. Global reactions aim at adaptive whole-body movements to prepare for harmful situations. The system incrementally learns a more effective association of the states and global reactions. Local reflexes based on a force-torque sensing function to reduce the impact load on the limbs independently of high-level motor intention. We examined the proposed method with a robot simulator in various conditions. We then applied the systems on a real humanoid robot. PMID:22377658

  13. A high protein diet upregulated whole-body protein turnover during energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of higher protein diets and sustained energy deficit (ED) on whole-body protein turnover (WBPTO) are not well described. This study examined whether dietary protein level influences whole-body protein breakdown (Ra), non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD), and oxidation (Ox) during ED. ...

  14. Back Disorder Intervention Strategies for Mass Transit Operators Exposed to Whole-Body VIBRATION—COMPARISON of Two Transit System Approaches and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanning, E.

    1998-08-01

    Occupational long-term whole-body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as a major risk factor for low back disorders, one of the most important reasons for medical impairment and early permanent disability among mass transit operators. Although no firm health and safety vibration exposure threshold limits have been established, the available data suggests that rail vehicle operators would probably fall under the proposed WBV “action levels” of the EU directive provisions for protection from physical hazards. This provision calls for technical, administrative and medical controls. This paper examines and compares the current conditions, provisions and plans of two major mass transit systems, the New Yorker MTA and the Munich MVV. The available data, information and publications (English/German) on working conditions, vibration exposure, epidemiology and intervention strategies (primary and secondary prevention) for rail bound mass transit workers were reviewed. Results strongly suggest that the MTA transit system has currently and in the near future no effective and meaningful controls in place to significantly reduce the WBV exposure of subway operators. It appears that the MVV system has more and better control measures in place to reduce harmful effects of WBV. Results of a scientific evaluation of a participatory, collaborative project in the MVV system suggest that the MVV may have developed a successful method of a “condition prevention” (Verhältnisprävention)—and “behavioral prevention” (Verhaltensprävention) intervention strategy, which appears beneficial for WBV exposed workers with existing low back pain. Long-term outcomes and benefits need to be assessed further.

  15. Whole body and regional body composition changes following 10-day hypoxic confinement and unloading-inactivity.

    PubMed

    Debevec, Tadej; McDonnell, Adam C; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-03-01

    Future planetary habitats will expose inhabitants to both reduced gravity and hypoxia. This study investigated the effects of short-term unloading and normobaric hypoxia on whole body and regional body composition (BC). Eleven healthy, recreationally active, male participants with a mean (SD) age of 24 (2) years and body mass index of 22.4 (3.2) kg·m(-2) completed the following 3 10-day campaigns in a randomised, cross-over designed protocol: (i) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), (ii) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), and (iii) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FIO2 = 0.209; PIO2 = 133.5 (0.7) mm Hg). Nutritional requirements were individually precalculated and the actual intake was monitored throughout the study protocol. Body mass, whole body, and regional BC were assessed before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The calculated daily targeted energy intake values were 2071 (170) kcal for HBR and NBR and 2417 (200) kcal for HAMB. In both HBR and NBR campaigns the actual energy intake was within the targeted level, whereas in the HAMB the intake was lower than targeted (-8%, p < 0.05). Body mass significantly decreased in all 3 campaigns (-2.1%, -2.8%, and -2.0% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05), secondary to a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.8%, -3.8%, -4.3% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05) along with a slight, albeit not significant, increase in fat mass. The same trend was observed in the regional BC regardless of the region and the campaign. These results demonstrate that, hypoxia per se, does not seem to alter whole body and regional BC during short-term bed rest. PMID:24552383

  16. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect substantial lean and fat differences observed using BBCP and in vivo assessments. Consequently, spine phantoms are inadequate for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body composition cross-calibration. PMID:26071169

  17. Impairment in Extinction of Contextual and Cued Fear Following Post-Training Whole-Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Reid H. J.; Marzulla, Tessa; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Because of the use of radiation in cancer therapy, the risk of nuclear contamination from power plants, military conflicts, and terrorism, there is a compelling scientific and public health interest in the effects of environmental radiation exposure on brain function, in particular hippocampal function and learning and memory. Previous studies have emphasized changes in learning and memory following radiation exposure. These approaches have ignored the question of how radiation exposure might impact recently acquired memories, which might be acquired under traumatic circumstances (cancer treatment, nuclear disaster, etc.). To address the question of how radiation exposure might affect the processing and recall of recently acquired memories, we employed a fear conditioning paradigm wherein animals were trained, and subsequently irradiated (whole-body X-ray irradiation) 24 h later. Animals were given 2 weeks to recover, and were tested for retention and extinction of hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning or hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning. Exposure to irradiation following training was associated with reduced daily increases in body weights over the 22-days of the study and resulted in greater freezing levels and aberrant extinction 2 weeks later. This was also observed when the intensity of the training protocol was increased. Cued freezing levels and measures of anxiety 2 weeks after training were also higher in irradiated than sham-irradiated mice. In contrast to contextual freezing levels, cued freezing levels were even higher in irradiated mice receiving 5 shocks during training than sham-irradiated mice receiving 10 shocks during training. In addition, the effects of radiation on extinction of contextual fear were more profound than those on the extinction of cued fear. Thus, whole-body irradiation elevates contextual and cued fear memory recall. PMID:25071488

  18. Whole-body and splanchnic amino acid metabolism in sheep during an acute endotoxin challenge.

    PubMed

    McNeil, C J; Hoskin, S O; Bremner, D M; Holtrop, G; Lobley, G E

    2016-07-01

    Supplemented protein or specific amino acids (AA) are proposed to help animals combat infection and inflammation. The current study investigates whole-body and splanchnic tissue metabolism in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge with or without a supplement of six AA (cysteine, glutamine, methionine, proline, serine and threonine). Eight sheep were surgically prepared with vascular catheters across the gut and liver. On two occasions, four sheep were infused through the jugular vein for 20 h with either saline or LPS from Escherichia coli (2 ng/kg body weight per min) in a random order, plus saline infused into the mesenteric vein; the other four sheep were treated with saline or LPS plus saline or six AA infused via the jugular vein into the mesenteric vein. Whole-body AA irreversible loss rate (ILR) and tissue protein metabolism were monitored by infusion of [ring-2H2]phenylalanine. LPS increased (P<0·001) ILR (+17 %), total plasma protein synthesis (+14 %) and lymphocyte protein synthesis (+386 %) but decreased albumin synthesis (-53 %, P=0·001), with no effect of AA infusion. Absorption of dietary AA was not reduced by LPS, except for glutamine. LPS increased the hepatic removal of leucine, lysine, glutamine and proline. Absolute hepatic extraction of supplemented AA increased, but, except for glutamine, this was less than the amount infused. This increased net appearance across the splanchnic bed restored arterial concentrations of five AA to, or above, values for the saline-infused period. Infusion of key AA does not appear to alter the acute period of endotoxaemic response, but it may have benefits for the chronic or recovery phases. PMID:27189533

  19. Thermoregulatory responses to heat and vibration in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaul, W. A.; Spear, R. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of vibration on thermoregulatory responses was studied in heat-acclimated men exposed suddenly to simultaneous heat and whole body vibrations (WBVs) at two intensity levels, each at graded frequencies between 5 and 80 Hz. The mean rectal temperature (Tre) became elevated more quickly in the WBV exposures than in the controls (heat exposure alone). Both intensity- and frequency-dependent WBV relationships were recorded in localized blood flows and in sweat rates. Thus, vibration appears to reduce the efficiency of the cooling mechanisms during a heat exposure.

  20. Reducing aerodynamic vibration with piezoelectric actuators: a genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenning; Jakiela, Mark; Pitt, Dale M.; Burnham, Jay K.

    2004-07-01

    Modern high performance aircraft fly at high speeds and high angles of attack. This can result in "buffet" aerodynamics, an unsteady turbulent flow that causes vibrations of the wings, tails, and body of the aircraft. This can result in decreased performance and ride quality, and fatigue failures. We are experimenting with controlling these vibrations by using piezoceramic actuators attached to the inner and outer skin of the aircraft. In this project, a tail or wing is investigated. A "generic" tail finite element model is studied in which individual actuators are assumed to exactly cover individual finite elements. Various optimizations of the orientations and power consumed by these actuators are then performed. Real coded genetic algorithms are used to perform the optimizations and a design space approximation technique is used to minimize costly finite element runs. An important result is the identification of a power consumption threshold for the entire system. Below the threshold, vibration control performance of optimized systems decreases with decreasing values of power supplied to the entire system.

  1. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  2. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  3. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: technique and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Eutsler, Eric P; Khanna, Geetika

    2016-05-01

    Whole-body MR imaging is being increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent of various oncologic and non-oncologic entities. The lack of exposure to ionizing radiation, excellent soft-tissue contrast (even without the use of contrast agents), and functional imaging capabilities make it especially suitable for screening and surveillance in the pediatric population. Technical developments such as moving table platforms, multi-channel/multi-element surface coils, and parallel imaging allow imaging of the entire body with multiple sequences in a reasonable 30- to 40-min time frame, which has facilitated its acceptance in routine clinical practice. The initial investigations in whole-body MR imaging were primarily focused on oncologic applications such as tumor screening and staging. The exquisite sensitivity of fluid-sensitive MR sequences to many different types of pathology has led to new applications of whole-body MR imaging in evaluation of multifocal rheumatologic conditions. Availability of blood pool contrast agents has allowed whole-body MR angiographic imaging of vascular malformations, vasculitides and vasculopathies. Whole-body MRI is being applied for delineating the extent and distribution of systemic and multifocal diseases, establishing diagnoses, assessing treatment response, and surveillance imaging. This article reviews the technique and clinical applications of whole-body MR imaging in children. PMID:27229503

  4. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  5. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H.; Mougey, E.H.

