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Sample records for reduced prostate size

  1. Ultrasonographic estimation of prostatic size in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Atalan, G; Holt, P E; Barr, F J; Brown, P J

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasound in estimating the volume and weight of the canine prostate gland, to derive a simple formula from actual and ultrasonographic prostate measurements for estimating prostate volume and weight, and to evaluate the reproducibility of ultrasonographic measurements of linear prostate dimensions. The prostate volume and weight were measured and also calculated in 77 male canine cadavers (60 entire and 17 neutered) with the aid of statistical computer programmes using actual linear dimensions of the prostate ('actual') and those measured ultrasonographically before ('in vivo') and after ('in vitro') removal of the prostate gland. Therefore, 'in vivo', 'in vitro' and 'actual' estimations of prostate size were obtained and compared with prostatic volume and weight. The evaluation of the reproducibility of the ultrasonographic measurements made was performed in 59 of the dogs in which the prostate was imaged three times in longitudinal and three times in transverse sections. This study demonstrated that prostatic weight and volume are related to body weight and age in entire dogs but not in neutered dogs. Formulae were derived to estimate prostate weight and volume from physical and ultrasonographic measurements. There were good correlations between the ultrasonographic and physical measurements and prostate size derived from these measurements provided a good estimate of actual prostate size. 'Best subsets' analyses indicated that prostate width and length (measured physically or ultrasonographically) were the best predictors of prostatic volume and weight, both when all dogs were considered together and in entire dogs only. Statistical analyses indicated that there were no significant differences between the repeated measurements of length and depth (P>0.05). However, there was a significant difference between repeated measurements of width (P= 0.0357). PMID:10425234

  2. Appropriate patient instructions can reduce prostate motion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interfraction prostate motion must be compensated by increased safety margins. If filling status of rectum and bladder is constant, motion should be reduced. We attempted to reduce interfraction motion errors by proper patient instruction. Method In 38 patients pairs of radio-opaque fiducial markers were implanted prior to definitive radiotherapy. Patients were positioned either according to skin marks or infrared body marker. We measured prostate displacement, i.e. pelvic bones versus intraprostatic marker position, via ExacTrac (two orthogonal radiographies) in 1252 fractions. Systematic and random setup and displacement errors were determined and safety margins estimated. Results In our study interfraction prostate displacement is < 1 mm in RL direction, and < 2 mm in AP and SI direction. Systematic errors are slightly below random errors (< 1.5 mm). Positioning according skin marks results in higher inaccuracies of ±1.5 – 2 mm in RL and ±2 – 2.5 mm in AP/SI direction. Conclusions In case of appropriate patient instructions (constant organ filling) the positioning via bone fusion requires CTV-PTV margins of 2 mm in RL, 4 mm in AP, and 5 mm in SI direction. Studies without any description of patient instruction found much higher margins of > 1 cm in AP and SI direction. PMID:22852559

  3. Prognostic Importance of Small Prostate Size in Men Receiving Definitive Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess whether small prostate size is an adverse prognostic factor in men undergoing brachytherapy in the same manner in which it seems to be for men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2008, 2024 patients underwent brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist. Median follow-up was 7.4 years. The role of small prostate size ({<=}20 cm{sup 3}) as a prognostic factor for biochemical progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and all-cause mortality was investigated. The differences in survival between men with small and larger prostates were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Results: Median prostate size for the entire cohort was 32.7 cm{sup 3}. For the 167 men with small prostates, median prostate size was 17.4 cm{sup 3}. There was no difference in biochemical progression-free survival (95.2% vs 96.2%, P=.603), cause-specific survival (97.7% vs 98.3%, P=.546), or all-cause mortality (78.0% vs 77.2%, P=.838) at 10 years for men with small prostates compared with men with larger prostates. On univariate and multivariate analysis, small prostate size was not associated with any of the primary outcome measures. Conclusion: Men with small prostates treated with brachytherapy have excellent outcomes and are at no higher risk of treatment failure than men with larger glands. High-quality implants with adequate margins seem sufficient to address the increased adverse risk factors associated with small prostate size.

  4. Clinical Significance of the Resistive Index of Prostatic Blood Flow According to Prostate Size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the relationships between the clinical factors and resistive indexes (RIs) of prostate and urethral blood flows by using power Doppler transrectal ultrasonography (PDUS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: The data of 110 patients with BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) treated between January 2015 and July 2015 were prospectively collected. PDUS was used to identify the capsular and urethral arteries of the prostate in order to measure RIs. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximal flow rate (Qmax), total prostate volume (TPV), transition zone volume (TZV), transition zone index (=TZV/TPV), presence of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), and the RIs of capsular and urethral arteries were evaluated for all of the patients by one urologist. Results: The 110 patients were categorized according to IPSS (mild symptoms, 0–7; moderate symptoms, 8–19; and severe symptoms, 20–35), Qmax (<10 and ≥10 mL/sec), TPV (<30 and ≥30 mL), and presence or absence of IPP. No significant relationship was found between the mean RI of any artery and IPSS or Qmax. The mean RIs of the urethral artery, and left and right capsular arteries were significantly dependent on prostate size and the presence of IPP. Conclusions: RI obtained by using PDUS correlated with the presence of IPP and prostate size. The RI of prostate blood flow can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for BPH with LUTS. PMID:27032561

  5. Salmonella Bacterial Monotherapy Reduces Autochthonous Prostate Tumor Burden in the TRAMP Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Robert A.; Gentry, Bettina; Mumm, Tyler; Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium injected in the circulatory system of mammals selectively targets tumors. Using weekly intraperitoneal injections of attenuated Salmonella strain CRC2631, we tested for regression and/or inhibition of tumor development in the TRAMP prostate tumor mouse model, which utilizes SV40 early region expression for autochthonous formation of prostate tumors that progress into metastatic, poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas in an immunocompetent murine model. Thirteen weekly intraperitoneal administrations of 105–107 CFU CRC2631 into 10 week old mice were well tolerated by the TRAMP model. Sacrifice and histological analysis of TRAMP prostates at 22 weeks indicated that Salmonella monotherapy at administrated levels decrease visible tumor size (>29%) but did not significantly inhibit previously described SV40 expression-driven TRAMP tumor progression to undifferentiated carcinomas when histologically examined. In conclusion, this work demonstrates baseline results for CRC2631 Salmonella monotherapy using the immunocompetent TRAMP prostate tumor model in preparation for study of combination therapies that resolve autochthonously generated TRAMP prostate tumors, further reduce tumor size, or inhibit prostate tumor progression. PMID:27504973

