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Sample records for reduced mimosine content

  1. Effects of mimosine on Wolbachia in mosquito cells: cell cycle suppression reduces bacterial abundance

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    The plant allelochemical l-mimosine (β-[N-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridone)]-α-aminopropionic acid; leucenol) resembles the nonessential amino acid, tyrosine. Because the obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium, Wolbachia pipientis, metabolizes amino acids derived from host cells, the effects of mimosine on infected and uninfected mosquito cells were investigated. The EC50 for mimosine was 6–7 μM with Aedes albopictus C7-10 and C/wStr cell lines, and was not influenced by infection status. Mosquito cells responded to concentrations of mimosine substantially lower than those used to synchronize the mammalian cell cycle; at concentrations of 30–35 μM, mimosine reversibly arrested the mosquito cell cycle at the G1/S boundary and inhibited growth of Wolbachia strain wStr. Although lower concentrations of mimosine slightly increased wStr abundance, concentrations that suppressed the cell cycle reduced Wolbachia levels. PMID:26019119

  2. Mimosine Dipeptide Enantiomsers: Improved Inhibitors against Melanogenesis and Cyclooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis plays an important role in the protection of skin against UV through production of melanin pigments, but abnormal accumulation of this pigment causes unaesthetic hyperpigmentation. Much effort is being made to develop effective depigmenting agents. Here, we show for the first time that a small library of mimosine dipeptide enantiomers (Mi-L/D-amino acid) inhibit the melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells by down-regulating the cellular tyrosinase with little effect on their growth or viability. Two of them, Mi-D-Trp and Mi-D-Val, turned out to be the most potent inhibitors on melanin content and cellular tyrosinase in B16F10 melanoma cells. In addition, most of the mimosine dipeptides were more potent than mimosine for inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) with IC50 of 18-26 μM. Among them, Mi-L-Val and Mi-L-Trp inhibited cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) more potently than indomethacin, with IC50 values of 22 and 19 μM, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest the possibility that mimosine dipeptides could be better candidates (than mimosine) for anti-melanogenic (skin hyperpigmentation treatment) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. PMID:26287130

  3. Mimosine, a Toxin Present in Leguminous Trees (Leucaena spp.), Induces a Mimosine-Degrading Enzyme Activity in Some Rhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Soedarjo, Muchdar; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.; Borthakur, Dulal

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-seven Rhizobium isolates obtained from the nodules of leguminous trees (Leucaena spp.) were selected on the basis of their ability to catabolize mimosine, a toxin found in large quantities in the seeds, foliage, and roots of plants of the genera Leucaena and Mimosa. A new medium containing mimosine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was used for selection. The enzymes of the mimosine catabolic pathway were inducible and were present in the soluble fraction of the cell extract of induced cells. On the basis of a comparison of the growth rates of Rhizobium strains on general carbon and nitrogen sources versus mimosine, the toxin appears to be converted mostly to biomass and carbon dioxide. Most isolates able to grow on mimosine as a source of carbon and nitrogen are also able to utilize 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, a toxic intermediate of mimosine degradation in other organisms. PMID:16349454

  4. Inhibitory effect of mimosine on proliferation of human lung cancer cells is mediated by multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chang, H C; Lee, T H; Chuang, L Y; Yen, M H; Hung, W C

    1999-10-18

    The plant amino acid mimosine has been reported to block cell cycle progression in the late G1 phase. A recent study showed that mimosine might induce growth arrest by activating the expression of p21CIP1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI), and by inhibiting the activity of cyclin E-associated kinases in human breast cancer cells. However, mimosine at higher concentrations also blocked proliferation of p21-/- cells by unknown mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the effect of mimosine on the expression of cyclins and CDKIs in human lung cancer cells. We found that mimosine specifically inhibited cyclin D1 expression in H226 cells. The expression of another G1 cyclin, cyclin E, was not regulated by mimosine in all lung cancer cell lines examined. Moreover, mimosine induced p21CIP1 expression in H226 and H358 cells, while it activated p27KIP1 expression in H322 cells. However, mimosine does not affect transcription of these genes directly because significant changes in cyclin D1 or CDKI expression were observed at 12-24 h after drug addition. Our results indicate that mimosine may block cell proliferation by multiple mechanisms and this amino acid is a useful agent for the study of cell cycle control. PMID:10530763

  5. Modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein expression and suppression of tumor growth by mimosine in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, H C; Weng, C F; Yen, M H; Chuang, L Y; Hung, W C

    2000-10-01

    Our previous results demonstrated that the plant amino acid mimosine blocked cell cycle progression and suppressed proliferation of human lung cancer cells in vitro by multiple mechanisms. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression or induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 expression was found in mimosine-treated lung cancer cells. However, whether mimosine may modulate the expression of these cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppress tumor growth in vivo is unknown. In this study, we examined the anti-cancer effect of mimosine on human H226 lung cancer cells grown in nude mice. Our results demonstrated that mimosine inhibits cyclin D1 and induces p21WAF1 expression in vivo. Furthermore, results of TUNEL analysis indicated that mimosine may induce apoptosis to suppress tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively, these results suggest that mimosine exerts anti-cancer effect in vivo and might be useful in the therapy of lung cancer. PMID:10995875

  6. Formation of dehydroalanine from mimosine and cysteine: artifacts in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry based metabolomics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Mo; Metz, Thomas O.; Hu, Zeping; Wiedner, Susan D.; Kim, Jong Seo; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.; Zhang, Qibin

    2011-08-15

    Trimethylsilyation is a chemical derivatization procedure routinely applied in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics. In this report, through de novo structural elucidation and comparison with authentic standards, we demonstrate that mimosine can be completely converted into dehydroalanine and 3,4-dihydroxypyridine during the trimethylsilyating process. Similarly, dehydroalanine can be formed from derivatization of cysteine. This conversion is a potential interference in GC-MS-based global metabolomics, as well as in analysis of amino acids.

  7. Isolation and characterization of mimosine, 3, 4 DHP and 2, 3 DHP degrading bacteria from a commercial rumen inoculum.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani, Hooman; Corley, Sean W; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2016-05-01

    The presence of the toxic amino acid mimosine in Leucaena leucocephala restricts its use as a protein source for ruminants. Rumen bacteria degrade mimosine to 3,4- and 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP), which remain toxic. Synergistes jonesii is believed to be the main bacterium responsible for degradation of these toxic compounds but other bacteria may also be involved. In this study, a commercial inoculum provided by the Queensland's Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry was screened for isolation and characterization of mimosine, 3,4- and 2,3-DHP degrading bacterial strains. A new medium for screening of 2,3-DHP degrading bacteria was developed. Molecular and biochemical approaches used in this study revealed four bacterial isolates - Streptococcus lutetiensis, Clostridium butyricum, Lactobacillus vitulinus, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens - to be able to completely degrade mimosine within 7 days of incubation. It was also observed that C. butyricum and L. vitulinus were able to partially degrade 2,3-DHP within 12 days of incubation, while S. lutetiensis, was able to fully degrade both 3,4 and 2,3 DHP. Collectively, we concluded that S. jonesii is not the sole bacterium responsible for detoxification of Leucaena. Comprehensive screening of rumen fluid of cattle grazing on Leucaena pastures is needed to identify additional mimosine-detoxifying bacteria and contribute to development of more effective inoculums to be used by farmers against Leucaena toxicity. PMID:26773324

  8. A comparative study on mimosine, 3,4-dihydroxy pyridone (3,4-DHP) and 2,3-dihydroxy pyridone (2,3-DHP), purine derivatives (PD) excretion in the urine, thyroid hormone and blood metabolites profiles of Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Jetana, Thongsuk; Thongruay, Sirima; Uswang, Sawong; Hengtrakulsin, Runchuan

    2012-04-01

    Four Thai swamp buffaloes (SB) and four Murrah buffaloes (MB) fed a based diet of fresh ruzi grass (Bachiaria ruziziensis) with an increased proportion of fresh leucaena leaves. Intake of nutrients in animals increased when ruzi grass was mixed with leucaena. Digestibility of nutrients were the highest in SB and MB fed diets containing 25% and 50% of leucaena, respectively, and nitrogen (N) balances in both animal breeds were varied among diets. The regression equation coefficient of mimosine + DHP in the urine was twice as high in SB than in MB. Urinary purine derivatives excretion rate in SB was higher than that in MB. Plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine declined in both animal breeds fed a diet containing >1 g mimosine intake/kg BW(0.75)/day. Plasma urea-N was the lowest in SB, but the highest in MB when fed a diet containing 84% of leucaena. Plasma β-HBA in SB have declined when diets contained >50% of leucaena but that in MB was not affected by any diet. In conclusion, the effect of leucaena in diet upon buffalo breeds depends on the proportion of leucaena in the diet, mimosine contents and condensed tannins components. PMID:21928129

  9. Mimosine degradation in calves fed a sole diet of Leucaena leucocephala in India.

    PubMed

    Ram, J J; Atreja, P P; Chopra, R C; Chhabra, A

    1994-11-01

    Five Karan Swiss crossbred (Sahiwal x Brown Swiss) calves were abruptly switched over from a diet of concentrate and maize fodder to ad libitum air dried Leucaena leucocephala leaves plus twigs. After 17 days on the L. leucocephala diet, 3 of the calves were supplemented with copper sulphate (10 mg/kg DM L. leucocephala) for 12 days. Thereafter all the calves were taken off the L. leucocephala diet and returned to the pre-experimental concentrate and maize fodder diet. While on the L. leucocephala diet, the average DM intake/d of L. leucocephala declined to 497 g within 3 weeks and all calves lost weight. This weight loss was reversed in the 3 calves that received copper sulphate, and all calves gained weight when they resumed the concentrate and maize fodder diet. The toxic effects of L. leucocephala feeding for 24 days were characterised by poor growth, emaciation, alopecia, loss of hair from the tail switch, ear and eye lesions, ulceration of the mouth region, drooling viscid saliva and vomiting of thick green saliva in one of the calves. Mean levels of 3,4 dihydroxypyridone (DHP) (mg/100 ml) were 30.35 +/- 13.52 and 55.57 +/- 13.77 on days 2 and 4 respectively in rumen liquor and up to 136.01 +/- 80.18 in urine. The mean ratios of mimosine: DHP of 3.14, 0.12 and 0.04 in feed, faeces and urine respectively revealed extensive degradation of mimosine to DHP in the calves fed the L. leucocephala diet and it was concluded the calves were unable to tolerate a diet consisting solely of L. leucocephala. PMID:7900214

  10. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, C.E. )

    1992-11-01

    Volume four contains the results of an Empire State Electric Energy Research corporation and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded investigation to evaluate the effects and economics of applying ultrasonic waves to commercial-scale dewatering and classifying of fine coal. Pre-treating minus 28 mesh Upper Freeport Seam coal using an ultrasonic tray device improved subsequent dewatering by a vacuum disc filter after thickening in a cyclone, but it did not improve dewatering by a screen-bowl centrifuge after cycloning. Dewatering of Pittsburgh Seam coal also improved when the coal was ultrasonically treated, but it only manifested during thickening in the cyclone. Cycloning also increased the removal of fine, high-ash content clay particles from Pittsburgh Seam coal. In contrast, ultrasonically-treating Upper Freeport Seam coal did not improve subsequent classifying by a rapped sieve bend. Based on a specific example of results in this test work for Upper Freeport Seam coal, using an ultrasonic tray to aid dewatering of finely-sized coal can be economically beneficial. For other coals and dewatering devices, however, the economics for using ultrasonic trays to enhance fine coal dewatering will differ.

  11. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  12. Method for reducing the nitrogen content of shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, L.E.

    1981-06-09

    A method is disclosed for reducing the nitrogen content of shale oil by removing nitrogen-containing compounds from the shale oil. The shale oil containing nitrogen-containing compounds is extracted with a sufficient amount of selective solvent which is selective toward the nitrogen-containing compounds present in the shale oil. The selective solvent comprises an active solvent for nitrogen-containing compounds and water in an amount sufficient to provide phase separation. The active solvent component of the selective solvent is selected from the group consisting of organic acids, and substituted organic acids, particularly acetic , formic and trichloroacetic acids and mixtures thereof. The selective solvent containing the nitrogen-containing compounds is separated from the reduced nitrogen content shale oil raffinate by phase disengagement.

  13. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  14. Measurement of reduced, oxidized and total ascorbate content in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascorbate is one of the major antioxidant metabolites in plant tissues. This protocol describes a microplate-adapted colorimetric ascorbate assay, in which ferric ion is reduced by ascorbate to the ferrous ion. The ferrous ion reacts with alpha-bipyridl to form a complex with characteristic absorban...

  15. Process for reducing the total sulfur content of a high CO/sub 2/-content feed gas

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, H.J.; Schilk, J.A.

    1982-10-26

    In the process for reducing the total sulfur content of a high CO/sub 2/-content feed gas stream, the feed gas is first passed to an absorption column. The unabsorbed, high CO/sub 2/-content gas is then routed to a reduction step where it is combined with Claus offgases and the sulfur compounds are reduced to H/sub 2/S. The treated gas is then passed to a second absorption column and the unabsorbed gas is vented to the atmosphere. The fat solvent from both absorption columns is stripped in a common stripper and the stripped gas is passed to a Claus unit for conversion to elemental sulfur.

  16. Identification of Factors that Reduce Mathematics Anxiety of Preservice Elementary Teachers in Mathematics Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisance, DesLey Viator

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that reduce mathematics anxiety in preservice elementary teachers enrolled in mathematics content courses. Students enrolled in ten sections of four different, required mathematics content courses in one specific semester were chosen as the population for this study. Approximately 180 students were…

  17. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds.

    PubMed

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required. PMID:27275005

  18. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    PubMed Central

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required. PMID:27275005

  19. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  20. Treatment with sulphated galactan inhibits macrophage chemotaxis and reduces intraplaque macrophage content in atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes Quinderé, Ana Luíza; Barros Benevides, Norma Maria; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Burger, Fabienne; Carbone, Federico; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Pagano, Sabrina; Bertolotto, Maria; Dallegri, Franco; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    Experimental data from animal models and clinical studies support connections between the haemostasis and inflammation in atherogenesis. These interfaces among inflammation and thrombogenesis have been suggested as targets for pharmacological intervention to reduce disease progression. We hypothesize that the recently discovered antithrombotic drug Sulphated Galactan (SG) (isolated from the red marine alga Acanthophora muscoides) might reduce atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and inflammatory gene expression in 10-week aged apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice under high-cholesterol diet for additional 11weeks. Then, the underlying cellular mechanisms were investigated in vitro. SG (10mg/kg) or Vehicle was subcutaneously injected from week 6 until week 11 of the diet. Treatment with SG reduced intraplaque macrophage and Tissue Factor (TF) content as compared to Vehicle-treated animals. Intraplaque TF co-localized and positively correlated with macrophage rich-areas. No changes on atherosclerotic plaque size, and other intraplaque features of vulnerability (such as lipid, neutrophil, MMP-9 and collagen contents) were observed. Moreover, mRNA expression of MMPs, chemokines and genetic markers of Th1/2/reg/17 lymphocyte polarization within mouse aortic arches and spleens was not affected by SG treatment. In vitro, treatment with SG dose-dependently reduced macrophage chemotaxis without affecting TF production. Overall, the chronic SG treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, our results indicate that SG treatment reduced intraplaque macrophage content (by impacting on cell recruitment) and, concomitantly, intraplaque TF content of potential macrophage origin in atherosclerotic mice. PMID:25869506

  1. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  2. The accuracy of stated energy contents of reduced-energy, commercially prepared foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accuracy of stated energy contents of reduced calorie restaurant foods and frozen meals purchased from supermarkets was evaluated. Measured energy values of 29 quick-serve and sit-down restaurant foods averaged 18% more than stated values, and measured energy values of 10 frozen meals purchased ...

  3. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains and solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  4. N-butyldeoxygalactonojirimycin reduces brain ganglioside and GM2 content in neonatal Sandhoff disease mice.

    PubMed

    Baek, Rena C; Kasperzyk, Julie L; Platt, Frances M; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2008-05-01

    Sandhoff disease involves the CNS accumulation of ganglioside GM2 and asialo-GM2 (GA2) due to inherited defects in the beta-subunit gene of beta-hexosaminidase A and B (Hexb gene). Accumulation of these glycosphingolipids (GSLs) produces progressive neurodegeneration, ultimately leading to death. Substrate reduction therapy (SRT) aims to decrease the rate of glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis to compensate for the impaired rate of catabolism. The imino sugar, N-butyldeoxygalactonojirimycin (NB-DGJ) inhibits the first committed step in GSL biosynthesis. NB-DGJ treatment, administered from postnatal day 2 (p-2) to p-5 (600 mg/kg/day)), significantly reduced total brain ganglioside and GM2 content in the Sandhoff disease (Hexb(-/-)) mice, but did not reduce the content of GA2. We also found that NB-DGJ treatment caused a slight, but significant elevation in brain sialidase activity. The drug had no adverse effects on viability, body weight, brain weight, or brain water content in the mice. No significant alterations in neutral lipids or acidic phospholipids were observed in the NB-DGJ-treated Hexb(-/-) mice. Our results show that NB-DGJ is effective in reducing total brain ganglioside and GM2 content at early neonatal ages. PMID:18207611

  5. Chefs’ opinions about reducing the calorie content of menu items in restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Obbagy, Julie E.; Condrasky, Margaret D.; Roe, Liane S.; Sharp, Julia L.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Modifying the energy content of foods, particularly foods eaten away from home, is important in addressing the obesity epidemic. Chefs in the restaurant industry are uniquely placed to influence the provision of reduced-calorie foods, but little is known about their opinions on this issue. A survey was conducted among chefs attending U.S. culinary meetings about strategies for creating reduced-calorie foods and opportunities for introducing such items on restaurant menus. The 432 respondents were from a wide variety of employment positions and the majority had been in the restaurant industry for 20 years or more. Nearly all chefs (93%) thought that the calories in menu items could be reduced by 10 to 25% without customers noticing. To decrease the calories in two specific foods, respondents were more likely to select strategies for reducing energy density than for reducing portion size (p<0.004). Low consumer demand was identified as the greatest barrier to including reduced-calorie items on the menu by 38% of chefs, followed by the need for staff skills and training (24%), and high ingredient cost (18%). The majority of respondents (71%) ranked taste as the most influential factor in the success of reduced-calorie items (p<0.0001). The results of this survey indicate that opportunities exist for reducing the energy content of restaurant items. Ongoing collaboration is needed between chefs and public health professionals to ensure that appealing reduced-calorie menu items are more widely available in restaurants and that research is directed towards effective ways to develop and promote these items. PMID:20814414

  6. Reducing Patient Clinical Management Errors Using Structured Content and Electronic Nursing Handover.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maree; Sanchez, Paula; Zheng, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether an integrated nursing handover system-structured content and an electronic tool within the patient clinical information system with bedside delivery-would improve the quality of information delivered at nursing handover and reduce adverse patient outcomes. Using a pre/posttest evaluative design, improvements in the transfer of critical patient information and reductions in nursing clinical management incidents were demonstrated. No changes in falls or medication incident rates were identified. PMID:26796972

  7. The Predicted Impact of Reducing the Nicotine Content in Cigarettes on Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Donny, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Product standards reducing the level of nicotine in cigarettes could significantly improve public health by reducing smoking behavior and toxicant exposure. However, relatively little is known about how the regulatory strategy could impact alcohol use, a closely related health behavior that is also a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary objective of this paper is to predict the effect of nicotine reduction on alcohol use, identify priorities for future research, and highlight areas for mitigating any adverse outcomes. Methods: We critically reviewed and integrated literatures examining the effects of very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes on smoking-related outcomes (nicotine exposure, nicotine withdrawal, and smoking as a cue to drink) and, in turn, the effects of those outcomes on alcohol use. Results: Current evidence suggests reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may benefit public health by reducing alcohol use and problematic drinking over time as a consequence of reduced exposure to nicotine and the smoking cues associated with drinking. Nicotine withdrawal could increase risk of drinking, although these effects should be short-lived and could be mitigated by other sources of nicotine. Gender, hazardous drinking, and psychiatric comorbidities are likely to be important moderators of the effects of VLNC cigarettes. Conclusions: It is imperative to broadly assess the public health impact of potential tobacco product regulations by including measures of closely related health behaviors that could be impacted by these interventions. Nicotine reduction in cigarettes may contribute to improved public health through reductions in alcohol use.

  8. The Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Reduced-Energy, Commercially Prepared Foods

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lorien E.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Robinson, Lisa M.; Ausman, Lynne M.; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of stated energy contents of reduced-energy restaurant foods and frozen meals purchased from supermarkets was evaluated. Measured energy values of 29 quick-serve and sit-down restaurant foods averaged 18% more than stated values, and measured energy values of 10 frozen meals purchased from supermarkets averaged 8% more than originally stated. These differences substantially exceeded laboratory measurement error but did not achieve statistical significance due to considerable variability in the degree of underreporting. Some individual restaurant items contained up to 200% of stated values and, in addition, free side dishes increased provided energy to an average of 245% of stated values for the entrees they accompanied. These findings suggest that stated energy contents of reduced-energy meals obtained from restaurants and supermarkets are not consistently accurate, and in this study averaged more than measured values, especially when free side dishes were taken into account. If widespread, this phenomenon could hamper efforts to self-monitor energy intake to control weight, and could also reduce the potential benefit of recent policy initiatives to disseminate information on food energy content at the point of purchase. PMID:20102837

  9. Assessment of Tungsten Content on Tertiary Creep Deformation Behavior of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, Kinkar

    2015-10-01

    Tertiary creep deformation behavior of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels having different tungsten contents has been assessed. Creep tests were carried out at 823 K (550 °C) over a stress range of 180 to 260 MPa on three heats of the RAFM steel (9Cr-W-0.06Ta-0.22V) with tungsten content of 1, 1.4, and 2.0 wt pct. With creep exposure, the steels exhibited minimum in creep rate followed by progressive increase in creep rate until fracture. The minimum creep rate decreased, rupture life increased, and the onset of tertiary stage of creep deformation delayed with the increase in tungsten content. The tertiary creep behavior has been assessed based on the relationship, , considering minimum creep rate () instead of steady-state creep rate. The increase in tungsten content was found to decrease the rate of acceleration of tertiary parameter ` p.' The relationships between (1) tertiary parameter `p' with minimum creep rate and time spent in tertiary creep deformation and (2) the final creep rate with minimum creep rate revealed that the same first-order reaction rate theory prevailed in the minimum creep rate as well as throughout the tertiary creep deformation behavior of the steel. A master tertiary creep curve of the steels has been developed. Scanning electron microscopic investigation revealed enhanced coarsening resistance of carbides in the steel on creep exposure with increase in tungsten content. The decrease in tertiary parameter ` p' with tungsten content with the consequent decrease in minimum creep rate and increase in rupture life has been attributed to the enhanced microstructural stability of the steel.

  10. Reduced Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity and Elevated Ceramide but not Diacylglycerol Content in Severe Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Coen, P.M.; Hames, K.C.; Leachman, E.M.; DeLany, J.P.; Ritov, V.B.; Menshikova, E.V.; Dubé, J.J.; Stefanovic-Racic, M.; Toledo, F.G.S.; Goodpaster, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The link between a reduced capacity for skeletal muscle mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and lipotoxicity in human insulin resistance has been the subject of intense debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether reduced FAO is associated with elevated acyl CoA, ceramide, and diacylglycerol (DAG) in severely obese insulin resistant subjects. Design and Methods Muscle biopsies were conducted in lean (L, 22.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2, n = 8), Class I (CI, 32.1 ± 0.4 kg/m2, n = 7) and Class II&III obese (CII&III, 45.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2, n = 15) women for acyl CoA, sphingolipid and DAG profiling. Intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) content was determined by histology. FAO was assessed by incubating muscle homogenates with [1–14C]palmitate and measuring 14CO2 production. Cardiolipin content was quantified as an index of mitochondrial content. Lipid metabolism proteins, DGAT1, PLIN5, and PNPLA2 were quantified in biopsy samples by western blot. Results CII&III were more insulin resistant (HOMA-IR: 4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), and had lower FAO (~58%, P = 0.007) and cardiolipin content (~31%, P = 0.013) compared to L. IMTG was elevated in CI (P = 0.04) and CII&III (P = 0.04) compared to L. Sphingolipid content was higher in CII&III compared to L (13.6 ± 1.1 vs. 10.3 ± 0.5 pmol/mg, P = 0.031) whereas DAG content was not different among groups. DGAT1 was elevated in CII&III, and PLIN5 was elevated in CI compared to L. Conclusions Severe obesity is associated with reduced muscle oxidative capacity and occurs concomitantly with elevated IMTG, ceramide and insulin resistance. PMID:23512750

  11. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. PMID:26261236

  12. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives. PMID:26593556

  13. Effect of reduced cobalt contents on hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy U-700 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of reducing the cobalt content of prealloyed powders of UDIMET 700 (U-700) alloys to 12.7, 8.6, 4.3, and 0% was examined. The powders were hot isostatically pressed into billets, which were given heat treatments appropriate for turbine disks, namely partial solutioning at temperatures below the gamma prime solvus and four step aging treatments. Chemical analyses, metallographic examinations, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the materials. Minor effects on gamma prime content and on room temperature and 650 C tensile properties were observed. Creep rupture lives at 650 C reached a maximum at the 8.4% concentration, while at 760 C a maximum in life was reached at the 4.3% cobalt level. Minimum creep rates increased with decreasing cobalt content at both test temperatures. Extended exposures at 760 and 815 C resulted in decreased tensile strengths and rupture lives for all alloys. Evidence of sigma phase formation was also found.

  14. Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermentations to reduce ethanol content in wine.

    PubMed

    Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Decreasing the ethanol content in wine is a current challenge, mainly due to the global climate change and to the consumer preference for wines from grapes with increased maturity. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to investigate the potential application of Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed (co-inoculated and sequential) cultures, to understand better the mechanism of co-habitation and achieve the objective of reducing the ethanol in wines. Laboratory scale fermentations demonstrated a decrease up to 0.7 % (v/v) of ethanol and an increase of about 4.2 g/L of glycerol when S. cerevisiae was inoculated with a delay of 48 h with respect to the inoculation of S. bacillaris. Pilot-scale fermentations, carried out in winemaking conditions, confirmed the laboratory results. This study demonstrates that the combination of strains and inoculation protocol could help to reduce the ethanol content in wines. PMID:26960321

  15. Endurance interval training in obese mice reduces muscle inflammation and macrophage content independently of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M. Constantine; Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Ziafazeli, Tahereh; Khan, Mohammad I.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low‐grade inflammation that involves infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs such as skeletal muscle. Exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss; but its role in regulating muscle inflammation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that exercise training would inhibit skeletal muscle inflammation and alter macrophage infiltration into muscle independently of weight loss. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were fed a chow diet or a high‐fat diet (HFD, 45% calories fat) for 6 weeks. Then, mice maintained on the HFD either remained sedentary (HFD Sed) or exercised (HFD Ex) on a treadmill for another 6 weeks. The exercise training protocol involved conducting intervals of 2 min in duration followed by 2 min of rest for 60 min thrice weekly. Chow‐fed control mice remained sedentary for the entire 12 weeks. Muscle cytokine and macrophage gene expression analysis were conducted using qRT‐PCR, and muscle macrophage content was also measured using immunohistochemistry. Muscle cytokine protein content was quantified using a cytokine array. The HFD increased adiposity and weight gain compared to chow‐fed controls. HFD Sed and HFD Ex mice had similar body mass as well as total and visceral adiposity. However, despite similar adiposity, exercise reduced inflammation and muscle macrophage infiltration. We conclude that Endurance exercise training modulates the immune‐metabolic crosstalk in obesity independently of weight loss, and may have potential benefits in reducing obesity‐related muscle inflammation. PMID:24843075

  16. A Chimpanzee Recognizes Synthetic Speech With Significantly Reduced Acoustic Cues to Phonetic Content

    PubMed Central

    Heimbauer, Lisa A.; Beran, Michael J.; Owren, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception [1–7], which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content [2–4,7]. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words [8,9], asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuo-graphic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users [10]. Experiment 2 tested “impossibly unspeechlike” [3] sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones [11]. Although receiving only intermittent and non-contingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate, but improved in Experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human [12–14]. PMID:21723125

  17. [Detection of reducing sugar content of potato granules based on wavelet compression by near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Xu-Dong

    2013-12-01

    The feasibility was explored in determination of reducing sugar content of potato granules based on wavelet compression algorithm combined with near-infrared spectroscopy. The spectra of 250 potato granules samples were recorded by Fourier transform near-infrared spectrometer in the range of 4000- 10000 cm-1. The three parameters of vanishing moments, wavelet coefficients and principal component factor were optimized. The optimization results of three parameters were 10, 100 and 20, respectively. The original spectra of 1501 spectral variables were transfered to 100 wavelet coefficients using db wavelet function. The partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were developed by 1501 spectral variables and 100 wavelet coefficients. Sixty two unknown samples of prediction set were applied to evaluate the performance of PLS models. By comparison, the optimal result was obtained by wavelet compression combined with PLS calibration model. The correlation coefficient of prediction and root mean square error of prediction were 0.98 and 0.181%, respectively. Experimental results show that the dimensions of spectral data were reduced, scarcely losing effective information by wavelet compression algorithm combined with near-infrared spectroscopy technology in determination of reducing sugar in potato granules. The PLS model is simplified, and the predictive ability is improved. PMID:24611373

  18. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    PubMed

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content. PMID:26852809

  19. Genetic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce the content of ethanol in beer.

    PubMed

    Nevoigt, Elke; Pilger, Rita; Mast-Gerlach, Edeltraud; Schmidt, Ulrike; Freihammer, Silke; Eschenbrenner, Martin; Garbe, Leif; Stahl, Ulf

    2002-05-01

    The GPD1 gene encoding the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was overexpressed in an industrial lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ssp. carlsbergensis) to reduce the content of ethanol in beer. The amount of glycerol produced by the GPD1-overexpressing yeast in fermentation experiments simulating brewing conditions was increased 5.6 times and ethanol was decreased by 18% when compared to the wild-type. Overexpression of GPD1 does not affect the consumption of wort sugars. Only minor changes in the concentration of higher alcohols, esters and fatty acids could be observed in beer produced by the GPD1-overexpressing brewing yeast. However, the concentrations of several other by-products, particularly acetoin, diacetyl and acetaldehyde, were considerably increased. PMID:12702310

  20. A nutritional intervention to reduce the calorie content of meals served at psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Dalcin, Arlene; McCarron, Phyllis; Appel, Lawrence J; Gayles, Debra; Hayes, Jennifer; Daumit, Gail

    2011-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the calorie content of meals served at two psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Intervention staff assisted kitchen staff with ways to reduce calories and improve the nutritional quality of meals. Breakfast and lunch menus were collected before and after a 6-month intervention period. ESHA software was used to determine total energy and nutrient profiles of meals. Total energy of served meals significantly decreased by 28% at breakfast and 29% at lunch for site 1 (P < 0.05); total energy significantly decreased by 41% at breakfast for site 2 (P = 0.018). Total sugars significantly decreased at breakfast for both sites (P ≤ 0.001). In general, sodium levels were high before and after the intervention period. The nutrition intervention was effective in decreasing the total energy and altering the composition of macro-nutrients of meals. These results highlight an unappreciated opportunity to improve diet quality in patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs. PMID:21691819

  1. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law. PMID:17135020

  2. Increasing the granularity of parallelism and reducing contention in automatic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, B.N.; Bischof, C.H.