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Secondary neurolymphomatosis detected by whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yoshino, Kazuhiro; Sakaida, Emiko; Hashimoto, Shinichiro; Takeda, Yusuke; Kawajiri, Chika; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Nakaseko, Chiaki

    2013-01-01

    Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare clinical entity defined as peripheral nervous system infiltration by lymphoma. The diagnosis is difficult and often elusive. Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) was developed to enhance the detection of vaguely delineated tumors. Here, we describe the case of a 71-year-old male with secondary NL of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that was successfully detected by whole-body DW MRI. The patient was diagnosed with DLBCL extending from the ethmoidal sinus to the nasal cavity, orbital cavity, and anterior cranial fossa. Although he was administered R-THP-COP chemotherapy and the tumor remarkably decreased in size, he developed painful paresthesia and weakness in the left upper and bilateral lower extremities during treatment. Because lymphoma cells were detected in his spinal fluid, high-dose methotrexate (MTX) and weekly intrathecal MTX and cytarabine injections were administered. Test results for lymphoma cells in the spinal fluid became negative ; however, the neurological disorders progressed. Whole-body DW MRI was performed as whole-body screening and could localize NL at the left cervical and bilateral lumbar nerve roots. Both cervical spine plain MRI and enhanced computed tomography performed around the same time could not detect the cervical lesion. Our case report suggests that whole-body DW MRI is a useful diagnostic imaging procedure, especially as whole-body screening in facilities where PET/CT is not available. PMID:24369224

  7. Insights into the role of heat shock protein 72 to whole-body heat acclimation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Fonseca, Ivana T; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heat acclimation results in systemic and cellular adaptions that reduce the negative effect of heat and, consequently, the risk of heat illness. Although the classical changes observed with heat acclimation lead to increased tolerance to exercise in the heat by reducing heat storage (reflected in reduced core and skin temperatures) and increasing whole-body capacity for heat dissipation (greater plasma volume, sweat output, and skin blood flow), it appears that heat acclimation also induces changes at the cellular level that might increase tolerance of the whole organism to a higher core temperature for the development of fatigue. Thermotolerance is a process that involves increased resilience to an otherwise lethal heat stress that follows a sublethal exposure to heat. Thermotolerance is believed to be the result of increased content of heat shock proteins (Hsp), specially a member of the 70 kDa family, Hsp72 kDa. In humans, we and others have reported that heat acclimation increases intracellular Hsp72 levels. This increase in intracellular Hsp72 could improve whole-body organism thermotolerance by maintaining intestinal epithelial tight junction barriers, by increasing resistance to gut-associated endotoxin translocation, or by reducing the inflammatory response. In this review, we will initially provide an overview of the physiological adaptations induced by heat acclimation and emphasize the main cellular changes that occur with heat acclimation associated with intracellular accumulation of Hsp72. Finally, we will present an argument for a role of whole-body heat acclimation in augmenting cellular thermotolerance, which may protect vital organs from deleterious effects of heat stress in humans. PMID:27227070

  8. Damping Control of Liquid Container by Swing-type Active Vibration Reducer on Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Masafumi; Taniguchi, Takao

    This paper proposes a damping control of sloshing in a cylindrical container with a swing-type active vibration reducer on a wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The WMR runs along a straight path on a horizontal plane. The container is mounted on the active vibration reducer. A laser displacement sensor is used to observe the liquid level in the container. The container can be tilted in the running direction by the active vibration reducer. A sloshing model is obtained from a spherical pendulum-type sloshing model, which approximately expresses (1, 1)-mode sloshing. The sloshing model is used to design a damping control system. The control system of the active vibration reducer is designed with an inverse model of sloshing and an optimal regulator with a Kalman filter. The WMR is driven by an acceleration pattern designed with an input shaping method. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation and experimental results.

  9. Feasibility and analysis of thermal parameters for the whole-body-hyperthermia system IRATHERM-2000.

    PubMed

    Wust, P; Riess, H; Hildebrandt, B; Löffel, J; Deja, M; Ahlers, O; Kerner, T; von Ardenne, A; Felix, R

    2000-01-01

    The infrared system IRATHERM-2000, with water-filtered infrared A wavelength underwent 20 treatments of whole body hyperthermia in conjunction with chemotherapy. In all the sessions, the aimed systemic temperature (41.8 degrees C, maximum 42.0 degrees C) could be achieved and maintained for 60 min. Due to increasing clinical experience, the unnegligible local toxicity, exhibited as heat-induced superficial lesions, and neurotoxicity, could be reduced during the course of the study. Data from three other series accomplished at the von Ardenne Clinic, totalling 120 heat sessions, were available and included for a comparative analysis. Analysis of the toxicity shows that a correlation exists between thermal side-effects and heat-up periods (until steady-state), maximum temperatures, and superficial thermal doses. The time needed to reach the plateau seems to correlate with fluid loss, which, thus, indirectly influences toxicity, and most importantly the initial power level. The typical heat-up time in such a standard set-up amounts to 100-150 min, for a temperature rise from 37.5 to 42.0 degrees C. Evaluation of the energy balance reveals a highly patient-specific range for the reactive evaporation in the IRATHERM system, resulting in a power (heat) loss of up to 1400 W via sweat production of approximately 2 l/h. In order to counterbalance this effect, an accordingly high infrared power, ranging from 1200-1500 W, needs to be delivered, resulting in a significant thermal skin exposition. Concepts used to reduce the heat loss by reactive evaporation include prevention of convection by appropriate sealing of the heating chamber and increasing the humidity by a nebulizer. For the more trained user, the heat-up time can be considerably shortened, particularly, in the introductory phase of the heating process, by employing higher, but still tolerable, patient-specific power levels. However, such a strategy requires, due to higher risks, close monitoring of skin

  10. New Experiences of Treatment in Multiple Tumors with HIFU Ablation and Whole Body Hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Gondo, Hideki; Iijima, Norio; Xia, Yuantian; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    We have performed some 5000 whole body hyperthermia (WBH) treatments using far-infrared equipment (RHD 7500: Enthermics medical systems, USA) in 1000 cancer patients since 1991 at Luke Hospital & Clinic (Nakano, Japan). Hyperthermia is a natural treatment whereby patients are heated within the fever temperature range of 41-42 C. However, this therapy alone is poorly suited to advanced cancer patients, where regional tumor control is needed. The potential of HIFU therapy for theses cases deserves further investigation. We have treated 20 times in 12 advanced cancer patients, since importing a new HIFU device (Sonic CZ901: Mianyang some electronic Ltd: China) last December and are able to report some interesting results of combination treatment with HIFU and WBH. Our first experience was a 20-year old female pharyngeal cancer patient with lung and multiple liver metastases. Her lung tumor reduced following WBH (given weekly, 4 times in total) and her liver tumor clearly reduced following HIFU treatment. Our second experience of combinative treatment was in a 65-year old male suffering from a neck tumor with bone metastasis. He received WBH after HIFU treatment into 7th lib bone metastasis. After 10 days, his neck tumor grew with evidence of internal necrosis, and finally ruptured. CT images showed necrotic changes in the focus of the neck tumor and also lib bone metastasis. We believe that this new thermal combinative therapy shows great promise.

  11. Risk communication with Fukushima residents affected by the Fukushima Daiichi accident at whole-body counting

    SciTech Connect

    Gunji, I.; Furuno, A.; Yonezawa, R.; Sugiyama, K.

    2013-07-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Tokai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have had direct dialogue as risk communication with Fukushima residents who underwent whole-body counting examination (WBC). The purpose of the risk communication was to exchange information and opinions about radiation in order to mitigate Fukushima residents' anxiety and stress. Two kinds of opinion surveys were performed: one survey evaluated residents' views of the nuclear accident itself and the second survey evaluated the management of WBC examination as well as the quality of JAEA's communication skills on risks. It appears that most Fukushima residents seem to have reduced their anxiety level after the direct dialogue. The results of the surveys show that Fukushima residents have the deepest anxiety and concern about their long-term health issues and that they harbor anger toward the government and TEPCO. On the other hand, many WBC patients and patients' relatives have expressed gratitude for help in reducing their feelings of anxiety.