  6. Salmonella Bacterial Monotherapy Reduces Autochthonous Prostate Tumor Burden in the TRAMP Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Robert A; Gentry, Bettina; Mumm, Tyler; Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium injected in the circulatory system of mammals selectively targets tumors. Using weekly intraperitoneal injections of attenuated Salmonella strain CRC2631, we tested for regression and/or inhibition of tumor development in the TRAMP prostate tumor mouse model, which utilizes SV40 early region expression for autochthonous formation of prostate tumors that progress into metastatic, poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas in an immunocompetent murine model. Thirteen weekly intraperitoneal administrations of 105-107 CFU CRC2631 into 10 week old mice were well tolerated by the TRAMP model. Sacrifice and histological analysis of TRAMP prostates at 22 weeks indicated that Salmonella monotherapy at administrated levels decrease visible tumor size (>29%) but did not significantly inhibit previously described SV40 expression-driven TRAMP tumor progression to undifferentiated carcinomas when histologically examined. In conclusion, this work demonstrates baseline results for CRC2631 Salmonella monotherapy using the immunocompetent TRAMP prostate tumor model in preparation for study of combination therapies that resolve autochthonously generated TRAMP prostate tumors, further reduce tumor size, or inhibit prostate tumor progression. PMID:27504973

  7. Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer in Men 55 and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer ... PCPT) continue to show that regular use of finasteride (Proscar®) for up to 7 years decreased the ...

  8. Statin Use Reduces Prostate Cancer All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Shih-Ni; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, I-Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have suggested that statin use is related to cancer risk and prostate cancer mortality. We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether using statins in prostate cancer patients is associated with reduced all-cause mortality rates. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 5179 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer who used statins for at least 6 months between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010. To form a comparison group, each patient was randomly frequency-matched (according to age and index date) with a prostate cancer patient who did not use any type of statin-based drugs during the study period. The study endpoint was mortality. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using Cox regression models. Among prostate cancer patients, statin use was associated with significantly decreased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.60–0.71). This phenomenon was observed among various types of statin, age groups, and treatment methods. Analyzing the defined daily dose of statins indicated that both low- and high-dose groups exhibited significantly decreased death rates compared with nonusers, suggesting a dose–response relationship. The results of this population-based cohort study suggest that using statins reduces all-cause mortality among prostate cancer patients, and a dose–response relationship may exist. PMID:26426656

  9. Reduced serum selenoprotein P concentrations in German prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Hellmuth-Alexander; Hollenbach, Birgit; Stephan, Carsten; Endermann, Tobias; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Cammann, Henning; Köhrle, Josef; Jung, Klaus; Schomburg, Lutz

    2009-09-01

    Selenium (Se) is essentially needed for the biosynthesis of selenoproteins. Low Se intake causes reduced selenoprotein biosynthesis and constitutes a risk factor for tumorigenesis. Accordingly, some Se supplementation trials have proven effective to reduce prostate cancer risk, especially in poorly supplied individuals. Because Se metabolism is controlled by selenoprotein P (SEPP), we have tested whether circulating SEPP concentrations correlate to prostate cancer stage and grade. A total of 190 men with prostate cancer (n = 90) and "no evidence of malignancy" (NEM; n = 100) histologically confirmed by prostate biopsy were retrospectively analyzed for established tumor markers and for their Se and SEPP status. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA, total Se, and SEPP concentrations were determined from serum samples and compared with clinicopathologic parameters. The diagnostic performance was analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. Median Se and SEPP concentrations differed significantly (P < 0.001) between the groups. Median serum Se concentrations in the 25th to 75th percentile were 95.9 microg/L (82-117.9) in NEM patients and 81.4 microg/L (67.9-98.4) in prostate cancer patients. Corresponding serum SEPP concentrations were 3.4 mg/L (1.9-5.6) in NEM and 2.9 mg/L (1.1-5.5) in prostate cancer patients. The area under the curve (AUC) of a marker combination with age, PSA, and percent free PSA (%fPSA) in combination with the SEPP concentration, yielded the highest diagnostic value (AUC 0.80) compared with the marker combination without SEPP (AUC 0.77) or %fPSA (AUC 0.76). We conclude that decreased SEPP concentration in serum might represent an additional valuable marker for prostate cancer diagnostics. PMID:19690186

  10. Holmium laser transurethral incision of the prostate: Can prostate size predict the long-term outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Elkoushy, Mohamed A.; Elshal, Ahmed M.; Elhilali, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We determine the impact of prostate size on the long-term outcome of holmium laser transurethral incision of the prostate (Ho-TUIP) for bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) secondary to benign prostate enlargement (BPE). Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed for patients undergoing Ho-TUIP by a single surgeon for patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to BOO. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: Group 1 included patients with prostate ≤30 cc and Group 2 included patients with prostate >30 cc. Demographic, operative and follow-up data were recorded and analyzed. In addition, intraoperative and long-term adverse events were included. Results: In total, 82 patients underwent surgery between March 1998 and March 2013, including 9 (11%) reoperated patients. Only prostate size independently predicted reoperation after Ho-TUIP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.12 [2.92–9.14], p = 0.01). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed an optimal cutoff value of prostate volume of 29 cc to characterize long-term reoperation after TUIP, with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96, sensitivity of 89.7 and specificity of 88.9. Group 1 included 51 patients and Group 2 included 31 patients. The international prostate symptoms score (IPSS) and peak flow rate (Qmax) significantly improved in both groups at different follow-up points. At the 12-month follow-up, the percent change in IPSS and Qmax were comparable between both groups. However, after 12 months, the degree of improvement in all voiding parameters was significantly higher in Group 1 (p < 0.001 at all points of follow-up). After a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range: 1–13), both groups had comparable early and late adverse events with significantly higher reoperation rate in Group 2 (3.9% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.02). Overall retrograde ejaculation was detected in 25.6% of sexually active men and it was

  11. A high-fat diet containing whole walnuts (Juglans regia) reduces tumour size and growth along with plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is linked to prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed male cancer, but the nature and strength of the relationships between total fat, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PCa remain incompletely understood. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (N=10-12 per grou...