    1990-11-01

    The automatic differentiation package ADOL-C of Griewank and Juedes, traces the computation of a function whose derivative is to be computed, and then subsequently propagates adjoint values long these traces paths according to the chain rule. While a sequential implementation of the reverse mode can utilize this trace by traversing it in reverse order, a parallel implementation must build the entire computational graph, as different processors will each simultaneously be working on different sections of the trace. In a sequential implementation, the linearized trace inherently obeys the dependencies of the function evaluation. In a parallel implementation, however, there must be a mechanism to determine whether a node's dependencies have been resolved yet, meaning that the node's adjoint value is computable. A node in the graph must represent a quantity of arithmetic operations large enough for a processor to do enough computation before it must communicate the result to another processor, but small enough for there to be enough nodes in the graph to allow many processors to work simultaneously. Sinks are bottlenecks for efficient parallel computation, as their many dependencies mean that many processors will contend for them simultaneously. These two factors are both familiar problems in parallel computation; the first is an issue of granularity, while the second is an issue of contention. As a first step toward achieving an efficient parallel implementation, we present a system for construction of a computational graph from ADOL-C's computational trace, as well as two transformations for this graph, hoisting and splitting, which improve its computational granularity and reduce contention, respectively. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Foth, A J; Brown-Brandl, T; Hanford, K J; Miller, P S; Garcia Gomez, G; Kononoff, P J

    2015-10-01

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% corn silage, 18.4% alfalfa hay, 6.94% brome hay with either 22.9% rolled corn or 14.8% soybean meal (control), or 8.95% rolled corn, 28.8% RFDDGS, and 0% soybean meal [Co-P; dry-matter (DM) basis]. The inclusion of RFDDGS did not affect DM intake, averaging 21.4 ± 0.53 kg of DM for all cows, but milk production tended to increase from 29.8 to 30.9 ± 1.46 kg/d for control and Co-P treatments, respectively. Milk fat percentage and energy-corrected milk did not differ between treatments, averaging 4.33 ± 0.14% and 34.1 kg/d, respectively. Milk protein was significantly decreased by the Co-P treatment (3.56 and 3.41 ± 0.08% for control and Co-P treatments), but protein yield was not affected. Milk energies were 1.40 Mcal/d greater with Co-P. Energy lost as methane was reduced by 0.31 Mcal/d with the addition of RFDDGS to the diet. Heat loss averaged 29.9 ± 0.55 Mcal/d and was not different between diets. Average energy retained as tissue energy was -2.99 ± 0.93 Mcal/d and did not differ between treatments. Intake of digestible and metabolizable energy were not different between the control and Co-P treatments, averaging 2.68 and 2.31 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. The net energy of lactation values of control and Co-P diets were calculated to be 1.43 and 1.47 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. These energy estimates suggest greater energy content of diets containing RFDDGS than diets containing a mixture of corn and soybean meal in lactating dairy cows. PMID:26233444

  4. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E K; George, Anthe; Liang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Singh, Seema; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate - an intermediate of the shikimate pathway - into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass. PMID:25583257

  5. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; George, Anthe; Liang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Singh, Seema; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-01-13

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimatemore » dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate – an intermediate of the shikimate pathway – into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass.« less

  6. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; George, Anthe; Liang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Singh, Seema; Keasling, Jay D.; Simmons, Blake A.; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-01-13

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate – an intermediate of the shikimate pathway – into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass.

  7. An In Vivo Model of Reduced Nucleus Pulposus Glycosaminoglycan Content in the Rat Lumbar Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Boxberger, John I.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Sen, Sounok; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design An in vivo model resembling early stage disc degeneration in the rat lumbar spine. Objective Simulate the reduced glycosaminoglycan content and altered mechanics observed in intervertebral disc degeneration using a controlled injection of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC). Summary of Background Data Nucleus glycosaminoglycan reduction occurs early during disc degeneration; however, mechanisms through which degeneration progresses from this state are unknown. Animal models simulating this condition are essential for understanding disease progression and for development of therapies aimed at early intervention. Methods ChABC was injected into the nucleus pulposus, and discs were evaluated via micro-CT, mechanical testing, biochemical assays, and histology 4 and 12 weeks after injection. Results At 4 weeks, reductions in nucleus glycosaminoglycan level by 43%, average height by 12%, neutral zone modulus by 40%, and increases in range of motion by 40%, and creep strain by 25% were found. Neutral zone modulus and range of motion were correlated with nucleus glycosaminoglycan. At 12 weeks, recovery of some mechanical function was detected as range of motion and creep returned to control levels; however, this was not attributed to glycosaminoglycan restoration, because mechanics were no longer correlated with glycosaminoglycan. Conclusion An in vivo model simulating physiologic levels of glycosaminoglycan loss was created to aid in understanding the relationships between altered biochemistry, altered mechanics, and altered cellular function in degeneration. PMID:18197098

  8. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  9. Chronic osmotic stimulation reduces vasopressin but not synaptophysin content in rat neurohypophysis.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Thorn, N A; Treiman, M

    1990-10-30

    The content of synaptophysin, a vesicular integral membrane protein of neurons and endocrine cells, and that of vasopressin was measured in neurohypophyses of rats during chronic osmotic stimulation. The animals received 2% NaCl in their drinking water for up to 4 days. Synaptophysin content of neurohypophyses was determined using quantitative immunoblotting, vasopressin content was measured by radioimmunoassay. Salt loading caused a decrease in the content of vasopressin to about 15% of that of control animals, whether expressed per neurohypophysis or relative to the total tissue protein. In contrast, no change was found in the synaptophysin content. Taken together with published evidence of changes in the relative numbers of the hormone-containing neurosecretory granules (NSGs) and the microvesicles (MVs) under the conditions of chronic osmotic stimulation, these results strongly indicate the surface density of synaptophysin on NSGs to be significantly lower than its surface density on MVs. PMID:2129060

  10. Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...

  11. Impact of particle size distribution on rheological and textural properties of chocolate models with reduced fat content.

    PubMed

    Do, T-A L; Hargreaves, J M; Wolf, B; Hort, J; Mitchell, J R

    2007-11-01

    With an increasing consumption of lipids nowadays, decreasing the fat content in food products has become a trend. Chocolate is a fat-based suspension that contains about 30%wt fat. Reducing fat content causes an increase in the molten chocolate viscosity. This leads to 2 major issues: difficulties in the process and a loss of eating quality in the final product, reported to have poor in-mouth melting properties, remain hard, and difficult to swallow. Literature shows that optimizing the particle size distribution (PSD), that is, having one with an increased packing fraction, can decrease the viscosity of highly concentrated suspensions. This study focuses on the impact of the PSD and fat content on the rheological properties, melting behavior, and hardness of chocolate models (dispersions of sugar in fat). We show that optimizing the PSD while reducing the fat content to a critical amount (22%wt) can decrease the viscosity of the molten material and reduce the hardness of the crystallized chocolate models. Melting in the mouth, characterized by an in vitro collapse speed, is faster for the samples with an optimized PSD. The decrease in the viscosity by optimizing the PSD in systems with a constant fraction of medium phase is based on the decrease of interparticle contact, reducing the particle aggregates strength, and structure buildup during flow or meltdown. In its crystallized state, the particle network is less interconnected, providing less resistance to breakage and meltdown. PMID:18034724

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of flavoured dehydrated soups packaged in different formats. Reducing the sodium content.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Murcia, M Antonia; Mariscal, Miguel; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Gómez-Murcia, V; Bibiloni, Mar; Jiménez-Monreal, Antonia M

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant activity and nutritional composition of four dehydrated soups (vegetables, meat, chicken and fish) packaged in four formats - carton, plastic, and aluminium bags (the last with and without modified atmosphere) - were evaluated during 12 months' storage. The results showed that all four soups had a good or very good antioxidant capacity as tested by the lipid peroxidation, deoxyribose, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) tests. Of interest from a nutritional point of view was the finding that the lipid fraction of all the soups was below 1 %. The sodium content of the four soups and their ingredients was also analysed. By modifying some of the ingredients, a 25 % reduction in the sodium content of the soups was obtained, permitting them to be labelled as "sodium reduced". The monosodium glutamate (MSG) content of the reformulated soups (lower sodium content) was below levels permitted by European legislation. PMID:26604357

  13. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  14. Energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of ethanol production have become an important source of nutrients for dairy cows in recent years but accurate energy values have yet to be determined. Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of redu...

  15. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Increase Student Knowledge and to Reduce Perceived Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…

  16. Consumer Support for Policies to Reduce the Sodium Content in School Cafeterias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sheena M.; Gunn, Janelle P.; Merlo, Caitlin L.; Tong, Xin; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess consumer support for policies lowering the sodium content of cafeteria foods in schools. Methods: Data were used from 9,634 adults aged >18 years who responded to questions about sodium in general and in school foods in a 2010 national mail panel survey. Prevalence of consumer…

  17. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens. PMID:27017880

  18. Impurity content of reduced-activation ferritic steels and a vanadium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Bloom, E.E.

    1997-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel and a vanadium alloy for low-level impurities that would compromise the reduced-activation characteristics of these materials. The ferritic steel was from the 5-ton IEA heat of modified F82H, and the vanadium alloy was from a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti. To compare techniques for analysis of low concentrations of impurities, the vanadium alloy was also examined by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Two other reduced-activation steels and two commercial ferritic steels were also analyzed to determine the difference in the level of the detrimental impurities in the IEA heat and steels for which no extra effort was made to restrict some of the tramp impurities. Silver, cobalt, molybdenum, and niobium proved to be the tramp impurities of most importance. The levels observed in these two materials produced with present technology exceeded the limits for low activation for either shallow land burial or recycling. The chemical analyses provide a benchmark for the improvement in production technology required to achieve reduced activation; they also provide a set of concentrations for calculating decay characteristics for reduced-activation materials. The results indicate the progress that has been made and give an indication of what must still be done before the reduced-activation criteria can be achieved.

  19. Diet and exercise interventions reduce intrahepatic fat content and improve insulin sensitivity in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Stufflebam, Abby; Hilton, Tiffany N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Villareal, Dennis T

    2009-12-01

    Both obesity and aging increase intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, which leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of diet and diet in conjunction with exercise on IHF content and associated metabolic abnormalities in obese older adults. Eighteen obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) older (>or=65 years old) adults completed a 6-month clinical trial. Participants were randomized to diet (D group; n = 9) or diet + exercise (D+E group; n = 9). Primary outcome was IHF quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Secondary outcomes included insulin sensitivity (assessed by oral glucose tolerance), body composition (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical function (VO(2 peak) and strength), glucose, lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Body weight (D: -9 +/- 1%, D+E: -10 +/- 2%, both P < 0.05) and fat mass (D: -13 +/- 3%, D+E -16 +/- 3%, both P < 0.05) decreased in both groups but there was no difference between groups. IHF decreased to a similar extent in both groups (D: -46 +/- 11%, D+E: -45 +/- 8%, both P < 0.05), which was accompanied by comparable improvements in insulin sensitivity (D: 66 +/- 25%, D+E: 68 +/- 28%, both P < 0.05). The relative decreases in IHF correlated directly with relative increases in insulin sensitivity index (ISI) (r = -0.52; P < 0.05). Improvements in VO(2 peak), strength, plasma triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration, and diastolic BP occurred in the D+E group (all P < 0.05) but not in the D group. Diet with or without exercise results in significant decreases in IHF content accompanied by considerable improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese older adults. The addition of exercise to diet therapy improves physical function and other obesity- and aging-related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:19390517

  20. Does maintaining a bottle of adhesive without the lid significantly reduce the solvent content?

    PubMed

    Santana, Márcia Luciana Carregosa; Sousa Júnior, José Aginaldo de; Leal, Pollyana Caldeira; Faria-e-Silva, André Luis

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maintaining a bottle of adhesive without its lid on the solvent loss of the etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Three 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives with different solvents (acetone, ethanol or butanol) were used in this study. Drops of each adhesive were placed on an analytical balance and the adhesive mass was recorded until equilibrium was achieved (no significant mass alteration within time). The solvent content of each adhesive and evaporation rate of solvents were measured (n=3). Two bottles of each adhesive were weighted. The bottles were maintained without their lids for 8 h in a stove at 37 ºC, after which the mass loss was measured. Based on mass alteration of drops, acetone-based adhesive showed the highest solvent content (46.5%, CI 95%: 35.8-54.7) and evaporation rate (1.11 %/s, CI95%: 0.63-1.60), whereas ethanol-based adhesive had the lowest values (10.1%, CI95%: 4.3-16.0; 0.03 %/s CI95%: 0.01-0.05). However, none of the adhesives bottles exhibited significant mass loss after sitting for 8 h without their lids (% from initial content; acetone - 96.5, CI 95%: 91.8-101.5; ethanol - 99.4, CI 95%: 98.4-100.4; and butanol - 99.3, CI 95%: 98.1-100.5). In conclusion, maintaining the adhesive bottle without lid did not induce significant solvent loss, irrespective the concentration and evaporation rate of solvent. PMID:25590203

  1. Reduced cardiolipin content decreases respiratory chain capacities and increases ATP synthesis yield in the human HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Peyta, Laure; Jarnouen, Kathleen; Pinault, Michelle; Guimaraes, Cyrille; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Chevalier, Stephan; Dumas, Jean-François; Maillot, François; Hatch, Grant M; Loyer, Pascal; Servais, Stephane

    2016-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique mitochondrial phospholipid potentially affecting many aspects of mitochondrial function/processes, i.e. energy production through oxidative phosphorylation. Most data focusing on implication of CL content and mitochondrial bioenergetics were performed in yeast or in cellular models of Barth syndrome. Previous work reported that increase in CL content leads to decrease in liver mitochondrial ATP synthesis yield. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderate decrease in CL content on mitochondrial bioenergetics in human hepatocytes. For this purpose, we generated a cardiolipin synthase knockdown (shCLS) in HepaRG hepatoma cells showing bioenergetics features similar to primary human hepatocytes. shCLS cells exhibited a 55% reduction in CLS gene and a 40% decrease in protein expression resulting in a 45% lower content in CL compared to control (shCTL) cells. Oxygen consumption was significantly reduced in shCLS cells compared to shCTL regardless of substrate used and energy state analyzed. Mitochondrial low molecular weight supercomplex content was higher in shCLS cells (+60%) compared to shCTL. Significant fragmentation of the mitochondrial network was observed in shCLS cells compared to shCTL cells. Surprisingly, mitochondrial ATP synthesis was unchanged in shCLS compared to shCTL cells but exhibited a higher ATP:O ratio (+46%) in shCLS cells. Our results suggest that lowered respiratory chain activity induced by moderate reduction in CL content may be due to both destabilization of supercomplexes and mitochondrial network fragmentation. In addition, CL content may regulate mitochondrial ATP synthesis yield. PMID:26768115

  2. Reducing input data via image categorization to improve the speed of copyright content management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Watanabe, Eriko

    2015-02-01

    An optical correlator has the advantage of high data transfer speed and parallel operation. However, in copyright content management systems (CCMSs), the numerous video files that need to be downloaded from the Internet and input to the optical correlator constitute a bottleneck. This paper proposes an image categorization method for CCMSs that uses the difference in the color features between animation and live-action images to remove this bottleneck and increase the speed of CCMSs. The results of experiments conducted indicate that the proposed method achieves a live-action video true rejection rate of 86.7 % and an animation video false rejection rate of 13.3 %. This indicates that the proposed method can improve the overall speed of a CCMS more than twice the original speed.

  3. Citrus co-products as technological strategy to reduce residual nitrite content in meat products.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Fernández-López, J; Sayas-Barbera, E; Sendra, E; Navarro, C; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2009-10-01

    Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in cured meat products because it inhibits outgrowth and neurotoxin formation by Clostridium botulinum, delays the development of oxidative rancidity, develops the characteristic flavor of cured meats, and reacts with myoglobin and stabilizes the red meat color. As soon as nitrite is added in the meat formulation, it starts to disappear and the nitrite that has not reacted with myoglobin and it is available corresponds to residual nitrite level. Health concerns relating to the use of nitrates and nitrites in cured meats (cooked and dry cured) trend toward decreased usage to alleviate the potential risk to the consumers from formation of carcinogenic compounds. Recently, some new ingredients principally agro-industrial co-products in general and those from the citrus industry in particular (albedo [with different treatments], dietetic fiber obtained from the whole co-product, and washing water used in the process to obtain the dietetic fiber) are seen as good sources of bio-compounds that may help to reduce the residual nitrite level in meat products. From these co-products, citrus fiber shows the highest potential to reduce the residual nitrite level, followed by the albedo and finally the washing water. The aim of this article is to describe the latest advances concerning the use of citrus co-products in meat products as a potential ingredient to reduce the nitrite level. PMID:19799678

  4. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liying; Huang, Xin; Wu, Kuiwu; Xu, Lun; Li, Dahu; Liu, Shuhong; Zhao, Yongqi; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCs)in vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr) and DG (approximately 10 Torr) were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr). Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain. PMID:26466323

  5. New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Tarrago-Trani, Maria Teresa; Phillips, Katherine M; Lemar, Linda E; Holden, Joanne M

    2006-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's final ruling on trans-fatty acid labeling issued in 2003 has caused a rapid transformation in the fat and oil industries. Novel ingredients and improved technologies are emerging to replace partially hydrogenated fats in foods. We present an overview of the structure and formation of trans fatty acids in foods, and a comprehensive review of the newly formulated products and current procedures practiced by the edible oil industry to reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids in response to the Food and Drug Administration's regulations mandating trans fat labeling of foods. PMID:16720128

  6. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen. PMID:15889565

  7. Tailoring the Oxygen Content of Graphite and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Specific Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Takuya; Nishina, Yuta

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely recognized as a promising material in a variety of fields, but its structure and composition has yet to be fully controlled. We have developed general strategies to control the oxidation degree of graphene-like materials via two methods: oxidation of graphite by KMnO4 in H2SO4 (oGO), and reduction of highly oxidized GO by hydrazine (rGO). Even though the oxygen content may be the same, oGO and rGO have different properties, for example the adsorption ability, oxidation ability, and electron conductivity. These differences in property arise from the difference in the underlying graphitic structure and the type of defect present. Our results can be used as a guideline for the production of tailor-made graphitic carbons. As an example, we show that rGO with 23.1 wt% oxygen showed the best performance as an electrode of an electric double-layer capacitor.

  8. Acrylamide in Caribbean foods - residual levels and their relation to reducing sugar and asparagine content.

    PubMed

    Bent, Grace-Anne; Maragh, Paul; Dasgupta, Tara

    2012-07-15

    The acrylamide levels in commercial and homemade Caribbean foods were determined by pre-derivatisation of acrylamide to 2-bromopropenamide and analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. Over 100 Caribbean food samples were analysed for the presence of acrylamide. These samples include: biscuits, breakfast cereals, banana chips and home-prepared foods: breadfruit; Artocarpus altilis, banana fritters, and dumplings. The limit of detection (LOD) for the GC/MS method was found to be dependent on the type of column used for the GC/MS analysis. The DB-1701 and the DB-VRX columns gave LODs of 20 and 4 μg/kg, respectively. Acrylamide has not been found in raw foods or foods which have been cooked by boiling. Its content in all other foods had concentrations in the range, 65-3,640 μg/kg. The relationship between acrylamide levels and precursor concentration as well as the health implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:25683419

  9. An improved whole cell pertussis vaccine with reduced content of endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Waldely Oliveira; van der Ark, Arno A.J.; Sakauchi, Maria Aparecida; Kubrusly, Flávia Saldanha; Prestes, Ana Fabíola R.O.; Borges, Monamaris Marques; Furuyama, Noemi; Horton, Denise S.P.Q.; Quintilio, Wagner; Antoniazi, Marta; Kuipers, Betsy; van der Zeijst, Bernard A.M.; Raw, Isaias

    2013-01-01

    An improved whole cell pertussis vaccine, designated as Plow, which is low in endotoxicity due to a chemical extraction of lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) from the outer membrane, was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity and potency, comparatively to a traditional whole cell pertussis vaccine. Current whole cell pertussis vaccines are effective but contain large quantities of endotoxin and consequently display local and systemic adverse reactions after administration. Endotoxin is highly inflammatory and contributes considerably to the reactogenicity as well as the potency of these vaccines. In contrast, acellular pertussis vaccines hardly contain endotoxin and are significantly less reactogenic, but their elevated costs limit their global use, especially in developing countries. In this paper, bulk products of Plow and a traditional whole cell vaccine, formulated as plain monocomponents or combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTPlow or DTP, respectively) were compared by in vitro and in vivo assays. Chemical extraction of LOS resulted in a significant decrease in endotoxin content (20%) and a striking decline in endotoxin related toxicity (up to 97%), depending on the used in vitro or in vivo test. The LOS extraction did not affect the integrity of the product and, more importantly, did not affect the potency and/or stability of DTPlow. Moreover, hardly any differences in antibody and T-cell responses were observed. The development of Plow is a significant improvement regarding the endotoxicity of whole cell pertussis vaccines and therefore a promising and affordable alternative to currently available whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccines for developing countries. PMID:23291935

  10. Tailoring the Oxygen Content of Graphite and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Specific Applications

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Takuya; Nishina, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely recognized as a promising material in a variety of fields, but its structure and composition has yet to be fully controlled. We have developed general strategies to control the oxidation degree of graphene-like materials via two methods: oxidation of graphite by KMnO4 in H2SO4 (oGO), and reduction of highly oxidized GO by hydrazine (rGO). Even though the oxygen content may be the same, oGO and rGO have different properties, for example the adsorption ability, oxidation ability, and electron conductivity. These differences in property arise from the difference in the underlying graphitic structure and the type of defect present. Our results can be used as a guideline for the production of tailor-made graphitic carbons. As an example, we show that rGO with 23.1 wt% oxygen showed the best performance as an electrode of an electric double-layer capacitor. PMID:26911893

  11. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Showing Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovjan, A.C.; Kretlow, A.; Miller, L.M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic {double_bond}CH stretching mode at 3012 cm{sup -1}. The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p < 0.01) but remained low and relatively constant in PSAPP mice. Thus, these findings indicate that unsaturated lipid content is reduced in hippocampal white matter during amyloid pathogenesis and that maintaining unsaturated lipid content early in the disease may be critical in avoiding progression of the disease.

  13. Betalain rich functional extract with reduced salts and nitrate content from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) using membrane separation technology.

    PubMed

    Mereddy, Ram; Chan, Adeline; Fanning, Kent; Nirmal, Nilesh; Sultanbawa, Yasmina

    2017-01-15

    An initial laboratory-scale evaluation of separation characteristics of membranes with nominal molecular weight cut-offs (NMWCO) ranging from 30kD down to 0.5kD indicated effective separation of betalains in the 0.5kD region. Subsequent pilot-level trials using 1kD, loose reverse osmosis (LRO) and reverse osmosis (RO) spiral-wound membranes showed LRO membrane to be very efficient with up to 96% salt and 47% other dissolved solids removed while retaining majority of the pigment (∼98%) in the betalain rich extract (BRE). The total betalain content in the BRE increased up to 46%, the highest recovery reported so far at pilot scale level. Interestingly, more than 95% of the nitrates were removed from the BRE after the three diafiltrations. These studies indicate that membrane technology is the most efficient technique to produce BRE with highly reduced amounts of salts and nitrate content. PMID:27542480

  14. Booster vaccination: the role of reduced antigen content vaccines as a preschool booster.

    PubMed

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Trucchi, Cecilia; Conversano, Michele; Zivelonghi, Giambattista; Zoppi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The need for boosters for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, and polio, starting from preschool age, is related to the waning immune protection conferred by vaccination, the elimination/reduction of natural boosters due to large-scale immunization programs, and the possibility of reintroduction of wild agents from endemic areas. Taking into account the relevance of safety/tolerability in the compliance with vaccination among the population, it have been assessed whether today enough scientific evidences are available to support the use of dTap-IPV booster in preschool age. The review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed search engine. A total of 41 works has been selected; besides, the documentation produced by the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Control, and the Italian Ministry of Health has been consulted. Many recent papers confirm the opportunity to use a low antigenic dose vaccine starting from 4 to 6 years of age. There is also evidence that 10 years after immunization the rate of seroprotected subjects against diphtheria does not differ significantly between those vaccinated with paediatric dose (DTaP) or reduced dose (dTaP or dTap) product. The dTpa vaccine is highly immunogenic for diphtheria toxoids regardless of prior vaccination history (2 + 1 and 3 + 1 schedules). PMID:24678509

  15. Methods for reducing volatile organic content in fabric waterproof coatings. Final report, May--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keohan, F.L.; Lazaro, E.

    1994-03-01

    Fabrics for rainwear and outdoor equipment traditionally have been rendered waterproof by coating with solvent-borne rubber solutions, solvent-borne polyurethanes and vinyl plastisols. Regulatory pressure for environmental protection and worker safety has become a potent driving force in eliminating volatile organic solvents and toxic additives from commercial coating products. A variety of low-solvent coating technologies are being introduced to replace the traditional solvent-based products. These include high solids formulation, solventless UV and electron beam curing systems, powder coatings and supercritical, CO{sub 2}-reduced paints. The benefits and limitations of these coating technologies were compared with respect to their applicability to fabric waterproofing. In addition, a novel acrylated surfactant was synthesized and employed in the formulation of UV-curing waterborne coatings for textile waterproofing. The application methods and cure characteristics of the solvent-free formulations are described. Physical properties of cured coating films including tensile strength, percent elongation, water absorption, water drop contact angle, and adhesion to common fabrics were measured and compared to those obtained using a commercial waterborne waterproofing system. One formulation produced cured films having low water absorption, tenacious adhesion to polyester fabric and surface hydrophobicity properties approaching those of polyethylene.

  16. Reactor Physics Studies of Reduced-Tantaulum-Content Control and Safety Elements for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, R.T., III

    2003-11-01

    Some of the unirradiated High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) control elements discharged during the late 1990s were observed to have cladding damage--local swelling or blistering. The cladding damage was limited to the tantalum/europium interface of the element and is thought to result from interaction of hydrogen and europium to form a compound of lower density than europium oxide, thus leading to a ''blistering'' of the control plate cladding. Reducing the tantalum loading in the control plates should help preclude this phenomena. The impact of the change to the control plates on the operation of the reactor was assessed. Regarding nominal, steady-state reactor operation, the impact of the change in the power distribution in the core due to reduced tantalum content was calculated and found to be insignificant. The magnitude and impact of the change in differential control element worth was calculated, and the differential worths of reduced tantalum elements vs the current elements from equivalent-burnup critical configurations were determined to be unchanged within the accuracy of the computational method and relevant experimental measurements. The location of the critical control elements symmetric positions for reduced tantalum elements was found to be 1/3 in. less withdrawn relative to existing control elements regardless of the value of fuel cycle burnup (time in the fuel cycle). The magnitude and impact of the change in the shutdown margin (integral rod worth) was assessed and found to be unchanged. Differential safety element worth values for the reduced-tantalum-content elements were calculated for postulated accident conditions and were found to be greater than values currently assumed in HFIR safety analyses.

  17. The role of biological processes in reducing both odor impact and pathogen content during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Orzi, Valentina; Scaglia, Barbara; Lonati, Samuele; Riva, Carlo; Boccasile, Gabriele; Alborali, Giovanni Loris; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) produces renewable energy, but it also plays a role in reducing the impact of digestates, both by reducing odor and pathogen content. Ten full-scale biogas plants characterized by different plant designs (e.g. single digesters, parallel or serial digesters), plant powers (ranging from 180 to 999 kWe), hydraulic retention time (HRT) (ranging between 20 to 70 days) and feed mixes were monitored and odors and pathogens were observed in both ingestates and digestates. Results obtained indicated that MAD reduced odors (OU) from, on average, OUingestate=99,106±149,173 OU m(-2) h(-1) (n=15) to OU digestate=1106±771 OU m(-2) h(-1) (n=15). Pathogens were also reduced during MAD both because of ammonia production during the process and competition for substrate between pathogens and indigenous microflora, i.e. Enterobacteriaceae from 6.85∗10(3)±1.8∗10(1) to 1.82∗10(1)±3.82∗10(1); fecal Coliform from 1.82∗10(4)±9.09 to 2.45∗10(1)±3.8∗10(1); Escherichia coli from 8.72∗10(3)±2.4∗10(1) to 1.8∗10(1)±2.94∗10(1); Clostridium perfringens from 6.4∗10(4)±7.7 to 5.2∗10(3)±8.1 (all data are expressed as CFU g(-1) ww). Plants showed different abilities to reduce pathogen indicators, depending on the pH value and toxic ammonia content. PMID:25925189

  18. Reducing the content of carrier polymer in pectin nanofibers by electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sisi; Yao, Bing; Sun, Xue; Hu, Junli; Zhou, Yifa; Liu, Yichun

    2016-02-01

    Nanofibers of natural polymers represent an essential class of materials in biomedicine. Pectin is a plant-sourced anionic polysaccharide widely used in food products and biomedicine owning to its abundance, biocompatibility and inherent bioactivity. However, current electrospun pectin nanofibers are suffered from high content of carrier polymer, which may lead to low integrity and mechanical strength as well as in vivo toxicity. We report here a strategy to reduce the content of carrier polymer, polyethylene oxide (PEO) in our study, in pectin nanofibers, via electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing. With improved electrospinning condition, we first enabled electrospinning of pectin nanofibers at low PEO loading. Then the PEO was removed by washing with a selective solvent to give pectin nanofibers containing only 1.5% PEO. The strategy was versatile to pectins from various sources and of various degree of esterification. The pectin nanofibers exhibited Young's modulus as high as 358.5MPa. In view of their rich bioactivity, the pectin nanofibers of low content of carrier polymer are promising materials for a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:26652444

  19. Zero added oxygen for high quality sputtered ITO. A data science investigation of reduced Sn-content and added Zr

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Peshek, Timothy J.; Burst, James M.; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.