  12. Predictors of whole-body vibration levels among urban taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Chen, J C; Chang, W R; Shih, T S; Chen, C J; Chang, W P; Dennerlein, J T; Ryan, L M; Christiani, D C

    2003-09-15

    To identify a set of important WBV predictors that could be used to develop a statistical instrument for exposure assessment in a large epidemiologic study, a total of 432 WBV measures were taken from a sample of 247 male drivers in Taipei City, Taiwan. In accordance with the ISO 2631-1 (1997) methods, we measured the frequency-weighted vertical acceleration (z-axis) over drivers' seat surface, under conditions representing different types of rides (vacant vs. short vs. long) assigned to random destinations. Mixed effect models were used to analyse the WBV data including repeated measures. For this group of urban taxi drivers regularly exposed to WBV of low intensity (mean = 0.31 ms( - 2), ranging from 0.17 to 0.55 ms( - 2) r.m.s.), our analyses indicated that average driving speed was the primary predictor (p < 0.0001). As average driving speed increased, measured vertical acceleration increased in a quadratic-linear manner (p < 0.0001). Other WBV predictors, after adjusting for the effects of other covariates, included automobile manufacturer (p = 0.02), engine size (p = 0.04), body weight (p = 0.002), age (p = 0.02), use of seat cushion (p = 0.03), and traffic period (p = 0.02). Our study suggests that a similar statistical approach could be employed in future studies to improve the quality and efficiency of WBV exposure assessment in professional drivers. PMID:12850932

  13. Whole-Body Vibration Exercise for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Bing-Lin; Huang, Ling-Yan; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of WBV exercise on patients with KOA. Methods. Eight databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CNKI, and Wanfang were searched up to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of WBV for KOA were eligible. The outcomes were pain intensity, functional performances, self-reported status, adverse events, and muscle strength. A meta-analysis was conducted. Results. Five trials with 168 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. No significant difference was shown in pain intensity and self-reported status between WBV and other forms of exercise. Improvement in functional performance (evaluated by BBS; WMD, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62; P = 0.0005) was greater in WBV group, but the other parameters of functional performance (including 6MWT and TGUG) revealed no statistically significant difference. Adverse events were only reported in one trial and no significant difference was discovered in muscle strength. The overall quality of evidence was very low. Conclusion. Currently there is only limited evidence that suggested that WBV is effective in the treatment of KOA. Large, well-designed RCTs with better designs are needed. PMID:26347287

  14. Modelling resonances of the standing body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration: Effects of posture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2008-10-01

    Lumped parameter mathematical models representing anatomical parts of the human body have been developed to represent body motions associated with resonances of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body standing in five different postures: 'upright', 'lordotic', 'anterior lean', 'knees bent', and 'knees more bent'. The inertial and geometric parameters of the models were determined from published anthropometric data. Stiffness and damping parameters were obtained by comparing model responses with experimental data obtained previously. The principal resonance of the vertical apparent mass, and the first peak in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass, of the standing body in an upright posture (at 5-6 Hz) corresponded to vertical motion of the viscera in phase with the vertical motion of the entire body due to deformation of the tissues at the soles of the feet, with pitch motion of the pelvis out of phase with pitch motion of the upper body above the pelvis. Upward motion of the body was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the pelvis. Changing the posture of the upper body had minor effects on the mode associated with the principal resonances of the apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass, but the mode changed significantly with bending of the legs. In legs-bent postures, the principal resonance (at about 3 Hz) was attributed to bending of the legs coupled with pitch motion of the pelvis in phase with pitch motion of the upper body. In this mode, extension of the legs was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the upper body and the upward vertical motion of the viscera.

  15. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses.

    PubMed

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Struelens, L; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that 'wrap around' glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient's skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the Hp(10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the Hp(3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. PMID:24938591

  16. Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Petibon, Yoann; Syrkina, Aleksandra; Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges; Reese, Timothy G.; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and{sup 18}F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion

  17. Correction of MRI-induced geometric distortions in whole-body small animal PET-MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Frohwein, Lynn J. Schäfers, Klaus P.; Hoerr, Verena; Faber, Cornelius

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The fusion of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can be a challenging task in whole-body PET-MRI. The quality of the registration between these two modalities in large field-of-views (FOV) is often degraded by geometric distortions of the MRI data. The distortions at the edges of large FOVs mainly originate from MRI gradient nonlinearities. This work describes a method to measure and correct for these kind of geometric distortions in small animal MRI scanners to improve the registration accuracy of PET and MRI data. Methods: The authors have developed a geometric phantom which allows the measurement of geometric distortions in all spatial axes via control points. These control points are detected semiautomatically in both PET and MRI data with a subpixel accuracy. The spatial transformation between PET and MRI data is determined with these control points via 3D thin-plate splines (3D TPS). The transformation derived from the 3D TPS is finally applied to real MRI mouse data, which were acquired with the same scan parameters used in the phantom data acquisitions. Additionally, the influence of the phantom material on the homogeneity of the magnetic field is determined via field mapping. Results: The spatial shift according to the magnetic field homogeneity caused by the phantom material was determined to a mean of 0.1 mm. The results of the correction show that distortion with a maximum error of 4 mm could be reduced to less than 1 mm with the proposed correction method. Furthermore, the control point-based registration of PET and MRI data showed improved congruence after correction. Conclusions: The developed phantom has been shown to have no considerable negative effect on the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The proposed method yields an appropriate correction of the measured MRI distortion and is able to improve the PET and MRI registration. Furthermore, the method is applicable to whole-body small animal

  18. Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Reese, Timothy G.; Li, Quanzheng; Syrkina, Aleksandra; Chen, Yen-Lin; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and 18F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion at

  19. Vibration ride comfort criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study directed to derive equal vibration discomfort curves, to determine the influence of vibration masking in order to account for the total discomfort of any random vibration, and to develop a scale of total vibration discomfort in the case of human response to whole-body vertical vibration. Discomfort is referred to as a subjective discomfort associated with the acceleration level of a particular frequency band. It is shown that passenger discomfort to whole-body vibration increases linearly with acceleration level for each frequency. Empirical data provide a mechanism for determining the degree of masking (or summation) of the discomfort of multiple frequency vibration. A scale for the prediction of passenger discomfort is developed.

  20. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions. PMID:26070030

  1. Relationship between whole-body tumor burden, clinical phenotype, and quality of life in patients with neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Merker, Vanessa L; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Muzikansky, Alona; Nguyen, Rosa; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R

    2014-06-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis share a predisposition to develop multiple nerve sheath tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with NF1 and NF2 have reduced quality of life (QOL), but no studies have examined the relationship between whole-body tumor burden and QOL in these patients. We administered a QOL questionnaire (the SF-36) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS) to a previously described cohort of adult neurofibromatosis patients undergoing whole-body MRI. One-sample t-tests were used to compare norm-based SF-36 scores to weighted population means. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analyses controlling for demographic and disease-specific clinical variable were used to relate whole-body tumor volume to QOL scales. Two hundred forty-five patients (142 NF1, 53 NF2, 50 schwannomatosis) completed the study. Subjects showed deficits in selected subscales of the SF-36 compared to adjusted general population means. In bivariate analysis, increased tumor volume was significantly associated with pain in schwannomatosis patients, as measured by the SF-36 bodily pain subscale (rho = -0.287, P = 0.04) and VAS (rho = 0.34, P = 0.02). Regression models for NF2 patients showed a positive relationship between tumor burden and increased pain, as measured by the SF-36 (P = 0.008). Patients with NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis suffer from reduced QOL, although only pain shows a clear relationship to patient's overall tumor burden. These findings suggest that internal tumor volume is not a primary contributor to QOL and emphasize the need for comprehensive treatment approaches that go beyond tumor-focused therapies such as surgery by including psychosocial interventions. PMID:24664633

  2. Heat strain and gross efficiency during endurance exercise after lower, upper, or whole body precooling in the heat.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A; van Es, E M; de Graaf, J L

    2006-05-01

    The maximal power that muscles can generate is reduced at low muscle temperatures. However, in prolonged heavy exercise in the heat, a high core temperature may be the factor limiting performance. Precooling has been shown to delay the attainment of hyperthermia. It is still unclear if the whole body should be cooled or if the active muscles should be excluded from cooling in order to maintain muscle power. An experiment was performed to compare thermal strain and gross efficiency following whole body or partial body cooling. Eight well-trained participants performed 40 min of 60% VO2max cycling exercise in a 30 degrees C, 70% relative humidity climatic chamber after four different precooling sessions in a water perfused suit: N (no precooling), CC (45 min whole body precooling), WC (45 min lower body precooling), and CW (45 min upper body precooling). The uncooled body part was warmed in such a way that the core temperature did not differ from that in session N. Gross efficiency was used to compare performance between the sessions since it indicates how much oxygen is needed for a certain external load. The gross efficiency did not differ significantly between the sessions. Differences in heat loss and heat storage were observed during the first 20 min of exercise. The evaporative heat loss in session WC (305 +/- 67 W) and CW (284 +/- 68 W) differed from session N (398 +/- 77 W) and CC (209 +/- 58 W). More heat was stored in session CC (442 +/- 125 W) than in sessions WC (316 +/- 39 W), CW (307 +/- 63 W), and N (221 +/- 65 W). It was confirmed that precooling reduces heat strain during exercise in the heat. No differences in heat strain and gross efficiency were observed between precooling of the body part with the exercising muscles and precooling of the tissues elsewhere in the body. PMID:16729380

  3. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions.

  4. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Whole-Body Calisthenics on Army ROTC Cadets.