  12. Prostate size correlates with fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Choi, Young Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Isaac Yi; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated the correlations between BMI, fasting glucose, insulin, testosterone level, insulin resistance, and prostate size in non-diabetic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with normal testosterone levels. Data from 212 non-diabetic BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to medical treatment failure, were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 3 ng/mL underwent multicore transrectal prostate biopsy before TURP to rule out prostate cancer. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or serum testosterone levels of < 3.50 ng/mL were excluded from analysis. Correlations between clinical and laboratory parameters were determined. Prostate size correlated positively with age (r = 0.227, P < 0.001), PSA (r = 0.510, P < 0.001), and fasting glucose level (r = 0.186, P = 0.007), but not with BMI, testosterone, insulin level, or insulin resistance (each P > 0.05). Testosterone level inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.327, P < 0.001), insulin level (r = -0.207, P = 0.003), and insulin resistance (r = -0.221, P = 0.001), but not with age, prostate size, PSA, or fasting glucose level (each P > 0.05). Upon multiple adjusted linear regression analysis, prostate size correlated with elevated PSA (P < 0.001) and increased fasting glucose levels (P = 0.023). In non-DM BPH patients with normal testosterone levels, fasting glucose level is an independent risk factor for prostate hyperplasia. PMID:21949470

  13. Reducing Class Size To Increase Student Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottes, Christine R.

    Reducing class size was considered an important element in a revised health course at Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania). However, reducing class size to approximately 15 students per class would require 38 sections, more than the health faculty could handle. To recruit additional instructors, the course was marketed to faculty and administrators…

  14. REDMAPS: reduced-dimensionality matching for prostate brachytherapy seed reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghoon; Labat, Christian; Jain, Ameet K; Song, Danny Y; Burdette, Everette Clif; Fichtinger, Gabor; Prince, Jerry L

    2011-01-01

    The success of prostate brachytherapy critically depends on delivering adequate dose to the prostate gland. Intraoperative localization of the implanted seeds provides potential for dose evaluation and optimization during therapy. A reduced-dimensionality matching algorithm for prostate brachytherapy seed reconstruction (REDMAPS) that uses multiple X-ray fluoroscopy images obtained from different poses is proposed. The seed reconstruction problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem, and REDMAPS finds a solution in a clinically acceptable amount of time using dimensionality reduction to create a smaller space of possible solutions. Dimensionality reduction is possible since the optimal solution has approximately zero cost when the poses of the acquired images are known to be within a small error. REDMAPS is also formulated to address the "hidden seed problem" in which seeds overlap on one or more observed images. REDMAPS uses a pruning algorithm to avoid unnecessary computation of cost metrics and the reduced problem is solved using linear programming. REDMAPS was first evaluated and its parameters tuned using simulations. It was then validated using five phantom and 21 patient datasets. REDMAPS was successful in reconstructing the seeds with an overall seed matching rate above 99% and a reconstruction error below 1 mm in less than 5 s. PMID:20643600

  15. Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate is Effective in the Treatment of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia of Any Size Including a Small Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Ho; Yang, Hee Jo; Kim, Doo Sang; Lee, Chang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is considered the standard surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is replacing TURP. We compared TURP with HoLEP with matching for prostate size. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients who underwent TURP and HoLEP performed by one surgeon at our institute. All patients were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of prostate size (group 1, <40 g; group 2, 40-79 g; and group 3, >80 g), and 45 patients were selected for each method. Results No major intraoperative complications were encountered. The mean resected tissue weight was 6.3, 18.3, and 28.0 g for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, for TURP and 8.7, 25.0, and 39.8 g, respectively, for HoLEP. The mean operation time was 51.8, 89.3, and 101.9 minutes for TURP and 83.6, 122.8, and 131.2 minutes for HoLEP in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. HoLEP had better resection efficacy than TURP for any size prostate, but there was no statistical difference between the methods. Both methods resulted in an immediate and significant improvement of International Prostate Symptom Score, peak urinary flow rates, and postvoid residual urine volume. Conclusions HoLEP is effective for BPH treatment, regardless of prostate size, even in a small prostate. The perioperative morbidity of HoLEP is also comparable to that of TURP. PMID:25405016

  16. Ultrasonographic estimation of prostate size in normal dogs and relationship to bodyweight and age.

    PubMed

    Atalan, G; Holt, P E; Barr, F J

    1999-03-01

    A study was undertaken to establish the ranges of prostate dimensions, weight and volume in mature normal dogs and thus provide information which would allow differentiation from normality of size changes associated with disease. The study was performed on 154 healthy adult male entire dogs. Each prostate was imaged ultrasonographically and standard longitudinal and transverse sections were obtained. Prostate length (L), depth on longitudinal (DL) and transverse sections (DT) and width (W) were measured. Prostatic volume and weight were estimated according to formulae derived previously. There were statistically significant correlations between bodyweight or age and L, DL, DT and W. There were also significant correlations between estimated prostatic weight or volume and bodyweight, age, L, DL, DT and W. Formulae were derived to express the relationships between prostate size (weight or volume) and age or bodyweight. PMID:10200922

  17. An Endorectal Balloon Reduces Intrafraction Prostate Motion During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smeenk, Robert Jan; Louwe, Robert J.W.; Langen, Katja M.; Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of endorectal balloons (ERBs) on intrafraction and interfraction prostate motion during radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, to a total dose of 80 Gy in 40 fractions. In 15 patients, a daily-inserted air-filled ERB was applied. Prostate motion was tracked, in real-time, using an electromagnetic tracking system. Interfraction displacements, measured before each treatment, were quantified by calculating the systematic and random deviations of the center of mass of the implanted transponders. Intrafraction motion was analyzed in timeframes of 150 s, and displacements >1 mm, >3 mm, >5 mm, and >7 mm were determined in the anteroposterior, left-right, and superoinferior direction, and for the three-dimensional (3D) vector. Manual table corrections, made during treatment sessions, were retrospectively undone. Results: A total of 576 and 567 tracks have been analyzed in the no-ERB group and ERB group, respectively. Interfraction variation was not significantly different between both groups. After 600 s, 95% and 98% of the treatments were completed in the respective groups. Significantly fewer table corrections were performed during treatment fractions with ERB: 88 vs. 207 (p = 0.02). Intrafraction motion was significantly reduced with ERB. During the first 150 s, only negligible deviations were observed, but after 150 s, intrafraction deviations increased with time. This resulted in cumulative percentages of 3D-vector deviations >1 mm, >3 mm, >5 mm, and >7 mm that were 57.7%, 7.0%, 0.7%, and 0.3% in the ERB-group vs. 70.2%, 18.1%, 4.6%, and 1.4% in the no-ERB group after 600 s. The largest reductions in the ERB group were observed in the AP direction. These data suggest that a 5 mm CTV-to-PTV margin is sufficient to correct for intrafraction prostate movements when using an ERB. Conclusions: ERB significantly reduces intrafraction prostate motion, but not interfraction