    2016-01-19

    Here, we demonstrate mobilities of >45 cm2/V s for sputtered tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films at zero added oxygen. All films were deposited with 5 wt. % SnO2, instead of the more conventional 8–10 wt. %, and had varying ZrO2 content from 0 to 3 wt. %, with a subsequent reduction in In2O3 content. Moreover, these films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from nominally stoichiometric targets with varying oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient. Anomalous behavior was discovered for films with no Zr-added, where a bimodality of high and low mobilities was discovered for nominally similar growth conditions.more » However, all films showed the lowest resistivity and highest mobilities when the oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient was zero. This result is contrasted with several other reports of ITO transport performance having a maximum for small but nonzero oxygen partial pressure. Our result is attributed to the reduced concentration of SnO2. The addition of ZrO2 yielded the highest mobilities at >55 cm2/V s and the films showed a modest increase in optical transmission with increasing Zr-content.« less

  20. Partial suckling of lambs reduced the linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid contents of marketable milk in Chios ewes.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, O; Orford, M; Miltiadou, D; Papachristoforou, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of weaning systems applied in a commercial dairy sheep farm on the fatty acid (FA) composition of marketable milk produced. Forty second parity, purebred Chios ewes were allocated to the following weaning treatments: (a) ewes were weaned from their lambs at 48 h after birth and machine milked twice daily [no lambs (NL) group, n=20]; or, (b) starting 48 h postpartum, ewes were separated from their lambs for 12h during the evening, machine milked once daily the following morning, and lambs were allowed to suckle for 12 h during the day for the first 5 wk of lactation [partial suckling (PS) group, n=20]. After weaning of the PS lambs at wk 6 of age, all ewes were machine milked twice daily. Commercial milk yield and milk composition was recorded weekly (fat, protein, FA content) or fortnightly (somatic cell counts) throughout the first 10 wk of lactation. The PS ewes compared with NL group produced commercial milk lower in milk yield, milk fat, and somatic cell counts, but not in protein content during the first 5-wk period. Such differences were not observed after weaning of the PS lambs. The FA profile of commercial milk was also affected by partial suckling during the preweaning period. Total polyunsaturated FA were higher in NL compared with PS ewe milk at wk 1, 2, 4, and 5 (on average, 21% higher), whereas no differences were detected between NL and PS ewe milk from wk 6 to 10 of lactation. From the polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,cis-12) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,trans-11; rumenic acid) were particularly affected, showing on average a reduction of 18 and 38%, respectively. From the monounsaturated FA, vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11) was affected during wk 1 and 2 of the treatment period, with the PS ewe milk having reduced content compared with the NL milk. Other unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid and α-linolenic acid, or saturated FA were not found to be affected by the

  1. HDL phospholipid content and cholesterol efflux capacity are reduced in patients with very high HDL-C and coronary disease

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Anandita P.; Rodrigues, Amrith; Risman, Marjorie; McCoy, Mary; Trindade, Kevin; Qu, Liming; Cuchel, Marina; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are strongly inversely associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), and high HDL-C is generally associated with reduced risk of CAD. Extremely high HDL-C with CAD is an unusual phenotype, and we hypothesized that the HDL in such individuals may have an altered composition and reduced function when compared to controls with similarly high HDL-C and no CAD. Approach 55 subjects with very high HDL-C (mean 86 mg/dL) and onset of CAD around age 60 with no known risk factors for CAD (‘cases’) were identified through systematic recruitment. 120 control subjects without CAD, matched for race, gender, and HDL-C level (‘controls’), were identified. In all subjects, HDL composition was analyzed and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was assessed. Results HDL phospholipid composition was significantly lower in cases (92 ± 37 mg/dL) than in controls (109 ± 43 mg/dL, p= 0.0095). HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly lower in cases (1.96 ± 0.39) compared with controls (2.11 ± 0.43, p= 0.04). Conclusions In persons with very high HDL-C, reduced HDL phospholipid content and cholesterol efflux capacity is associated with the paradoxical development of CAD. PMID:25838421

  2. Torulaspora delbrueckii in the brewing process: A new approach to enhance bioflavour and to reduce ethanol content.

    PubMed

    Canonico, Laura; Agarbati, Alice; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, consumers require fermented alcoholic beverages with particular and enhanced flavour profiles while avoiding the health concerns due to high ethanol content. Here, the use of Torulaspora delbrueckii was evaluated for beer production, in both pure and in mixed cultures with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter strain (US-05). The yeast interactions were also evaluated. In mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae, the main analytical characters from T. delbrueckii were comparable with those of the S. cerevisiae starter strain, but the beers were characterized by a distinctive overall analytical and aromatic profile. Indeed, there were interactions between S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii, with enhanced ethyl hexanoate (0.048 mg l(-1)) and ethyl octaonate (0.014 mg l(-1)) levels at the 1:20 and 1:10 inoculation ratios, respectively; while phenyl ethyl acetate increased in all mix combinations. The presence of T. delbrueckii resulted in reduced β-phenyl ethanol and isoamyl acetate levels, which are responsible for floral and fruity aromas, respectively. Beer produced with T. delbrueckii pure cultures had a low alcohol content (2.66%; v/v), while also showing a particularly analytical and aromatic profile. PMID:26919817

  3. Budesonide ameliorates lung function of the cigarette smoke-exposed rats through reducing matrix metalloproteinase-1 content

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiawei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Bin; Li, Kang; Li, Zhu; Li, Junhong; Zhang, Yongjian; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate an effect of inhaled budesonide on cigarette smoke-exposed lungs with a possible mechanism involved in the event. Methods: Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of budesonide. Inflammatory cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lung function testing, mean liner intercept (MLI) in lung tissue, mean alveolar number (MAN) and a ratio of bronchial wall thickness and external diameter (BWT/D) were determined in the grouped rats, respectively. Contents of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 productions in BALF were examined as well. Results: There were significant changes in the above assessments in the smoking rats as compared to those in the control rats (all P < 0.01 and 0.05). Budesonide inhalation significantly decreased the numbers of the BALF cells and partly reversed lung function decline in the challenged rats (P < 0.01 and 0.05). However, this corticosteroid did not influence pathological changes in fine structures of the tobacco smoke-exposed lungs. Treatment with budesonide resulted in an obvious decrease in the MMP-1 but not MMP-2 and TIMP-2 productions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Inhaled budesonide mitigates the ongoing inflammatory process in the smoked lungs and ameliorates declining lung function through reducing MMP-1 content. PMID:26191209

  4. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium, and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada's sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n = 10 487 and n = 15 394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in imitation seafood (mean ± SD, mg/100 g; 602 ± 50 to 444 ± 81, 26.2%, p = 0.002), condiments (1309 ± 790 to 1048 ± 620, 19.9%, p = 0.005), breakfast cereals (375 ± 26 to 301 ± 242, 19.7%, p = 0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269 ± 156 to 217 ± 180, 19.3%, p < 0.001), plain chips (462 ± 196 to 376 ± 198, 18.6% p = 0.004), hot cereals (453 ± 141 to 385 ± 155, 15.0%, p = 0.011), meat analogues (612 ± 226 to 524 ± 177, 14.4%, p = 0.003), canned condensed soup (291 ± 62 to 250 ± 57, 14.1%, p = 0.003), and sausages and wieners (912 ± 219 to 814 ± 195, 10.7%, p = 0.012). The proportion of foods meeting at least 1 of the 3 phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce. PMID:27113326

  5. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada’s sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n=10,487 and n=15,394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in (mean ± standard deviation, mg/100g) imitation seafood (602±50 to 444±81, 26.2%, p=0.002), condiments (1309±790 to 1048±620, 19.9%, p=0.005), breakfast cereals (375±26 to 301±242, 19.7%, p=0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269±156 to 217±180, 19.3%, p<0.001), plain chips (462±196 to 376±198, 18.6% p=0.004), hot cereals (453±141 to 385±155, 15.0%, p=0.011), meat analogues (612±226 to 524±177, 14.4%, p=0.003), canned condensed soup (291±62 to 250±57, 14.1%, p=0.003), and sausages and wieners (912±219 to 814±195, 10.7%, p=0.012). The proportion of foods meeting at least one of the three phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce. PMID:27113326

  6. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers. PMID:22062487

  7. Fundamental study of nanostructured electro-catalysts with reduced noble metal content for PEM based water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadakia, Sandeep Karan

    Identification and development of non-noble metal based electro-catalysts or electro-catalysts with significant reduction of expensive noble metal contents (E.g. IrO2, Pt) with comparable electrochemical performance as the standard noble metal/metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a major breakthrough in the generation of hydrogen by water electrolysis. Accomplishing such a system would not only result reduction of the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers, but also help attain the targeted hydrogen production cost [< $ 3.0 / gallon gasoline equivalent (gge)] comparable to conventional liquid fuels. In line with these goals, it was demonstrated that fluorine doped IrO 2 thin films and nanostructured high surface area powders display remarkably higher electrochemical activity, and comparable durability as pure IrO 2 electro-catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis. Furthermore, corrosion resistant SnO2 and NbO 2 support has been doped with F and coupled with IrO2 or RuO2 for use as an OER electro-catalyst. A solid solution of SnO 2:F or NbO2:F with only 20 - 30 mol.% IrO2 or RuO2 yielding a rutile structure in the form of thin films and bulk nanoparticles displays similar electrochemical activity and stability as pure IrO2/RuO2. This would lead to more than 70 mol.% reduction in the noble metal oxide content. Novel nanostructured ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O 2 thin films of different compositions have also been studied. It has been shown that (Ir0.40Sn0.30Nb 0.30)O2 shows similar electrochemical activity and enhanced chemical robustness as compared to pure IrO2. F doping of the ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 catalyst helps in further decreasing the noble metal oxide content of the catalyst. As a result, these reduced noble metal oxide catalyst systems would potentially be preferred as OER electro-catalysts for PEM electrolysis. The excellent performance of the catalysts coupled

  8. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  9. Nitrogen deposition alters nitrogen cycling and reduces soil carbon content in low-productivity semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Maestre, Fernando T.; Ríos, Asunción de los; Valea, Sergio; Theobald, Mark R.; Vivanco, Marta G.; Manrique, Esteban; Bowker, Mathew A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is a threat to European Mediterranean ecosystems, but the evidence of real ecological impacts is still scarce. We combined data from a real N deposition gradient (4.3-7.3 kg N ha−1 yr−1) from semiarid portions of Spain with data from a field experiment in central Spain to evaluate N deposition effects on soil fertility, function and cyanobacteria community structure. Soil organic N did not increase along the extant deposition gradient, whereas C:N ratios decreased in most locations. Nitrogen fixation decreased along existing and experimental N deposition gradients, a result possibly related to compositional shifts in soil cyanobacteria community. Nitrogen mineralization rates were reduced by N fertilization, suggesting ecosystem N saturation. Soil organic C content and the activity of β-glucosidase decreased along the extant gradient. Our results suggest that semiarid soils in low-productivity sites are unable to store additional N inputs, and that are also unable to mitigate increasing C emissions to the atmosphere when experiencing increased N deposition. PMID:23685631

  10. Loss of function of folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 reduces lignin content and improves cell wall digestibility in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Chen, Fang; Ray, Tui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Peña, Maria J.; Avci, Utku; Li, Hongjia; Huhman, David V.; Backe, Jason; Urbanowicz, Breeanna; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Bedair, Mohamed; Wyman, Charles E.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; York, William S.; Hahn, Michael G.; Dixon, Richard A.; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Tang, Yuhong

    2015-12-21

    One-carbon (C1) metabolism is important for synthesizing a range of biologically important compounds that are essential for life. In plants, the C1 pathway is crucial for the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites, including lignin. Tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives, collectively referred to as folates, are crucial co-factors for C1 metabolic pathway enzymes. Given the link between the C1 and phenylpropanoid pathways, we evaluated whether folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a glutamate tail to folates to form folylpolyglutamates, can be a viable target for reducing cell wall recalcitrance in plants. Consistent with its role in lignocellulosic formation, FPGS1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Total lignin was low in fpgs1 plants leading to higher saccharification efficiency of the mutant. The decrease in total lignin in fpgs1 was mainly due to lower guaiacyl (G) lignin levels. Glycome profiling revealed subtle alterations in the cell walls of fpgs1. Further analyses of hemicellulosic polysaccharides by NMR showed that the degree of methylation of 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan was reduced in the fpgs1 mutant. Microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of a number of genes in the C1 and lignin pathways had altered expression in fpgs1 mutants. Consistent with the transcript changes of C1-related genes, a significant reduction in S-adenosyl-l-methionine content was detected in the fpgs1 mutant. The modified expression of the various methyltransferases and lignin-related genes indicate possible feedback regulation of C1 pathway-mediated lignin biosynthesis. In conclusion, our observations provide genetic and biochemical support for the importance of folylpolyglutamates in the lignocellulosic pathway and reinforces previous observations that targeting a single FPGS isoform for down-regulation leads to reduced lignin in plants. Because fpgs1 mutants had no dramatic defects in

  11. Loss of function of folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 reduces lignin content and improves cell wall digestibility in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Chen, Fang; Ray, Tui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Peña, Maria J.; Avci, Utku; Li, Hongjia; Huhman, David V.; Backe, Jason; Urbanowicz, Breeanna; et al

    2015-12-21

    One-carbon (C1) metabolism is important for synthesizing a range of biologically important compounds that are essential for life. In plants, the C1 pathway is crucial for the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites, including lignin. Tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives, collectively referred to as folates, are crucial co-factors for C1 metabolic pathway enzymes. Given the link between the C1 and phenylpropanoid pathways, we evaluated whether folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a glutamate tail to folates to form folylpolyglutamates, can be a viable target for reducing cell wall recalcitrance in plants. Consistent with its rolemore » in lignocellulosic formation, FPGS1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Total lignin was low in fpgs1 plants leading to higher saccharification efficiency of the mutant. The decrease in total lignin in fpgs1 was mainly due to lower guaiacyl (G) lignin levels. Glycome profiling revealed subtle alterations in the cell walls of fpgs1. Further analyses of hemicellulosic polysaccharides by NMR showed that the degree of methylation of 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan was reduced in the fpgs1 mutant. Microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of a number of genes in the C1 and lignin pathways had altered expression in fpgs1 mutants. Consistent with the transcript changes of C1-related genes, a significant reduction in S-adenosyl-l-methionine content was detected in the fpgs1 mutant. The modified expression of the various methyltransferases and lignin-related genes indicate possible feedback regulation of C1 pathway-mediated lignin biosynthesis. In conclusion, our observations provide genetic and biochemical support for the importance of folylpolyglutamates in the lignocellulosic pathway and reinforces previous observations that targeting a single FPGS isoform for down-regulation leads to reduced lignin in plants. Because fpgs1 mutants had no dramatic

  12. Peracetylated 4-fluoro-glucosamine reduces the content and repertoire of N- and O-glycans without direct incorporation.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Steven R; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Schaffer, Lana; Hernandez, Gilberto; Patil, Shilpa A; North, Simon J; Dell, Anne; Matta, Khushi L; Neelamegham, Sriram; Haslam, Stuart M; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2011-06-17

    Prior studies have shown that treatment with the peracetylated 4-fluorinated analog of glucosamine (4-F-GlcNAc) elicits anti-skin inflammatory activity by ablating N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)), and related lectin ligands on effector leukocytes. Based on anti-sLe(X) antibody and lectin probing experiments on 4-F-GlcNAc-treated leukocytes, it was hypothesized that 4-F-GlcNAc inhibited sLe(X) formation by incorporating into LacNAc and blocking the addition of galactose or fucose at the carbon 4-position of 4-F-GlcNAc. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether 4-F-GlcNAc is directly incorporated into N- and O-glycans released from 4-F-GlcNAc-treated human sLe(X) (+) T cells and leukemic KG1a cells. At concentrations that abrogated galectin-1 (Gal-1) ligand and E-selectin ligand expression and related LacNAc and sLe(X) structures, MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses showed that 4-F-GlcNAc 1) reduced content and structural diversity of tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans and of O-glycans, 2) increased biantennary N-glycans, and 3) reduced LacNAc and sLe(X) on N-glycans and on core 2 O-glycans. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS did not reveal any m/z ratios relating to the presence of fluorine atoms, indicating that 4-F-GlcNAc did not incorporate into glycans. Further analysis showed that 4-F-GlcNAc treatment had minimal effect on expression of 1200 glycome-related genes and did not alter the activity of LacNAc-synthesizing enzymes. However, 4-F-GlcNAc dramatically reduced intracellular levels of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a key precursor of LacNAc synthesis. These data show that Gal-1 and E-selectin ligand reduction by 4-F-GlcNAc is not caused by direct 4-F-GlcNAc glycan incorporation and consequent chain termination but rather by interference with UDP-GlcNAc synthesis. PMID:21493714

  13. Peracetylated 4-Fluoro-glucosamine Reduces the Content and Repertoire of N- and O-Glycans without Direct Incorporation*

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Steven R.; Antonopoulos, Aristotelis; Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Schaffer, Lana; Hernandez, Gilberto; Patil, Shilpa A.; North, Simon J.; Dell, Anne; Matta, Khushi L.; Neelamegham, Sriram; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dimitroff, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that treatment with the peracetylated 4-fluorinated analog of glucosamine (4-F-GlcNAc) elicits anti-skin inflammatory activity by ablating N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), sialyl Lewis X (sLeX), and related lectin ligands on effector leukocytes. Based on anti-sLeX antibody and lectin probing experiments on 4-F-GlcNAc-treated leukocytes, it was hypothesized that 4-F-GlcNAc inhibited sLeX formation by incorporating into LacNAc and blocking the addition of galactose or fucose at the carbon 4-position of 4-F-GlcNAc. To test this hypothesis, we determined whether 4-F-GlcNAc is directly incorporated into N- and O-glycans released from 4-F-GlcNAc-treated human sLeX (+) T cells and leukemic KG1a cells. At concentrations that abrogated galectin-1 (Gal-1) ligand and E-selectin ligand expression and related LacNAc and sLeX structures, MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses showed that 4-F-GlcNAc 1) reduced content and structural diversity of tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans and of O-glycans, 2) increased biantennary N-glycans, and 3) reduced LacNAc and sLeX on N-glycans and on core 2 O-glycans. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS did not reveal any m/z ratios relating to the presence of fluorine atoms, indicating that 4-F-GlcNAc did not incorporate into glycans. Further analysis showed that 4-F-GlcNAc treatment had minimal effect on expression of 1200 glycome-related genes and did not alter the activity of LacNAc-synthesizing enzymes. However, 4-F-GlcNAc dramatically reduced intracellular levels of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), a key precursor of LacNAc synthesis. These data show that Gal-1 and E-selectin ligand reduction by 4-F-GlcNAc is not caused by direct 4-F-GlcNAc glycan incorporation and consequent chain termination but rather by interference with UDP-GlcNAc synthesis. PMID:21493714

  14. Dyad content is reduced in cardiac myocytes of mice with impaired calmodulin regulation of RyR2.

    PubMed

    Lavorato, Manuela; Huang, Tai-Qin; Iyer, Venkat Ramesh; Perni, Stefano; Meissner, Gerhard; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2015-04-01

    In cardiac muscle, calmodulin (CaM) regulates the activity of several membrane proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis (CaV1.2; RyR2, SERCA2, PMCA). Three engineered amino acid substitutions in the CaM binding site of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in mice (Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) ) strongly affect cardiac function, with impaired CaM inhibition of RyR2, reduced SR Ca(2+) sequestration, and early cardiac hypertrophy and death (Yamaguchi et al., J Clin Invest 117:1344-1353, 2007). We have examined the ultrastructure and RyR2 immunolocalization in WT and Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) hearts at ~10 days after birth. The myocytes show only minor evidence of structural damage: some increase in intermyofibrillar space, with occasional areas of irregular SR disposition and an increase in frequency of smaller myofibrils, despite an increase of about 15 % in average myocyte cross sectional area. Z line streaming, a sign of myofibrillar stress, is limited and fairly rare. Immunolabeling with an anti-RyR2 antibody shows that RyR-positive foci located at the level of the Z lines are less frequent in mutant hearts. A dramatic decrease in the frequency and size of dyads, accompanied by a decrease in occupancy of the gap by RyR2, but without obvious alterations in location and general structure is a notable ultrastructural feature. The data suggest that the uneven distribution of dyads or calcium release sites within the cells resulting from an overall reduction in RyR2 content may contribute to the poor cardiac performance and early death of Ryr2 (ADA/ADA) mice. An unusual fragmentation of mitochondria, perhaps related to imbalances in free cytoplasmic calcium levels, accompanies these changes. PMID:25694159

  15. Technological approach to reduce NaCl content of traditional smoked dry-cured hams: effect on quality properties and stability.

    PubMed

    Martuscelli, Maria; Lupieri, Laura; Chaves-Lopez, Clemencia; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

    2015-12-01

    The modification of the salting procedure (from a three- to a two-salt coverage steps) and its effects on quality and stability properties has been investigated to reduce NaCl content of traditional dry-cured ham. The study was applied on green hams of small-S and large-L weight classes. Results evidenced that a two-salt coverage steps salting could be applied to reduce significantly NaCl content of S-size hams and to reach the physico-chemical conditions required for microbial stability at the end of ripening. The final salt content of the products results (p < 0.05) to depend on salting procedure and initial weight of the hams, while limited differences on quality properties have been observed being the latter mainly associated to the pattern of the volatile compounds. In particular, aldehydes and hexanal content were lower in hams undergone to a 2-steps salting. Sensory analysis evidenced that the hams with reduced NaCl (2s-S and 2s-L) were less easy to chew, less salty and with a lower intensity of the smoky flavour in respect to the 3s- ones. The study confirmed the feasibility of salt content reduction of traditional dry-cured hams by modifying the salting process. However, the weight of the initial tights resulted a critical factor in affecting salting diffusion, salt content and water activity of the ripened products, their quality and stability properties. PMID:26604350

  16. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere. PMID:24530990

  17. The SCRI Acrylamide Project: Improved breeding and variety evaluation methods to reduce acrylamide content and increase quality in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highest priority of the US potato industry is the need to introduce new varieties that reduce the acrylamide content of processed products and minimize health concerns related to acrylamide consumption. The SCRI acrylamide project is a national, coordinated effort that addresses this need. Thi...

  18. Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

  19. How effective are brief interventions in reducing alcohol consumption: do the setting, practitioner group and content matter? Findings from a systematic review and metaregression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Lucy; Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Donnell, Amy; Bradley, Jennifer; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Kaner, Eileen; Ashton, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background While the efficacy and effectiveness of brief interventions for alcohol (ABI) have been demonstrated in primary care, there is weaker evidence in other settings and reviews do not consider differences in content. We conducted a systematic review to measure the effect of ABIs on alcohol consumption and how it differs by the setting, practitioner group and content of intervention. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO; CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index, Cochrane Library and Global Health up to January 2015 for randomised controlled trials that measured effectiveness of ABIs on alcohol consumption. We grouped outcomes into measures of quantity and frequency indices. We used multilevel meta-analysis to estimate pooled effect sizes and tested for the effect of moderators through a multiparameter Wald test. Stratified analysis of a subset of quantity and frequency outcomes was conducted as a sensitivity check. Results 52 trials were included contributing data on 29 891 individuals. ABIs reduced the quantity of alcohol consumed by 0.15 SDs. While neither the setting nor content appeared to significantly moderate intervention effectiveness, the provider did in some analyses. Interventions delivered by nurses had the most effect in reducing quantity (d=−0.23, 95% CI (−0.33 to −0.13)) but not frequency of alcohol consumption. All content groups had statistically significant mean effects, brief advice was the most effective in reducing quantity consumed (d=−0.20, 95% CI (−0.30 to −0.09)). Effects were maintained in the stratified sensitivity analysis at the first and last assessment time. Conclusions ABIs play a small but significant role in reducing alcohol consumption. Findings show the positive role of nurses in delivering interventions. The lack of evidence on the impact of content of intervention reinforces advice that services should select the ABI tool that best suits their needs. PMID:27515753

  20. Effects of long-time elevated temperature exposures on hot-isostatically-pressed power-metallurgy Udimet 700 alloys with reduced cobalt contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Because almost the entire U.S. consumption of cobalt depends on imports, this metal has been designated "strategic'. The role and effectiveness of cobalt is being evaluated in commercial nickel-base superalloys. Udiment 700 type alloys in which the cobalt content was reduced from the normal 17% down to 12.7%, 8.5%, 4.3%, and 0% were prepared by standard powder metallurgy techniques and hot isostatically pressed into billets. Mechanical testing and microstructural investigations were performed. The mechanical properties of alloys with reduced cobalt contents which were heat-treated identically were equal or better than those of the standard alloy, except that creep rates tended to increase as cobalt was reduced. The effects of long time exposures at 760 C on mechanical properties and at 760 C and 845 C on microstructures were determined. Decreased tensile properties and shorter rupture lives with increased creep rates were observed in alloy modifications. The exposures caused gamma prime particle coarsening and formation of sigma phase in the alloys with higher cobalt contents. Exposure at 845 C also reduced the amount of MC carbides.

  1. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  2. Processing of kansui roots stir-baked with vinegar reduces kansui-induced hepatocyte cytotoxicity by decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and regulating the cell apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Guo, Jianming; Cao, Yudan; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Ding, Anwei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1) after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2) was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS), ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb. PMID:24896263

  3. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  4. Myeloid Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase 1 Deficiency Reduces Lesion Macrophage Content and Suppresses Atherosclerosis Progression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Hao; Melton, Elaina M; Li, Haibo; Sohn, Paul; Rogers, Maximillian A; Mulligan-Kehoe, Mary Jo; Fiering, Steven N; Hickey, William F; Chang, Catherine C Y; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-03-18

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (Acat1) converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and is considered a drug target for treating atherosclerosis. However, in mouse models for atherosclerosis, global Acat1 knockout (Acat1(-/-)) did not prevent lesion development. Acat1(-/-) increased apoptosis within lesions and led to several additional undesirable phenotypes, including hair loss, dry eye, leukocytosis, xanthomatosis, and a reduced life span. To determine the roles of Acat1 in monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerosis, we produced a myeloid-specific Acat1 knockout (Acat1(-M/-M)) mouse and showed that, in the Apoe knockout (Apoe(-/-)) mouse model for atherosclerosis, Acat1(-M/-M) decreased the plaque area and reduced lesion size without causing leukocytosis, dry eye, hair loss, or a reduced life span. Acat1(-M/-M) enhanced xanthomatosis in apoe(-/-) mice, a skin disease that is not associated with diet-induced atherosclerosis in humans. Analyses of atherosclerotic lesions showed that Acat1(-M/-M) reduced macrophage numbers and diminished the cholesterol and cholesteryl ester load without causing detectable apoptotic cell death. Leukocyte migration analysis in vivo showed that Acat1(-M/-M) caused much fewer leukocytes to appear at the activated endothelium. Studies in inflammatory (Ly6C(hi)-positive) monocytes and in cultured macrophages showed that inhibiting ACAT1 by gene knockout or by pharmacological inhibition caused a significant decrease in integrin β 1 (CD29) expression in activated monocytes/macrophages. The sparse presence of lesion macrophages without Acat1 can therefore, in part, be attributed to decreased interaction between inflammatory monocytes/macrophages lacking Acat1 and the activated endothelium. We conclude that targeting ACAT1 in a myeloid cell lineage suppresses atherosclerosis progression while avoiding many of the undesirable side effects caused by global Acat1 inhibition. PMID:26801614

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 photorespiratory mutants maintain leaf carbon/nitrogen balance by reducing RuBisCO content and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Dellero, Younès; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Jossier, Mathieu; Hodges, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic and physiological analyses of glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (GGT1) mutants were performed at the global leaf scale to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their photorespiratory growth phenotype. Air-grown ggt1 mutants showed retarded growth and development, that was not observed at high CO2 (3000 μL L(-1) ). When compared to wild-type (WT) plants, air-grown ggt1 plants exhibited glyoxylate accumulation, global changes in amino acid amounts including a decrease in serine content, lower organic acid levels, and modified ATP/ADP and NADP(+) /NADPH ratios. When compared to WT plants, their net CO2 assimilation rates (An ) were 50% lower and this mirrored decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) contents. High CO2 -grown ggt1 plants transferred to air revealed a rapid decrease of An and photosynthetic electron transfer rate while maintaining a high energetic state. Short-term (a night period and 4 h of light) transferred ggt1 leaves accumulated glyoxylate and exhibited low serine contents, while other amino acid levels were not modified. RuBisCO content, activity and activation state were not altered after a short-term transfer while the ATP/ADP ratio was lowered in ggt1 rosettes. However, plant growth and RuBisCO levels were both reduced in ggt1 leaves after a long-term (12 days) acclimation to air from high CO2 when compared to WT plants. The data are discussed with respect to a reduced photorespiratory carbon recycling in the mutants. It is proposed that the low An limits nitrogen-assimilation, this decreases leaf RuBisCO content until plants attain a new homeostatic state that maintains a constant C/N balance and leads to smaller, slower growing plants. PMID:26216646

  6. Reduced expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and neurotransmitter content affects synaptic vesicle distribution and shape in mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Hermann A; Fonseca, Matheus de C; Camargo, Wallace L; Lima, Patrícia M A; Martinelli, Patrícia M; Naves, Lígia A; Prado, Vânia F; Prado, Marco A M; Guatimosim, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates, nerve muscle communication is mediated by the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine packed inside synaptic vesicles by a specific vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Here we used a mouse model (VAChT KD(HOM)) with 70% reduction in the expression of VAChT to investigate the morphological and functional consequences of a decreased acetylcholine uptake and release in neuromuscular synapses. Upon hypertonic stimulation, VAChT KD(HOM) mice presented a reduction in the amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials, FM 1-43 staining intensity, total number of synaptic vesicles and altered distribution of vesicles within the synaptic terminal. In contrast, under electrical stimulation or no stimulation, VAChT KD(HOM) neuromuscular junctions did not differ from WT on total number of vesicles but showed altered distribution. Additionally, motor nerve terminals in VAChT KD(HOM) exhibited small and flattened synaptic vesicles similar to that observed in WT mice treated with vesamicol that blocks acetylcholine uptake. Based on these results, we propose that decreased VAChT levels affect synaptic vesicle biogenesis and distribution whereas a lower ACh content affects vesicles shape. PMID:24260111

  7. Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces attraction to and selection of these beverages.

    PubMed

    Adams, John Milton; Hart, William; Gilmer, Lauren; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Burton, K Alex

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming "70g" of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic. PMID:25108238

  8. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. PMID:27255638

  9. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  10. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  11. Timeliness, frequency and content of antenatal care: which is most important to reducing indigenous disparities in birth weight in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Servan-Mori, Edson; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Najera-Leon, Esmeralda; Darney, Blair G

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the role of components of adequate antenatal care (ANC) in disparities in birth weight between indigenous and non-indigenous women in Mexico. We estimate the potential for added weight gain among indigenous infants if their mothers received timely, frequent ( ≥4 visits) and complete ANC (≥75% of recommended processes of care). We used population-based survey data (2012;N= 6612 women 12-49). We applied quantile regression to examine heterogeneity of the association between adequate ANC, indigenous ethnicity and birth weight across quantiles of the birth weight distribution. A greater proportion of indigenous women reported a low-birth weight infant (<2.5 kg) at last delivery (14 vs 8% among non-indigenous women). Coverage of adequate ANC (timely, frequent and complete care) is lower among indigenous (59%, CI:53;65) than non-indigenous (68%, CI:66;70) women. Indigenous ethnicity is associated with a lower birth weight across quantiles of the observed birth weight distribution: between 300 g in the 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25 quantiles. Among indigenous women, greater newborn weight gains are achieved in the lowest quantiles if they have access to ≥75% of the content of ANC compared with those that did not have access: ∼180 and 260 g are gained in both quantiles 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. This means that the smallest indigenous newborns could potentially reach 2.36 kg (from 1.86 kg), close to the normal weight threshold. The frequency of ANC was positively associated with birth weight for all women but complete ANC appears to differentially affect indigenous women at the bottom of the birth weight distribution. The marginal gains obtained among indigenous newborns that received complete ANC compared with indigenous/non-indigenous newborns did not receive it, is particularly important in low-birth weight quantiles. Delivering basic processes of ANC may therefore have the potential to impact the highest risk women and help them to overcome the

  12. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  13. Chronic growth hormone treatment in normal rats reduces post-prandial skeletal muscle plasma membrane GLUT1 content, but not glucose transport or GLUT4 expression and localization.