    PubMed

    Gist, Nicholas H; Freese, Eric C; Ryan, Terence E; Cureton, Kirk J

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps cadets. Twenty-six college-aged (20.5 ± 1.7 years) participants completed 4 weeks of exercise training 3 days · wk(-1) consisting of either approximately 60 minutes of typical physical training or HIT whole-body calisthenics involving 4 to 7 sets of 30-second "all out" burpees separated by 4 minutes of active recovery. Several pre- and postintervention fitness variables were compared. We observed no changes across time or differences between groups in aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, or Army Physical Fitness Test performance (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant Group × Time interaction (p = 0.015) for skeletal muscle mitochondrial function (Tc: time constant of recovery). For the typical physical training group, we observed improved mitochondrial function (Tc decreased 2.4 ± 4.6 seconds; Cohen's d = -0.51); whereas, mitochondrial function decreased in HIT (Tc increased 2.4 ± 4.6 seconds; d = 0.50). HIT sustained fitness despite the short duration and reduced volume of activity. A program that includes HIT as part of a larger program may be well suited for maintaining fitness in moderately trained armed forces personnel without access to equipment. PMID:25939101

  5. Whole body radioprotective effect of phenolic extracts from the fruits of Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of phenolics extracted from the fruits of Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. (MBP-3b) against damage induced by (60)Co γ-irradiation in vivo. MBP-3b could significantly improve the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and the T-AOC, as well as reduce the MDA level in the liver and kidneys of irradiated mice. In addition, pretreatment with MBP-3b at a dose of 150 mg per kg bw could significantly enhance immunomodulation activity by promoting the proliferation of spenocytes and monocyte phagocytosis. The administration of MBP-3b prevented the decline induced by radiation of haematological parameters (WBC, RBC, PLT and HGB). Furthermore, MBP-3b could protect spenocytes from radiation-induced damage by inhibiting cell apoptosis. The results indicated that MBP-3b possesses strong whole body radioprotective and immunomodulatory activities. The main constituents of MBP-3b were tentatively identified as delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, proanthocyanidin C1, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-xyloside/arabinoside, phloretin-2-xyloseglucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and phlorizin. MBP-3b could be used as a probable radioprotector against gamma radiation induced oxidative damage. PMID:26741951

  6. An automated dosimetry system for testing whole-body ultraviolet phototherapy cabinets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, G. D.; Evans, A. L.; Smith, D.; Martin, C. J.; McCalman, S.; Bilsland, D.

    2001-02-01

    A new technique is described for automated ultraviolet dosimetry within whole-body phototherapy cabinets. A dual-head detector system has been designed, permitting simultaneous assessment of irradiance levels and radiant intensities from individual lamps. One detector is used in combination with a diffuser/filter system for the measurement of irradiance and the other is mounted at the end of a slit collimator to provide a measurement which can be related to the radiant intensities of the individual lamps. These quantities are derived from 800 separate measurements made during rotation of the detector head around a 360° circle at a fixed height and position within the cabinet under remote computer software control. The device has advantages compared with standard techniques, enabling measurements to be made without the need for a person to be present in the cabinet. A full set of measurements is made with minimal switching of the power supply to the lamps. This simplifies the assessment and reduces the uncertainty from variation in output after the lamps are switched on. Variations in irradiance with orientation for the smaller phototherapy cabinets are clearly demonstrated. Plots of data from the collimated detector show peaks corresponding to the lamps and the surrounding reflectors. The plots enable failed lamps to be detected and peak values can be related to radiant intensities of individual lamps.

  7. Statistical determination of whole-body average SARs in a 2 GHz whole-body exposure system for unrestrained pregnant and newborn rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianqing; Wake, Kanako; Kawai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Soichi; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A 2 GHz whole-body exposure to rats over a multigeneration has been conducted as part of bio-effect research in Japan. In this study, the rats moved freely in the cage inside the exposure system. From observation of the activity of rats in the cage, we found that the rats do not stay in each position with uniform possibility. In order to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) during the entire exposure period with high accuracy, we present a new approach to statistically determine the SAR level in an exposure system. First, we divided the rat cage in the exposure system into several small areas, and derived the fraction of time the rats spent in each small area based on the classification of the documentary photos of rat activity. Then, using the fraction of time spent in each small area as a weighting factor, we calculated the statistical characteristics of the whole-body average SAR for pregnant rats and young rats during the entire exposure period. As a result, this approach gave the statistical distribution as well as the corresponding mean value, median value and mode value for the whole-body SAR so that we can reasonably clarify the relationship between the exposure level and possible biological effect.

  8. Comprehensive diagnosis of whole-body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte disorders using a mathematical model and whole-body base excess.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Matthew B

    2015-08-01

    A mathematical model of whole-body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte balance was used to provide information leading to the diagnosis and fluid-therapy treatment in patients with complex acid-base disorders. Given a set of measured laboratory-chemistry values for a patient, a model of their unique, whole-body chemistry was created. This model predicted deficits or excesses in the masses of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and H2O as well as the plasma concentration of unknown or unmeasured species, such as ketoacids, in diabetes mellitus. The model further characterized the acid-base disorder by determining the patient's whole-body base excess and quantitatively partitioning it into ten components, each contributing to the overall disorder. The results of this study showed the importance of a complete set of laboratory measurements to obtain sufficient accuracy of the quantitative diagnosis; having only a minimal set, just pH and PCO2, led to a large scatter in the predicted results. A computer module was created that would allow a clinician to achieve this diagnosis at the bedside. This new diagnostic approach should prove to be valuable in the treatment of the critically ill. PMID:25281215

  9. Sesamol attenuates genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of whole-body γ-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Selvan, Tamizh G; Tripathi, Akanchha M; Choudhary, Sandeep; Khan, Shahanshah; Adhikari, Jawahar S; Chaudhury, Nabo K

    2015-09-01

    Ionising radiation causes free radical-mediated damage in cellular DNA. This damage is manifested as chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MN) in proliferating cells. Sesamol, present in sesame seeds, has the potential to scavenge free radicals; therefore, it can reduce radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective potential of sesamol in bone marrow cells of mice and related haematopoietic system against radiation-induced genotoxicity. A comparative study with melatonin was designed for assessing the radioprotective potential of sesamol. C57BL/6 mice were administered intraperitoneally with either sesamol or melatonin (10 and 20mg/kg body weight) 30 min prior to 2-Gy whole-body irradiation (WBI) and sacrificed after 24h. Total chromosomal aberrations (TCA), MN and cell cycle analyses were performed using bone marrow cells. The comet assay was performed on bone marrow cells, splenocytes and lymphocytes. Blood was drawn to study haematological parameters. Prophylactic doses of sesamol (10 and 20mg/kg) in irradiated mice reduced TCA and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte frequency in bone marrow cells by 57% and 50%, respectively, in comparison with radiation-only groups. Sesamol-reduced radiation-induced apoptosis and facilitated cell proliferation. In the comet assay, sesamol (20mg/kg) treatment reduced radiation-induced comets (% DNA in tail) compared with radiation only (P < 0.05). Sesamol also increased granulocyte populations in peripheral blood similar to melatonin. Overall, the radioprotective efficacy of sesamol was found to be similar to that of melatonin. Sesamol treatment also showed recovery of relative spleen weight at 24h of WBI. The results strongly suggest the radioprotective efficacy of sesamol in the haematopoietic system of mice. PMID:25863274

  10. Patient-specific biomechanical model as whole-body CT image registration tool.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and movements of body organs/tissues and skeletal structures for whole-body CT image registration using patient-specific non-linear biomechanical modelling. Unlike the conventional biomechanical modelling, our approach for building the biomechanical models does not require time-consuming segmentation of CT scans to divide the whole body into non-overlapping constituents with different material properties. Instead, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for tissue classification to assign the constitutive properties automatically at integration points of the computation grid. We use only very simple segmentation of the spine when determining vertebrae displacements to define loading for biomechanical models. We demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach on CT images of seven patients suffering from cancer and aortic disease. The results confirm that accurate whole-body CT image registration can be achieved using a patient-specific non-linear biomechanical model constructed without time-consuming segmentation of the whole-body images. PMID:25721296

  11. Whole body mechanics differ among running and cutting maneuvers in skilled athletes.

    PubMed

    Havens, Kathryn L; Sigward, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Quick changes of direction during running (cutting) represent a whole body mechanical challenge, as they require deceleration and translation of the body during ongoing movement. While much is known with respect to whole body demands during walking turns, whole body mechanics and anticipatory adjustments necessary for cutting are unclear. As the ability to rapidly change direction is critical to athletes' success in many sports, a better understanding of whole body adjustments made during cuts is needed. Whole body center of mass velocity and position during the approach and execution steps of three tasks (straight running, 45° sidestep cut, and 90° sidestep cut) performed as fast as possible were compared in 25 healthy soccer athletes. Repeated measure ANOVA revealed that overall, braking and translation were greater during the cuts compared to the straight run. Interestingly, with systematically increased cut angle, disproportionately greater braking but proportionately greater translation was observed. Anticipatory adjustments made prior to the execution of the cuts suggested that individuals evenly distributed the deceleration and redirection demands across steps of the 45° cut but prioritized deceleration over translation during the approach step of the 90° cut. PMID:25149902

  12. Reciprocal influence of masticatory apparatus, craniofacial structure and whole body homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Moon, Hyung-Joo

    2012-12-01

    There are evidences that the evolution into Homo erectus was partially induced by masticatory muscular dystrophy caused by a gene mutation, which in turn increased brain capacity and led to bipedalism. It is generally accepted that the morphology and function of mammalian skull are partially controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Archeologic evidences support that the masticatory apparatus have influenced the mechanical stress distribution in hominin skull, and consequently changed craniofacial morphology and function. Even after evolution into H. erectus, alterations in food properties by civilization and cultural preferences have caused modification of human masticatory pattern and accordingly craniofacial structure. Since there are evidences that prehuman and human masticatory apparatus has been influenced the craniofacial and whole body morphology and function, this apparatus in turn might influence whole body homeostasis. Plausible reciprocal influencing mechanisms of the masticatory apparatus on the whole body homeostasis might be (1) direct mechanical influence on the craniofacial structure, (2) distortion of cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and/or (3) several neural/humoral routes. Based on these backgrounds, the hypothesis of the present study is that the morphology and function of masticatory apparatus influence the whole body homeostasis and these interactions are reciprocal. Therefore, human masticatory apparatus, at the present time, should be kept in its physiological status to maintain the whole body homeostasis. We recommend basic and clinical approaches to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:22981594

  13. Whole body exposure at 2100 MHz induced by plane wave of random incidences in a population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; El Habachi, Aimad; Wiart, J.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, the whole body exposure induced by plane wave coming from a random direction of arrival is analyzed at 2100 MHz. This work completes previous studies on the influence of different parameters on the whole body exposure (such as morphology, frequency or usage in near field). The Visible Human phantom has been used to build a surrogate model to predict the whole body exposure depending on the highlighted surface of the phantom and on the direction of arrival of the incident plane wave. For the Visible Human, the error on the whole body averaged Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is on average 4%. The surrogate model is applied to other 3D anthropomorphic phantoms for a frontal incidence with an averaged error of 10%. The great interest of the surrogate model is the possibility to apply a Monte Carlo process to assess probability distribution function of a population. A recent French anthropometric database of more than 3500 adults is used to build the probability distribution function of the whole body SAR for a random direction of arrival.