  18. An observational Study of the Association between Androgenetic Alopecia and Size of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ramsamy, Kanagaraj; Subramaniyan, Radhakrishnan; Patra, Anjan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by miniaturization of the hair follicle, leading to vellus transformation of the terminal hair follicle. It is caused by interactions between androgens, several genes, and environmental factors with hair follicles. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent among elderly men but infrequent in those younger than 40 years. Because both entities share a common pathogenesis and AGA manifests before the onset of BPH, there could be an association between AGA and BPH. Aim: To study the possible association between AGA and the size of prostate. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five consecutive male patients, 35–65 years of age with AGA of Hamilton–Norwood classification Grades 3–7, were included in the study. AGA of Grades 1 and 2 patients on treatment with minoxidil, finasteride, or other treatments for AGA with history of prostate cancer or prostate disease were excluded from the study. Prostate size was measured through transabdominal ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS software. Results: Of the 65 AGA patients, the mean age was 47.18 years. Grade 4 AGA was the most common grade seen in 19 patients (29.2%), out of which, most (47.4%) were in the 56–65 years age group. 52.3% patients had normal prostate volume, and 47.7% had an enlarged prostate. The percentage of patients with the normal and enlarged prostate in moderate Grade 3 AGA was 68.8% and 31.2%, and in severe Grade 6 AGA, it was 33.3% and 66.7%, respectively. Prostate enlargement was more likely to occur in severe AGA than in moderate AGA(odds ratio 3.311; P = 0.025, which is significant). Conclusion: This study revealed an increase in prostate size with increasing age, with higher prevalence of Grade 1 prostate enlargement in younger individuals, and with higher prevalence of Grade 3 prostate enlargement in elderly men. The study also found a positive correlation between AGA and prostate size, with higher grades of

  19. The REDUCE trial: chemoprevention in prostate cancer using a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride.

    PubMed

    Musquera, Mireia; Fleshner, Neil E; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R

    2008-07-01

    Dutasteride, a dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, is used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It reduces serum prostate-specific antigen levels by approximately 50% at 6 months and total prostate volume by 25% after 2 years. Randomized placebo-controlled trials in BPH patients have shown the efficacy of dutasteride in symptomatic relief, improvements in quality of life and peak urinary flow rate. Side effects occurring with dutasteride are decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorders and gynecomastia. Preliminary data from placebo-controlled BPH trials have shown a decrease in the detection of prostate cancer in patients treated with dutasteride, although these studies were not designed to look at this issue. Dutasteride differs from finasteride in that it inhibits both isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase, type I and type II. The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial at the end of the 7-year study demonstrated a 24.8% reduction in the incidence of prostate cancer in the finasteride group compared with placebo. However, a 25.5% increase in the prevalence of high-grade Gleason tumors has been observed, the clinical significance of which has been debated. Preliminary data suggest a decrease in prostate cancer incidence in dutasteride-treated patients and demonstrate type I alphareductase enzyme expression in prostate cancer. As a result, dutasteride is being investigated for prostate cancer prevention in the ongoing Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, which is discussed here. PMID:18588452

  20. Dosimetry estimation on variations of patient size in prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, James C.L.; Jiang, Runqing

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the dosimetric variations of the target and critical organs of patients who had weight loss associated with prostate volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Five patients with prostate volumes ranging from 32–86.5 cm{sup 3} were selected from a group of 30 patients. Prostate VMAT plans were carried out on each patient using the 6-MV photon beam with a single 360° arc. Decrease of patient size as a result of weight loss was mimicked by contracting the patient's external contour in the anterior, left, and right directions with depths from 0.5–2 cm. Soft tissue excluded by the contracted external contour was replaced by air and the dose distribution was recalculated using the same beam geometry and dose prescription. Dose-volume histograms and dose-volume points such as D99% and D5% for the planning target volume (PTV), clinical target volume (CTV), rectum, bladder, and femoral heads were calculated with variations of reduced depth. In addition, the minimum, maximum, and mean doses for the target and critical organs were determined. PTV and CTV D99% were found to have increased 2.86 ± 0.30% per cm and 2.75 ± 0.38% per cm of reduced depth ranging from 0.5–2 cm. Moreover, the rectal and bladder D30% increased 2.20 ± 0.20% per cm and 2.31 ± 0.83% per cm, and the femoral head D5% increased 3.30 ± 0.11% per cm of reduced depth. Results from variations of the minimum, maximum, and mean doses of the PTV, CTV, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads showed that there was a >5% increase of dose when the reduced depth reached 2 cm. This study provided dosimetry estimation for radiation oncology staff to justify dose variations of the target and critical organs when patients' weight loss occurred in prostate VMAT. Dose variations >5% were seen when the patients' reduced depth was equal to 2 cm.

  1. (-)-Gossypol reduces invasiveness in metastatic prostate cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acquisition of metastatic ability by prostatic cancer cells is the most lethal aspect of prostatic cancer progression. (-)-Gossypol, a polyphenolic compound present in cottonseeds, possesses anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects in various cancer cells. In this study, the differences betwee...

  2. Reduced Boil-Off System Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, Monica C.; Plachta, David W.; Feller, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is currently developing cryogenic propellant storage and transfer systems for future space exploration and scientific discovery missions by addressing the need to raise the technology readiness level of cryogenic fluid management technologies. Cryogenic propellants are baselined in many propulsion systems due to their inherently high specific impulse; however, their low boiling points can cause substantial boil-off losses over time. Recent efforts such as the Reduced Boil-off Testing and the Active Thermal Control Scaling Study provide important information on the benefit of an active cooling system applied to LH2 propellant storage. Findings show that zero-boil off technologies can reduce overall mass in LH2 storage systems when low Earth orbit loiter periods extend beyond two months. A significant part of this mass reduction is realized by integrating two stages of cooling: a 20 K stage to intercept heat at the tank surface, and a 90 K stage to reduce the heat entering the less efficient 20 K stage. A missing element in previous studies, which is addressed in this paper, is the development of a direct method for sizing the 90 K cooling stage. Such a method requires calculation of the heat entering both the 90 K and 20 K stages as compared to the overall system masses, and is reliant upon the temperature distribution, performance, and unique design characteristics of the system in question. By utilizing the known conductance of a system without active thermal control, the heat being intercepted by a 90 K stage can be calculated to find the resultant lift and mass of each active thermal control stage. Integral to this is the thermal conductance of the cooling straps and the broad area cooling shield, key parts of the 90 K stage. Additionally, a trade study is performed to show the ability of the 90 K cooling stage to reduce the lift on the 20 K cryocooler stage, which is considerably less developed and efficient than 90 K cryocoolers.