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, R; Cittadini, A; Chow, J C; Hirshman, M F; Smith, R J; Douglas, P S; Horton, E S

    1996-01-01

    Whether skeletal muscle glucose transport system is impaired in the basal, post-prandial state during chronic growth hormone treatment is unknown. The current study was designed to determine whether 4 weeks of human growth hormone (hGH) treatment (3.5 mg/kg per day) would impair glucose transport and/or the number of glucose transporters in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from hindlimb skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats under basal, post-prandial conditions. hGH treatment was shown to have no effect on glucose influx (Vmax or K(m)) determined under equilibrium exchange conditions in isolated plasma membrane vesicles. Plasma membrane glucose transporter number (Ro) measured by cytochalasin B binding was also unchanged by hGH treatment. Consequently, glucose transporter turnover number (Vmax/Ro), a measure of average glucose transporter intrinsic activity, was similar in hGH-treated and control rats. hGH did not change GLUT4 protein content in whole muscle or in the plasma membrane, and muscle content of GLUT4 mRNA also was unchanged. In contrast, GLUT1 protein content in the plasma membrane fraction was significantly reduced by hGH treatment. This was associated with a modest, although not significant, decrease in muscle content of GLUT1 mRNA. In conclusion, high-dose hGH treatment for 4 weeks did not alter post-prandial skeletal muscle glucose transport activity. Neither the muscle level nor the intracellular localization of GLUT4 was changed by the hormone treatment. On the contrary, the basal post-prandial level of GLUT1 in the plasma membrane was reduced by hGH. The mRNA data suggest that this reduction might result from a decrease in the synthesis of GLUT1. PMID:8645183

  14. ROCK1 reduces mitochondrial content and irisin production in muscle suppressing adipocyte browning and impairing insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Rongshan; Liu, Xinyan; Wang, Lihua; Hui, Peng; Chan, Lawrence; Saha, Pradip K.; Hu, Zhaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Irisin reportedly promotes the conversion of preadipocytes into “brown-like” adipocytes within subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) via a mechanism that stimulates UCP-1 expression. An increase in plasma irisin has been associated with improved obesity and insulin resistance in mice with type 2 diabetes. But whether a low level of irisin stimulates the development of obesity has not been determined. In studying mice with muscle-specific constitutive ROCK1 activation (mCaROCK1), we found that irisin production was down-regulated and the mice developed obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the effects of irisin deficiency on energy metabolism in mCaROCK1 mice. Constitutively activation of ROCK1 in muscle suppressed irisin expression in muscle resulting in a low level of irisin in circulation. Irisin deficiency reduced heat production and decreased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous WAT. Moreover, mCaROCK1 mice also displayed impaired glucose tolerance. Notably, irisin replenishment in mCaROCK1 mice partially reversed insulin resistance and obesity and these changes were associated with increased expression of UCP1 and Pref-1 in subcutaneous WAT. These results demonstrate that irisin mediates muscle-adipose tissue communication and regulates energy and glucose homeostasis. Irisin administration can correct obesity and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:27411515

  15. ROCK1 reduces mitochondrial content and irisin production in muscle suppressing adipocyte browning and impairing insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Rongshan; Liu, Xinyan; Wang, Lihua; Hui, Peng; Chan, Lawrence; Saha, Pradip K; Hu, Zhaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Irisin reportedly promotes the conversion of preadipocytes into "brown-like" adipocytes within subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) via a mechanism that stimulates UCP-1 expression. An increase in plasma irisin has been associated with improved obesity and insulin resistance in mice with type 2 diabetes. But whether a low level of irisin stimulates the development of obesity has not been determined. In studying mice with muscle-specific constitutive ROCK1 activation (mCaROCK1), we found that irisin production was down-regulated and the mice developed obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the effects of irisin deficiency on energy metabolism in mCaROCK1 mice. Constitutively activation of ROCK1 in muscle suppressed irisin expression in muscle resulting in a low level of irisin in circulation. Irisin deficiency reduced heat production and decreased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous WAT. Moreover, mCaROCK1 mice also displayed impaired glucose tolerance. Notably, irisin replenishment in mCaROCK1 mice partially reversed insulin resistance and obesity and these changes were associated with increased expression of UCP1 and Pref-1 in subcutaneous WAT. These results demonstrate that irisin mediates muscle-adipose tissue communication and regulates energy and glucose homeostasis. Irisin administration can correct obesity and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:27411515

  16. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Partanen, K

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P < 0.05). During the starter period, phytase linearly enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG (258, 266, and 292 g) and G:F (639, 677, and 664 g gain/kg feed DM) without further increase in the weaner pig period (P > 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for ATTD of P, more so for NC (48, 61, and 68%, respectively) than PC diets (52, 62, and 61%). The ATTD of Ca was higher (P < 0.05) for PC than NC diets (68 vs. 58%) and increased quadratically by phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca. PMID:23365327

  17. A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel-base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. ThesisFinal Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, William O.

    1987-01-01

    A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing was performed. The two elements used as partial substitutes for chromium were Si and Zr. The microstructure of conventionally solidified materials was characterized using microscopy techniques. These alloys were rapidly solidified using the chill block melt spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures were characterized using electron microscopy. The spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures was assessed following heat treatments at 1033 and 1272 K. Rapidly solidified material of three alloys was reduced to particulate form and consolidated using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The consolidated materials were also characterized using microscopy techniques. In order to evaluate the relative strengths of the consolidated alloys, compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1033 K on samples of as-HIPed and HIPed plus solution treated material. Yield strength, porosity, and oxidation resistance characteristics are given and compared.

  18. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  19. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. PMID:25866906

  20. Black soybean extract reduces fatty acid contents in subcutaneous, but not in visceral adipose triglyceride in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Kusunoki, Masataka; Seino, Narumi; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Feng, Zhonggang; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takao

    2015-01-01

    It is known that black soybean (BS) extract, rich in polyphenols, has beneficial effects against obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. However, detailed effects of BS on lipid metabolism have not been documented well. In the present study, we compared fatty acid composition in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues of high-fat fed (HFF) rats and BS administered HFF rats. Black soybean administration for 6 weeks influenced neither body nor adipose tissue weights, blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, or insulin sensitivity. However, BS reduced several saturated (C14:0 and C16:0), monounsaturated (C14:1n-5 and C18:1n-9) and n-6 polyunsaturated (C18:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6) fatty acid contents in subcutaneous fat without any change in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. No such effect was observed in fatty acid composition in visceral fat. Long-chain fatty acids are involved in regulation of inflammation. Therefore, those reduced fatty acids may be linked to the effects on suppressing inflammation. PMID:25830948

  1. Reduction of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Content by Antisense RNA Reduces Photosynthesis in Transgenic Tobacco Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Graham S.; Evans, John R.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Arvidsson, Yvonne B. C.; Andrews, T. John

    1992-01-01

    A complementary DNA for the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was cloned from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and fused in the antisense orientation to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. This antisense gene was introduced into the tobacco genome, and the resulting transgenic plants were analyzed to assess the effect of the antisense RNA on Rubisco activity and photosynthesis. The mean content of extractable Rubisco activity from the leaves of 10 antisense plants was 18% of the mean level of activity of control plants. The soluble protein content of the leaves of anti-small subunit plants was reduced by the amount equivalent to the reduction in Rubisco. There was little change in phosphoribulokinase activity, electron transport, and chlorophyll content, indicating that the loss of Rubisco did not affect these other components of photosynthesis. However, there was a significant reduction in carbonic anhydrase activity. The rate of CO2 assimilation measured at 1000 micromoles quanta per square meter per second, 350 microbars CO2, and 25°C was reduced by 63% (mean value) in the antisense plants and was limited by Rubisco activity over a wide range of intercellular CO2 partial pressures (pi). In control leaves, Rubisco activity only limited the rate of CO2 assimilation below a pi of 400 microbars. Despite the decrease in photosynthesis, there was no reduction in stomatal conductance in the antisense plants, and the stomata still responded to changes in pi. The unchanged conductance and lower CO2 assimilation resulted in a higher pi, which was reflected in greater carbon isotope discrimination in the leaves of the antisense plants. These results suggest that stomatal function is independent of total leaf Rubisco activity. PMID:16668627

  2. RNA interference of the nicotine demethylase gene CYP82E4v1 reduces nornicotine content and enhances Myzus persicae resistance in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Qin, Li-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang

    2016-10-01

    The CYP82E4v1 gene was identified to encode nicotine demethylase, which catalyzed the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine. In this study, we constructed CYP82E4v1-RNAi vector and genetically transformed tobacco variety K326. The determination results of nicotine and nornicotine content via HPLC demonstrated that there was significant increase of nicotine content and reduction of nornicotine content in transgenic plants compared with those in wild-type plants. Exogenous application of IAA or GA3 could reduce the nicotine content in tobaccos, while ABA or 6-BA could increase the content of nicotine. And the more significant difference of nicotine content change in transgenic plants. Aphid-inoculation experiment demonstrated the number of aphid population in transgenic plants was significantly lower than wild-type plants at 12 d after aphid-inoculation. Meanwhile, the activity of AOEs and PAL in transgenic and wild-type tobacco plants after aphid-inoculation was measured. At 3 d after aphid-inoculation, both AOEs and PAL activity were significantly higher than controls, including wild-type plants with aphid-inoculation and transgenic plants with mock-inoculation. Also, the relative expression of these genes involved in salicylic acid/jasmonic acid (SA/JA) signaling pathways was analyzed at different stages after aphid-inoculation and the results demonstrated that there was significantly higher expression of JA-induced LOX gene in both transgenic and wild-type plants inoculated by aphid than the non-inoculated ones while no significant difference in the expression of SA-induced PR-1a gene among them was found, which indicated the JA-mediated resistance response was activated during aphid infestation. Moreover, although the expression level of BGL (another JA-induced gene) was less significant between the two inoculated tobaccos, it was significantly higher than the plant without inoculation, which was 1.4 and 2.2 folds higher than the non-inoculated controls

  3. Transgenic and Mutation-Based Suppression of a Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like (BBL) Gene Family Reduces Alkaloid Content in Field-Grown Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ramsey S.; Lopez, Harry O.; Bowen, Steve W.; Andres, Karen R.; Steede, William T.; Dewey, Ralph E.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation exists to develop tobacco cultivars with reduced nicotine content for the purpose of facilitating compliance with expected tobacco product regulations that could mandate the lowering of nicotine levels per se, or the reduction of carcinogenic alkaloid-derived tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). A berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family was recently characterized for N. tabacum and found to catalyze one of the final steps in pyridine alkaloid synthesis for this species. Because this gene family acts downstream in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway, it may represent an attractive target for genetic strategies with the objective of reducing alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco. In this research, we produced transgenic doubled haploid lines of tobacco cultivar K326 carrying an RNAi construct designed to reduce expression of the BBL gene family. Field-grown transgenic lines carrying functional RNAi constructs exhibited average cured leaf nicotine levels of 0.684%, in comparison to 2.454% for the untransformed control. Since numerous barriers would need to be overcome to commercialize transgenic tobacco cultivars, we subsequently pursued a mutation breeding approach to identify EMS-induced mutations in the three most highly expressed isoforms of the BBL gene family. Field evaluation of individuals possessing different homozygous combinations of truncation mutations in BBLa, BBLb, and BBLc indicated that a range of alkaloid phenotypes could be produced, with the triple homozygous knockout genotype exhibiting greater than a 13-fold reduction in percent total alkaloids. The novel source of genetic variability described here may be useful in future tobacco breeding for varied alkaloid levels. PMID:25688975

  4. User Preferences for Content, Features, and Style for an App to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: Analysis of User Feedback in App Stores and Focus Group Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Deluca, Paolo; Watson, Rod; Drummond, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption when delivered by a computer. Mobile phone apps demonstrate promise in delivering eSBI; however, few have been designed with an evidence-based and user-informed approach. Objective This study aims to explore from a user perspective, preferences for content, appearance, and operational features to inform the design of a mobile phone app for reducing quantity and frequency of drinking in young adults engaged in harmful drinking (18-30 year olds). Methods Phase 1 included a review of user reviews of available mobile phone apps that support a reduction in alcohol consumption. Apps were identified on iTunes and Google Play and were categorized into alcohol reduction support, entertainment, blood alcohol content measurement (BAC), or other. eSBI apps with ≥18 user reviews were subject to a content analysis, which coded praise, criticism, and recommendations for app content, functionality, and esthetics. Phase 2 included four focus groups with young adults drinking at harmful levels and residing in South London to explore their views on existing eSBI apps and preferences for future content, functionality, and appearance. Detailed thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Results In Phase 1, of the 1584 apps extracted, 201 were categorized as alcohol reduction, 154 as BAC calculators, 509 as entertainment, and 720 as other. We classified 32 apps as eSBI apps. Four apps had ≥18 user reviews: Change for Life Drinks Tracker, Drinksmeter, Drinkaware, and Alcohol Units Calculator. The highest proportion of content praises were for information and feedback provided in the apps (12/27, 44%), followed by praise for the monitoring features (5/27, 19%). Many (8/12, 67%) criticisms were for the drinking diary; all of these were related to difficulty entering drinks. Over half (18/32, 56%) of functionality criticisms were descriptions of software bugs, and over

  5. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract. PMID:26396295

  6. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  7. Obesity reduces the pro-angiogenic potential of adipose tissue stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) by impairing miR-126 content: impact on clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Togliatto, G; Dentelli, P; Gili, M; Gallo, S; Deregibus, C; Biglieri, E; Iavello, A; Santini, E; Rossi, C; Solini, A; Camussi, G; Brizzi, M F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial tissue repair mediators in cell-based therapy. In the present study, we investigate the therapeutic impact of EVs released by adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) recovered from obese subjects' visceral and subcutaneous tissues. Methods: ASCs were recovered from 10 obese (oASCs) and 6 non-obese (nASCs) participants and characterized. In selected experiments, nASCs and oASCs were cultured with palmitic acid (PA) or high glucose (HG), respectively. EVs from obese (oEVs) and non-obese (nEVs) subjects' visceral and subcutaneous ASCs were collected after ultracentrifugation and analyzed for their cargo: microRNA-126 (miR-126), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and for their biological effects on endothelial cells (ECs). Western blotting analysis and loss- and gain-of function experiments were performed. Results: oEVs show impaired angiogenic potential compared with nEVs. This effect depends on EV cargo: reduced content of VEGF, MMP-2 and, more importantly, miR-126. We demonstrate, using gain- and loss-of-function experiments, that this reduced miR-126 content leads to Spred1 upregulation and the inhibition of the extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in ECs. We also show that PA treatment of nASCs translates into the release of EVs that recapitulate oEV cargo. Moreover, HG treatment of oASCs further reduces miR-126 EV content and EV-mediated in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, impaired pro-angiogenic potential is also detected in EVs released from obese subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived ASCs. Conclusions: These results indicate that obesity impacts on EV pro-angiogenic potential and may raise concerns about the use of adipose tissue-derived EVs in cell-based therapy in the obese setting. PMID:26122028

  8. Reduced levels of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase decrease the glutamate content of ripe tomato fruit but have no effect on green fruit or leaves.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Gisela; D'Angelo, Matilde; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Valle, Estela M

    2015-06-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a taste enhancer that contributes to the characteristic flavour of foods. In fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the Glu content increases dramatically during the ripening process, becoming the most abundant free amino acid when the fruit become red. There is also a concomitant increase in NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity during the ripening transition. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria and catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate to Glu. To investigate the potential effect of GDH on Glu metabolism, the abundance of GDH was altered by artificial microRNA technology. Efficient silencing of all the endogenous SlGDH genes was achieved, leading to a dramatic decrease in total GDH activity. This decrease in GDH activity did not lead to any clear morphological or metabolic phenotype in leaves or green fruit. However, red fruit on the transgenic plants showed markedly reduced levels of Glu and a large increase in aspartate, glucose and fructose content in comparison to wild-type fruit. These results suggest that GDH is involved in the synthesis of Glu in tomato fruit during the ripening processes. This contrasts with the biological role ascribed to GDH in many other tissues and species. Overall, these findings suggest that GDH has a major effect on the control of metabolic composition during tomato fruit ripening, but not at other stages of development. PMID:25878356

  9. Reduced Lignin Content and Altered Lignin Composition in Transgenic Tobacco Down-Regulated in Expression of L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase or Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Sewalt, VJH.; Ni, W.; Blount, J. W.; Jung, H. G.; Masoud, S. A.; Howles, P. A.; Lamb, C.; Dixon, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    We analyzed lignin content and composition in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines altered in the expression of the early phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H). The reduction of C4H activity by antisense expression or sense suppression resulted in reduced levels of Klason lignin, accompanied by a decreased syringyl/guaiacyl monomer ratio as determined by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry Similar reduction of lignin levels by down -regulation of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, the enzyme preceding C4H in the central phenylpropanoid pathway, did not result in a decreased syringyl/guaiacyl ratio. Rather, analysis of lignin methoxyl content and pyrolysis suggested an increased syringyl/guaiacyl ratio. One possible explanation of these results is that monolignol biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine might occur by more than one route, even at the early stages of the core phenylpropanoid pathway, prior to the formation of specific monolignol precursors. PMID:12223790

  10. Reduced Lignin Content and Altered Lignin Composition in Transgenic Tobacco Down-Regulated in Expression of L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase or Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Sewalt, VJH.; Ni, W.; Blount, J. W.; Jung, H. G.; Masoud, S. A.; Howles, P. A.; Lamb, C.; Dixon, R. A.

    1997-09-01

    We analyzed lignin content and composition in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lines altered in the expression of the early phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H). The reduction of C4H activity by antisense expression or sense suppression resulted in reduced levels of Klason lignin, accompanied by a decreased syringyl/guaiacyl monomer ratio as determined by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry Similar reduction of lignin levels by down -regulation of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, the enzyme preceding C4H in the central phenylpropanoid pathway, did not result in a decreased syringyl/guaiacyl ratio. Rather, analysis of lignin methoxyl content and pyrolysis suggested an increased syringyl/guaiacyl ratio. One possible explanation of these results is that monolignol biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine might occur by more than one route, even at the early stages of the core phenylpropanoid pathway, prior to the formation of specific monolignol precursors. PMID:12223790

  11. Polyamine contents in current foods: a basis for polyamine reduced diet and a study of its long term observance and tolerance in prostate carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, B G; Havouis, R; Moulinoux, J P

    2007-08-01

    Polyamine contents were assessed by mass spectrometry in 233 current foods and beverages. In order to reduce gut polyamine uptake, a polyamine reduced diet (PRD) and partial intermittent intestinal tract decontamination (PIITD) with neomycin or nifuroxazide was proposed as nutritional therapy to 33 prostate carcinoma patients, 30 of whom with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Mean PRD observance was 22 +/- 19 (median: 16; range: 3-72) months. 10, 8 and 3 patients were respectively on PRD for more than 30, 36 and 64 months. No diet toxicity was observed. 8 patients had moderate intestinal intolerance due to PIITD which was interrupted. No significant differences in body weight, blood counts or serum protein levels were observed during the follow-up of patients under PRD. Performance status and pain scores were relatively stable during the trial with improved pain scores at 6 months. A PRD associated with intermittent PIITD is a safe and well observed nutritional regimen and long term observance is possible. PMID:17578651

  12. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. Methods The antifungal activity of the natural products was tested by the microdilution assay for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of the compounds on the cell membrane was evaluated using a protoplast regeneration assay. Ergosterol content was quantified by spectrophotometry. Inhibition of FAS by flavonoids was evaluated by an enzymatic assay to determine IC50 values. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcription levels of the FAS1 and ERG6 genes involved in fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively, during exposure of T. rubrum to the flavonoids tested. Results The flavonoids quercetin and trans-chalcone were effective against T. rubrum, with MICs of 125 and 7.5 μg/mL for the wild-type strain (MYA3108) and of 63 and 1.9 μg/mL for the ABC transporter mutant strain (ΔTruMDR2), respectively. The MICs of the fluconazole and cerulenin controls were 63 and 125 μg/mL for the wild-type strain and 30 and 15 μg/mL for the mutant strain, respectively. Quercetin and trans-chalcone also reduced ergosterol content in the two strains, indicating that interference with fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis caused cell membrane disruption. The MIC of quercetin reduced the number of regenerated protoplasts by 30.26% (wild-type strain) and by 91.66% (mutant strain). Half the MIC (0.5 MIC) of quercetin did not reduce the number of regenerated wild-type fungal colonies, but caused a 36.19% reduction in the number of mutant strain protoplasts. In contrast, the MIC and 0

  13. LA and ALA prevent glucose intolerance in obese male rats without reducing reactive lipid content, but cause tissue-specific changes in fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Matravadia, Sarthak; Zabielski, Piotr; Chabowski, Adrian; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    While the cause of Type 2 diabetes remains poorly defined, the accumulation of reactive lipids within white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver have been repeatedly implicated as underlying mechanisms. The ability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to prevent the development of insulin resistance has gained considerable interest in recent years; however, the mechanisms-of-action remain poorly described. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) in preventing insulin resistance and reactive lipid accumulation in key metabolic tissues of the obese Zucker rat. Obese Zucker rats displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced n-3 and n-6 PUFA content in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT). After the 12-wk feeding intervention, both LA- and ALA-supplemented diets prevented whole body glucose and insulin intolerance; however, ALA had a more pronounced effect. These changes occurred in association with n-3 and n-6 accumulation in all tissues studied, albeit to different extents (EWAT > liver > muscle). Triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide, and sphingolipid accumulation were not attenuated in obese animals supplemented with either LA or ALA, suggesting that preservation of glucose homeostasis occurred independent of changes in reactive lipid content. However, PUFA-supplemented diets differentially altered the fatty acid composition of TAGs, DAGs, and PLs in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting essential fatty acid metabolism differs between tissues. Together, our results indicate that remodeling of the fatty acid composition of various lipid fractions may contribute to the improved glucose tolerance observed in obese rats fed PUFA-supplemented diets. PMID:26764053

  14. Using Reading Strategies To Reduce the Failure Rate in the Content Area. Subject: Social Studies. Grade Level: 6-7-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Olivett

    Content area reading instruction includes two elements: the information presented in subject matter text, and the plan that teachers use to help students understand the content. According to research and interviews with social studies teachers, there is a high failure rate in the social studies content area because children have problems…

  15. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents - A single blind randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10–15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine. PMID:26075317

  16. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children. PMID:27435387

  17. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents--A single blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10-15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine. PMID:26075317

  18. A Staphylococcus aureus ypfP mutant with strongly reduced lipoteichoic acid (LTA) content: LTA governs bacterial surface properties and autolysin activity

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, Iris; Mader, Diana; Kohler, Thomas; Moll, Hermann; Nicholson, Graeme; Biswas, Raja; Henseler, Katja; Götz, Friedrich; Zähringer, Ulrich; Peschel, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Many Gram-positive bacteria produce lipoteichoic acid (LTA) polymers whose physiological roles have remained a matter of debate because of the lack of LTA-deficient mutants. The ypfP gene responsible for biosynthesis of a glycolipid found in LTA was deleted in Staphylococcus aureus SA113, causing 87% reduction of the LTA content. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the mutant LTA contained a diacylglycerol anchor instead of the glycolipid, whereas the remaining part was similar to the wild-type polymer except that it was shorter. The LTA mutant strain revealed no major changes in patterns of cell wall proteins or autolytic enzymes compared with the parental strain indicating that LTA may be less important in S. aureus protein attachment than previously thought. However, the autolytic activity of the mutant was strongly reduced demonstrating a role of LTA in controlling autolysin activity. Moreover, the hydrophobicity of the LTA mutant was altered and its ability to form biofilms on plastic was completely abrogated indicating a profound impact of LTA on physicochemical properties of bacterial surfaces. We propose to consider LTA and its biosynthetic enzymes as targets for new antibiofilm strategies. PMID:17640274

  19. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    higher in cows fed the barley grain diet (2.5 vs 1.6 IU/mL), and a diet by time interaction was noted, with cows on the barley grain ration having higher insulin from wk 6 to 12 postpartum; however, mean plasma IGF-1 concentration did not differ between dietary groups. In the subsets, mean plasma concentrations of metabolites or estradiol and progesterone were not affected by diet, parity, or diet by parity interactions. Cows on the DDGS diet had lower concentrations of IGF-I (69 vs. 108 ng/mL) and higher fatty acids (222 vs. 149 mEq/L) in the follicular fluid obtained from preovulatory follicles. Diet, parity, and diet by parity interactions did not affect the concentrations of insulin, glucose, urea, estradiol, and progesterone in follicular fluid. Diets did not alter the expression profiles of LHr, estrogen receptor β, CYP19, and GPx3 genes in granulosa cells. In summary, diets did not affect the interval from calving to first ovulation or granulosa cell gene expression. However, reducing dietary starch content by a partial replacement of dietary grain with wheat DDGS increased fatty acids in follicular fluid and reduced the concentrations of insulin in plasma, IGF-1 in follicular fluid, and the incidence of multiple ovulations. PMID:26874412

  20. Reduced cortical BACE1 content with one bout of exercise is accompanied by declines in AMPK, Akt, and MAPK signaling in obese, glucose-intolerant mice.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, R E K; Baumeister, P; Peppler, W T; Wright, D C; Little, J P

    2015-11-15

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. A variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altered Akt and AMPK and increased inflammatory signaling, contribute to neurodegeneration. Exercise training can improve markers of neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single bout of exercise on markers of neurodegeneration and inflammation in brains from mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low (LFD; 10% kcal from lard)- or a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 7 wk. HFD mice underwent an acute bout of exercise (treadmill running: 15 m/min, 5% incline, 120 min) followed by a recovery period of 2 h. The HFD increased body mass and glucose intolerance (both P < 0.05). This was accompanied by an approximately twofold increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and GSK in the cortex (P < 0.05). Following exercise, there was a decrease in beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1; P < 0.05) and activity (P < 0.001). This was accompanied by a reduction in AMPK phosphorylation, indicative of a decline in cellular stress (P < 0.05). Akt and ERK phosphorylation were decreased following exercise in HFD mice to a level similar to that of the LFD mice (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that a single bout of exercise can reduce BACE1 content and activity independent of changes in adiposity. This effect is associated with reductions in Akt, ERK, and AMPK signaling in the cortex. PMID:26404616

  1. Selenate mitigates arsenite toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by reducing arsenic uptake and ameliorates amino acid content and thiol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Mishra, Kumkum; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element with the potential to cause health effects in humans. Besides rice is a source of both amino acids (AAs) and mineral nutrients, it is undesired source of As for billions of people consuming rice as the staple food. Selenium (Se) is an essential metalloid, which can regulate As toxicity by strengthening antioxidant potential. The present study was designed to investigate As(III) stress mitigating effect of Se(VI) in rice. The level of As, thiolic ligands and AAs was analyzed in rice seedlings after exposure to As(III)/Se(VI) alone and As(III)+Se(VI) treatments. Selenate supplementation (As(III) 25μM+Se(VI) 25μM) decreased total As accumulation in both root and shoot (179 & 144%) as compared to As(III) alone treatment. The As(III)+Se(VI) treatment also induced the levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) as compared to As(III) alone treatment and also modulated the activity of enzymes of thiol metabolism. The content of amino acids (AAs) was significantly altered with Se(VI) supplementation. Importantly, essential amino acids (EAAs) were enhanced in As(III)+Se(VI) treatment as compared to As(III) alone treatment. In contrast, stress related non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) like GABA, Glu, Gly, Pro and Cys showed enhanced levels in As(III) alone treatment. In conclusion, rice supplemented with Se(VI) tolerated As toxicity with reduced As accumulation and increased the nutrition quality by increasing EAAs. PMID:27497079

  2. Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): a dynamic rheological and Raman spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Zou, Yu-Feng; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Chopping and beating processes were used as meat-cutting methods in preparing kung-wan to produce low-salt products while retaining or improving the emulsion stability, sensory evaluation, and physico-chemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. Increased salt content improved emulsion stability and dynamic rheology. However, 3% salt content decreased the overall acceptance of kung-wan. Compared with the chopping process, beating resulted in higher emulsion stability, overall acceptance, and β-sheet content (P<0.05). Additionally, the beating process formed more compact and continuous structures at the same salt content. Kung-wan produced by beating with 1% and 2% salt had similar emulsion stabilities, sensory evaluation, and secondary structures (P>0.05). Therefore, this process allows reduction of salt content, suggesting that the kung-wan produced in this manner is healthier and has better texture. PMID:24200556

  3. Germination and extrusion as combined processes for reducing phytates and increasing phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of Oryza sativa L. whole grain flours.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, M; De Greef, D M; González, R J; Drago, S R

    2015-01-01

    Whole rice (WR) products with low phytic acid (PA) content and enhanced bio-functional components were obtained by the combination of germination and extrusion processes. Germination conditions (24 h - 35 °C), with a previous soaking process (24 h - 20 °C), were chosen according to the remnant PA content and germination rate. Specific mechanical energy consumption, expansion, sensorial and mechanical hardness, specific volume, solubility, water absorption, free phenolic content (FPC) and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Results indicated that 175 °C and 14 g 100 g(-1) of moisture were the most appropriate conditions to obtain expanded products and precooked flours based on germinated WR. Selected extruded product presented less PA content (821.6 9 ± 10.3 versus 695.2 0 ± 1.6 mg 100 g(-1)) and higher Fe bio-accessibility, FPC (45.2 9 ± 1.61 versus 66.3 5 ± 3.35 mg GAE g(-1)) and antioxidant capacity compared with WR (34.9 5 ± 0.8 versus 54.6 3 ± 1.6 µmol trolox g(-1)). Combining germination-extrusion processes could be a strategy to obtain expanded products or precooked flours based on WR with enhanced health benefits. PMID:26560879

  4. CO2 Pneumoperitoneum Preserves β-Arrestin 2 Content and Reduces High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB-1) Expression in an Animal Model of Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Montalto, Angela Simona; Minutoli, Letteria; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Costa, Gaetano; Squadrito, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopy (LS) has been shown to decrease the inflammatory sequelae of endotoxemia. β-arrestin 2 plays an important function in signal transduction pathway of TLR4. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) is involved in the delayed systemic inflammatory response. We investigated the effects of CO2 insufflation on liver, lung, and kidney expression of both β-arrestin 2 and HMGB-1 during sepsis. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed in male rats and 6 h later the animals were randomly assigned to receive a CO2 pneumoperitoneum or laparotomy. Animals were euthanized; liver, lung, and kidney were removed for the evaluation of β-arrestin 2 and HMGB-1 expression. Immunohistochemical detection of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was investigated in lung and liver and bacterial load was determined in the peritoneal fluid. CO2 pneumoperitoneum reduced peritoneal bacterial load, increased the expression of β-arrestin 2, and blunted the expression of the potent proinflammatory HMGB-1 in liver, lung, and kidney compared with laparotomy. Liver and lung MPO was markedly reduced in rats subjected to LS compared with laparotomy. We believe that CO2 exerts an early protective effect by reducing bacterial load and likely toll-like receptor activation which in turn leads to a preserved β-arrestin 2 expression and a reduced HMGB-1 expression. PMID:25810808

  5. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic n3 fatty acid content in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While considerable research has centered upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism, a growing literature indicates that the amount of fat consumed can reduce the elongation and desaturation process. However, little data exist ...