  14. Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model as Whole-Body CT Image Registration Tool

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and movements of body organs/tissues and skeletal structures for whole-body CT image registration using patient-specific non-linear biomechanical modelling. Unlike the conventional biomechanical modelling, our approach for building the biomechanical models does not require time-consuming segmentation of CT scans to divide the whole body into non-overlapping constituents with different material properties. Instead, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for tissue classification to assign the constitutive properties automatically at integration points of the computation grid. We use only very simple segmentation of the spine when determining vertebrae displacements to define loading for biomechanical models. We demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach on CT images of seven patients suffering from cancer and aortic disease. The results confirm that accurate whole-body CT image registration can be achieved using a patient-specific non-linear biomechanical model constructed without time-consuming segmentation of the whole-body images. PMID:25721296

  15. Reducing Operator-Induced Machine Vibration Using a Complex Pole/zero Prefilter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    INGRAM, G. A.; FRANCHEK, M. A.; CHIU, G. T.-C.

    2002-02-01

    A systematic prefilter design process for reducing operator-induced rigid body vibrations of rubber tire mounted machines is presented. The contribution of this work is the development of a systematic prefilter design process and interpretation of the results. The class of heavy equipment considered in this work are those machines having rigid body main frame vibrations dominated by linear dynamics. The reduction in machine vibrations is accomplished through the design of prefilters that reduce the machine resonant frequencies from the operator commands. The machine information required for the design process includes the bandwidth of the electro-hydraulic (E/H) valves and rigid body resonant frequencies of the machine mainframe. The prespecified performance in the design process is the desired attenuation of machine resonant frequencies which is related to the acceptable level of machine vibration. The design methodology has been applied to a telescopic boom lift to illustrate the procedure and the effectiveness of the design.

  16. A non-rigid registration method for mouse whole body skeleton registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di; Zahra, David; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Berghofer, Paula; Acosta Tamayo, Oscar; Wimberley, Catriona; Gregoire, Marie Claude; Salvado, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Micro-CT/PET imaging scanner provides a powerful tool to study tumor in small rodents in response to therapy. Accurate image registration is a necessary step to quantify the characteristics of images acquired in longitudinal studies. Small animal registration is challenging because of the very deformable body of the animal often resulting in different postures despite physical restraints. In this paper, we propose a non-rigid registration approach for the automatic registration of mouse whole body skeletons, which is based on our improved 3D shape context non-rigid registration method. The whole body skeleton registration approach has been tested on 21 pairs of mouse CT images with variations of individuals and time-instances. The experimental results demonstrated the stability and accuracy of the proposed method for automatic mouse whole body skeleton registration.

  17. Whole-body Fluorescent Optical Imaging Based on Power Light Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanping; Xiong, Tao; Yu, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2005-01-01

    With complex configuration, the general whole-body fluorescence optical imaging system is power-consuming for it is mainly composed of laser or mercury lamp, filter and fiber-optic cable. In this paper we aimed at setting up a compact imaging system based on power light emitting diode (LED). We first discussed fluorescence excitation efficiency of mercury lamp and LED. Then we developed a compact prototype whole-body fluorescence optical imaging system based on power LED. With the prototype, we monitored the dynamic course of green fluorescence protein (GFP) expressing tumors in the same intact nude mice. We also recorded the temporal behavior of the infectious process of GFP-expressing bacteria from outside intact infected animals. This study puts forward a platform for monitoring tumor growth. The experiment reveals that it is doable to substitute power LED for mercury lamp for whole-body fluorescence optical imaging. PMID:17282471

  18. Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations can Reduce Bone Resorption and Enhance Bone Formation in the Growing Skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Xie,L.; Jacobsen, J.; Busa, B.; Donahue, L.; Miller, L.; Rubin, C.; Judex, S.

    2006-01-01

    Short durations of extremely small magnitude, high-frequency, mechanical stimuli can promote anabolic activity in the adult skeleton. Here, it is determined if such signals can influence trabecular and cortical formative and resorptive activity in the growing skeleton, if the newly formed bone is of high quality, and if the insertion of rest periods during the loading phase would enhance the efficacy of the mechanical regimen. Eight-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were divided into four groups, baseline control (n = 8), age-matched control (n = 10), whole-body vibration (WBV) at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day{sup -1} (n = 10), and WBV that were interrupted every second by 10 of rest (WBV-R, n = 10). In vivo strain gaging of two additional mice indicated that the mechanical signal induced strain oscillations of approximately 10 microstrain on the periosteal surface of the proximal tibia. After 3 weeks of WBV, applied for 15 min each day, osteoclastic activity in the trabecular metaphysis and epiphysis of the tibia was 33% and 31% lower (P < 0.05) than in age-matched controls. Bone formation rates (BFR{center_dot}BS{sup -1}) on the endocortical surface of the metaphysis were 30% greater (P < 0.05) in WBV than in age-matched control mice but trabecular and middiaphyseal BFR were not significantly altered. The insertion of rest periods (WBV-R) failed to potentiate the cellular effects. Three weeks of either WBV or WBV-R did not negatively influence body mass, bone length, or chemical bone matrix properties of the tibia. These data indicate that in the growing skeleton, short daily periods of extremely small, high-frequency mechanical signals can inhibit trabecular bone resorption, site specifically attenuate the declining levels of bone formation, and maintain a high level of matrix quality. If WBV prove to be efficacious in the growing human skeleton, they may be able to provide the basis for a non-pharmacological and safe means to increase peak bone mass and, ultimately

  19. Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P.

    1997-03-01

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Whole-body MRI for the staging and follow-up of patients with metastasis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Reiser, Maximilian F; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    The advent of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic approach compared to established sequential, multi-modal diagnostic algorithms. Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body scanners at 1.5 T and recently 3T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomic coverage in a multi-planar imaging approach. More flexible protocols, e.g. including T1-weighted TSE- and STIR-imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen can be performed within less than 45 min. For initial tumor staging PET-CT as a competing whole-body modality in oncologic imaging has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, using the additional metabolic information of PET for the assessment of tumor viability and therapy response. However, new applications, such as MR-whole-body diffusion imaging, may significantly increase sensitivity in near future. WB-MRI has shown advantages for the detection of distant metastatic disease, especially from tumors frequently spreading to the liver or brain and it is especially useful as a radiation-free alternative for the surveillance of tumor patients with multiple follow-up exams. Furthermore, it has been introduced as a whole-body bone marrow screening application. Within this context WB-MRI is highly accurate for the detection of skeletal metastases and staging of hematologic diseases, such as multiple myeloma or lymphoma. This article summarizes recent developments and applications of WB-MRI and highlights its performance within the scope of systemic oncologic staging and surveillance. PMID:19457631

  1. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  2. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  3. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  4. Efficiency of whole-body counter for various body size calculated by MCNP5 software.

    PubMed

    Krstic, D; Nikezic, D

    2012-11-01

    The efficiency of a whole-body counter for (137)Cs and (40)K was calculated using the MCNP5 code. The ORNL phantoms of a human body of different body sizes were applied in a sitting position in front of a detector. The aim was to investigate the dependence of efficiency on the body size (age) and the detector position with respect to the body and to estimate the accuracy of real measurements. The calculation work presented here is related to the NaI detector, which is available in the Serbian Whole-body Counter facility in Vinca Institute. PMID:22923253

  5. Compound and metabolite distribution measured by MALDI mass spectrometric imaging in whole-body tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckli, Markus; Staab, Dieter; Schweitzer, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The determination of the compound distribution in laboratory animal tissue in early development is a standard process in pharmaceutical research. While this information is traditionally obtained by means of whole-body autoradiography using radiolabeled compounds, this technology does not distinguish between metabolites and parent compound. The technique described in this article, termed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric imaging, can fill this gap by simultaneously measuring compound and multiple metabolites distributed in whole-body tissue sections, using non-labeled compounds.