  3. KCTD11 tumor suppressor gene expression is reduced in prostate adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zazzeroni, Francesca; Nicosia, Daniela; Tessitore, Alessandra; Gallo, Rita; Verzella, Daniela; Fischietti, Mariafausta; Vecchiotti, Davide; Ventura, Luca; Capece, Daria; Gulino, Alberto; Alesse, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer among men in the United States. A genetic contribution to prostate cancer risk has been documented, but knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer initiation is still not well understood. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomal regions is crucial in tumor progression. In human prostate cancer, several chromosomal regions demonstrating a high frequency of LOH have been previously identified. KCTD11 (REN) is a tumor suppressor gene mapping on human chromosome 17p13.2, whose expression is frequently lost in human medulloblastoma and in several other cancer types. KCTD11 acts as a negative regulator of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Here, we demonstrated that KCTD11 LOH is a common genetic lesion in human prostate adenocarcinoma. Indeed, nuclear KCTD11 protein expression is strongly reduced in primary prostate cancer, and this event correlated with overexpression of proteins acting into the Hedgehog pathway. Low levels of KCTD11 mRNA have been also observed in prostatic cancer cells, and ectopic overexpression of KCTD11 led to growth arrest. Our study demonstrates and supports that KCTD11, as well as negatively regulated downstream effectors belonging to Hh signaling, plays a role in prostate cancer pathogenesis. This could be suitable to characterize new diagnostic and therapeutic markers. PMID:25045667

  4. KCTD11 Tumor Suppressor Gene Expression Is Reduced in Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zazzeroni, Francesca; Nicosia, Daniela; Tessitore, Alessandra; Gallo, Rita; Verzella, Daniela; Fischietti, Mariafausta; Vecchiotti, Davide; Ventura, Luca; Capece, Daria; Gulino, Alberto; Alesse, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer among men in the United States. A genetic contribution to prostate cancer risk has been documented, but knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in prostate cancer initiation is still not well understood. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomal regions is crucial in tumor progression. In human prostate cancer, several chromosomal regions demonstrating a high frequency of LOH have been previously identified. KCTD11 (REN) is a tumor suppressor gene mapping on human chromosome 17p13.2, whose expression is frequently lost in human medulloblastoma and in several other cancer types. KCTD11 acts as a negative regulator of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Here, we demonstrated that KCTD11 LOH is a common genetic lesion in human prostate adenocarcinoma. Indeed, nuclear KCTD11 protein expression is strongly reduced in primary prostate cancer, and this event correlated with overexpression of proteins acting into the Hedgehog pathway. Low levels of KCTD11 mRNA have been also observed in prostatic cancer cells, and ectopic overexpression of KCTD11 led to growth arrest. Our study demonstrates and supports that KCTD11, as well as negatively regulated downstream effectors belonging to Hh signaling, plays a role in prostate cancer pathogenesis. This could be suitable to characterize new diagnostic and therapeutic markers. PMID:25045667

  5. Adaptive (TINT) Changes in the Tumor Bearing Organ Are Related to Prostate Tumor Size and Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Hanibal Hani; Strömvall, Kerstin; Nilsson, Maria; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to grow, tumors need to induce supportive alterations in the tumor-bearing organ, by us named tumor instructed normal tissue (TINT) changes. We now examined if the nature and magnitude of these responses were related to tumor size and aggressiveness. Three different Dunning rat prostate tumor cells were implanted into the prostate of immune-competent rats; 1) fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu tumor cells 2) fast growing and poorly metastatic AT-1 tumor cells, and 3) slow growing and non-metastatic G tumor cells. All tumor types induced increases in macrophage, mast cell and vascular densities and in vascular cell-proliferation in the tumor-bearing prostate lobe compared to controls. These increases occurred in parallel with tumor growth. The most pronounced and rapid responses were seen in the prostate tissue surrounding MatLyLu tumors. They were, also when small, particularly effective in attracting macrophages and stimulating growth of not only micro-vessels but also small arteries and veins compared to the less aggressive AT-1 and G tumors. The nature and magnitude of tumor-induced changes in the tumor-bearing organ are related to tumor size but also to tumor aggressiveness. These findings, supported by previous observation in patient samples, suggest that one additional way to evaluate prostate tumor aggressiveness could be to monitor its effect on adjacent tissues. PMID:26536349

  6. Inhibition of SIRT6 in prostate cancer reduces cell viability and increases sensitivity to chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yewei; Xie, Qian Reuben; Wang, Boshi; Shao, Jiaxiang; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Tengyuan; Huang, Gang; Xia, Weiliang

    2013-09-01

    SIRT6 is an important histone modifying protein that regulates DNA repair, telomere maintenance, energy metabolism, and target gene expression. Recently SIRT6 has been identified as a tumor suppressor and is down-regulated in certain cancer types, but not in other cancers. From deposited gene profiling studies we found that SIRT6 was overexpressed in prostate tumors, compared with normal or paratumor prostate tissues. Tissue micro-array studies confirmed the higher levels of SIRT6 in both prostate tumor tissues and prostate cancer cells than in their normal counterparts. Knockdown of SIRT6 in human prostate cancer cells led to sub-G1 phase arrest of cell cycle, increased apoptosis, elevated DNA damage level and decrease in BCL2 gene expression. Moreover, SIRT6-deficiency reduced cell viability and enhanced chemotherapeutics sensitivity. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence of SIRT6 overexpression in human prostate cancer, and SIRT6 regulation could be exploited for prostate cancer therapy. PMID:23982738

  7. Does prostate size impact upon perioperative outcomes associated with photoselective vaporization of the prostate using the 180W lithium triborate laser?