  6. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. PMID:25449036

  7. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 4, Aiding the dewatering and classifying of fine coal with an ultrasonic tray: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, C.E.

    1992-11-01

    Volume four contains the results of an Empire State Electric Energy Research corporation and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funded investigation to evaluate the effects and economics of applying ultrasonic waves to commercial-scale dewatering and classifying of fine coal. Pre-treating minus 28 mesh Upper Freeport Seam coal using an ultrasonic tray device improved subsequent dewatering by a vacuum disc filter after thickening in a cyclone, but it did not improve dewatering by a screen-bowl centrifuge after cycloning. Dewatering of Pittsburgh Seam coal also improved when the coal was ultrasonically treated, but it only manifested during thickening in the cyclone. Cycloning also increased the removal of fine, high-ash content clay particles from Pittsburgh Seam coal. In contrast, ultrasonically-treating Upper Freeport Seam coal did not improve subsequent classifying by a rapped sieve bend. Based on a specific example of results in this test work for Upper Freeport Seam coal, using an ultrasonic tray to aid dewatering of finely-sized coal can be economically beneficial. For other coals and dewatering devices, however, the economics for using ultrasonic trays to enhance fine coal dewatering will differ.

  8. Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, D.; Dörner, S.; Hofherr, M.; Il'in, K.; Semenov, A.; Heintze, E.; Scheffler, M.; Dressel, M.; Siegel, M.

    2012-10-01

    The spectral detection efficiency and the dark count rate of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) have been studied systematically on detectors made from thin NbN films with different chemical compositions. Reduction of the nitrogen content in the 4 nm thick NbN films results in a decrease of the dark count rates more than two orders of magnitude and in a red shift of the cut-off wavelength of the hot-spot SNSPD response. The observed phenomena are explained by an improvement of uniformity of NbN films that has been confirmed by a decrease of resistivity and an increase of the ratio of the measured critical current to the depairing current. The latter factor is considered as the most crucial for both the cut-off wavelength and the dark count rates of SNSPD. Based on our results we propose a set of criteria for material properties to optimize SNSPD in the infrared spectral region.

  9. Bone mineral content is not reduced despite low vitamin D status in breast milk-fed infants versus cow's milk based formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Namgung, R; Kim, D H; Tsang, R C

    1998-04-01

    The effect of low or borderline vitamin D status on bone mineralization of exclusively breast milk-fed infants has not been studied. The low vitamin D status of Korean breast milk-fed infants may theoretically have adverse effects on bone mineralization. Assuming that bone mineral content (BMC) relates in part to vitamin D status, we hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and BMC would be low, and serum osteocalcin concentration high, reflecting active bone turnover, in breast milk- versus formula-fed infants born in the winter. Eighteen breast milk- and 17 formula-fed infants were recruited at ages 2 to 5 months. The BMC of the lumbar1-4 spine region was measured by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The BMC and serum osteocalcin levels were similar for both groups. The serum 25-OHD level was significantly lower in breast milk- than formula-fed infants; 44% of the breast milk group versus 6% of the formula group had serum 25-OHD levels less than 28 nmol/L (11 ng/ml), the lower limit of normal. The BMC did not correlate with the serum 25-OHD level. Thus BMC and serum osteocalcin levels in 2- to 5-month-old infants were not different by type of feeding, despite low vitamin D status in breast milk-fed infants. We speculate that adequate mineral absorption occurs during this period from a predominantly (vitamin D independent) passive transport mechanism. PMID:9580763

  10. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  11. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  12. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20–80°C range, pH values of 3.0–8.0 and incubation times of 0–60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%. PMID:26925077

  13. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20-80°C range, pH values of 3.0-8.0 and incubation times of 0-60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%. PMID:26925077

  14. Probiotic Strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 Reduces Fat Content and Modulates Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Patricia; Llopis, Silvia; González, Nuria; Chenoll, Empar; López-Carreras, Noemi; Aleixandre, Amaya; Chen, Yang; Karoly, Edwuard D; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    Recently, microbial changes in the human gut have been proposed as a possible cause of obesity. Therefore, modulation of microbiota through probiotic supplements is of great interest to support obesity therapeutics. The present study examines the functional effect and metabolic targets of a bacterial strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145, selected from a screening in Caenorhabditis elegans. This strain significantly reduced total lipids (40.5% ± 2.4) and triglycerides (27.6% ± 0.5), exerting antioxidant effects in the nematode (30% ± 2.8 increase in survival vs control); activities were also preserved in a final food matrix (milk). Furthermore, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses in nematodes fed with strain CECT 8145 revealed modulation of the energy and lipid metabolism, as well as the tryptophan metabolism (satiety), as the main metabolic targets of the probiotic. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time a new B. animalis subsp. lactis strain, CECT 8145, as a promising probiotic for obesity disorders. Furthermore, the data support future studies in obesity murine models. PMID:27054371

  15. Influence of Alloy Content and Prior Microstructure on Evolution of Secondary Phases in Weldments of 9Cr-Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Sudha, C.; Saroja, S.

    2015-08-01

    9Cr-Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steels with 1 and 1.4 wt pct tungsten are materials of choice for the test blanket module in fusion reactors. The steels possess a tempered martensite microstructure with a decoration of inter- and intra-lath carbides, which undergoes extensive modification on application of heat. The change in substructure and precipitation behavior on welding and subsequent thermal exposure has been studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Changes i.e., formation of various phases, their volume fraction, size, and morphology in different regions of the weldment due to prolonged thermal exposure was influenced not only by the time and temperature of exposure but also the prior microstructure. Laves phase of type Fe2W was formed in the high tungsten steel, on aging the weldment at 823 K (550 °C). It formed in the fine-grained heat-affected zone (HAZ) at much shorter durations than in the base metal. The accelerated kinetics has been understood in terms of enhanced precipitation of carbides at lath/grain boundaries during aging and the concomitant depletion of carbon and chromium and enrichment of tungsten in the vicinity of the carbides. Therefore, the fine-grained HAZ in the weldment was identified as a region susceptible for failure during service.

  16. Combined administration of levetiracetam and valproic acid attenuates age-related hyperactivity of CA3 place cells, reduces place field area, and increases spatial information content in aged rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, Jonathan; Ratner, Marcia H; Stewart, Tara; Eichenbaum, Howard; Farb, David H

    2015-12-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of functional inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA. PMID:25941121

  17. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 blockage enhances autophagy in the neurons of triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse and reduces human P301L-tau content at the presymptomatic stage.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Yohei; Niu, Zhaoyang; Bryleva, Elena Y; Harris, Brent T; Murphy, Stephanie R; Kheirollah, Alireza; Bowen, Zachary D; Chang, Catherine C Y; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) display amyloidopathy and tauopathy. In mouse models of AD, pharmacological inhibition using small molecule enzyme inhibitors or genetic inactivation of acyl-coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA):cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) diminished amyloidopathy and restored cognitive deficits. In microglia, ACAT1 blockage increases autophagosome formation and stimulates amyloid β peptide1-42 degradation. Here, we hypothesize that in neurons ACAT1 blockage augments autophagy and increases autophagy-mediated degradation of P301L-tau protein. We tested this possibility in murine neuroblastoma cells ectopically expressing human tau and in primary neurons isolated from triple transgenic AD mice that express mutant forms of amyloid precursor protein, presenilin-1, and human tau. The results show that ACAT1 blockage increases autophagosome formation and decreases P301L-tau protein content without affecting endogenous mouse tau protein content. In vivo, lacking Acat1 decreases P301L-tau protein content in the brains of young triple transgenic AD mice but not in those of old mice, where extensive hyperphosphorylations and aggregation of P301L-tau take place. These results suggest that, in addition to ameliorating amyloidopathy in both young and old AD mice, ACAT1 blockage may benefit AD by reducing tauopathy at early stage. PMID:25930235

  18. Reduce oil and grease content in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Capps, R.W. ); Matelli, G.N.; Bradford, M.L. )

    1993-06-01

    Poor water quality is often blamed on biological oxidation unit malfunction. However, poorly treated water entering the bio-unit is more often the problem. At the microscopic level, oil/water-separation dynamics are influenced by pH, fluid velocity, temperature, and unit volumes. Oily water's physical and chemical properties affect pretreatment systems such as API separators, corrugated plate interception (CPI) separators, air flotation and equalization systems. A better understanding of pretreatment systems' limits and efficiencies can improve wastewater quality before it upsets the biological oxidation (BIOX). Oil contamination in refinery wastewater originates from desalting, steam stripping, product treating, tank drains, sample drains and equipment washdown. The largest volumetric contributors are cooling tower blowdowns and contaminated stormwater. The paper describes the BIOX process; oil/water separation; oil/water emulsions and colloidal solutions; air flotation; surfactants; DAF (dissolved air flotation) process; IAF (induced air flotation) process; equalization; load factors; salts; and system design.

  19. Booster vaccination of pre-school children with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Giuseppe; Cuccia, Mario; Mereu, Gabriele; Icardi, Giancarlo; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Marchetti, Federico; Messier, Marc; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pertussis occurs in older children, adolescents and adults due to waning immunity after primary vaccination. Booster vaccination for pre-school children has been recommended in Italy since 1999. In this study (NCT00871000), the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV; GSK Biologicals Boostrix™-Polio; 3-component pertussis) vs. full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine (sanofi-pasteur—MSD Tetravac™; 2-component pertussis) was evaluated in pre-school Italian children.   Methods: Healthy children aged 5–6 y primed in a routine vaccination setting with three doses of DTPa-based vaccines were enrolled and randomized (1:1) in this phase IIIb, booster study to receive a single dose of dTpa-IPV or DTPa-IPV; the MMRV vaccine was co-administered. Antibody concentrations/titers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliovirus 1–3 were measured before and one month post-booster. Reactogenicity and safety was assessed. Results: 305 subjects were enrolled of whom 303 (dTpa-IPV = 151; DTPa-IPV = 152) received booster vaccination. One month post-booster, all subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus, anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-poliovirus 1–3; 99.3% of dTpa-IPV and 60.4% of DTPa-IPV subjects were seropositive for anti-PRN; 98–100% of subjects were seropositive against MMRV antigens post-booster. Pain at the injection site (dTpa-IPV: 63.6%; DTPa-IPV: 63.2%) and fatigue (dTpa-IPV: 26.5%; DTPa-IPV: 23.7%) were the most commonly reported solicited local and general symptoms, during the 4-d follow-up period. No SAEs or fatalities were reported. Conclusions: The reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine was non-inferior to full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine with respect to immunogenicity. The vaccine was well-tolerated and can be confidently used as a booster dose in pre-school children. PMID:22327497

  20. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  1. Enhanced UV-B radiation during pupal stage reduce body mass and fat content, while increasing deformities, mortality and cell death in female adults of solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-08-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the oogenesis and morpho-anatomical characteristics of the European solitary red mason bee Osmia bicornis L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) were tested under laboratory conditions. Cocooned females in the pupal stage were exposed directly to different doses (0, 9.24, 12.32, and 24.64 kJ/m(2) /d) of artificial UV-B. Our experiments revealed that enhanced UV-B radiation can reduce body mass and fat body content, cause deformities and increase mortality. Following UV exposure at all 3 different doses, the body mass of bees was all significantly reduced compared to the control, with the highest UV dose causing the largest reduction. Similarly, following UV-B radiation, in treated groups the fat body index decreased and the fat body index was the lowest in the group receiving the highest dose of UV radiation. Mortality and morphological deformities, between untreated and exposed females varied considerably and increased with the dose of UV-B radiation. Morphological deformities were mainly manifested in the wings and mouthparts, and occurred more frequently with an increased dose of UV. Cell death was quantified by the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (DNA fragmentation) during early stages of oogenesis of O. bicornis females. The bees, after UV-B exposure exhibited more germarium cells with fragmented DNA. The TUNEL test indicated that in germarium, low doses of UV-B poorly induced the cell death during early development. However, exposure to moderate UV-B dose increased programmed cell death. In females treated with the highest dose of UV-B the vast majority of germarium cells were TUNEL-positive. PMID:24644123

  2. Systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries are all major public health problems in the UK, with significant costs to the healthcare service. We aim to conduct a systematic review to summarise the evidence on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health. Methods and analysis Electronic database will be systematically searched using a combination of terms, tailored to optimise sensitivity, specificity, and the syntax and functionality of each database. The databases searched will include the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE (Ovid) and Scopus. The bibliographies of those papers that match inclusion criteria will be searched by hand to identify any further, relevant references, which will be subject to the same screening and selection process. The database search results will be supplemented by hand searches. In addition to the peer-reviewed literature, a number of grey literature searches will be undertaken using the broad search terms ‘sugar’ and ‘food’ or ‘drink’ and ‘reduction’, these searches will include key government and organisation websites as well as general searches in Google. The selection of the studies, data collection and quality appraisal will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data will be initially analysed through a narrative synthesis method. If a subset of data we analyse appears comparable, we will investigate the possibility of performing a meta-analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval will not be required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings will be disseminated widely through conference presentations and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016034022. PMID:27288379

  3. Experimental determination of dissolved CO2 content in nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite/diamond saturation - Remobilization of deeply subducted reduced carbon via partial melts of MORB-like eclogite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, J.; Dasgupta, R.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental phase relations of carbonated lithologies [1] and geochemistry of deep diamonds [2] suggest that deep recycling of carbon has likely been efficient for a significant portion of Earth's history. Both carbonates and organic carbon subduct into the mantle, but with gradual decrease of fO2 with depth [3] most carbon in deep mantle rocks including eclogite could be diamond/graphite [4]. Previous studies investigated the transfer of CO2 from subducted eclogite to the ambient mantle by partial melting in the presence of carbonates, i.e., by generation of carbonate-rich melts [5]. However, the transfer of carbon from subducted eclogite to the mantle can also happen, perhaps more commonly, by extraction of silicate partial melt in the presence of reduced carbon; yet, CO2 solubility in eclogite-derived andesitic melt at graphite/diamond saturation remains unconstrained. CO2content of eclogite melts is also critical as geochemistry of many ocean island basalts suggest the presence of C and eclogite in their source regions [6]. In the present study we determine CO2 concentration in a model andesitic melt [7] at graphite/diamond saturation at conditions relevant for partial melting of eclogite in the convecting upper mantle. Piston cylinder and multi anvil experiments were conducted at 1-6 GPa and 1375-1550 °C using Pt/Gr double capsules. Oxygen fugacity was monitored with Pt-Fe sensors in the starting mix. Completed experiments at 1-3 GPa show that CO2 concentration increases with increasing P, T, and fO2 up to ~0.3 wt%. Results were used to develop empirical and thermodynamic models to predict CO2 concentration in partial melts of graphite saturated eclogite. This allowed us to quantify the extent to which CO2 can mobilize from eclogitic heterogeneities at graphite/diamond saturated conditions. With estimates of eclogite contribution to erupted basaltic lavas, the models developed here allow us to put constraints on the flux of CO2 to mantle source regions

  4. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems. Dropping…

  5. Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements, Regardless of Their Zinc Content, Increase Growth and Reduce the Prevalence of Stunting and Wasting in Young Burkinabe Children: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sonja Y.; Abbeddou, Souheila; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Somé, Jérôme W.; Vosti, Stephen A.; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P.; Guissou, Rosemonde M.; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are promising home fortification products, but the optimal zinc level needed to improve growth and reduce morbidity is uncertain. We aimed to assess the impact of providing SQ-LNS with varied amounts of zinc, along with illness treatment, on zinc-related outcomes compared with standard care. In a placebo-controlled, cluster-randomized trial, 34 communities were stratified to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). 2435 eligible IC children were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1) SQ-LNS without zinc, placebo tablet; 2) SQ-LNS containing 5mg zinc, placebo tablet; 3) SQ-LNS containing 10mg zinc, placebo tablet; or 4) SQ-LNS without zinc and 5mg zinc tablet from 9–18 months of age. During weekly morbidity surveillance, oral rehydration salts were provided for reported diarrhea and antimalarial therapy for confirmed malaria. Children in NIC (n = 785) did not receive SQ-LNS, tablets, illness surveillance or treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight and hemoglobin were measured in all children. Reported adherence was 97±6% for SQ-LNS and tablets. Mean baseline hemoglobin was 89±15g/L. At 18 months, change in hemoglobin was greater in IC than NIC (+8 vs -1g/L, p<0.0001), but 79.1% of IC were still anemic (vs. 91.1% in NIC). Final plasma zinc concentration did not differ by group. During the 9-month observation period, the incidence of diarrhea was 1.10±1.03 and of malaria 0.54±0.50 episodes per 100 child-days, and did not differ by group. Length at 18 months was significantly greater in IC compared to NIC (77.7±3.0 vs. 76.9±3.4cm; p<0.001) and stunting prevalence was significantly lower in IC (29.3%) than NIC (39.3%; p<0.0001), but did not differ by intervention group within IC. Wasting prevalence was also significantly lower in IC (8.7%) than in NIC (13.5%; p = 0.0003). Providing SQ-LNS daily with or without zinc, along with malaria and diarrhea treatment, significantly increased

  6. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  7. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  8. Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  9. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., subject to the tolerance permitted in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. (3) Alcoholic content shall be...) Tolerances. (1) For malt beverages containing 0.5 percent or more alcohol by volume, a tolerance of 0.3...” or “reduced alcohol” under paragraph (d) of this section, the actual alcoholic content may not...

  10. 59 FR- CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1994-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] CONTENTS Vol. 59, No. 205 Tuesday, October 25, 1994 Agricultural Marketing Service RULES Kiwifruit grown in California, 53563-53565... carbon monoxide content; report availability, 53650 Premerger notification waiting periods;...

  11. 34 CFR Plans - Contents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 1997-07-01 1997-07-01 false Contents Plans State Plans ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE...-General § 300.111 Content of plan. Each State plan must contain the provisions required in §§ 300.121-300.154. State Plans—Contents...

  12. 67 FR- CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; CONTENTS #0; #0...;/&thnsp;Contents#0;#0; ] Agency for International Development NOTICES Agency information collection... subscribe to the Federal Register Table of Contents LISTSERV electronic mailing list, go to...

  13. Content-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CATESOL Journal, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodical devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Content-Base Instruction." Articles include: "Syllabus Design in Content-Based Instruction" (David E. Eskey); "How Relevant Is Relevance?: An Examination of Student Needs, Interests, and Motivation in the Content-Based…

  14. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  15. Naturalising Representational Content

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  16. Naturalising Representational Content.

    PubMed

    Shea, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content - to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  17. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  18. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  19. 34 CFR Educational - Contents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    1997-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 1997-07-01 1997-07-01 false Contents Educational Local Educational Agency Applications ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Plans and Local...) Both. (b) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1414(b)(2)) Local Educational Agency Applications—Contents...

  20. Early Learning Content Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The early learning content standards describe essential concepts and skills for young children. Based on research, these achievable indicators emerge as the result of quality early learning experiences regardless of the setting (e.g., nursery school, preschool, family care, etc.). In addition, the early learning content indicators are aligned to…

  1. Content-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  2. Reduced CD300LG mRNA tissue expression, increased intramyocellular lipid content and impaired glucose metabolism in healthy male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG: a novel genometabolic cross-link between CD300LG and common metabolic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Støy, Julie; Kampmann, Ulla; Mengel, Annette; Magnusson, Nils E; Jessen, Niels; Grarup, Niels; Rungby, Jørgen; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background CD300LG rs72836561 (c.313C>T, p.Arg82Cys) has in genetic-epidemiological studies been associated with the lipoprotein abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. CD300LG belongs to the CD300-family of membrane-bound molecules which have the ability to recognize and interact with extracellular lipids. We tested whether this specific polymorphism results in abnormal lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver and other indices of metabolic dysfunction. Methods 40 healthy men with a mean age of 55 years were characterized metabolically including assessment of insulin sensitivity by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC) and intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL) by MR spectroscopy, and β-cell function by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Changes in insulin signaling and CD300LG mRNA expression were determined by western blotting and quantitative PCR in muscle and adipose tissue. Results Compared with the 20 controls (CC carriers), the 20 CT carriers (polymorphism carriers) had higher IMCL (p=0.045), a reduced fasting forearm glucose uptake (p=0.011), a trend toward lower M-values during the clamp; 6.0 mg/kg/min vs 7.1 (p=0.10), and higher IHLC (p=0.10). CT carriers had lower CD300LG mRNA expression and CD300LG expression in muscle correlated with IMCL (β=−0.35, p=0.046), forearm glucose uptake (β=0.37, p=0.03), and tended to correlate with the M-value (β=0.33, p=0.06), independently of CD300LG genotype. β-cell function was unaffected. Conclusions The CD300LG polymorphism was associated with decreased CD300LG mRNA expression in muscle and adipose tissue, increased IMCL, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism. CD300LG mRNA levels correlated with IMCL and forearm glucose uptake. These findings link a specific CD300LG polymorphism with features of the metabolic syndrome suggesting a role for CD300LG in the regulation of common metabolic traits. Trial registration number NCT01571609. PMID:26336608

  3. Magnetic content addressable memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenye

    Content Addressable Memories are designed with comparison circuits built into every bit cell. This parallel structure can increase the speed of searching from O(n) (as with Random Access Memories) to O(1), where n is the number of entries being searched. The high cost in hardware limits the application of CAM within situations where higher searching speed is extremely desired. Spintronics technology can build non-volatile Magnetic RAM with only one device for one bit cell. There are various technologies involved, like Magnetic Tunnel Junctions, off-easy-axis programming method, Synthetic Anti-Ferromagnetic tri-layers, Domain Wall displacement, Spin Transfer Torque tri-layers and etc. With them, particularly the Tunnel Magneto-Resistance variation in MTJ due to difference in magnetization polarity of the two magnets, Magnetic CAM can be developed with reduced hardware cost. And this is demonstrated by the discussion in this dissertation. Six MCAM designs are discussed. In the first design, comparand (C), local information (S) and their complements are stored into 4 MTJs connected in XOR gate pattern. The other five designs have one or two stacks for both information storage and comparison, and full TMR ratio can be taken advantage of. Two challenges for the five are specifically programming C without changing S and selectively programming a cell out of an array. The solutions to specific programming are: by confining the programming field for C in a ring structure design; by using field programming and spin polarized current programming respectively for C and S in the SAF+DW and SAF+STT tri-layer design; by making use of the difference in thresholds between direct mode and toggle mode switching in the SAF+SAF design. The problem of selective programming is addressed by off-easy-axis method and by including SAF tri-layers. Cell with STT tri-layers for both C and S can completely avoid the problems of specific and selective programming, but subject to the limit of

  4. 59 FR- CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1994-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] CONTENTS Vol. 59, No. 215 Tuesday, November 8, 1994 Agricultural Marketing Service RULES Oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida and imported grapefruit, 55571-55573 Agriculture Department See...

  5. Concentration and content.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    One of the more frequent activities in health sciences is the measurement of biological quantities. Frequently, when reading biomedical books and journals some confusion on the metrological meaning of biological quantities related to the concepts 'concentration' and 'content' may be observed. Classically, a concentration is an amount of any type per volume of liquid or gas system, whereas content is an amount of any type per mass of liquid or gas or solid system. However the concepts 'concentration' and 'content' alone are still ambiguous because, depending on the type of amount of the component (analyte) per volume or mass of a system, there are different types of concentrations and contents. This article attempts to give a clarification of these concepts, mainly based on international recommendations about nomenclature and terminology of metrology, chemistry and clinical laboratory sciences. PMID:23894859

  6. Effect of moisture content and drying method on the amylose content of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janaun, J.; Kong, V. V.; Toyu, C. G.; Kamin, N. H.; Wolyna, P.; Lee, J. S.

    2016-06-01

    Rice is a primary source to all human beings. It gives energy and supply carbohydrate in human daily life. It is also one of the main sources of employment for people living in the rural area to generate incomes. In this study, determinations of quality of rice dried in an oven and in a Laterally Aerated Moving Bed (LAMB) dryer were performed., tTe drying in an oven was performed with initial moisture content (MC) of 18% reduced to 14% w.b. at temperatures of 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 0C. The amylose contents of the rice were 20.78, 21.81, 21.53, 21.63 and 22.50%, respectively. Furthermore, drying of paddy with temperature of 45 0C and initial moisture content of 15% w.b was performed with different final moisture content of 14, 12, 10 and 8% w.b using oven drying. The amylose content were 21.79, 20.17, 20.85, 26.35%, respectively. As for paddy dried in LAMB dryer, it was found that the amylose content were in the intermediate range (20 - 25.50%). The drying temperature of the LAMB dryer was at 25 0C with 100 to 200 L/min of air flowrate resulted in the intermediate amylose content of the rice despite the final moisture content reduced to 8% w.b.

  7. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  8. Teaching Content Outrageously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrow, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    This article first explores the theoretical bases for why dramatic forms of instruction stimulate student learning and recall. Next, the article considers a practice that systematically applies drama, fun, and fantasy to embed selected content objectives into students' memory. This practical tool, which facilitates instructional reform in the…

  9. Content Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  10. Pedagogical Content Knowledge Taxonomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; MaKinster, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Presents two taxonomies that offer a relatively comprehensive categorization scheme for future studies of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development in teacher education. "The General Taxonomy of PCK" addresses distinctions within and between the knowledge bases of various disciplines, science subjects, and science topics. "The Taxonomy of…

  11. Language, the Forgotten Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia P., Ed.; Small, Robert C., Jr., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The ways that students can learn about the nature of the English language and develop a sense of excitement about their language are explored in this focused journal issue. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "Language, the Forgotten Content" (R. Small and P. P. Kelly); (2) "What Should English Teachers Know about…

  12. Document image content inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; An, Chang; Casey, Matthew R.

    2007-01-01

    We report an investigation into strategies, algorithms, and software tools for document image content extraction and inventory, that is, the location and measurement of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. We have developed automatically trainable methods, adaptable to many kinds of documents represented as bilevel, greylevel, or color images, that offer a wide range of useful tradeoffs of speed versus accuracy using methods for exact and approximate k-Nearest Neighbor classification. We have adopted a policy of classifying each pixel (rather than regions) by content type: we discuss the motivation and engineering implications of this choice. We describe experiments on a wide variety of document-image and content types, and discuss performance in detail in terms of classification speed, per-pixel classification accuracy, per-page inventory accuracy, and subjective quality of page segmentation. These show that even modest per-pixel classification accuracies (of, e.g., 60-70%) support usefully high recall and precision rates (of, e.g., 80-90%) for retrieval queries of document collections seeking pages that contain a given minimum fraction of a certain type of content.

  13. 59 FR- CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1994-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] CONTENTS Vol. 59, No. 216 Wednesday, November 9, 1994 Agricultural Marketing Service RULES Peanuts, domestically produced, 55808-55810 Agriculture Department See Agricultural Marketing Service See Forest Service See Rural Telephone Bank...

  14. 59 FR- CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1994-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] CONTENTS Vol. 59, No. 229 Wednesday, November 30, 1994 Agency for International Development NOTICES Housing guaranty program: South Africa, 61340-61341 Agricultural Marketing Service PROPOSED RULES Potatoes (Irish) grown in-- Idaho...

  15. 59 FR- CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1994-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office Editorial note: For the President's letter to Congress transmitting the notice on continuation of the Libyan emergency, see issue 51 of the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. CONTENTS Vol. 59, No. 248 Wednesday, December...

  16. 59 FR- CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1994-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] CONTENTS Vol. 59, No. 206 Wednesday, October 26, 1994 Agricultural Marketing Service RULES Milk marketing orders: Eastern Ohio-Western Pennsylvania; correction, 53726 Agricultural Research Service NOTICES Patent licenses; non-exclusive,...

  17. 59 FR- CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1994-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] CONTENTS Vol. 59, No. 234 Wednesday, December 7, 1994 Agriculture Department See Forest Service Assassination Records Review Board NOTICES Meetings; Sunshine Act, 63156 Coast Guard RULES Ports and waterways safety: Chesapeake Bay,...

  18. Integrating Language and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their own…

  19. Shaping Digital Library Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rush G.

    2002-01-01

    Explores issues related to the selection and purchase of digital content in academic libraries, including commercially-produced databases, electronic journals, and books and other electronic resources that are purchased from vendors; and in-house digitization projects. Considers the degree to which standard collection management principles apply.…

  20. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  1. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  2. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  3. A Contents Encryption Mechanism Using Reused Key in IPTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae; Cho, Young-Bok; Lee, Ki-Jeong; Park, Gil-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Ho

    Recently IPTV is being spotlighted as a new stream service to stably provide video, audio and control signals to subscribers through the application of IP protocol. However, the IPTV system is facing more security threats than the traditional TV. This study proposes a multicasting encryption mechanism for secure transmission of the contents of IPTV by which the content provider encrypts their contents and send the encrypted contents and the key used for encryption of the contents to the user. In order to reduce the time and cost of Head-End, the proposed mechanism encrypts the media contents at the Head-End, embeds the code of the IPTV terminal used at the Head-End in the media contents for user tracking, and performs desynchronization for protection of the media contents from various attacks.

  4. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  5. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  6. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  7. Content Documents Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  8. Math: Basic Skills Content Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…

  9. Reduce HIV Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... incidence could be reduced if people changed their sexual behaviors. Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Spring 2008 ...

  10. Analyzing the Content of Visual Messages: Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemens, Robert K.

    The visual image is so information-rich that describing its content fully can be very problematic. Trying to codify or analyze the content in any systematic way often proves even more difficult. Nevertheless, reducing certain aspects of visual data to a set of numbers can be useful because it exposes characteristics of the message that might be…

  11. Best Practices for Producing Video Content for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunvand, Stein

    2010-01-01

    Through the use of Web 2.0 technologies the production and distribution of professional digital video content for use in teacher education has become more prevalent. As teachers look to learn from and interact with this video content, they need explicit support to help draw their attention to specific pedagogical strategies and reduce cognitive…

  12. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  13. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  14. Inorganic contents of peats

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Cohen, A.D.

    1988-02-01

    Peat, the precursor of coal, is composed primarily of plant components and secondarily of inorganic matter derived from a variety of sources. The elemental, mineralogic, and petrographic composition of a peat is controlled by a combination of both its botanical and depositional environment. Inorganic contents of peats can vary greatly between geographically separated peat bogs as well as vertially and horizontally within an individual bog. Predicting the form and distribution of inorganic matter in a coal deposit requires understanding the distribution and preservation of inorganic matter in peat-forming environments and diagenetic alterations affecting such material during late-stage peatification and coalification processes. 43 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Cognitive Content Engagement in Content-Based Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of aspects of pedagogy that can bring about students' cognitive engagement with academic content and, thus, use of the academic language in content-based language lessons in three middle schools in Xi'an, China. Two criteria--academic content level and depth of processing--were used to determine cognitive content…

  16. On Demand Content Anycasting to Enhance Content Server Using P2P Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Othman M. M.; Okamura, Koji

    In this paper, we suggest a new technology called Content Anycasting, and we show our design and evaluation of it. Content Anycasting shows how to utilize the capabilities of one of the candidate future Internet technologies that is the Flow-based network as in OpenFlow to giving new opportunities to the future internet that are currently not available. Content Anycasting aims to provide more flexible and dynamic redirection of contents. This would be very useful in extending the content server's capacity by enabling it to serve more clients, and in improving the response of the P2P networks by reducing the time of joining P2P networks. This method relies on three important ideas which are; the content based networking, decision making by the network in a similar manner to anycast, and the participation of user clients in providing the service. This is done through the use of the flow-based actions in flow-based network and having some modifications to the content server and client.