  6. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography in oncology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gerwin P; Kramer, Harald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Glaser, Christian

    2007-06-01

    The advent of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has introduced tumor imaging with a systemic and functional approach compared with established sequential, multimodal diagnostic algorithms.Whole-body PET with [18F]-fluoro-2-desoxy-glucose is a useful imaging procedure for tumor staging and monitoring that can visualize active tumor tissue by detecting pathological glucose metabolism. The combination of PET with the detailed anatomical information of multislice computed tomography as dual-modality scanners has markedly increased lesion localization and diagnostic accuracy compared with both modalities as standalone applications.Hardware innovations, such as the introduction of multi-receiver channel whole-body MRI scanners at 1.5 and, recently, 3 T, combined with acquisition acceleration techniques, have made high-resolution WB-MRI clinically feasible. Now, a dedicated assessment of individual organs with various soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and contrast media dynamics can be combined with whole-body anatomical coverage in a multiplanar imaging approach. More flexible protocols (eg, T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and short inversion recovery imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen) can be performed within 45 minutes.Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed for tumor screening of asymptomatic individuals, and potentially life-changing diagnoses, such as formerly unknown malignancy, have been reported. However, larger patient cohort studies will have to show the cost efficiency and the clinical effectiveness of such an approach.For initial tumor staging, PET-CT has proved more accurate for the definition of T-stage and lymph node assessment, mainly because of the missing metabolic information in WB-MRI. However, new applications, such as magnetic resonance whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging or lymphotropic contrast

  7. Detection and semi-quantitative measurement of lung cancer metabolic activity by whole body PET

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, K.K.M.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Alavi, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    Conventional radiologic and nuclear medicine techniques have been shown to have a limited role in the staging and monitoring of disease activity in patients with lung cancer. Both qualitative and semi-quantitative position emission tomography (PET) using the F-18 FDG technique have been applied to determine the clinical utility of whole body PET-FDG imaging in lung cancer. Nineteen whole body FDG PET scans were performed in 18 patients; 17 with lung cancer (15 non-small cell and 2 small cell) and 1 with squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea.

  8. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration Is an Effective Therapy to Ameliorate Muscular Dystrophy in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altamirano, Francisco; Perez, Claudio F.; Liu, Min; Widrick, Jeffrey; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Allen, Paul D.; Adams, Jose A.; Lopez, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. This leads to severe muscle degeneration, and dilated cardiomyopathy that produces patient death, which in most cases occurs before the end of the second decade. Several lines of evidence have shown that modulators of nitric oxide (NO) pathway can improve skeletal muscle and cardiac function in the mdx mouse, a mouse model for DMD. Whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) is produced by applying sinusoidal motion to supine humans and in standing conscious rodents in a headward-footward direction using a motion platform. It adds small pulses as a function of movement frequency to the circulation thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of NO. In this study, we examined the potential therapeutic properties of pGz for the treatment of skeletal muscle pathology observed in the mdx mouse. We found that pGz (480 cpm, 8 days, 1 hr per day) decreased intracellular Ca2+ and Na+ overload, diminished serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and reduced intracellular accumulation of Evans Blue. Furthermore, pGz increased muscle force generation and expression of both utrophin and the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON). Likewise, pGz (120 cpm, 12 h) applied in vitro to skeletal muscle myotubes reduced Ca2+ and Na+ overload, diminished abnormal sarcolemmal Ca2+ entry and increased phosphorylation of endothelial NOS. Overall, this study provides new insights into the potential therapeutic efficacy of pGz as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of DMD patients through activation of the NO pathway. PMID:25181488

  9. Whole body periodic acceleration is an effective therapy to ameliorate muscular dystrophy in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, Francisco; Perez, Claudio F; Liu, Min; Widrick, Jeffrey; Barton, Elisabeth R; Allen, Paul D; Adams, Jose A; Lopez, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. This leads to severe muscle degeneration, and dilated cardiomyopathy that produces patient death, which in most cases occurs before the end of the second decade. Several lines of evidence have shown that modulators of nitric oxide (NO) pathway can improve skeletal muscle and cardiac function in the mdx mouse, a mouse model for DMD. Whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) is produced by applying sinusoidal motion to supine humans and in standing conscious rodents in a headward-footward direction using a motion platform. It adds small pulses as a function of movement frequency to the circulation thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of NO. In this study, we examined the potential therapeutic properties of pGz for the treatment of skeletal muscle pathology observed in the mdx mouse. We found that pGz (480 cpm, 8 days, 1 hr per day) decreased intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload, diminished serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and reduced intracellular accumulation of Evans Blue. Furthermore, pGz increased muscle force generation and expression of both utrophin and the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON). Likewise, pGz (120 cpm, 12 h) applied in vitro to skeletal muscle myotubes reduced Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload, diminished abnormal sarcolemmal Ca(2+) entry and increased phosphorylation of endothelial NOS. Overall, this study provides new insights into the potential therapeutic efficacy of pGz as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of DMD patients through activation of the NO pathway. PMID:25181488

  10. Human Ghrelin Mitigates Intestinal Injury and Mortality after Whole Body Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Weng Lang; Jacob, Asha; Aziz, Monowar; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI) alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat) daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy) WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days). The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury. PMID:25671547

  11. Evaluation of a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging system for whole body composition analysis in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Joshua P; Zhang, Minzhi; Wang, ChuanFeng; Kuskowski, Michael A; Novak, Colleen M; Levine, James A; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2010-08-01

    We evaluated the EchoMRI-900 combination rat and mouse quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) body composition method in comparison to traditional whole-body chemical carcass composition analysis (CCA) for measurements of fat and fat-free mass in rodents. Live and postmortem (PM) QMR fat and lean mass measurements were obtained for lean, obese and outbred strains of rats and mice, and compared with measurements obtained using CCA. A second group of rats was measured before and after 18 h food or water deprivation. Significant positive correlations between QMR and CCA fat and lean mass measurements were shown for rats and mice. Although all live QMR fat and lean measurements were more precise than CCA for rats, values obtained for mice significantly differed from CCA for lean mass only. QMR performed PM slightly overestimated fat and lean values relative to live QMR but did not show lower precision than live QMR. Food deprivation reduced values for both fat and lean mass; water deprivation reduced estimates of lean mass only. In summary, all measurements using this QMR system were comparable to those obtained by CCA, but with higher overall precision, similar to previous reports for the murine QMR system. However, PM QMR measurements slightly overestimated live QMR values, and lean and fat mass measurements in this QMR system are influenced by hydration status and animal size, respectively. Despite these caveats, we conclude that the EchoMRI QMR system offers a fast in vivo method of body composition analysis, well correlated to but with greater overall precision than CCA. PMID:20057373

  12. Performance investigation of SP3 and diffusion approximation for three-dimensional whole-body optical imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Cao, Xu; Wang, Jing; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie

    2015-09-01

    The third-order simplified harmonic spherical approximation (SP3) and diffusion approximation (DA) equations have been widely used in the three-dimensional (3D) whole-body optical imaging of small animals. With different types of tissues, which were classified by the ratio of µ s'/µ ɑ, the two equations have their own application scopes. However, the classification criterion was blurring and unreasonable, and the scope has not been systematically investigated until now. In this study, a new criterion for classifying tissues was established based on the absolute value of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. Using the newly defined classification criterion, the performance and applicability of the SP3 and DA equations were evaluated with a series of investigation experiments. Extensive investigation results showed that the SP3 equation exhibited a better performance and wider applicability than the DA one in most of the observed cases, especially in tissues of low-scattering-low-absorption and low-scattering-high-absorption range. For the case of tissues with the high-scattering-low-absorption properties, a similar performance was observed for both the SP3 and the DA equations, in which case the DA was the preferred option for 3D whole-body optical imaging. Results of this study would provide significant reference for the study of hybrid light transport models. PMID:25850985

  13. Ewing sarcoma dissemination and response to T-cell therapy in mice assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liebsch, L; Kailayangiri, S; Beck, L; Altvater, B; Koch, R; Dierkes, C; Hotfilder, M; Nagelmann, N; Faber, C; Kooijman, H; Ring, J; Vieth, V; Rossig, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Novel treatment strategies in Ewing sarcoma include targeted cellular therapies. Preclinical in vivo models are needed that reflect their activity against systemic (micro)metastatic disease. Methods: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) was used to monitor the engraftment and dissemination of human Ewing sarcoma xenografts in mice. In this model, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of T cells redirected against the Ewing sarcoma-associated antigen GD2 by chimeric receptor engineering. Results: Of 18 mice receiving intravenous injections of VH-64 Ewing sarcoma cells, all developed disseminated tumour growth detectable by WB-MRI. All mice had lung tumours, and the majority had additional manifestations in the bone, soft tissues, and/or kidney. Sequential scans revealed in vivo growth of tumours. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background signal suppression effectively visualised Ewing sarcoma growth in extrapulmonary sites. Animals receiving GD2-targeted T-cell therapy had lower numbers of pulmonary tumours than controls, and the median volume of soft tissue tumours at first detection was lower, with a tumour growth delay over time. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging reliably visualises disseminated Ewing sarcoma growth in mice. GD2-retargeted T cells can noticeably delay tumour growth and reduce pulmonary Ewing sarcoma manifestations in this aggressive disease model. PMID:23839490

  14. Assessment of contribution of other users to own total whole-body RF absorption in train environment.

    PubMed

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vermeeren, Günter; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, the contribution of radio-frequent radiation originating from other people's devices to total own whole-body absorption is assessed in a simulation study. Absorption in a train environment due to base station's downlink is compared with absorption due to uplink (UL) of the user's own mobile device and absorption due to the UL of 0, 1, 5, or 15 other nearby active users. In a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) macro cell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users can cause up to 19% of total absorption when calling yourself and up to 100% when not calling yourself. In a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) femtocell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users contributes to total absorption of a non-calling user for no more than 1.5%. For five other users in the train besides the considered person, median total whole-body Specific Absorption Rate is reduced by a factor of about 400000 when deploying a UMTS femtocell base station instead of relying on the GSM macrocell. PMID:26511787