    PubMed Central

    West, Kellie E.; Woo, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) has been widely adopted as a surgical treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Recently, a high-powered 180 W lithium triborate (LBO) laser has become commercially available and there is relatively little information on the impact of this very high-powered laser on perioperative outcomes. Even more so is the impact of the laser on outcomes according to prostate size. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate perioperative outcomes after PVP with the 180W laser, relative to prostate size. Patients and Methods: A prospectively maintained institutional ethics approved database was retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were analyzed according to transrectal ultrasound and categorized into groups namely 0-39 mL, 40-79 mL, 80-120 mL and >120 mL. Perioperative measures included energy utilized, length of operation, duration catheterization, post operative length of stay (POLOS), Clavien-Dindo adverse events and number discharged home within 24 hours catheter free. Results: With increasing prostate size, there was a statistically significant increase in energy utilization and operation time (P < 0.01 between groups). Duration of catheterization, POLOS, incidence of Grade 3 and above Clavien-Dindo adverse events and discharge home catheter free within 24 hours was not statistically significant across groups. Conclusions: Prostate volume impacts upon energy utilized with PVP surgery. Prostate volume does not influence duration of catheterization or POLOS. Clavien-Dindo Grade 3 or greater adverse events were low and do not appear to be influenced by prostate size. The ability to be discharged home catheter free within 24 hours likewise does not appear to be influenced by prostate size. PMID:25657537

  8. Effect of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (leuprolide) therapy on prostatic size and symptoms in 15 men with benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Gabrilove, J L; Levine, A C; Kirschenbaum, A; Droller, M

    1989-09-01

    To determine the effects of reversible medical castration on prostatic size and symptoms we treated 15 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy with a long-acting GnRH analog, leuprolide (1 mg/day sc), for a minimum of 4 months. The men's serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol concentrations fell to very low levels within 4-6 weeks after the initiation of treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate demonstrated an average shrinkage of 40% after 4 months of treatment (n = 15) and 46% after 6 months of treatment (n = 11). All 15 men had improvement in urinary flow and, to a lesser extent, in nocturia and frequency. The side-effects of the therapy were decreased potency and flushing. The most dramatic improvement occurred in 4 of the 5 men who had complete urinary obstruction before treatment. One man had a suprapubic cystotomy tube removed during the fifth treatment month. Two other men who had Foley catheters before treatment are voiding well without catheters since their third treatment month. Another man who had a very large prostate (300 g) before treatment had one successful voiding trial, although he still has a suprapubic cystotomy tube. One man decided to stop treatment after 6 months. Two months later his hormone values and prostate size had returned to pretreatment levels. One man treated during the fourth and fifth months with fluoxymesterone in addition to leuprolide had regrowth of his prostate while receiving this androgen. We conclude that leuprolide treatment of men with benign prostatic hypertrophy results in shrinkage of prostatic size and concomitant improvement in the obstructive symptoms of prostatism. The prostatic shrinkage reverses when treatment is discontinued or combined with androgen. PMID:2474565

  9. The Paradox of Reducing Class Size and Improving Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses four questions: What are the effects of reducing class size? How important are these effects? How can we explain these effects? and How can we improve the outcomes when class sizes are reduced? A major aim is to provide directions for resolving the paradox as to "Why reducing class size has not led to major improvements in…

  10. A combination of sorafenib and nilotinib reduces the growth of castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Monica; Pritchard, Tara; Nehoff, Hayley; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Greish, Khaled; Taurin, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains incurable due to the lack of effective therapies. Several tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and growth of CRPC, as such targeting these kinases may offer an alternative therapeutic strategy. We established the combination of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), sorafenib and nilotinib, as the most cytotoxic. In addtion, to improve their bioavailability and reduce their metabolism, we encapsulated sorafenib and nilotinib into styrene-co-maleic acid micelles. The micelles’ charge, size, and release rate were characterized. We assessed the effect of the combination on the cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis, protein expression, tumor spheroid integrity, migration, and invasion. The micelles exhibited a mean diameter of 100 nm, a neutral charge, and appeared highly stable. The micellar TKIs promoted greater cytotoxicity, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis relative to the free TKIs. In addition, the combination reduced the expression and activity of several tyrosine kinases and reduced tumor spheroid integrity and metastatic potential of CRPC cell lines more efficiently than the single treatments. The combination increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated the relevance of a targeted combination therapy for the treatment of CRPC. In addition, the efficacy of the encapsulated drugs provides the basis for an in vivo preclinical testing. PMID:26811677

  11. A combination of sorafenib and nilotinib reduces the growth of castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Monica; Pritchard, Tara; Nehoff, Hayley; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Greish, Khaled; Taurin, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains incurable due to the lack of effective therapies. Several tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and growth of CRPC, as such targeting these kinases may offer an alternative therapeutic strategy. We established the combination of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), sorafenib and nilotinib, as the most cytotoxic. In addtion, to improve their bioavailability and reduce their metabolism, we encapsulated sorafenib and nilotinib into styrene-co-maleic acid micelles. The micelles' charge, size, and release rate were characterized. We assessed the effect of the combination on the cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis, protein expression, tumor spheroid integrity, migration, and invasion. The micelles exhibited a mean diameter of 100 nm, a neutral charge, and appeared highly stable. The micellar TKIs promoted greater cytotoxicity, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis relative to the free TKIs. In addition, the combination reduced the expression and activity of several tyrosine kinases and reduced tumor spheroid integrity and metastatic potential of CRPC cell lines more efficiently than the single treatments. The combination increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated the relevance of a targeted combination therapy for the treatment of CRPC. In addition, the efficacy of the encapsulated drugs provides the basis for an in vivo preclinical testing. PMID:26811677

  12. The 4Kscore® Test Reduces Prostate Biopsy Rates in Community and Academic Urology Practices

    PubMed Central

    Konety, Badrinath; Zappala, Stephen M; Parekh, Dipen J; Osterhout, Danielle; Schock, Jeffrey; Chudler, Randy M; Oldford, Gregory M; Kernen, Kenneth M; Hafron, Jason