  17. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  18. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  19. Approaching Academic Digital Content Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital content management in higher education. Highlights include learning objects that make content more modular so it can be used in other courses or by other institutions; and a system at Ohio State University for content management that includes the creation of learner profiles. (LRW)

  20. Vanadium Nitrogenase Reduces CO*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2011-01-01

    Vanadium nitrogenase not only reduces dinitrogen to ammonia but also reduces carbon monoxide to ethylene, ethane, and propane. The parallelism between the two reactions suggests a potential link in mechanism and evolution between the carbon and nitrogen cycles on Earth. PMID:20689010

  1. Vanadium nitrogenase reduces CO.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2010-08-01

    Vanadium nitrogenase not only reduces dinitrogen to ammonia but also reduces carbon monoxide to ethylene, ethane, and propane. The parallelism between the two reactions suggests a potential link in mechanism and evolution between the carbon and nitrogen cycles on Earth. PMID:20689010

  2. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  3. Reducing Teacher Incompetence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    1988-01-01

    Suggests how administrators may reduce teacher incompetence. Teacher incompetence can be reduced if administrators fully understand and undertake appropriate preventive and remedial measures. Two sections comprise this article. First, a taxonomy of teacher incompetence reveals the magnitude of the problem. Second, preventive and remedial measures…

  4. Content of general practice.

    PubMed

    Lim, T O

    1991-06-01

    Eight general practitioners participated in a survey of content of general practice. This is useful as an indicator or morbidity in the community as well as of workload of general practice. A total of 3164 consultations were recorded, of which 2764 (87%) were because of an illness and the rest (13%) for other reasons like medical examinations, antenatal check, family planning advice, pregnancy tests, pap smear and vaccination. The old and the young have high consultation rates for an illness, men consulted as often as women. The most common illness seen was upper respiratory tract infections, accounting for 37% of all illnesses. Other common minor illnesses were skin infections (6%), genito-urinary infections (5%), minor musculoskeletal (6%) and gastrointestinal (6%) complaints as well as minor injuries and cuts (4%). Major disorders form an unusually low proportion (18%) of all illnesses seen, in comparison with figures from United Kingdom. The common major disorders seen were hypertension, asthma, chronic rheumatic disorders and diabetes. Circulatory disorders were remarkably rare, accounting for only 1% of illnesses. Psychological disorders, both major and minor, were also rarely seen, accounting for only 1% of illnesses which is in marked contrast with figures from the United Kingdom. Factors contributing to these notable findings are discussed. PMID:1839420

  5. Modification of lignin content and composition in plants

    DOEpatents

    Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Plants and methods of preparing plants having reduced lignin content and/or altered lignin composition are provided. The activities of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and/or caffeic acid O-methyltransferase enzymes in the modified plants are reduced.

  6. Computer-Mediated Collaboration to Reduce Isolation for Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Rural secondary content area teachers have little opportunity to discuss issues with similar content area teachers. Professional isolation can impact teacher satisfaction and ultimately affect rural student achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate computer-mediated collaboration as a means of reducing isolation for rural teachers.…

  7. Reduced Extended MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  8. Reducing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docking, R. A.; Docking, E.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a case study of inservice training conducted to enhance the teacher/student relationship and reduce teacher anxiety. Found significant improvements in attitudes, classroom management activities, and lower anxiety among teachers. (MD)

  9. REDUCED PROTECTIVE CLOTHING DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, R.L.

    2003-06-13

    This technical basis document defines conditions where reduced protective clothing can be allowed, defines reduced protective clothing, and documents the regulatory review that determines the process is compliant with the Tank Farm Radiological Control Manual (TFRCM) and Title 10, Part 835, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). The criteria, standards, and requirements contained in this document apply only to Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) facilities.

  10. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Shapiro, Charles; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Berkeley

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  11. An Intelligent Content Discovery Technique for Health Portal Content Management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Continuous content management of health information portals is a feature vital for its sustainability and widespread acceptance. Knowledge and experience of a domain expert is essential for content management in the health domain. The rate of generation of online health resources is exponential and thereby manual examination for relevance to a specific topic and audience is a formidable challenge for domain experts. Intelligent content discovery for effective content management is a less researched topic. An existing expert-endorsed content repository can provide the necessary leverage to automatically identify relevant resources and evaluate qualitative metrics. Objective This paper reports on the design research towards an intelligent technique for automated content discovery and ranking for health information portals. The proposed technique aims to improve efficiency of the current mostly manual process of portal content management by utilising an existing expert-endorsed content repository as a supporting base and a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of new content Methods A model for content management was established based on a field study of potential users. The proposed technique is integral to this content management model and executes in several phases (ie, query construction, content search, text analytics and fuzzy multi-criteria ranking). The construction of multi-dimensional search queries with input from Wordnet, the use of multi-word and single-word terms as representative semantics for text analytics and the use of fuzzy multi-criteria ranking for subjective evaluation of quality metrics are original contributions reported in this paper. Results The feasibility of the proposed technique was examined with experiments conducted on an actual health information portal, the BCKOnline portal. Both intermediary and final results generated by the technique are presented in the paper and these help to establish benefits of the technique and

  12. Content analysis in information flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusho, Alexander A.; Grusho, Nick A.; Timonina, Elena E.

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with architecture of content recognition system. To analyze the problem the stochastic model of content recognition in information flows was built. We proved that under certain conditions it is possible to solve correctly a part of the problem with probability 1, viewing a finite section of the information flow. That means that good architecture consists of two steps. The first step determines correctly certain subsets of contents, while the second step may demand much more time for true decision.

  13. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  14. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Content Knowledge of Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Stefan; Brunner, Martin; Kunter, Mareike; Baumert, Jurgen; Neubrand, Michael; Blum, Werner; Jordan, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the work of L. S. Shulman (1986), the authors present a conceptualization of the pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of secondary-level mathematics teachers. They describe the theory-based construction of tests to assess these knowledge categories and the implementation of these tests in a sample of German mathematics…

  15. MMPI-2 Content Scales: How Much Content Do They Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; Fraboni, Maryann; Helmes, Edward

    1997-01-01

    The content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), designed to assess substantive dimensions of psychopathology, were evaluated through responses of 221 undergraduates. Results indicate that the convergent and discriminant validity of MMPI-2 content scales are compromised by substantial confounding general variance.…

  16. Shared end-to-content backup path protection in k-node (edge) content connected elastic optical datacenter networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Huang, Shanguo; Yin, Shan; Guo, Bingli; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Min; Gu, Wanyi

    2016-05-01

    To quantitatively measure content connectivity and provide protection for different kinds of content, the concept of k-node (edge) content connectivity is proposed recently. Based on k-node (edge) content connectivity, k-node (edge) content connected elastic optical datacenter network (KC-EODN) is proposed to design disaster-resilient and spectrum-efficient optical datacenter networks. In KC-EODN, k independent end-to-content paths are established for each request. However, it will consume too much resource to assign dedicated spectrum for each end-to-content path. Spectrum sharing among multiple end-to-content paths of different requests can greatly improve resource efficiency. In this paper, a novel perfect matching based sharing principle among multiple end-to-content paths of different requests is proposed. Based on the new proposed sharing principle, we present the shared end-to-content backup path protection (SEBPP) scheme for KC-EODN. Integer linear program (ILP) model and heuristic algorithms are designed for SEBPP scheme with the objective of minimizing the total of working and backup spectrum resources. Numerical results show that the proposed SEBPP scheme can greatly reduce spectrum consumption while ensuring the survivability against natural disaster and multi-failures. PMID:27137559

  17. Need total sulfur content? Use chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kubala, S.W.; Campbell, D.N.; DiSanzo, F.P.

    1996-09-01

    Regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency require petroleum refineries to reduce or control the amount of total sulfur present in their refined products. These legislative requirements have led many refineries to search for online instrumentation that can produce accurate and repeatable total sulfur measurements within allowed levels. Several analytical methods currently exist to measure total sulfur content. They include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), microcoulometry, lead acetate tape, and pyrofluorescence techniques. Sulfur-specific chemiluminescence detection (SSCD) has recently received much attention due to its linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, and equimolar response. However, its use has been largely confined to the area of gas chromatography. This article focuses on the special design considerations and analytical utility of an SSCD system developed to determine total sulfur content in gasoline. The system exhibits excellent linearity and selectivity, the ability to detect low minimum levels, and an equimolar response to various sulfur compounds. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. High Correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging, Ferric Reducing Activity Potential and Total Phenolics Content Indicates Redundancy in Use of All Three Assays to Screen for Antioxidant Activity of Extracts of Plants from the Malaysian Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Garry; Ting, Kang Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Fry, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Extracts of plants from the Malaysian rainforest and other fragile habitats are being researched intensively for identification of beneficial biological actions, with assessment of antioxidant behavior being a common component of such assessments. A number of tests for antioxidant behavior are used, with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP) assays often being used in parallel, and also with measurement of total phenolics content (TPC) as a surrogate marker for antioxidant capacity. The present study investigated the possible redundancy in using all three assays to determine antioxidant capacity in 92 extracts obtained from 27 plants from the Malaysian rainforest. The results demonstrated that the assays displayed a high (R ≥ 0.82) and significant (P < 0.0001) correlation with one another, indicating a high level of redundancy if all three assays are used in parallel. This appears to be a waste of potentially valuable plant extracts. Because of problems with the FRAP assay relating to color interference and variable rates of reaction point, the DPPH assay is the preferred assay in preliminary screening of extracts of plants from the Malaysian rainforest. PMID:26787618

  19. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  20. Reduced Vector Preisach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

  1. Content Independence in Multimedia Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Arjen P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the role of data management in multimedia digital libraries, and its implications for the design of database management systems. Introduces the notions of content abstraction and content independence. Proposes a blueprint of a new class of database technology, which supports the basic functionality for the management of both content…

  2. 78 FR 13876 - Content Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... UNITED STATES Content Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its content policy. A list of the questions and issues that the Bank is addressing can be accessed here:...

  3. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  4. Teaching Content through the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Thomas R., Jr.; Gibbs-Griffith, Brian; D'Acquisto, Linda; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Croley, Cynthia B.

    2007-01-01

    Policymakers sometimes view arts education and experiential learning as distractions from the goal of enabling all students to master rigorous content standards. The three school programs described in this article, however, demonstrate that content standards can be integrated into engaging, motivating curriculums based on the arts and authentic…

  5. Ferrous iron content of intravenous iron formulations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Pratt, Raymond D; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2016-06-01

    The observed biological differences in safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron formulations are attributable to physicochemical differences. In addition to differences in carbohydrate shell, polarographic signatures due to ferric iron [Fe(III)] and ferrous iron [Fe(II)] differ among IV iron formulations. Intravenous iron contains Fe(II) and releases labile iron in the circulation. Fe(II) generates toxic free radicals and reactive oxygen species and binds to bacterial siderophores and other in vivo sequestering agents. To evaluate whether differences in Fe(II) content may account for some observed biological differences between IV iron formulations, samples from multiple lots of various IV iron formulations were dissolved in 12 M concentrated HCl to dissociate and release all iron and then diluted with water to achieve 0.1 M HCl concentration. Fe(II) was then directly measured using ferrozine reagent and ultraviolet spectroscopy at 562 nm. Total iron content was measured by adding an excess of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), and Fe(II) was then measured by ferrozine assay. The Fe(II) concentration as a proportion of total iron content [Fe(III) + Fe(II)] in different lots of IV iron formulations was as follows: iron gluconate, 1.4 and 1.8 %; ferumoxytol, 0.26 %; ferric carboxymaltose, 1.4 %; iron dextran, 0.8 %; and iron sucrose, 10.2, 15.5, and 11.0 % (average, 12.2 %). The average Fe(II) content in iron sucrose was, therefore, ≥7.5-fold higher than in the other IV iron formulations. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between Fe(II) content and increased risk of oxidative stress and infections with iron sucrose. PMID:26956439

  6. Front Matter and Contents.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The present study is primarily aimed at an audience of evolutionary biologists in the broad sense for Parts 1-3, as well as at scientists from other professional disciplines looking for new approaches to explore phenomena in nature. However, the content is in general not written as technical text or filled with equations that make it utterly incomprehensible for 'normal' people, although they would have to skip strictly professional biochemical and biological terms that are a constituent part of the evidence in a scientific sense. Therefore, large parts of Part 2 may also be enjoyed by a broader audience with little prior insight into evolutionary biology or science, when in search of explanations for the phenomena that we see in nature. Finally, Part 4 - with a view into Parts 1-3 - is meant for systems analysts and researchers striving to find a general systems theory. Parts 3 and 4 are the only parts that are not relevant for a general audience. A Note for the Reader Extensive use of references in scientific literature is generally perceived as evidence in favour of an author's statement when synthesizing findings in the literature on a given topic. At the same time, when applying citations of such literature one has to copy the text literally including printing errors, references and everything relevant, unless otherwise explicitly stated. Including such references in cited text often a) creates confusion because such references are not included in the reference list even if they appear in the text; and furthermore b) they tend to add an unnecessary cognitive burden on the reader. Therefore, references with cited text in the present publication have been replaced by the Italicized text 'ref' or 'refs', i.e. single or plural, depending on the number of references omitted in a given place. About the Author/Contributors The authorJBMcNis the initiatorsole contributor to the present study. JBMcN and her husband, Dr. Peter McNair, in close cooperation developed the

  7. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Howard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the construction of the Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator, which can be used to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena, including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems behave. Presents experiments, appropriate for classroom use, to demonstrate how the behavior of common physical systems change when…

  8. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  9. Reduced Braginskii equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W. )

    1994-07-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite [beta] that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure [del][center dot][bold j]=0 for energy conservation.

  10. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  11. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  12. On the Information Content of Program Traces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Program traces are used for analysis of program performance, memory utilization, and communications as well as for program debugging. The trace contains records of execution events generated by monitoring units inserted into the program. The trace size limits the resolution of execution events and restricts the user's ability to analyze the program execution. We present a study of the information content of program traces and develop a coding scheme which reduces the trace size to the limit given by the trace entropy. We apply the coding to the traces of AIMS instrumented programs executed on the IBM SPA and the SCSI Power Challenge and compare it with other coding methods. Our technique shows size of the trace can be reduced by more than a factor of 5.

  13. Effect of fat content on sensory characteristics of marbled beef from Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Saitou, Kaoru; Kawamura, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Shizuko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the sensory characteristics of meat samples with a crude fat content between 23.8% and 48.6% taken from 34 Japanese Black steers, we grilled the meat and subjected it to analytical sensory evaluation. We also measured the amounts of moisture, protein, nucleic acid and glutamic acid. An increase in crude fat content increased the tenderness, juiciness, and fattiness in the meat quality evaluation. An increase in crude fat content reduced the crude protein and moisture contents; it also slightly reduced the nucleic acid and glutamic acid contents, although when the reductions in these umami components were assessed relative to the moisture content they changed little. Increasing the fat content up to a certain point greatly enhanced the umami intensity and beef flavor intensity in the meat quality evaluation and raised the overall evaluation score; the peak of the appropriate crude fat content for these purposes was about 36%. PMID:25492124

  14. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  15. Risk-reducing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Federica; Sacchini, Virgilio S

    2016-10-01

    Mastectomy rates have significantly increased over the last decades, likely due to the rising trend of risk-reducing mastectomies (RRM) in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Growing evidence suggests that aggressive risk-reducing surgical strategies are only justified in high-risk breast cancer situations. Notably, in this selected cohort of women, prophylactic mastectomies offer evident benefit for local and contralateral disease control, and may also provide a survival benefit. Nevertheless, the extent of the increasing frequency of this operation is not explained by the broadening of the medical indications alone. Here we analyze the current evidence regarding RRM, its clinical practice, and possible explanations for the rising phenomenon of aggressive surgical locoregional control strategies. PMID:26785281

  16. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  17. Reducing volcanic risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.

    1991-01-01

    The last two decades have brought major advances in research on how volcanoes work and how to monitor their changing habits. Geologic mapping as well as studies of earthquake patterns and surface deformation associated with underground movement of magma have given scientists a better view of the inner structure and dynamics of active volcanoes. With the next decade, the time has come to focuses more on applying this knowledge toward reducing the risk from volcanic activity on a worldwide basis. 

  18. Gradual extinction reduces reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Shiban, Youssef; Wittmann, Jasmin; Weißinger, Mara; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day 2) were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE) and gradual extinction (GE) procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms). A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli (CS). The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response, SCR and startle response). There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. GE compared to SE significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for SCR or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the GE process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction. PMID:26441581

  19. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Howard L.

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  20. Reduce energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    With the rising costs of utilities, Crystals International, Inc. (Plant City, Fla.), a producer of freeze-dried products for the chemical process industries, was exploring various methods to reduce energy consumption. For years, the firm had been concerned about energy costs, considering that dehydration is energy-intensive, with natural gas a major item in overhead expenses. The gas is used to fire boilers and provide steam to operate jet ejectors supplied by Croll-Reynolds (Westfield, NJ), which in turn supply the vacuum for the dehydration process. In efforts to increase efficiency and save money, Crystals International decided to replace two older boilers with a single, high-capacity unit. Producing 13,800 lb/h of 200-psig steam, the unit`s main purpose was to supply the plant`s two steam ejectors and a variety of other process needs. However, with the new boiler, system pressure would be increased and the ejector nozzles would see steam at 150 psig. This was a problem since the nozzles were designed to operate at 115-psig steam. To solve the problem, a pressure reducer, placed before the steam reached the nozzles was considered. However, Crystals International determined that reducing pressure promoted formation of potentially damaging condensate. The only alternative then, was to redesign the ejectors to accept the new system parameters.

  1. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. PMID:21397005

  2. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  3. Alcohol Use Disorders, Tips to Reduce Consumption | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Tips You Can Try to Reduce Alcohol Consumption Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Small changes can make a big difference in reducing your chances of having alcohol-related ...

  4. Mercury content of Illinois soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreher, G.B.; Follmer, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    For a survey of Illinois soils, 101 cores had been collected and analyzed to determine the current and background elemental compositions of Illinois soils. Mercury and other elements were determined in six samples per core, including a surface sample from each core. The mean mercury content in the surface samples was 33 ?? 20 ??g/kg soil, and the background content was 20 ?? 9 ??g/kg. The most probable sources of mercury in these soils were the parent material, and wet and dry deposition of Hg0 and Hg2+ derived from coal-burning power plants, other industrial plants, and medical and municipal waste incinerators. Mercury-bearing sewage sludge or other fertilizers applied to agricultural fields could have been the local sources of mercury. Although the mercury content correlated with organic carbon content or clay content in individual cores, when all the data were considered, there was no strong correlation between mercury and either the organic carbon or the clay-size content.

  5. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  6. Reducing disinfectant wastage.

    PubMed

    Kaye, S B; Graham, R; McCarthy, K; Green, J R; Damjanovic, V; Austin, M

    1991-01-01

    In order to lower departmental costs in an ophthalmological outpatient department by reducing wastage, the stability of available chlorine at levels of 280 ppm and 560 ppm in litre solutions of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was investigated over a three-week period. There was no significant decay in available chlorine at these levels in solutions kept at 20 degrees C. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate may be prepared on a weekly instead of a daily basis with an annual saving of 1200 pounds to 1400 pounds. PMID:2060659

  7. Does content knowledge matter for new teachers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Todd D.

    reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

  8. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.; Dilgard, Lemoyne W.

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  9. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  10. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  11. Reducing Penguin Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; London, David

    2013-06-01

    The most common decay used for measuring 2βs, the phase of B0s--\\bar B0s mixing, is B0s-> J/ψ φ . This decay is dominated by the color-suppressed tree diagram, but there are other contributions due to gluonic and electroweak penguin diagrams. These are often referred to as "penguin pollution" (PP) because their inclusion in the amplitude leads to a theoretical error in the extraction of 2βs from the data. In the standard model (SM), it is estimated that the PP is negligible, but there is some uncertainty as to its exact size. Now, φ sc\\bar {cs} (the measured value of 2βs) is small, in agreement with the SM, but still has significant experimental errors. When these are reduced, if one hopes to be able to see clear evidence of new physics (NP), it is crucial to have the theoretical error under control. In this paper, we show that, using a modification of the angular analysis currently used to measure φ sc\\bar {cs} in B0s-> J/ψ φ , one can reduce the theoretical error due to PP. Theoretical input is still required, but it is much more modest than entirely neglecting the PP. If φ sc\\bar {cs} differs from the SM prediction, this points to NP in the mixing. There is also enough information to test for NP in the decay. This method can be applied to all B0s/\\bar B0s -> V1 V2 decays.

  12. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  13. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  14. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  15. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  16. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  17. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  18. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  19. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  20. RF microalgal lipid content characterization.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps. PMID:24870372

  1. Safeguarding Digital Library Contents: Charging for Online Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Amir

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the need for mechanisms for charging by digital libraries and other providers of online content, in particular for micropayments, i.e., charging for small amounts. The SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and SET (Secure Electronic Transactions) protocols for charge card payments and the MiniPay micropayment mechanism for charging small amounts…

  2. Content Management for a Content-Rich Website.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeysett, Nik

    Over the last year the J. Paul Getty Trust's Web presence has evolved from a group of disparate, independently maintained Web sites into a homogeneous consistently branded one. This transformation recently culminated with the implementation of a leading Content Management System (CMS). There were and are many process-changes and challenges in…

  3. 19 CFR 10.595 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regional value content. 10.595 Section 10.595 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central...

  4. 19 CFR 10.454 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regional value content. 10.454 Section 10.454 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free...

  5. Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known t...

  6. The energy content of restaurant foods without stated calorie information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Context: National recommendations for prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake through self-monitoring food consumption. However, there is little information on the energy content of foods offered by non-chain restaurants, which account for approximately 50% of restauran...

  7. Measuring the reduced shear

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Neglecting the second order corrections in weak lensing measurements can lead to a few percent uncertainties on cosmic shears, and becomes more important for cluster lensing mass reconstructions. Existing methods which claim to measure the reduced shears are not necessarily accurate to the second order when a point spread function (PSF) is present. We show that the method of Zhang (2008) exactly measures the reduced shears at the second order level in the presence of PSF. A simple theorem is provided for further confirming our calculation, and for judging the accuracy of any shear measurement method at the second order based on its properties at the first order. The method of Zhang (2008) is well defined mathematically. It does not require assumptions on the morphologies of galaxies and the PSF. To reach a sub-percent level accuracy, the CCD pixel size is required to be not larger than 1/3 of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the PSF, regardless of whether the PSF has a power-law or exponential profile at large distances. Using a large ensemble (∼>10{sup 7}) of mock galaxies of unrestricted morphologies, we study the shear recovery accuracy under different noise conditions. We find that contaminations to the shear signals from the noise of background photons can be removed in a well defined way because they are not correlated with the source shapes. The residual shear measurement errors due to background noise are consistent with zero at the sub-percent level even when the amplitude of such noise reaches about 1/10 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source. This limit can in principle be extended further with a larger galaxy ensemble in our simulations. On the other hand, the source Poisson noise remains to be a cause of systematic errors. For a sub-percent level accuracy, our method requires the amplitude of the source Poisson noise to be less than 1/80 ∼ 1/100 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source

  8. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson.

  9. Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660

  10. Reducing medical waste.

    PubMed

    Conrardy, Julie; Hillanbrand, Mary; Myers, Sandra; Nussbaum, George F

    2010-06-01

    Medical waste is a necessary by-product of any hospital environment; however, the majority of regulated medical waste is produced in the OR from the use of disposable surgical supplies (eg, drapes, gowns, basins, gloves, sponges). We conducted a concept comparison project in the ORs of two large medical centers in Bethesda, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to evaluate the effects of using reusable surgical basins, gowns, and table and Mayo stand covers in place of disposable products. Survey results indicated that surgeons and surgical technologists found the reusable products to be preferable to the disposable products currently in use. In addition, using reusable products provided a means to decrease regulated medical waste generated in the OR by an average of 65% as well as reduce the cost of waste disposal. AORN recommends evaluating the environmental effects of using reusable, reposable, and disposable products; our findings provide evidence that may be useful to surgical facilities that seek to adopt a "green" approach. PMID:20510944

  11. Reducing miner absenteeism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R.; Randolph, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines has prepared this report on strategies for maintaining high job attendance among underground coal miners because high absenteeism is a threat to miners' safety and seriously hampers productivity. A substantial number of research studies on the effectiveness of various strategies for reducing absenteeism among the employees of nonmining industries have been reported in the literature. These strategies have aimed at improving job attendance through one or more of the following: (1) improving employment procedures, (2) overcoming problems that adversely affect one's ability to attend work, and (3) increasing miners' motivation to attend work. Many of these strategies appear applicable to the mining industry, and are reviewed in the first half of this report. The second half of this report describes how one could develop and implement a program for maintaining high attendance at underground coal mines. The steps include measuring and evaluating attendance levels, formulating attendance goals and an absenteeism policy, developing and implementing an attendance promotion program and periodically going through the preceding steps (known as recycling).

  12. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  13. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics.

  14. Influence of roasting levels on ochratoxin a content in coffee.

    PubMed

    Romani, Santina; Pinnavaia, Gian Gaetano; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2003-08-13

    Because of inconsistent and contradictory results from investigations concerning the influence of roasting process on the ochratoxin A content in coffee beans, a study was undertaken to assess the elimination of ochratoxin A during the roasting process. Four different green coffee samples, naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A, were submitted to different roasting conditions (light, medium, and dark) and analyzed for roasting parameters (weight loss, color change, density, and moisture content) and ochratoxin A content. The ochratoxin A content of green coffee was reduced by the roasting process; in particular, consistently high percentages of ochratoxin A reduction were found in the highest contaminated samples. This reduction was influenced by the severity of the thermal process and was generally related to the initial ochratoxin A content. Samples obtained with roasting parameters suitable for a typical Italian espresso coffee brew showed reductions of >90% in the ochratoxin A content, in both high and low contaminated samples. Moreover, the presence of off-flavors and visual defects was not found to be directly related to the ochratoxin A content in the green coffee samples. PMID:12903986

  15. Home media server content management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokmakoff, Andrew A.; van Vliet, Harry

    2001-07-01

    With the advent of set-top boxes, the convergence of TV (broadcasting) and PC (Internet) is set to enter the home environment. Currently, a great deal of activity is occurring in developing standards (TV-Anytime Forum) and devices (TiVo) for local storage on Home Media Servers (HMS). These devices lie at the heart of convergence of the triad: communications/networks - content/media - computing/software. Besides massive storage capacity and being a communications 'gateway', the home media server is characterised by the ability to handle metadata and software that provides an easy to use on-screen interface and intelligent search/content handling facilities. In this paper, we describe a research prototype HMS that is being developed within the GigaCE project at the Telematica Instituut . Our prototype demonstrates advanced search and retrieval (video browsing), adaptive user profiling and an innovative 3D component of the Electronic Program Guide (EPG) which represents online presence. We discuss the use of MPEG-7 for representing metadata, the use of MPEG-21 working draft standards for content identification, description and rights expression, and the use of HMS peer-to-peer content distribution approaches. Finally, we outline explorative user behaviour experiments that aim to investigate the effectiveness of the prototype HMS during development.

  16. Optimizing chlorophyll content in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, leaf chlorophyll content has not been among the target traits for improving crop yield. However, current chlorophyll concentrations may be in excess of the amount that would maximize the season integral of photosynthesis in a crop monoculture, such as soybean, that achieves a high lea...

  17. Zinc content of selected foods.

    PubMed

    Freeland, J H; Cousins, R J

    1976-06-01

    The zinc content of 174 foods was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, using a dry ash preparation method. Data on some of the foods were not available elsewhere. Shellfish, cheese, meats, and nuts represented the highest sources of zinc found in this study. Soft drinks and other beverages, as well as vegetables generally, were poor sources of zinc. PMID:1270715

  18. Information Gateways: Collaboration on Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heery, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    This report, informed by discussion of content activities at the 1999 IMesh Workshop, considers implications for subject based gateways of co-operation regarding coverage policy, creation of metadata, and provision of searching and browsing across services. Other possibilities for co-operation include working more closely with information…

  19. Colorado Model Content Standards: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…

  20. Cong. Dir. 109th - CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-07-11

    ... Congressional Directory for the 109th Congress (2005-2006), July 2005. CONTENTS Name Index on page 1089 The Vice President 1 Members of Congress, biographies, office listings, district descriptions--arranged by State Alabama 2 Alaska 7 Arizona 9 Arkansas 14 California 18 Colorado 46 Connecticut...

  1. Cong. Dir. 106th - CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... Congressional Directory for the 106th Congress (1999-2000), October 2000. CONTENTS Name Index on p. 1107 ] The Vice President 1 Members of Congress, biographies, office listings, district descriptions--arranged by state Alabama 2 Alaska 8 Arizona 10 Arkansas 15 California 18 Colorado 46 Connecticut...

  2. Cong. Dir. 111th - CONTENTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-12-01

    ... Congressional Directory for the 111th Congress (2009-2010), December 2009. CONTENTS Name Index on page 1117 The Vice President 1 Members of Congress, biographies, office listings, district descriptions--arranged by State Alabama 2 Alaska 7 Arizona 9 Arkansas 14 California 18 Colorado 45 Connecticut...

  3. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  4. The Contents of My Backpack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    As Mr. Goldman empties his backpack, his philosophy of teaching spills out, along with an interesting assortment of odds and ends. In this article Mr. Goldman describes the contents of his L.L. Bean daypack with two large compartments in the back, a smaller forward compartment, and a little zippered pocket in the very front, along with his…

  5. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  6. Profiling soil water content sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...

  7. Motivating Students for Content Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    With ever-changing government mandates, new standards for accountability, and the uniquely diverse classroom of this millennium, educators are scrambling to meet the needs of all students, such that each unique learner, regardless of background, special needs, or level of commitment to coursework can demonstrate content mastery. In this article,…

  8. Telenovelas as Art Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2010-01-01

    In February and March 2007, the author investigated the possibilities of visual culture art education in two Greek Primary schools in Athens with students in Grades 5 and 6. One of her goals was to determine whether or not the telenovela genre was appropriate as curriculum content in primary art education. She chose telenovelas because they are a…

  9. Active Responding in Content Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Beth

    1989-01-01

    Describes how Multiple Response Techniques (MRTs) can be used before, during, and after reading to help students better comprehend content material. Argues that MRTs enhance comprehension by engaging all students, focusing on students' strengths, training students in reflectivity and self-monitoring, and allowing the teacher quick evaluation of…

  10. Brain Friendly Teaching-Reducing Learner's Cognitive Load.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Petra J

    2016-07-01

    Many didactic lectures induce a cognitive load in learners out of proportion to the content that they need to learn (or can learn) during that teaching session. This is due in part to the content, and in part to the way it is displayed or presented. By reducing the cognitive load on our audience, we can increase long-term retention of information. This article briefly summarizes some of the science behind cognitive load as it relates to presentations, and identifies simple steps to reduce it, while maximizing learning. PMID:27067603

  11. New system reduces sludge management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Roll, R.R. ); Koser, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    This article describes a recently completed a $2.7-million project to upgrade the sludge dewatering and stabilizing system at a 48-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Niagara Fall, New York. The work was necessitated by the deteriorated condition of the plant's original vacuum filters and increasing costs to landfill the dewatered sludge. The new equipment has restored sludge production capacity while reducing the final material's moisture content. The Niagara Falls plant is one of the few municipal physical-chemical treatment plants built in this country, and is the largest still functioning. Constructed in the mid-1970s, it was designed to treat a combination of domestic sewage and industrial wastes. One third of the flow and one half of the solids are industrial in nature. The changes made reduced electrical power consumption and sanitary landfill costs.