  15. Generating and using patient-specific whole-body models for organ dose estimates in CT with increased accuracy: feasibility and validation.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Willi A; Saltybaeva, Natalia; Kolditz, Daniel; Hupfer, Martin; Beister, Marcel; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    The estimation of patient dose using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations based on the available patient CT images is limited to the length of the scan. Software tools for dose estimation based on standard computational phantoms overcome this problem; however, they are limited with respect to taking individual patient anatomy into account. The purpose of this study was to generate whole-body patient models in order to take scattered radiation and over-scanning effects into account. Thorax examinations were performed on three physical anthropomorphic phantoms at tube voltages of 80 kV and 120 kV; absorbed dose was measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Whole-body voxel models were built as a combination of the acquired CT images appended by data taken from widely used anthropomorphic voxel phantoms. MC simulations were performed both for the CT image volumes alone and for the whole-body models. Measured and calculated dose distributions were compared for each TLD chip position; additionally, organ doses were determined. MC simulations based only on CT data underestimated dose by 8%-15% on average depending on patient size with highest underestimation values of 37% for the adult phantom at the caudal border of the image volume. The use of whole-body models substantially reduced these errors; measured and simulated results consistently agreed to better than 10%. This study demonstrates that combined whole-body models can provide three-dimensional dose distributions with improved accuracy. Using the presented concept should be of high interest for research studies which demand high accuracy, e.g. for dose optimization efforts. PMID:25288527

  16. Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

  17. AMMONIA ABATEMENT SYSTEM FOR WHOLE-BODY SMALL ANIMAL INHALATION EXPOSURES TO ACID MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducting whole-body acid aerosol inhalation exposures of laboratory animals is complicated by ammonia arising from the excrement of the test animals which is sufficient to completely neutralize much of the acid aerosol. he neutralization of acid by ammonia con only be controlle...

  18. Whole-body CO2 production as an index of the metabolic response to sepsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-body carbon dioxide (CO2) production (RaCO2) is an index of substrate oxidation and energy expenditure; therefore, it may provide information about the metabolic response to sepsis. Using stable isotope techniques, we determined RaCO2 and its relationship to protein and glucose metabolism in m...

  19. [Recent technical research hot spots and development progresses in medical whole-body positron emission tomography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Du, Dong; Su, Zhihong; Xu, Jianfeng; Zou, Yirong; Peng, Qiyu

    2015-02-01

    Medical whole-body positron emission tomography (PET), one of the most successful molecular imaging technologies, has been widely used in the fields of cancer diagnosis, cardiovascular disease diagnosis and cranial nerve study. But, on the other hand, the sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-noise-ratio of the commercial medical whole-body PET systems still have some shortcomings and a great room for improvement. The sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-noise-ratio of PET system are largely affected by the performances of the scintillators and the photo detectors. The design of a PET system is usually a trade-off in cost and performance. A better image quality can be achieved by optimizing and balancing the key components which affect the system performance the most without dramatically increases in cost. With the development of the scintillator, photo-detector and high speed electronic system, the performance of medical whole-body PET system would be dramatically improved. In this paper, we report current progresses and discuss future directions of the developments of technologies in medical whole-body PET system. PMID:25997296

  20. Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

  1. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  2. Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed and validated a whole-body cortisol extraction technique for catfish fry. Their small size (< 1 g) makes it difficult to measure cortisol, a common indicator of a stress response, using conventional assay methods. Three volume enhancement methods were tested: CAL method (zero calibrator...

  3. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  4. Insulin and amino acids stimulate whole body protein synthesis in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin and amino acids (AA) stimulate muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. To determine the effects of insulin and AA on whole body protein turnover, hyperinsulinemic (0 and 100 ng/(kg[0.66]/min))-euglycemic-AA clamps were performed during euaminoacidemia or hyperaminoacidemia in fasted 7-d-...

  5. DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

  6. Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

  7. Evolution of whole-body enantiomorphy in the tree snail genus Amphidromus

    PubMed Central

    SUTCHARIT, C; ASAMI, T; PANHA, S

    2007-01-01

    Diverse animals exhibit left–right asymmetry in development. However, no example of dimorphism for the left–right polarity of development (whole-body enantiomorphy) is known to persist within natural populations. In snails, whole-body enantiomorphs have repeatedly evolved as separate species. Within populations, however, snails are not expected to exhibit enantiomorphy, because of selection against the less common morph resulting from mating disadvantage. Here we present a unique example of evolutionarily stable whole-body enantiomorphy in snails. Our molecular phylogeny of South-east Asian tree snails in the genus Amphidromus indicates that enantiomorphy has likely persisted as the ancestral state over a million generations. Enantiomorphs have continuously coexisted in every population surveyed spanning a period of 10 years. Our results indicate that whole-body enantiomorphy is maintained within populations opposing the rule of directional asymmetry in animals. This study implicates the need for explicit approaches to disclosure of a maintenance mechanism and conservation of the genus. PMID:17305832

  8. Whole-body cryostimulation and oxidative stress in rowers: the preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Alina; Szpinda, Michał; Chwalbinska-Moneta, Jolanta; Augustynska, Beata; Jurecka, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) on the biomarkers of oxidative stress, lysosomal enzymes, creatine kinase and cortisol was studied. Material and methods The rowers underwent two 6-day training cycles: with pre-training daily WBC (temperature: from –125°C to –150°C) and without cryostimulation (control). Blood samples were taken before and after the third and sixth day of training. Results The activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was lower (by 44% and 42%, respectively) after the third day of training with WBC than without WBC. The concentration of lipid peroxidation products was also lower after the training preceded by WBC. Moreover, the acid phosphatase activity was 50% lower after the third day of training with WBC than training without WBC. Considering the antioxidant enzymes activity during training without WBC, the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed after the third day of training (by about 74% and 100%, respectively). The level of lipid peroxidation products also increased after the training without WBC. No statistically significant changes were observed in creatine kinase activity after the training preceded with WBC, while after the training without WBC activity of this enzyme was two-fold higher than before the training. Conclusions The use of WBC prior to training may reduce the risk of oxidative stress and the extent of muscle fibre injuries provoked by intense exercise. The WBC seems to be an effective and safe method for limiting exercise-induced damage; thus it may be used in biological regeneration of sportsmen. PMID:23671442

  9. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation.

    PubMed

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C ± 1.3°C and -8.3 ± 0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ± 0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14 ± 0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than

  10. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C±1.3°C and -8.3±0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ±0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14±0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than PBC

  11. Whole-body heating decreases skin vascular response to low orthostatic stress in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Nakayama, Yoshiro; Sone, Ryoko

    2006-04-01

    To elucidate the influence of heat stress on cutaneous vascular response in the lower extremities during orthostatic stress, a head-up tilt (HUT) test at angles of 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees for 4 min each was conducted under normothermic control conditions followed by whole-body heat stress produced by a hot water-perfused suit in healthy volunteers. Skin blood flows (SkBF) in the forearm, thigh, and calf were monitored using laser-Doppler flowmetry throughout the experiment. Furthermore, to elucidate the effects of increased core and local skin temperatures on the local vascular response in calf skin under increasing orthostatic stress, the thigh was occluded at 20, 30, 50, 70, and 80 mmHg with a cuff in both the normothermic condition and the whole-body or local heating condition. Significant decreases in forearm SkBF during HUT were observed at an angle of 60 degrees during normothermia and at 30 degrees or more during heating. SkBF in the thigh and calf was decreased significantly by HUT at 15 degrees and above during normothermia, and there was no significant reduction of SkBF in these sites during HUT at the lower angles (15 degrees -45 degrees ) during whole-body heating. Significant decreases of calf SkBF were observed at cuff pressures of 20 mmHg and above during normothermia and of 30 mmHg and above during whole-body and local heating, respectively. These results suggest that SkBF in the lower extremities shows a marked reduction compared with the upper extremities during low orthostatic stress in normothermia, and the enhanced skin vasoconstrictor response in the lower extremities is diminished by both whole-body and local heat stress. PMID:16839449

  12. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  13. EURADOS INTERCOMPARISONS IN EXTERNAL RADIATION DOSIMETRY: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG EXERCISES FOR WHOLE-BODY PHOTON, WHOLE-BODY NEUTRON, EXTREMITY, EYE-LENS AND PASSIVE AREA DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ana M; Grimbergen, Tom; McWhan, Andrew; Stadtmann, Hannes; Fantuzzi, Elena; Clairand, Isabelle; Neumaier, Stefan; Figel, Markus; Dombrowski, Harald

    2016-09-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been organising dosimetry intercomparisons for many years in response to an identified requirement from individual monitoring services (IMS) for independent performance tests for dosimetry systems. The participation in intercomparisons gives IMS the opportunity to show compliance with their own quality management system, compare results with other participants and develop plans for improving their dosimetry systems. In response to growing demand, EURADOS has increased the number of intercomparisons for external radiation dosimetry. Most of these fit into the programme of self-financing intercomparisons for dosemeters routinely used by IMS. This programme is being coordinated by EURADOS working group 2 (WG2). Up to now, this programme has included four intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters in photon fields, one for extremity dosemeters in photon and beta fields, and one for whole-body dosemeters in neutron fields. Other EURADOS working groups have organised additional intercomparisons including events in 2014 for eye-lens dosemeters and passive area dosemeters for environmental monitoring. In this paper, the organisation and achievements of these intercomparisons are compared in detail focusing on the similarities and differences in their execution. PMID:26759475