    2015-01-01

    There is significant concern regarding prostate cancer screening because of the potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men who are discovered to have abnormal prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and/or digital rectal examination (DRE) results. The 4Kscore® Test (OPKO Diagnostics, LLC) is a blood test that utilizes four kallikrein levels plus clinical information in an algorithm to calculate an individual’s percentage risk (< 1% to > 95%) for aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥ 7) on prostate biopsy. The 4Kscore Test, as a follow-up test after abnormal PSA and/or DRE test results, has been shown to improve the specificity for predicting the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies. A clinical utility study was conducted to assess the influence of the 4Kscore Test on the decision to perform prostate biopsies in men referred to urologists for abnormal PSA and/or DRE results. The study population included 611 patients seen by 35 academic and community urologists in the United States. Urologists ordered the 4Kscore Test as part of their assessment of men referred for abnormal PSA and/or DRE test results. Results for the patients were stratified into low risk (< 7.5%), intermediate risk (7.5%–19.9%), and high risk (≥ 20%) for aggressive prostate cancer. The 4Kscore Test results influenced biopsy decisions in 88.7% of the men. Performing the 4Kscore Test resulted in a 64.6% reduction in prostate biopsies in patients; the actual percentage of cases not proceeding to biopsy were 94.0%, 52.9%, and 19.0% for men who had low-, intermediate-, and high-risk 4Kscore Test results, respectively. A higher 4Kscore Test was associated with greater likelihood of having a prostate biopsy (P < 0.001). Among the 171 patients who had a biopsy, the 4Kscore risk category is strongly associated with biopsy pathology. The 4Kscore Test, as a follow-up test for an abnormal PSA and/or DRE results, significantly influenced the

  13. A simple analysis of extinction spectra of cancerous and normal prostate tissues in near infrared range using a size discrete particle distribution and Mie scattering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The extinction spectra and optical coefficients of human cancerous and normal prostate tissues were investigated in the spectral range of 750 nm - 860 nm. The scattering coefficient (μs) was determined from the extinction measurements on thin prostate tissue and Beer's law. The absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μs') were extracted from integrate sphere intensity measurements on prostate tissue of which the thickness is in the multiple scattering range. The anisotropy factor (g) was calculated using the extracted values of μs and μs'. A micro-optical model of soft biological tissue was introduced to simulate the numerical computation of the absolute magnitudes of its scattering coefficients from the refractive index and a particle distribution function based on the Mie theory. A key assumption of the model is that the refractive index variations caused by microscopic tissue elements can be treated as particles with sizes distributed according to a skewed log-normal distribution function. The particle distribution and mean particle size of the two types of tissues were then calculated. Results show that the mean diameter of the particle size of cancerous tissue is larger than that of the cancerous tissue, which is responsible for larger reduced scattering coefficient of normal tissue in comparison with cancerous tissue. The results can be explained the change of tissue during prostate cancer evolution defined by Gleason Grade. The difference of the particles distribution and optical coefficients of cancerous and normal prostate tissues may present a potential criterion for prostate cancer detection.

  14. Does resectoscope size play a role in formation of urethral stricture following transurethral prostate resection?

    PubMed Central

    Günes, Mustafa; Keles, Muzaffer Oguz; Kaya, Cevdet; Koca, Orhan; Sertkaya, Zülfü; Akyüz, Mehmet; Altok, Muammer; Umul, Mehmet; Karaman, Muhammet Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and aims: To investigate the possible effect of resectoscope size on urethral stricture rate after monopolar TURP. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 71 men undergoing TURP was conducted at two centers’ from November 2009 to May 2013. The patients were divided into one of two groups according to the resectoscope diameter used for TURP. Resectoscope diameter was 24 F in group 1 (n=35) or 26 F in group 2 (n=36). Urethral catheter type, catheter removal time and energy type were kept constant for all patients. Urethral stricture formation in different localizations after TURP was compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, pre-operative prostate gland volume (PV), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), maximal urinary flow rates (Qmax), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and post-voiding residual urine volume (PVR). The resection time and weight of resected prostate tissue were similar for both groups (p>0.05). A statistically significant higher incidence of bulbar stricture was detected in group 2 compared to group1 (p=0.018). Conclusions: The use of small-diameter resectoscope shafts may cause a reduction in the incidence of uretral strictures in relation to urethral friction and mucosal damage. PMID:26401868

  15. ABCA2 transporter deficiency reduces incidence of TRAMP prostate tumor metastasis and cellular chemotactic migration

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jody T.; Helke, Kristi L.; Normand, Gabrielle; Green, CoDanielle; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the effects of ATP-binding cassette transporter 2 (ABCA2) deficiency on the progression of prostate cancer, congenic Abca2 knockout (KO) mice were crossed to the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. ABCA2 expression was elevated in wild-type/TRAMP (WT/Tg) dorsal prostate, a region comprising the most aggressive tumors in this model, compared to non-transgenic WT mice. Primary prostate tumor progression was similar in KO/Tg and WT/Tg mice with respect to pathological score, prostate tumor growth, as calculated using MRI volumetry, and proliferative index, as determined by PCNA immunostaining. Vimentin, a marker of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, was expressed at similar levels in prostate, but elevated in histologically normal seminal vesicles (SV) in KO/Tg mice (P < 0.02), concomitant with an increased SV volume (P < 0.01). These changes in the SV did not exacerbate the metastatic phenotype of this disease model; rather, KO/Tg mice aged 20-25 weeks had no detectable metastases while 38% of WT/Tg developed metastases to lung and/or lymph nodes. The absence of a metastatic phenotype in KO/Tg mice was reprised in stable ABCA2 knockdown (KD) cells where chemotactic, but not random, migration was impaired (P = 0.0004). Expression levels of sphingolipid biosynthetic enzymes were examined due to the established link of the transporter with sphingolipid homeostasis. Galactosylceramide synthase (GalCerS) mRNA levels were over 8-fold higher in KD cells (P = 0.001), while lactosylceramide synthase (LacCerS) and CTP:choline cytidylyltransferase (CCT) were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001 and 0.03, respectively). Overall, we demonstrate that ABCA2 deficiency inhibits prostate tumor metastasis in vivo and decreases chemotactic potential of cells, conceivably due to altered sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:21041019

  16. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  17. Experimental Analysis of Reduced-Sized Coplanar Waveguide Transmission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the use of capacitive loading of coplanar waveguides to reduce their line length and, thus the size, of monolithic microwave integrated circuits is presented. The reduced sized coplanar waveguides are compared to unloaded transmission lines and to lumped element transmission line segments. The phase bandwidth, defined by 2 percent error in S(sub 21), and the return loss bandwidth, defined by a return loss greater than 15 dB, of coplanar waveguides reduced from 0 to 90 percent are compared, and the insertion loss as a function of the size reduction is presented.