  12. A GENETIC MUTATION THAT REDUCES CALCIUM OXALATE CONTENT INCREASES CALCIUM AVAILABILITY IN MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is considered an antinutrient that renders calcium unavailable for nutritional absorption by humans. Efforts have been made to generate and identify edible plants with decreased levels of this antinutrient. The extent to which a food can be nutritionally improved through genetic alterations ...

  13. Reducing Content Variance and Improving Student Learning Outcomes: The Value of Standardization in a Multisection Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuter, Matthew L.; Chapman, Kenneth J.; Toy, Daniel; Wright, Lauren K.; McGowan, William

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a standardization process for an introductory marketing course with multiple sections. The authors first outline the process used to develop a standardized set of marketing concepts to be used in all introductory marketing classes. They then discuss the benefits to both students and faculty that occur as a result of…

  14. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2011-08-23

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  15. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2010-07-06

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  16. A GENETIC MUTATION THAT REDUCES CALCIUM OXALATE CONTENT INCREASES CALCIUM AVAILABILITY IN MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxalate is considered an antinutrient that renders calcium unavailable for nutritional absorption by humans. Efforts have been made to generate and identify edible plants with decreased levels of this antinutrient. The extent to which a food can be nutritionally improved through genetic alteration...

  17. The Role of Capillary Barrier in Reducing Moisture Content on Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Rosenberg; T.A. Buscheck; D. Wildenschild; Y. Sun

    1999-10-29

    Assessment of the performance of engineered capillary barriers at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site, in which 1.67-m-diameter waste packages are to be emplaced in 5-m-diameter tunnels according to current design, brings up aspects not commonly considered in more typical applications of capillary barriers (e.g., near-surface landfills). Engineered capillary barriers typically consist of two layers of granular materials with a sloping interface, in which the contrast in capillarity between the layers keeps infiltrating water in the upper layer. One issue is the effect of thermohydrologic processes that would occur at elevated repository temperatures (and temperature gradients). For example, backfill materials may be altered from that of the as-placed material by the hydrothermal regime imposed by the emplacement of waste in the repository, changing hydrologic properties in a way that degrades the performance of the barrier. A reduction of permeability in the upper layer might diminish the capacity of the upper layer to divert incoming seepage or to cause a ''vapor lid'' whereby buoyant vapor flow would be trapped, then condense and drain onto waste packages. Other concerns are the result of highly spatially and temporally variable seepage distribution and the very limited spatial scale available for flow attenuation and diversion.

  18. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Meinke, Rainer

    2016-05-24

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  19. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  20. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND METHYLMERCURY ACT SYNERGISTICALLY TO REDUCE RAT BRAIN DOPAMINE CONTENT IN VITRO. (R825812)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Sustainable Water Supplies:Reducing The Organic Matter Content of Potable Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Mary

    2009-07-01

    As freshwater becomes a limiting factor in sustainable development, water treatment processes which can efficiently oxidize both anthropogenic and natural sources of organic matter are becoming crucial. While many anthropogenic organic compounds found in freshwater pose a direct risk to human health, natural organic matter such as humic acids, pose an indirect risk through the production of disinfection byproducts resulting from chlorination. Removal of dissolved natural organic matter before disinfection of potable water is recommended for the production of potable water in water treatment facilities. Several promising developments in dissolved organic matter oxidation are described including hydroxyl radical, advanced oxidation processes and ferrate (VI). The feasibility of applying these processes to water treatment on a large scale is largely dependent on cost.

  2. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, Rainer

    2013-08-20

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  3. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Meinke, Rainer

    2011-08-09

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  4. Use of phosphoranimines to reduce organic carbonate content in Li-ion battery electrolytes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dufek, Eric J.; Klaehn, John R.; McNally, Joshua S.; Rollins, Harry W.; Jamison, David K.

    2016-05-09

    In this study, the use of phosphoranimines (PAs), a class of linear, monomeric phosphazenes, as electrolytes for Li-ion battery applications has been investigated as a route to improve safety and stability for Li-ion batteries. Of the potential PAs for use in battery applications, this work focuses on the initial synthetic preparation and analysis of N-trimethylsilyl-P,P-bis((2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)-P-ethylphosphoranimine (PA-5). PA-5 has high LiPF6 solubility in excess of 2 M, high thermal stability with a melting point below -80°C and high thermal stability as a neat compound to at least 250°C. As part of electrolyte blends, the inclusion of PA-5 shifts the onset ofmore » thermal degradation by close to 40°C at 35% loading and by 20°C at a 10% loading, improves the low temperature performance of the electrolyte, and when used as a primary solvent leads to increases in the flash point (by 20°C) when compared to more traditional EC:EMC blends. Cycling capabilities of full-coin cells with graphite negative electrodes and Li1+w[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]1-wO2 positive electrodes using PA-5:EC:EMC electrolyte blends are comparable with the performance seen for traditional EC:EMC blends. Analysis of the impact of the use of additives such as vinylene carbonate in PA-5:EC:EMC blended electrolyte results in enhanced capacity retention and improved coulombic efficiency.« less

  5. pH-Triggered Echogenicity and Contents Release from Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are representative lipid nanoparticles widely used for delivering anticancer drugs, DNA fragments, or siRNA to cancer cells. Upon targeting, various internal and external triggers have been used to increase the rate for contents release from the liposomes. Among the internal triggers, decreased pH within the cellular lysosomes has been successfully used to enhance the rate for releasing contents. However, imparting pH sensitivity to liposomes requires the synthesis of specialized lipids with structures that are substantially modified at a reduced pH. Herein, we report an alternative strategy to render liposomes pH sensitive by encapsulating a precursor which generates gas bubbles in situ in response to acidic pH. The disturbance created by the escaping gas bubbles leads to the rapid release of the encapsulated contents from the liposomes. Atomic force microscopic studies indicate that the liposomal structure is destroyed at a reduced pH. The gas bubbles also render the liposomes echogenic, allowing ultrasound imaging. To demonstrate the applicability of this strategy, we have successfully targeted doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes to the pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells that overexpress the folate receptor on the surface. In response to the decreased pH in the lysosomes, the encapsulated anticancer drug is efficiently released. Contents released from these liposomes are further enhanced by the application of continuous wave ultrasound (1 MHz), resulting in substantially reduced viability for the pancreatic cancer cells (14%). PMID:25271780

  6. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  7. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  8. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  9. Locus-specific database domain and data content analysis: evolution and content maturation toward clinical use.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulou, Christina; Webb, Adam J; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Brookes, Anthony J; Patrinos, George P

    2010-10-01

    Genetic variation databases have become indispensable in many areas of health care. In addition, more and more experts are depositing published and unpublished disease-causing variants of particular genes into locus-specific databases (LSDBs). Some of these databases contain such extensive information that they have become known as knowledge bases. Here, we analyzed 1,188 LSDBs and their content for the presence or absence of 44 content criteria related to database features (general presentation, locus-specific information, database structure) and data content (data collection, summary table of variants, database querying). Our analyses revealed that several elements have helped to advance the field and reduce data heterogeneity, such as the development of specialized database management systems and the creation of data querying tools. We also identified a number of deficiencies, namely, the lack of detailed disease and phenotypic descriptions for each genetic variant and links to relevant patient organizations, which, if addressed, would allow LSDBs to better serve the clinical genetics community. We propose a structure, based on LSDBs and closely related repositories (namely, clinical genetics databases), which would contribute to a federated genetic variation browser and also allow the maintenance of variation data. PMID:20672379

  10. Selenium content of game meat

    SciTech Connect

    Medeiros, L.C.; Belden, R.P. Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie )

    1991-03-11

    Selenium (Se) content of elk, deer, bison and beef were measured and compared. Samples were obtained from animals grazed on soil known to contain high, but variable amounts of Se. Beef were feedlot grazed and elk, deer, and bison were from captive or semi-captive herds. Selenium content was determined by graphite furnace after high pressure wet microwave digestion of samples. Deer and bison contained more Se than elk or beef. On a dry weight basis, deer contained more Se than bison. Game species contained more Se than beef. Within samples from male elk and deer and elk and bison of both genders, there were interactions between specie and muscle effects. Muscle and gender did not significantly influence Se content. The animals from which these samples were taken were supplemented with feeds grown on high Se containing soils, which was reflected in all values. Se values were twofold higher than those previously reported for meat. Those consuming large quantities of game from areas with high Se soil may need to monitor Se intake to avoid consuming excessive quantities.

  11. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  12. 7 CFR 58.134 - Sediment content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sediment content. 58.134 Section 58.134 Agriculture... Milk § 58.134 Sediment content. (a) Method of testing. Methods for determining the sediment content of... for the Examination of Dairy Products. Sediment content shall be based on comparison with...

  13. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  14. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  15. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14... alcohol content may be stated, but need not be stated if the type designation “table” wine (or...

  16. 7 CFR 58.134 - Sediment content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sediment content. 58.134 Section 58.134 Agriculture... Milk § 58.134 Sediment content. (a) Method of testing. Methods for determining the sediment content of... for the Examination of Dairy Products. Sediment content shall be based on comparison with...

  17. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  18. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  19. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  20. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  1. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  2. 7 CFR 58.134 - Sediment content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sediment content. 58.134 Section 58.134 Agriculture... Milk § 58.134 Sediment content. (a) Method of testing. Methods for determining the sediment content of... for the Examination of Dairy Products. Sediment content shall be based on comparison with...

  3. Content Reading in Four European Union Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.; Flynt, E. Sutton

    2009-01-01

    Is content literacy exclusively a U.S. phenomenon? In this installment we report on the state of content literacy from four international perspectives. Descriptions of content literacy from Ireland, Sweden, Germany, and Bulgaria offer insights into (a) the value policymakers may be placing on reading practices for content learning, and (b) the…

  4. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 EQUIPMENT... Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type...) Instructions. Instructions for the use of the contents of the first-aid kit shall be printed in legible...

  5. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.73 shall be stated in...

  6. Developing Domain Ontologies for Course Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Sinead; Pahl, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies have the potential to play an important role in instructional design and the development of course content. They can be used to represent knowledge about content, supporting instructors in creating content or learners in accessing content in a knowledge-guided way. While ontologies exist for many subject domains, their quality and…

  7. The Mobile Paradigm for Content Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennewith, Chris; Wickers, Richard

    This paper looks at the lack of engaging content currently being produced by content developers for mobile devices and some of the reasons behind this phenomenon. It questions the relevance of professional content developers when the most entertaining and useful content to be found on mobiles presently is produced and shared by the users themselves and not commercial organisations. It will examine the fundamental problems underlying this lack of professionally developed content and reflect on lessons from past developments in media that may help to hypothesise about the future development of mobile content and consequently a paradigm for content development.

  8. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Reducing Risks of Birth Defects Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Reducing Risks of Birth Defects FAQ146, February 2016 ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  9. Evaluation of super-water reducers for highway applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, D.

    1981-03-01

    Super-water reducers were characterized and evaluated as potential candidates for production of low water to cement ratio, high strength concretes for highway construction applications. Admixtures were composed of either naphthalene or melamine sulfonated formaldehyde condensates. A mini-slump procedure was used to assess dosage requirements and behavior of workability with time of cement pastes. Required dosage was found to be a function of tricalcium aluminate content, alkali content, and fineness of the cement. Concretes exhibited high rates of slump loss when super-water reducers were used. The most promising area of application of these products appears to be in production of dense, high cement content concrete using mobile concrete mixer/transporters.

  10. Means of reducing the lead in automobile gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a discussion in six chapters of the effects of lead compounds in gasoline on various forms of life, world developments in controlling pollutants emitted in automobile exhaust, the refining methods used to produce gasoline, and means of reducing and eventually eliminating the lead content of gasoline.

  11. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    PubMed

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas. PMID:27054689

  12. Blind summarization: content-adaptive video summarization using time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Peker, Kadir A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe complexity constraints on consumer electronic devices motivate us to investigate general-purpose video summarization techniques that are able to apply a common hardware setup to multiple content genres. On the other hand, we know that high quality summaries can only be produced with domain-specific processing. In this paper, we present a time-series analysis based video summarization technique that provides a general core to which we are able to add small content-specific extensions for each genre. The proposed time-series analysis technique consists of unsupervised clustering of samples taken through sliding windows from the time series of features obtained from the content. We classify content into two broad categories, scripted content such as news and drama, and unscripted content such as sports and surveillance. The summarization problem then reduces to finding either finding semantic boundaries of the scripted content or detecting highlights in the unscripted content. The proposed technique is essentially an event detection technique and is thus best suited to unscripted content, however, we also find applications to scripted content. We thoroughly examine the trade-off between content-neutral and content-specific processing for effective summarization for a number of genres, and find that our core technique enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing and to postpone it to the final stage. We achieve the best results with unscripted content such as sports and surveillance video in terms of quality of summaries and minimizing content-specific processing. For other genres such as drama, we find that more content-specific processing is required. We also find that judicious choice of key audio-visual object detectors enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing while maintaining its applicability to a broad range of genres. We will present a demonstration of our proposed technique at the conference.

  13. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee. PMID:17132260

  14. Content Analysis: A Method for Research and Evaluation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest, Laverne B.; Flitter, Michael

    Content analysis is a systematic and objective technique which reduces into smaller sub-parts existing communications. It is the analytical reduction of a text to a standard set of statistically manipulatable symbols representing the presence, intensity, or frequency of characteristics. A case study of the use of content analysis is the U.S.…

  15. Awareness, Attitudes and Participation of Teaching Staff towards the Open Content Movement in One University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the current awareness of, and participation in, the open content movement at one UK institution for higher education. The open content movement and the open educational resources can be seen as potential methods for reducing time and cost of technology-enhanced learning developments; however, its sustainability and, to…

  16. Every Day Successes: Powerful Integration of Social Studies Content and English-Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Bauml, Michelle; Ledbetter, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Instructional time for social studies has been reduced nationwide, particularly in the elementary grades. Yet states continue to promote content standards in history, economics, civics, and geography for young learners. Purposeful integrative content that is appropriate for grades K-6, while sometimes difficult to find, seems to many elementary…

  17. Arsenic content of homeopathic medicines

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.D.; Saryan, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the widely held assumption that homeopathic medicines contain negligible quantities of their major ingredients, six such medicines labeled in Latin as containing arsenic were purchased over the counter and by mail order and their arsenic contents measured. Values determined were similar to those expected from label information in only two of six and were markedly at variance in the remaining four. Arsenic was present in notable quantities in two preparations. Most sales personnel interviewed could not identify arsenic as being an ingredient in these preparations and were therefore incapable of warning the general public of possible dangers from ingestion. No such warnings appeared on the labels.

  18. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  19. Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to engage in these behaviors, and sex expectancies. As predicted, exposure to sexual content was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviors, increased intentions to do so in the future, and more positive sex expectancies. Often, parental mediation strategies were a significant factor in moderating these potential media influences. PMID:21546986

  20. Fucose content of keratan sulphates from bovine articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Tai, G H; Brown, G M; Morris, H G; Huckerby, T N; Nieduszynski, I A

    1991-01-01

    Alkaline-borohydride-reduced keratan sulphate chains were isolated from bovine articular cartilage (6-8-year-old animals). Nine keratan sulphate fractions of increasing molecular weight were prepared by gel-permeation chromatography on a calibrated column of TSK 30 XL. The samples were analysed for fucose and galactose contents (% by wt. of keratan sulphate) and fucose/galactose ratio. The fucose content increased with molecular size, but the galactose content remained constant. It was concluded that the alpha(1----3)-linked fucose [Thornton, Morris, Cockin, Huckerby, Nieduszynski, Carlstedt, Hardingham & Ratcliffe (1989) Biochem. J. 260, 277-282] was located within the poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine repeat sequence of articular-cartilage keratan sulphate. PMID:1991030

  1. RNA content in spinal cord motoneurons during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunova, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a diminished motor activity of rats upon the ribonucleic and (RNA) content in a single isolated motoneuron of frontal of their spinal cord was studied. Within a 1 to 30 day exposure of rats to the hypokinetic conditions, RNA content was found to decrease on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day and to return to the initial level by the 7th day. No changes in RNA content were observed during the subsequent stages of the xperiments. The volume of the nerve cells declined on the 3rd and 5th day, whereas RNA concentration reduced on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 30th day.

  2. Arsenic Content in American Wine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies that have investigated arsenic content in juice, rice, milk, broth (beef and chicken), and other foods have stimulated an interest in understanding how prevalent arsenic contamination is in the U.S. food and beverage supply. The study described here focused on quantifying arsenic levels in wine. A total of 65 representative wines from the top four wine-producing states in the U.S. were analyzed for arsenic content. All samples contained arsenic levels that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) exposure limit for drinking water of 10 parts per billion (ppb) and all samples contained inorganic arsenic. The average arsenic detected among all samples studied was 23.3 ppb. Lead, a common co-contaminant to arsenic, was detected in 58% of samples tested, but only 5% exceeded the U.S. EPA exposure limit for drinking water of 15 ppb. Arsenic levels in American wines exceeded those found in other studies involving water, bottled water, apple juice, apple juice blend, milk, rice syrup, and other beverages. When taken in the context of consumption patterns in the U.S., the pervasive presence of arsenic in wine can pose a potential health risk to regular adult wine drinkers. PMID:26591333

  3. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  4. Content of system design descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective.

  5. Versatile document image content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; Nonnemaker, Jean; Casey, Matthew R.; Delorenzo, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    We offer a preliminary report on a research program to investigate versatile algorithms for document image content extraction, that is locating regions containing handwriting, machine-print text, graphics, line-art, logos, photographs, noise, etc. To solve this problem in its full generality requires coping with a vast diversity of document and image types. Automatically trainable methods are highly desirable, as well as extremely high speed in order to process large collections. Significant obstacles include the expense of preparing correctly labeled ("ground-truthed") samples, unresolved methodological questions in specifying the domain (e.g. what is a representative collection of document images?), and a lack of consensus among researchers on how to evaluate content-extraction performance. Our research strategy emphasizes versatility first: that is, we concentrate at the outset on designing methods that promise to work across the broadest possible range of cases. This strategy has several important implications: the classifiers must be trainable in reasonable time on vast data sets; and expensive ground-truthed data sets must be complemented by amplification using generative models. These and other design and architectural issues are discussed. We propose a trainable classification methodology that marries k-d trees and hash-driven table lookup and describe preliminary experiments.

  6. Error image aware content restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Lee, Moonsik; Jung, Byunghee

    2015-12-01

    As the resolution of TV significantly increased, content consumers have become increasingly sensitive to the subtlest defect in TV contents. This rising standard in quality demanded by consumers has posed a new challenge in today's context where the tape-based process has transitioned to the file-based process: the transition necessitated digitalizing old archives, a process which inevitably produces errors such as disordered pixel blocks, scattered white noise, or totally missing pixels. Unsurprisingly, detecting and fixing such errors require a substantial amount of time and human labor to meet the standard demanded by today's consumers. In this paper, we introduce a novel, automated error restoration algorithm which can be applied to different types of classic errors by utilizing adjacent images while preserving the undamaged parts of an error image as much as possible. We tested our method to error images detected from our quality check system in KBS(Korean Broadcasting System) video archive. We are also implementing the algorithm as a plugin of well-known NLE(Non-linear editing system), which is a familiar tool for quality control agent.

  7. Contentment to resentment: Variation in stereotype content across status systems

    PubMed Central

    Oldmeadow, Julian A.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an integration of the stereotype content model with social identity theory in which we theorise links between the legitimacy and stability of status relations between groups on the one hand, and stereotypes of warmth and competence on the other. Warmth stereotypes associate with the perceived morality of inequalities, so we reason that high and low status groups are more differentiated in warmth in illegitimate status systems. Also, stereotypes of competence explain status differences, so differences in stereotypical competence may be more pronounced when status is stable rather than unstable. Across two experiments high and low status groups were more sharply differentiated in warmth in illegitimate than legitimate status systems, as predicted. The effect of stability on competence was less clear, as groups were clearly differentiated in competence in all status systems. Implications for the roles of warmth and competence stereotypes in social change are discussed. PMID:24523628

  8. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  9. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  10. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  11. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  12. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  13. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  14. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  15. The effect of clothing care activities on textile formaldehyde content.

    PubMed

    Novick, Rachel M; Nelson, Mindy L; McKinley, Meg A; Anderson, Grace L; Keenan, James J

    2013-01-01

    Textiles are commonly treated with formaldehyde-based residues that may potentially induce allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. This study examined the initial formaldehyde content in clothing and resulting changes due to care activities. Twenty clothing articles were examined and 17 of them did not have detectable levels of formaldehyde. One shirt contained a formaldehyde concentration of 3172 ppm, and two pairs of pants had formaldehyde concentrations of 1391 ppm and 86 ppm. The two highest results represent formaldehyde levels that are up to 40-fold greater than international textile regulations. The two items with the greatest formaldehyde content were washed and dried in a manner similar to that used by consumers, including hand and machine washing in hot or cold water followed by air or machine drying. The washing and drying procedures reduced formaldehyde levels to between 26 and 72% of untreated controls. Differences in the temperature or type of washing and drying did not result in a clear trend in the subsequent formaldehyde content. In addition, samples were hot ironed, which did not affect the formaldehyde content as significantly. Understanding the formaldehyde content in clothing and its potential reduction through care activities may be useful for manufacturers and formaldehyde-sensitive individuals. PMID:24053365

  16. Approach and analysis of contention resolution in optical switching network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Dang, Mingrui; Mao, Youju; Zhang, Min; Li, Lemin

    2002-09-01

    As the Internet traffic exponentially growing, the next generation IP network is forced to scale far beyond its present performances. The more and more mature optical switching technology, such as optical burst switching, is expected to provide an ideal infrastructure for meeting the demands. However in optical switching, there is one critical issue, namely contention, which roots from multiple optical data requesting the same output port How to resolve contention in optical domain will have a significant effect on the performance (in terms of the burst-loss rate, average delay time and network throughput) of optical switching network. The paper proposes a contention resolution scheme based on FDL, AWG and TWC. Here FDL is used as two functions, i.e. forwarding and feedback for smaller or longer buffering time requirements respectively. In the paper we incorporate the scheme into the design of optical switch. We descript the optical data buffering strategy when contention occurs. We also study the performance of the scheme in a Markov process model under the assumption of uniform Bernoulli traffic, and validate the analysis through numerical simulation. The computer simulation results show that the scheme can efficiently use FDL buffering and AWG switching capacities, hence can obviously reduce the contentions.

  17. Place prioritization for biodiversity content.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Aggarwal, Anshu; Garson, Justin; Margules, Chris R; Zeidler, Juliane

    2002-07-01

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the procedure is demonstrated with two analyses, one data set consisting of the distributions of termite genera in Namibia, and the other consisting of the distributions of bird species in the Islas Malvinas/Falkland Islands. The attributes that data sets should have for the effective and reliable application of such procedures are discussed. The procedure used here is compared to some others that are also currently in use. PMID:12177533

  18. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  19. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  20. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  1. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  2. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  3. Authoring Software to Make Online Lecture Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozono, Kazutake; Teramoto, Akemi; Akiyama, Hidenori

    An authoring software for online lecture contents has been developed. Various multimedia such as HTML, SMIL and Real System are integrated in this software, which is named EzClassMaker. Professors who are not familiar to the information technology can make the online lecture content including the sound and movies, and place the content on Leaning Management System by using this software. Only the microcomputer with this software and a microphone (or a movie camera) is requested to make the content.

  4. Carbon storage in the deep reducing mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, A.; Ghosh, S.; Schmidt, M. W.; Wijbrans, C. H.; Klemme, S.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the storage and cycling of carbon in/through Earth's deep mantle it is vital to examine carbon speciations at relevant pressure, temperature, and oxygen fugacity (fO2). In particular redox conditions of the mantle critically influence the mobility of carbon bearing phases in the silicate matrix; oxidized species are generally more mobile (carbonatites, carbonated silicate melts) or have a larger impact on silicate solidi (carbonated peridotite/eclogite) than reduced species (diamond, carbides, metals). Within garnet bearing mantle lithologies, fO2 can be expected to decrease with depth [1], eventually reaching values similar to the iron-wüstite equilibrium which implies the precipitation of a Fe-Ni metal phase at pressures corresponding to the base of the upper mantle [2]. Because Ni is more noble than Fe, Ni partitions strongly into the reduced phases such that at low metal fractions the metal phase reaches XNi > 0.5. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the mantle contains ~0.1 wt.% Fe,Ni metal at ~300 km depth [3], increasing to ~1 wt% in the lower mantle [4]. To understand the nature of carbon bearing reduced phases in the Earth mantle, we examine experimentally phase relations and melting behavior in the system Fe-Ni-C at 10 and 23 GPa. Dependent on Fe-Ni ratio and related fO2, C content, P and T we observe a variety of phases, namely (Fe,Ni)3C and (Fe,Ni)7C3 carbides, carbon bearing Fe-Ni metal, diamond and carbon rich metal-melt. In the subsolidus, mantle bulk C contents of 50 to 500 ppm [5] would result in the phase association (Fe,Ni)3C + metal + diamond at 10 GPa. In the uppermost lower mantle, about 1 wt.% metal would dissolve ca. 100 ppm C, any further C would lead to (Fe,Ni)3C carbide saturation. The solidus temperatures of theses phase assemblages however are considerably lower than the geotherm at upper and lower mantle pressures. We therefore suggest that reduced carbon bearing phases in the deep mantle are largely molten [6]. [1

  5. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of...

  6. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of...

  7. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  8. 28 CFR 51.27 - Required contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required contents. 51.27 Section 51.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Contents of Submissions § 51.27 Required contents....

  9. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  10. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of...

  11. 28 CFR 51.27 - Required contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required contents. 51.27 Section 51.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Contents of Submissions § 51.27 Required contents....

  12. 23 CFR 1200.11 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contents. 1200.11 Section 1200.11 Highways NATIONAL... Highway Safety Plan § 1200.11 Contents. Each fiscal year, the State's Highway Safety Plan shall consist of... Governor's Representative for Highway Safety, certifying the HSP application contents and...

  13. 10 CFR 501.62 - Petition contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petition contents. 501.62 Section 501.62 Energy DEPARTMENT... Certifications § 501.62 Petition contents. (a) A petition for exemption should include the following information... the person who can supply further information. (b) Table of contents. Include only those...

  14. 10 CFR 501.62 - Petition contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petition contents. 501.62 Section 501.62 Energy DEPARTMENT... Certifications § 501.62 Petition contents. (a) A petition for exemption should include the following information... the person who can supply further information. (b) Table of contents. Include only those...

  15. 10 CFR 501.62 - Petition contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petition contents. 501.62 Section 501.62 Energy DEPARTMENT... Certifications § 501.62 Petition contents. (a) A petition for exemption should include the following information... the person who can supply further information. (b) Table of contents. Include only those...

  16. 30 CFR 47.52 - MSDS contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false MSDS contents. 47.52 Section 47.52 Mineral... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.52 MSDS contents. When an operator must prepare... available, for the categories listed in Table 47.52 as follows: Table 47.52—Contents of MSDS...

  17. 10 CFR 501.62 - Petition contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petition contents. 501.62 Section 501.62 Energy DEPARTMENT... Certifications § 501.62 Petition contents. (a) A petition for exemption should include the following information... the person who can supply further information. (b) Table of contents. Include only those...

  18. 36 CFR 214.8 - Appeal content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... program regarding certain term grazing permit disputes under 36 CFR part 222, subpart B. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeal content. 214.8 Section... content. (a) General requirements for the contents of an appeal. All appeals must include: (1)...

  19. 45 CFR 402.41 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Application content. 402.41 Section 402.41 Public... State Applications § 402.41 Application content. A State application must: (a) Contain certifications by... behalf of the chief executive officer that, notwithstanding other contents of the application, the...

  20. 36 CFR 214.8 - Appeal content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... program regarding certain term grazing permit disputes under 36 CFR part 222, subpart B. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeal content. 214.8 Section... content. (a) General requirements for the contents of an appeal. All appeals must include: (1)...

  1. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  2. 28 CFR 51.27 - Required contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Required contents. 51.27 Section 51.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Contents of Submissions § 51.27 Required contents....

  3. 45 CFR 402.41 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application content. 402.41 Section 402.41 Public... State Applications § 402.41 Application content. A State application must: (a) Contain certifications by... behalf of the chief executive officer that, notwithstanding other contents of the application, the...

  4. 30 CFR 47.52 - MSDS contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false MSDS contents. 47.52 Section 47.52 Mineral... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.52 MSDS contents. When an operator must prepare... available, for the categories listed in Table 47.52 as follows: Table 47.52—Contents of MSDS...

  5. 45 CFR 402.41 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application content. 402.41 Section 402.41 Public... State Applications § 402.41 Application content. A State application must: (a) Contain certifications by... behalf of the chief executive officer that, notwithstanding other contents of the application, the...

  6. 30 CFR 47.52 - MSDS contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false MSDS contents. 47.52 Section 47.52 Mineral... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.52 MSDS contents. When an operator must prepare... available, for the categories listed in Table 47.52 as follows: Table 47.52—Contents of MSDS...

  7. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Content. 1506.303-2 Section... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The documentation... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of...

  8. 45 CFR 402.41 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application content. 402.41 Section 402.41 Public... State Applications § 402.41 Application content. A State application must: (a) Contain certifications by... behalf of the chief executive officer that, notwithstanding other contents of the application, the...

  9. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  10. 48 CFR 519.7010 - Agreement contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement contents. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7010 Agreement contents. The contents of the Agreement must contain: (a) Names, addresses (including facsimile, e-mail, and...

  11. 30 CFR 47.52 - MSDS contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false MSDS contents. 47.52 Section 47.52 Mineral... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.52 MSDS contents. When an operator must prepare... available, for the categories listed in Table 47.52 as follows: Table 47.52—Contents of MSDS...

  12. 28 CFR 51.27 - Required contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Required contents. 51.27 Section 51.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Contents of Submissions § 51.27 Required contents....

  13. 28 CFR 51.27 - Required contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Required contents. 51.27 Section 51.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Contents of Submissions § 51.27 Required contents....

  14. 45 CFR 402.41 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Application content. 402.41 Section 402.41 Public... State Applications § 402.41 Application content. A State application must: (a) Contain certifications by... behalf of the chief executive officer that, notwithstanding other contents of the application, the...

  15. 30 CFR 47.52 - MSDS contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false MSDS contents. 47.52 Section 47.52 Mineral... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) § 47.52 MSDS contents. When an operator must prepare... available, for the categories listed in Table 47.52 as follows: Table 47.52—Contents of MSDS...