  14. Acute whole body UVA irradiation combined with nitrate ingestion enhances time trial performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Muggeridge, David J; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Willis, Gareth; Thornhill, Laurence; Weller, Richard B; James, Philip E; Easton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, reduce blood pressure (BP) and enhance exercise performance. Acute exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-A light also increases NO bioavailability and reduces BP. We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of UV-A light alone and in combination with nitrate on the responses to sub-maximal steady-state exercise and time trial (TT) performance. Nine cyclists (VO2max 53.1 ± 4.4 ml/kg/min) completed five performance trials comprising 10 min submaximal steady-state cycling followed by a 16.1 km TT. Following a familiarization the final four trials were preceded, in random order, by either (1) Nitrate gels (NIT) + UV-A, (2) Placebo (PLA) + UV-A, (3) NIT + Sham light (SHAM) and (4) PLA + SHAM (control). The NIT gels (2 × 60 ml gels, ~8.1 mmol nitrate) or a low-nitrate PLA were ingested 2.5 h prior to the trial. The light exposure consisted of 20 J/cm(2) whole body irradiation with either UV-A or SHAM light. Plasma nitrite was measured pre- and post-irradiation and VO2 was measured continuously during steady-state exercise. Plasma nitrite was higher for NIT + SHAM (geometric mean (95% CI), 332 (292-377) nM; P = 0.029) and NIT + UV-A (456 (312-666) nM; P = 0.014) compared to PLA + SHAM (215 (167-277) nM). Differences between PLA + SHAM and PLA + UV-A (282 (248-356) nM) were small and non-significant. During steady-state exercise VO2 was reduced following NIT + UVA (P = 0.034) and tended to be lower in NIT + SHAM (P = 0.086) but not PLA + UV-A (P = 0.381) compared to PLA + SHAM. Performance in the TT was significantly faster following NIT + UV-A (mean ± SD 1447 ± 41 s P = 0.005; d = 0.47), but not PLA + UV-A (1450 ± 40 s; d = 0.41) or NIT + SHAM (1455 ± 47 s; d = 0.28) compared to PLA + SHAM (1469 ± 52 s). These findings demonstrate that exposure to UV-A light alone does not alter the physiological responses to exercise or improve

  15. Pitfalls in whole body MRI with diffusion weighted imaging performed on patients with lymphoma: What radiologists should know.

    PubMed

    Albano, Domenico; La Grutta, Ludovico; Grassedonio, Emanuele; Patti, Caterina; Lagalla, Roberto; Midiri, Massimo; Galia, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The technological advances in radiological imaging and the relevance of a diagnostic tool that may reduce radiation-induced long-term effects have led to a widespread use of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) with diffusion weighted imaging for oncologic patients. A lot of studies demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of WB-MRI as an alternative technique for lymphoma staging and response assessment during and after treatment. In this paper, taking advantage of our 2years of experience using WB-MRI for lymphoma, we discuss the main pitfalls and artifacts radiologists should know examining a WB-MRI performed on this typology of patients in order to avoid images misinterpretation. PMID:27114337

  16. Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, E. A.; Lenda, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Recent research and development programs have established the ability of the zero gravity whole body shower to maintain a comfortable environment in which the crewman can safely cleanse and dry the body. The purpose of this program was to further advance the technology of whole body bathing and to demonstrate technological readiness including in-flight maintenance by component replacement for flight applications. Three task efforts of this program are discussed. Conceptual designs and system tradeoffs were accomplished in task 1. Task 2 involved the formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower, while task 3 included the fabrication and test of the shower assembly. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation and correction of test anomalies during the final phase of the program.

  17. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.

    PubMed

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  18. Factors affecting the sensitivity of X-ray films used for whole-body autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Franklin, E R

    1983-03-01

    The sensitivities of five X-ray films commonly used for autoradiography of whole-body sections and thin-layer chromatograms were determined. The films tested were Kodak NS-2T, XAR-5, Industrex C, Agfa-Gevaert Osray M3 and CEAverken Singul-X. The order of sensitivity, from greatest to least, was found to be NS-2T, Osray M3, XAR-5, Singul-X and Industrex C. Increases in sensitivity following extended development were demonstrated for Industrex C. A literature review has revealed confusion in the use, in whole-body autoradiography, or various measures of autoradiographic response, which, in view of the simple relationship between radiographic optical density and absorbed dose, need not have arisen. PMID:6613162

  19. Clinical examination or whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: the Holy Grail of spondyloarthritis imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging allows acquisition of diagnostic images in the shortest scan time, leading to better patient compliance and artifact-free images. Methods of clinical examination of the anterior chest wall joints vary between physician groups and consideration of the rules of rib motion is suggested. The type of joint and its synovial lining may also aid imaging/clinical correlation. This well-written study by experts in the field with a standardized design and methodology allows good scientific analysis and suggests the advantages of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in anterior chest wall imaging. Selection of clinical examination criteria and specific joints may have had an influence on the study results and the lack of association reported. PMID:22380535

  20. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). 2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain. 3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines. 4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  1. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion

    PubMed Central

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  2. Whole-Body Reaching Movements Formulated by Minimum Muscle-Tension Change Criterion.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoki; Choi, Kyuheong; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that planar reaching movements of the human shoulder and elbow joints have invariant features: roughly straight hand paths and bell-shaped velocity profiles. The optimal control models with the criteria of smoothness or precision, which determine a unique movement pattern, predict such features of hand trajectories. In this letter on expanding the research on simple arm reaching movements, we examine whether the smoothness criteria can be applied to whole-body reaching movements with many degrees of freedom. Determining a suitable joint trajectory in the whole-body reaching movement corresponds to the optimization problem with constraints, since body balance must be maintained during a motion task. First, we measured human joint trajectories and ground reaction forces during whole-body reaching movements, and confirmed that subjects formed similar movements with common characteristics in the trajectories of the hand position and body center of mass. Second, we calculated the optimal trajectories according to the criteria of torque and muscle-tension smoothness. While the minimum torque change trajectories were not consistent with the experimental data, the minimum muscle-tension change model was able to predict the stereotyped features of the measured trajectories. To explore the dominant effects of the extension from the torque change to the muscle-tension change, we introduced a weighted torque change cost function. Considering the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the muscle as the weighting factor of each joint torque, we formulated the weighted torque change cost as a simplified version of the minimum muscle-tension change cost. The trajectories owing to the minimum weighted torque change criterion also showed qualitative agreement with the common features of the measured data. Proper estimation of the MVC forces in the body joints is essential to reproduce human whole-body movements according to the minimum muscle-tension change

  3. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Romy S.; Selen, Luc P. J.; Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques) or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion. PMID:26720413

  4. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jan L; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis R; Søndergaard, Lasse R; Rasmussen, Palle; Fuglsang, Stefan; Ljungberg, Michael; Damgaard, Morten

    2014-02-01

    Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution of radiolabelled selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of Se present in foods. A total of eight healthy young men participated in the study. After consumption of a meal containing 4 MBq [⁷⁵Se]L-SeMet ([⁷⁵Se]SeMet), whole-body gamma camera scanning was performed for 45 min every hour over a 6 h period, every second hour for the next 18 h and once on each of the subsequent 6 d. Blood, urine and faecal samples were collected to determine the plasma content of [⁷⁵Se]SeMet as well as its excretion in urine and faeces. Imaging showed that 87·9 (sd 3·3)% of the administered activity of [⁷⁵Se]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8·2 (sd 1·1)% of the activity. Time-activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera imaging allows for the assessment of the postprandial absorption of SeMet. This technique may also permit concurrent studies of organ turnover of SeMet. PMID:23930999

  5. A biomimetic framework for coordinating and controlling whole body movements in humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Morasso, Pietro; Rea, Francesco; Mohan, Vishwanathan

    2013-01-01

    An integrated model for the coordination of whole body movements of a humanoid robot with a compliant ankle similar to the human case is described. It includes a synergy formation part, which takes into account the motor redundancy of the body model, and an intermittent controller, which stabilizes in a robust way postural sway movements, thus combining the hip strategy with ankle strategy. PMID:24110934

  6. Time course of lipolytic activity and lipid peroxidation after whole-body gamma irradiation of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rejholcova, M.; Wilhelm, J.

    1989-01-01

    The content of fluorescing products of lipid peroxidation (LFP) and hormone-stimulated lipolytic activity were determined in rat epididymal adipose tissue during a 29-day interval after whole-body gamma irradiation. An increase in LFP was accompanied by a decrease in lipolytic activity. It is suggested that these effects are interrelated and that the decrease in lipolysis in irradiated, semi fasting rats is an additional deteriorating factor leading to death in some animals.

  7. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Romy S; Selen, Luc P J; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques) or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion. PMID:26720413

  8. MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Choyke, Peter L; Xia, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W; Pohida, Thomas J; Milenic, Diane E; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G; Green, Michael V

    2010-04-01

    Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

  9. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue -17 ± 15%, control -15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, p < 0.001) in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception of effort

  10. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art*

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations. PMID:25987752

  11. Whole Body Microwave Irradiation for Improved Dacarbazine Therapeutical Action in Cutaneous Melanoma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Albulescu, Lucian; Iacob, Nicusor; Ighigeanu, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A cutaneous melanoma mouse model was used to test the efficacy of a new therapeutical approach that uses low doses of cytostatics in conjunction with mild whole body microwave exposure of 2.45 GHz in order to enhance cytostatics antitumoral effect. Materials and Methods. A microwave exposure system for C57BL/6 mouse whole body microwave irradiation was designed; groups of 40 mice (males and females) bearing experimental tumours were subjected to a combined therapy comprising low doses of dacarbazine in combination with mild