  16. 23 CFR 1200.11 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents. 1200.11 Section 1200.11 Highways NATIONAL... Highway Safety Plan § 1200.11 Contents. Each fiscal year, the State's Highway Safety Plan shall consist of... Governor's Representative for Highway Safety, certifying the HSP application contents and...

  17. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of...

  18. Web Content Management Systems in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powel, Wayne; Gill, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Web site development practices of Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington, and the content management systems that allow owners of information to control content while the university controls the look of the Web site. More than 150 content managers assume control of some portion of the Web site. (SLD)

  19. Content Area Reading and Learning: Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; And Others

    This book offers strategies to help educators become increasingly effective in teaching various areas in content area reading and learning. The book includes the following chapters: "Content Area Reading: A Historical Perspective" (E. Dishner and M. Olson); "Content Area Reading: Current State of the Art" (T. Bean and J. Readence); "The Role of…

  20. 27 CFR 19.644 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Bottle Label Requirements § 19.644 Net contents. The net contents of liquor bottles shall be shown on the label, unless the statement of the net contents is permanently marked on the side, front, or back of the bottle. (Sec....

  1. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980, in bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill,...

  2. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980, in bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill,...

  3. Content Locality in Distributed Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viles, Charles L.; French, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces content locality--the degree to which content-similar documents are colocated in a distributed collection--in distributed digital libraries. Proposes two metrics for measurement of content locality, one based on topic signatures and the other based on collection statistics. Provides derivations and analysis of both metrics and uses them…

  4. Better Science: Choosing Content. Curriculum Guide 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Mike, Comp.; Michell, Mick, Comp.

    The intention of this guide is to consider the concepts, skills, facts, and attitudes of science which are taught in school; explore how content might be chosen; argue for a reduction in curriculum content; suggest major topics for science teaching; use examples to illustrate aspects of science content; and consider some of the implications of…

  5. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of...

  6. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  7. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 Shipping Coast...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type indicated in...

  8. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 Shipping Coast...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type indicated in...

  9. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 Shipping Coast...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type indicated in...

  10. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping Coast...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and...

  11. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2002-10-01 2001-10-01 true Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 Shipping Coast... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type indicated in Specification subpart...

  12. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2002-10-01 2001-10-01 true Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping Coast... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a) Individual... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and...

  13. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping Coast...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and...

  14. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping Coast...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and...

  15. 49 U.S.C. 22705 - Content

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    ... PART B - ASSISTANCE CHAPTER 227 - STATE RAIL PLANS Sec. 22705 - Content From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov §22705. Content (a) In General .—Each State rail plan shall, at a... content .—A long-range rail investment program included in a State rail plan under subsection...

  16. 49 U.S.C. 22705 - Content

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    ... PART B - ASSISTANCE CHAPTER 227 - STATE RAIL PLANS Sec. 22705 - Content From the U.S. Government Printing Office, www.gpo.gov §22705. Content (a) In General .—Each State rail plan shall, at a... content .—A long-range rail investment program included in a State rail plan under subsection...

  17. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  18. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  19. Enterprise Content Buying--The New Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorlander, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Content is both a key ingredient for business and a major expense. Market research shows that the investment in content and data is generally one of the top expense items within a firm. For some firms, within the financial industry, for example, content costs are the second or third level of expense behind the cost of employees. While there has…

  20. RSS: Lo-Fi Content Syndication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannan, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    Rich Site Summary (RSS) is an XML format designed to let content providers share news headlines and content with other sites without having to create a completely new Web page. Discusses three issues to consider before creating a newsfeed: content integrity, bandwidth issues, and spellcheck. Identifies resources for getting started and the two…

  1. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and...

  2. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2005-10-01 2004-10-01 true Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 Shipping Coast...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type indicated in...

  3. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2005-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2005-10-01 2004-10-01 true Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping Coast...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and...

  4. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2....303-2 Content. The documentation requirements in this section apply only to acquisitions processed... synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of the evaluation document)....

  5. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of...

  6. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 EQUIPMENT... Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons shall be of the standard commercial unit..., size of contents, and method of use, and shall contain all information required by Federal and...

  7. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type indicated in...

  8. 28 CFR 51.28 - Supplemental contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental contents. 51.28 Section 51.28 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Contents of Submissions § 51.28 Supplemental contents. Review by the Attorney General will...

  9. What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Matthew J.; Mishra, Punya

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for teacher knowledge for technology integration called technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge). This framework builds on Lee Shulman's construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to include technology knowledge. The…

  10. Content-Based Networking: DTN, AMS, Sharednet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott

    2006-01-01

    A detailed viewgraph presentation on DTN, AMS, and Sharednet content-based networking is shown. The contents include: 1) DARPA Content-Based Networking Summary of Requirements; 2) Concept; 3) Key Features of AMS; 4) Overview of Sharednet; 5) SharedNet Deployment History; 6) SharedNet AMS DTN; 7) Detailed Structure; and 8) Bottom line.

  11. 23 CFR 1200.11 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2015-04-01 2015-04-01 false Contents. 1200.11 Section 1200.11 Highways NATIONAL... Highway Safety Plan § 1200.11 Contents. Each fiscal year, the State's Highway Safety Plan shall consist of... Governor's Representative for Highway Safety, certifying the HSP application contents and...

  12. Disciplinary Literacy and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Michelle; Indrisano, Roselmina

    2013-01-01

    This review reports selected literature on theory, research, and practice in disciplinary literacy, primarily reading. The authors consider the ways this literature can be viewed through the lens of Lee S. Shulman's theory of Pedagogical Content Knowledge, which includes: subject matter content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and…

  13. An examination of content similarity within the memory of HPC applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Scott N.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Trott, Christian Robert

    2013-01-01

    Memory content similarity has been e ectively exploited for more than a decade to reduce memory consumption. By consolidating duplicate and similar pages in the address space of an application, we can reduce the amount of memory it consumes without negatively a ecting the application's perception of the memory resources available to it. In addition to memory de-duplication, there may be many other ways that we can exploit memory content similarity to improve system characteristics. In this paper, we examine the memory content similarity of several HPC applications. By characterizing the memory contents of these applications, we hope to provide a basis for ef- forts to e ectively exploit memory content similarity to improve system performance beyond memory deduplication. We show that several applications exhibit signi cant similarity and consider the source of the similarity.

  14. Changes in oxytocin and vasopressin content in posterior pituitary and hypothalamus following pantethine treatment.

    PubMed

    Ong, G L; Miaskowski, C; Haldar, J

    1990-01-01

    Pantethine, a cysteamine precursor, depletes somatostatin in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus and prolactin in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. This study investigated the effect of pantethine on oxytocin and arginine vasopressin content in the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus. Male Long-Evans rats were injected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of pantethine (i.e., 146.7 mg, 293.4 mg and 586.6 mg/100 gm body weight). Hormone content was determined by radioimmunoassay. Three hours after pantethine treatment, the oxytocin content in the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus was markedly reduced with all doses of the drug. Vasopressin content in the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus was decreased but to a lesser extent than oxytocin and only with the highest dose of pantethine. Pantethine may act to reduce oxytocin and vasopressin content through intracellular conversion to cysteamine. The exact mechanism of action of pantethine on oxytocin and vasopressin remains to be elucidated. PMID:2402177

  15. Reducing polypharmacy in extended care.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, R C; Moore, S W; Whalen, K; Donnelly, J P; Compton, R; Testerman, F; Haulsee, P; Hughes, J

    1995-05-01

    In this 5-year prospective study, we determined the feasibility of reducing polypharmacy in a long-term care institution by a systematic review of the pharmacy records. At 6-month intervals, the computer printout of all medications prescribed to patients in a 550-bed institution was reviewed. After patients taking more than 10 different drugs were identified, their physician was notified and was asked to review their medications according to specific guidelines. The number of patients taking 10 or more medications was reduced from 67, when the program was started, to 9. The average number of medications per patient was reduced from 5.5 to 4.6. This program reduced the prevalence of polypharmacy and had long-lasting effects on the physicians' prescribing habits. We also believe it led to improved patient care by reducing the potential for drug interactions and to cost savings for the pharmacy. PMID:7732442

  16. Effects of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Hydrates on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-salt, Reduced-fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Jang, Sung-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hee; He, Fu-Yi; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient (GM, carboxy methyl cellulose; GC, carrageenan; GI, isolated soy protein; GS, sodium caseinate) on the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The pH and color evaluation showed significant differences, depending on the type of glasswort hydrate added (p<0.05). In the raw batters and cooked frankfurters, the addition of glasswort hydrate decreased the redness and increased the yellowness in comparison with frankfurters without glasswort hydrate. The reduction in salt and fat content significantly increased cooking loss and decreased hardness, tenderness and juiciness (p<0.05). Glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient improved cooking loss, water holding capacity, emulsion stability, hardness, and viscosity of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The GM treatment had the highest myofibiliar protein solubility among all treatments, which was associated with emulsion stability and viscosity. The GC treatment had higher values for all texture parameters than the control. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of glasswort hydrate with non-meat ingredient improved tenderness and juiciness of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. GM, GC, and GI treatments improved not only the physicochemical properties but also the sensory characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The results indicated that the use of glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient was improved the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. PMID:26877638

  17. Effects of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Hydrates on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-salt, Reduced-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient (GM, carboxy methyl cellulose; GC, carrageenan; GI, isolated soy protein; GS, sodium caseinate) on the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The pH and color evaluation showed significant differences, depending on the type of glasswort hydrate added (p<0.05). In the raw batters and cooked frankfurters, the addition of glasswort hydrate decreased the redness and increased the yellowness in comparison with frankfurters without glasswort hydrate. The reduction in salt and fat content significantly increased cooking loss and decreased hardness, tenderness and juiciness (p<0.05). Glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient improved cooking loss, water holding capacity, emulsion stability, hardness, and viscosity of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The GM treatment had the highest myofibiliar protein solubility among all treatments, which was associated with emulsion stability and viscosity. The GC treatment had higher values for all texture parameters than the control. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of glasswort hydrate with non-meat ingredient improved tenderness and juiciness of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. GM, GC, and GI treatments improved not only the physicochemical properties but also the sensory characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The results indicated that the use of glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient was improved the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. PMID:26877638

  18. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Methods Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Results Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. Conclusions All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium. PMID:24103160

  19. An emerging role: the nurse content curator.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Beth A

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, the inverted or "flipped" classroom, assumes that students are no longer acquiring knowledge exclusively through textbooks or lectures. Instead, they are seeking out the vast amount of free information available to them online (the very essence of open source) to supplement learning gleaned in textbooks and lectures. With so much open-source content available to nursing faculty, it benefits the faculty to use readily available, technologically advanced content. The nurse content curator supports nursing faculty in its use of such content. Even more importantly, the highly paid, time-strapped faculty is not spending an inordinate amount of effort surfing for and evaluating content. The nurse content curator does that work, while the faculty uses its time more effectively to help students vet the truth, make meaning of the content, and learn to problem-solve. Brooks. PMID:24935444

  20. Impact of Online User-Generated Content on Retailers and Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwark, Young

    2013-01-01

    Online user-generated content has been ubiquitous. Consumers are eager to not only listen to the other consumers but provide opinion to the public. The former reduces the consumers' uncertainty about products and the latter reduces the firms' uncertainty about consumers. We examine the effect of online product reviews, a most common form of…

  1. Determination of ethanol content in ayurvedic formulations kumaryasava and mustakarista by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Selvan, P S; Priya, E Sanmuga

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, two brands of Kumaryasava and Mustakarista medicinally important ayurvedic preparations were studied for quality control parameters like physiochemical properties, ethanol content by specific gravity and gas chromatographic methods and the total phenolic content. Evaluation of physiochemical properties and total phenolic contents resulted in establishing ranges for routine analysis. In both the formulations, ethanol content observed by specific gravity method varied from 0.9 to 1.9% on day 0 and reduced on storage for 30 days ranging from 0.1-0.6% v/v. Similarly, ethanol content determined by GC on day 0 varied from 0.1-1.6% v/v and on 30th day from 0.011-0.025% v/v. This reduction in ethanol content on storage might be due to loss caused by frequent opening of the container. PMID:25767329

  2. Determination of Ethanol Content in Ayurvedic Formulations Kumaryasava and Mustakarista by Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Selvan, P. S.; Priya, E. Sanmuga

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, two brands of Kumaryasava and Mustakarista medicinally important ayurvedic preparations were studied for quality control parameters like physiochemical properties, ethanol content by specific gravity and gas chromatographic methods and the total phenolic content. Evaluation of physiochemical properties and total phenolic contents resulted in establishing ranges for routine analysis. In both the formulations, ethanol content observed by specific gravity method varied from 0.9 to 1.9% on day 0 and reduced on storage for 30 days ranging from 0.1-0.6% v/v. Similarly, ethanol content determined by GC on day 0 varied from 0.1-1.6% v/v and on 30th day from 0.011-0.025% v/v. This reduction in ethanol content on storage might be due to loss caused by frequent opening of the container. PMID:25767329

  3. The Effect of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Phases of Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozden, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The chemical content of phases of matters was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 28 science student teachers. The lesson preparation task, content knowledge test and semi-structured…

  4. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  5. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  6. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  7. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  8. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  9. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  10. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  11. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  12. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  13. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  14. Reducing Cancer Patients' Painful Treatment

    NASA Video Gallery

    A NASA light technology originally developed to aid plant growth experiments in space has proved to reduce the painful side effects resulting from chemotherapy and radiation treatment in bone marro...

  15. Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA'€™s Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program gives students and educators the opportunity to design, build and fly an experiment in microgravity and get a look at what it takes to be a NASA en...

  16. ISS Update: Reduced Gravity Education

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Veronica Seyl, Acting Manager for Reduced Gravity Education. NASA works with students and educators to design experiments for flight testing aboard t...

  17. Reducing Childhood Obesity: We Can!

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity We Can! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table ... Promotes Healthier Children We Can! is a national childhood obesity prevention program sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, ...

  18. How to Reduce Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, George; Clapp, Leallyn B.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the problem of solid waste disposal in the United States, suggests ways in which solid wastes might be reduced, and proposes a number of related topics for student debate in classes or in science clubs. (JR)

  19. Chronic sodium depletion increases myocardial calcium content in normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; Bond, M; Fouad-Tarazi, F M

    1989-03-01

    Increased myocardial contractility was found in the perfused heart isolated from sodium depleted Sprague-Dawley rats. Previously, it was reported that in vitro exposure of different cardiac preparations to low Na+ buffers was associated with both an increased contractility and an increased Ca2+ content in the cells. Therefore, this study was designed to examine increases in ventricular Ca2+ content in the hearts of chronically sodium depleted rats. Two groups of 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. One group (n = 5) received furosemide (5 mg/kg/day IP for 4 days), a low Na+ diet and distilled drinking water for 6 weeks (low sodium plus diuretics group = LSD). The other group (n = 5) received the same low Na+ diet, but 0.5% NaCl was supplemented in drinking water (regular sodium group = RS). Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly during the dietary period in all rats. At the end of the 6 weeks, heart weight as well as water and electrolyte contents of the heart were measured in all animals. Results showed that both body weight and heart weight were significantly lower in LSD than in RS. Moreover, ventricular Na+ content was reduced while ventricular Ca2+ content was doubled in LSD compared to RS (8.2 +/- 0.2 units vs. 9.2 +/- 0.3 units, p less than .05 and 0.45 +/- 0.13 units vs. 0.23 +/- 0.01 units, p less than .01, respectively). We conclude that in vivo sodium depletion induces an increase in ventricular calcium content; this increased myocardial calcium may be related to the increased in vitro cardiac contractility observed after chronic in vivo sodium depletion, but its distribution between intracellular and extracellular compartments needs to be determined. PMID:2923136

  20. Method for reducing emissions utilizing pre-atomized fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Deal, J.F. III; Bolden, P.L. Jr.

    1987-05-19

    A method is described for reducing particulate emissions during combustion of a hydrocarbon with API gravity of about 20/sup 0/ API or less, viscosity of about 40,000 centipoise at 122/sup 0/F, paraffin content of about 50% by weight or less, aromatic content of about 15% by weight or greater, and asphaltene content of about 50% by weight or greater. The method comprises: emulsifying such hydrocarbon to form a hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion having a hydrocarbon water ratio from about 60:40 to about 90:10 by volume and in which emulsion the hydrocarbon has a particle size predominantly of about 50 microns in diameter or less; preheating such hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion prior to combustion; and burning such hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion.

  1. Formaldehyde content of atmospheric aerosol.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Yunoki, Satoru; Yanaga, Akira; Takeuchi, Masaki; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-06-17

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a highly soluble polar molecule with a large sticking coefficient and thus likely exists in both gaseous and particulate forms. Few studies, however, address particulate HCHO (HCHO(p)). Some report that HCHO(p) concentrations (obtained only with long duration sampling) are very low. The lack of data partly reflects the difficulty of specifically measuring HCHO(p). Long duration filter sampling may not produce meaningful results for a variety of reasons. In this work, gaseous HCHO (HCHO(g)) and (HCHO(p)) were, respectively, collected with a parallel plate wet denuder (PPWD) followed by a mist chamber/hydrophilic filter particle collector (PC). The PPWD quantitatively removed HCHO(g) and the PC then collected the transmitted aerosol. The collected HCHO from either device was alternately analyzed by Hantzsch reaction-based continuous flow fluorometry. Each gas and particle phase measurement took 5 min each, with a 10 min cycle. The limits of detection were 0.048 and 0.0033 μg m(-3), respectively, for HCHO(g) and HCHO(p). The instrument was deployed in three separate campaigns in a forest station in western Japan in March, May, and July of 2013. Based on 1296 data pairs, HCHO(p), was on the average, 5% of the total HCHO. Strong diurnal patterns were observed, with the HCHO(p) fraction peaking in the morning. The relative humidity dependence of the partition strongly suggests that it is driven by the liquid water content of the aerosol phase. However, HCHO(p) was 100× greater than that expected from Henry's law. We propose that the low water activity in the highly saline droplets lead to HCHO oligomerization. PMID:24857706

  2. The Violent Content in Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Deighton, Stephanie; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel; Addington, Jean

    2016-08-30

    The relationship between psychosis and violence has typically focused on factors likely to predict who will commit violent acts. One unexplored area is violence in the content of subthreshold positive symptoms. The current aim was to conduct an exploratory analysis of violent content in the attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) of those at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) who met criteria for attenuated psychotic symptom syndrome (APSS). The APS of 442 CHR individuals, determined by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, were described in comprehensive vignettes. The content of these symptoms were coded using the Content of Attenuated Positive Symptoms Codebook. Other measures included clinical symptoms, functioning, beliefs and trauma. Individuals with violent content had significantly higher APS, greater negative beliefs about the self and others, and increased bullying. The same findings and higher ratings on anxiety symptoms were present when participants with self-directed violence were compared to participants with no violent content. Individuals reporting violent content differ in their clinical presentation compared to those who do not experience violent content. Adverse life events, like bullying, may impact the presence of violent content in APS symptoms. Future studies should explore violent content in relation to actual behavior. PMID:27259137

  3. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  4. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  5. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, Matthew S.; Brake, Matthew R.W.

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  6. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  7. Diagnosing the Causes and Severity of One-sided Message Contention

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; van Dam, Hubertus; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2015-02-11

    Two trends suggest network contention for one-sided messages is poised to become a performance problem that concerns application developers: an increased interest in one-sided programming models and a rising ratio of hardware threads to network injection bandwidth. Unfortunately, it is difficult to reason about network contention and one-sided messages because one-sided tasks can either decrease or increase contention. We present effective and portable techniques for diagnosing the causes and severity of one-sided message contention. To detect that a message is affected by contention, we maintain statistics representing instantaneous (non-local) network resource demand. Using lightweight measurement and modeling, we identify the portion of a message's latency that is due to contention and whether contention occurs at the initiator or target. We attribute these metrics to program statements in their full static and dynamic context. We characterize contention for an important computational chemistry benchmark on InfiniBand, Cray Aries, and IBM Blue Gene/Q interconnects. We pinpoint the sources of contention, estimate their severity, and show that when message delivery time deviates from an ideal model, there are other messages contending for the same network links. With a small change to the benchmark, we reduce contention up to 50% and improve total runtime as much as 20%.

  8. Reducing Visual Discomfort with HMDs Using Dynamic Depth of Field.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Kieran; Rhee, Taehyun

    2015-01-01

    Although head-mounted displays (HMDs) are ideal devices for personal viewing of immersive stereoscopic content, exposure to VR applications on them results in significant discomfort for the majority of people, with symptoms including eye fatigue, headaches, nausea, and sweating. A conflict between accommodation and vergence depth cues on stereoscopic displays is a significant cause of visual discomfort. This article describes the results of an evaluation used to judge the effectiveness of dynamic depth-of-field (DoF) blur in an effort to reduce discomfort caused by exposure to stereoscopic content on HMDs. Using a commercial game engine implementation, study participants report a reduction of visual discomfort on a simulator sickness questionnaire when DoF blurring is enabled. The study participants reported a decrease in symptom severity caused by HMD exposure, indicating that dynamic DoF can effectively reduce visual discomfort. PMID:26416360

  9. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Tilak R; Nam, Seung-Hee; Ure, Amy L

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been recently studied mainly because of its potential in protecting against cancer, atherogenesis, and diabetes. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for a series of conjugated dienoic positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid, which are found in relative abundance in milk and tissue fat of ruminants compared with other foods. The cis-9, trans-11 isomer is the principle dietary form of CLA found in ruminant products and is produced by partial ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid or by endogenous synthesis in the tissues themselves. The CLA content in milk and meat is affected by several factors, such as animal's breed, age, diet, and management factors related to feed supplements affecting the diet. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk or meat has been shown to be a stable compound under normal cooking and storage conditions. Total CLA content in milk or dairy products ranges from 0.34 to 1.07% of total fat. Total CLA content in raw or processed beef ranges from 0.12 to 0.68% of total fat. It is currently estimated that the average adult consumes only one third to one half of the amount of CLA that has been shown to reduce cancer in animal studies. For this reason, increasing the CLA contents of milk and meat has the potential to raise the nutritive and therapeutic values of dairy products and meat. PMID:16183568

  10. Investigation of crop nitrogen content based on image processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yane; Li, Minzan; Xu, Zenghui; Zhang, Xijie; Wang, Maohua

    2005-08-01

    A special image sampler was developed to non-destructively take leaf images of cucumber plants in greenhouse, which were grown in different nutrient conditions in order to obtain nitrogen stress to the crop. Then the correlation between nitrogen content of cucumber leaf and image property of the leaf was analyzed. The sampler is composed of eight lamps, a half sphere shell, a platform, and a window used for fixing camera. The lamps were arranged around the platform on what leafs would be placed for image-taking. The half sphere shell was over the platform to reflect the light of lamps. Since the reflected light from the shell was diffuse and symmetrical, the reflection noise of the leaf could be reduced and the high quality image could be obtained. The correlation analysis between leaf images and nitrogen contents of leaves was conducted based on RGB mode and HSI mode. In RGB mode the G weight of the image showed the highest linear correlation with the nitrogen content of the cucumber leaf than R weight and B weight, while in HSI mode the hue showed the same high linear correlation as the G weight. A new index from the G weight of RGB mode and the hue of HSI mode was suggested to estimate nitrogen content of cucumber leaf. The result shows the new index is practical.

  11. Developing a medical image content repository for e-learning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Tien-Cheng; Chang, Jing Ning; Yang, Stephen J H; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Chu, Woei Chyn

    2006-09-01

    The integration of medical informatics and e-learning systems could provide many advanced applications including training, knowledge management, telemedicine, etc. Currently, both the domains of e-learning and medical image have sophisticated specifications and standards. It is a great challenge to bring about integration. In this paper, we describe the development of a Web interface for searching and viewing medical images that are stored in standard medical image servers. With the creation of a Web solution, we have reduced the overheads of integration. We have packaged Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) network services as a component that can be used via a Web server. The Web server constitutes a content repository for searching, editing, and storing Web-based medical image content. This is a simple method by which the use of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) can be extended. We show that the content repository can easily interact and integrate with a learning system. With the integration, the user can easily generate and assign medical image content for e-learning. A Web solution might be the simplest way for system integration. The demonstration in this paper should be useful as a method of expanding the usage of medical information. The construction of a Web-based repository and integrated with a learning system may be also applicable to other domains. PMID:16710797

  12. Effects of moisture content on wind erosion thresholds of biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F. C.; Borrego, C.; Keizer, J. J.; Amorim, J. H.; Verheijen, F. G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar, i.e. pyrolysed biomass, as a soil conditioner is gaining increasing attention in research and industry, with guidelines and certifications being developed for biochar production, storage and handling, as well as for application to soils. Adding water to biochar aims to reduce its susceptibility to become air-borne during and after the application to soils, thereby preventing, amongst others, human health issues from inhalation. The Bagnold model has previously been modified to explain the threshold friction velocity of coal particles at different moisture contents, by adding an adhesive effect. However, it is unknown if this model also works for biochar particles. We measured the threshold friction velocities of a range of biochar particles (woody feedstock) under a range of moisture contents by using a wind tunnel, and tested the performance of the modified Bagnold model. Results showed that the threshold friction velocity can be significantly increased by keeping the gravimetric moisture content at or above 15% to promote adhesive effects between the small particles. For the specific biochar of this study, the modified Bagnold model accurately estimated threshold friction velocities of biochar particles up to moisture contents of 10%.

  13. Strategies to Reduce Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Glenn, Jeffrey D.; Guy, Gery P.; Watson, Meg; Baker, Katie; Cokkinides, Vilma; Gottlieb, Mark; Lazovich, DeAnn; Perna, Frank M.; Sampson, Blake P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning device use is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including risk of malignant melanoma, and is an urgent public health problem. By reducing indoor tanning, future cases of skin cancer could be prevented, along with the associated morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. On August 20, 2012, the CDC hosted a meeting to discuss the current body of evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning as well as research gaps. Using the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Overarching Goals as a framework, the current paper provides highlights on the topics that were discussed, including (1) the state of the evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning; (2) the tools necessary to effectively assess, monitor, and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of interventions designed to reduce indoor tanning; and (3) strategies to align efforts at the national, state, and local levels through transdisciplinary collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors. Although many challenges and barriers exist, a coordinated, multilevel, transdisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce indoor tanning and prevent future cases of skin cancer. PMID:23683986

  14. Novel Omega-3 Fatty Acid Epoxygenase Metabolite Reduces Kidney Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Khan, Md. Abdul Hye; Levick, Scott P.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D.; Imig, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases epoxidize the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid into novel epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) that have multiple biological actions. The present study determined the ability of the most abundant EDP regioisomer, 19,20-EDP to reduce kidney injury in an experimental unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) renal fibrosis mouse model. Mice with UUO developed kidney tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. UUO mice had elevated kidney hydroxyproline content and five-times greater collagen positive fibrotic area than sham control mice. 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice for 10 days reduced renal fibrosis with a 40%–50% reduction in collagen positive area and hydroxyproline content. There was a six-fold increase in kidney α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive area in UUO mice compared to sham control mice, and 19,20-EDP treatment to UUO mice decreased α-SMA immunopositive area by 60%. UUO mice demonstrated renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and elevated expression of multiple mesenchymal markers (FSP-1, α-SMA, and desmin). Interestingly, 19,20-EDP treatment reduced renal EMT in UUO by decreasing mesenchymal and increasing epithelial marker expression. Overall, we demonstrate that a novel omega-3 fatty acid metabolite 19,20-EDP, prevents UUO-induced renal fibrosis in mice by reducing renal EMT. PMID:27213332

  15. Cell Structure Evolution of Aluminum Foams Under Reduced Pressure Foaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhuokun; Yu, Yang; Li, Min; Luo, Hongjie

    2016-07-01

    Ti-H particles are used to increase the gas content in aluminum melts for reduced pressure foaming. This paper reports on the RPF process of AlCa alloy by adding TiH2, but in smaller amounts compared to traditional process. TiH2 is completely decomposed by stirring the melt, following which reduced pressure is applied. TiH2 is not added as the blowing agent; instead, it is added for increasing the H2 concentration in the liquid AlCa melt. It is shown that pressure change induces further release of hydrogen from Ti phase. It is also found that foam collapse is caused by the fast bubble coalescing during pressure reducing procedure, and the instability of liquid film is related to the significant increase in critical thickness of film rupture. A combination of lower amounts of TiH2, coupled with reduced pressure, is another way of increasing hydrogen content in the liquid aluminum. A key benefit of this process is that it provides time to transfer the molten metal to a mold and then apply the reduced pressure to produce net shape foam parts.

  16. Cell Structure Evolution of Aluminum Foams Under Reduced Pressure Foaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhuokun; Yu, Yang; Li, Min; Luo, Hongjie

    2016-09-01

    Ti-H particles are used to increase the gas content in aluminum melts for reduced pressure foaming. This paper reports on the RPF process of AlCa alloy by adding TiH2, but in smaller amounts compared to traditional process. TiH2 is completely decomposed by stirring the melt, following which reduced pressure is applied. TiH2 is not added as the blowing agent; instead, it is added for increasing the H2 concentration in the liquid AlCa melt. It is shown that pressure change induces further release of hydrogen from Ti phase. It is also found that foam collapse is caused by the fast bubble coalescing during pressure reducing procedure, and the instability of liquid film is related to the significant increase in critical thickness of film rupture. A combination of lower amounts of TiH2, coupled with reduced pressure, is another way of increasing hydrogen content in the liquid aluminum. A key benefit of this process is that it provides time to transfer the molten metal to a mold and then apply the reduced pressure to produce net shape foam parts.

  17. Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry. PMID:25379555

  18. Using Content Distribution Networks for Astronomy Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, M.; Christiansen, L. L.; André, M.

    2015-09-01

    Thousands of people from all over the world search the internet on a daily basis for the newest discoveries in astronomy: be it in the form of press releases, high resolution images, videos or even planetarium fulldome content. The growing amount of data available, combined with the increasing number of media files and users distributed across the globe, leads to a significant decrease in speed for those users located furthest from the server delivering the content. One solution for bringing astronomical content to users faster is to use a content delivery network.

  19. Content-Based Personalization Services Integrating Folksonomies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musto, Cataldo; Narducci, Fedelucio; Lops, Pasquale; de Gemmis, Marco; Semeraro, Giovanni

    Basic content-based personalization consists in matching up the attributes of a user profile, in which preferences and interests are stored, with the attributes of a content object. The Web 2.0 (r)evolution has changed the game for personalization, from ‘elitary’ Web 1.0, written by few and read by many, to web content generated by everyone (user-generated content - UGC), since the role of people has evolved from passive consumers of information to that of active contributors.

  20. Nutrient content of some winter grouse foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Treichler, R.R.; Stow, R.W.; Nelson, A.L.

    1946-01-01

    Seventeen preferred grouse foods were collected during the late winter and analyzed for nutrient content. The results include moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, nitrogenfree extract, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and gross energy content expressed both on moisture free and fresh bases.....The preferred winter foods of grouse are characterized by a high content of dry substance and of nitrogen-free extract......On the basis of nutrient content, the foods examined are well qualified as sources of energy and other essential nutrients required for maintenance of grouse during the winter season.