  18. Screening Coverage Needed to Reduce Mortality from Prostate Cancer: A Living Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Badgett, Robert G.; Hoffman, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Screening for prostate cancer remains controversial because of conflicting results from the two major trials: The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). Objective Meta-analyze and meta-regress the available PSA screening trials. Methods We performed a living systematic review and meta-regression of the reduction in prostate cancer mortality as a function of the duration of screening provided in each trial. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Registry, and references lists from previous meta-analyses to identify randomized trials of PSA screening. We followed PRISMA guidelines and qualified strength of evidence with a GRADE Profile. Results We found 6 trials, but excluded one that also screened with trans-rectal ultrasound. We considered each ERSPC center as a separate trial. When pooling together all 11 trials we found no significant benefit from screening; however, the heterogeneity was 28.2% (95% CI: 0% to 65%). Heterogeneity was explained by variations in the duration of serial screening (I2 0%; 95% CI: 0% to 52%). When we analyzed the subgroup of trials that added more than 3 years of screening (range 3.2 to 3.8) we found a significant benefit for screening with risk ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.65–0.94; I2 = 0%; 95% CI: 0% to 69%) and a number needed to invite for screening of 1000. We downgraded the quality of evidence to moderate due to our retrospective identification of subgroups and limited data on control group screening. Conclusions Adequate duration of screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer. The benefit, while small, compares favorably with screening for other cancers. Our projections are limited by the moderate quality of evidence. PMID:27070904

  19. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  20. Body size across the life course and prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Möller, Elisabeth; Wilson, Kathryn M; Batista, Julie L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Bälter, Katarina; Giovannucci, Edward

    2016-02-15

    Current evidence of an association between body size and prostate cancer is conflicting, possibly due to differential effects of body size across the lifespan and the heterogeneity of the disease. We therefore examined childhood and adult body size in relation to total incident prostate cancer and prognostic subtypes in a prospective cohort of 47,491 US men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We assessed adult height, body mass index (BMI) in early and middle-to-late adulthood, adult waist circumference, and body shape at age 10. With follow-up from 1986 to 2010, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of prostate cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. We identified 6,183 incident cases. Tallness was associated with increased risk of advanced-stage tumors, particularly fatal disease (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.23-2.23, highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend < 0.001). High BMI at age 21 was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98, BMI ≥ 26 vs. 20-21.9, ptrend = 0.01) and with fatal and advanced disease. The association for late adult BMI differed by age (pinteraction < 0.001); high BMI was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (RR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.51-0.78, BMI ≥ 30 vs. 21-22.9, ptrend <0.001) and with non-advanced and less aggressive tumors among men ≤ 65 years, whereas no association was seen among men >65 years. Adult waist circumference was weakly inversely associated with less aggressive disease. Childhood obesity was unclearly related to risk. Our study confirms tall men to be at increased risk of fatal and advanced prostate cancer. The influence of adiposity varies by prognostic disease subtype and by age. The relationship between body size and prostate cancer is complex. Body size changes progressively throughout life and consequent effects on prostate cancer risk may be associated with related changes in hormonal and metabolic pathways. This large prospective study examined potential associations

  1. Risk of All-Cause and Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Brachytherapy in Men With Small Prostate Size

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming H.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Hu, Jim C.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Moran, Brian J.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Ross, Rudi; Salenius, Sharon A.; Kantoff, Philip W.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2011-04-01

    Background: Brachytherapy for prostate cancer can be technically challenging in men with small prostates ({<=}20 cc), but it is unknown whether their outcomes are different than those of men with larger prostates. Methods and Materials: We studied 6,416 men treated with brachytherapy in one of 21 community-based practices. Cox regression and Fine and Gray's regression were used to determine whether volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) or prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), respectively, after adjustment for other known prognostic factors. Results: 443 patients (6.9%) had a prostate volume {<=}20 cc. After a median follow-up of 2.91 years (interquartile range, 1.06-4.79), volume {<=}20 cc was associated with a significantly higher risk of ACM (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.33 [95% CI 1.08-1.65], p = 0.0085) with 3-year estimates of ACM for {<=}20 cc vs. >20 cc of 13.0% vs. 6.9% (p = 0.028). Only 23 men (0.36%) have died of prostate cancer, and no difference was seen in PCSM by volume (p = 0.4). Conclusion: Men with small prostates at the time of implant had a 33% higher risk of ACM, and the underlying cause of this remains uncertain. No increase in PCSM was observed in men with volume {<=}20cc, suggesting that a small prostate should not in itself be a contraindication for brachytherapy, but inasmuch as absolute rates of PCSM were small, further follow-up will be needed to confirm this finding.

  2. Parkinsonian patients reduce their stroke size with increased processing demands.

    PubMed

    Van Gemmert, A W; Teulings, H L; Stelmach, G E

    2001-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often show reductions in writing size (micrographia) as the length of the text they produce increases. The cause for these reductions in stroke size are not well understood. Reductions in stroke size could be associated with either concurrent processing demands that result from the coordination and control of fingers, wrist, and arm during writing and the processing of future words or increased extension of the wrist joint as the execution of the writing progresses to the right across the page, resulting in increased stiffness in the pen-limb system. Parkinson's patients and elderly controls wrote phrases of different lengths with target patterns in various serial positions. When the number of words to be written increased, PD patients reduced their stroke size of the initial target pattern, while the elderly controls did not reduce their stroke size. There was no systematic change in stroke size of the second pattern as function of serial position. This result suggests that PD patients reduce the size of their handwriting strokes when concurrent processing load increases. PMID:11748904

  3. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial With Magnesium Oxide to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, Irene M.; Gils, Carla H. van; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Leerdam, Monique E. van; Franken, Stefan P.G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether magnesium oxide during external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer reduces intrafraction prostate motion in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction prostate motion, defined as the proportion of patients who demonstrated in {>=}50% of the fractions an intrafraction motion outside a range of 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life and acute toxicity. Results: In total, 46 patients per treatment arm were enrolled. The primary endpoint did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms with a percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion of 83% in the magnesium oxide arm as compared with 80% in the placebo arm (p = 1.00). Concerning the secondary endpoints, exploratory analyses demonstrated a trend towards worsened quality of life and slightly more toxicity in the magnesium oxide arm than in the placebo arm; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the intrafraction prostate motion during external-beam radiotherapy, and therefore there is no indication to use it in clinical practice for this purpose.

  4. Biodegradable inflatable balloon for reducing radiation adverse effects in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yair; Paz, Adrian; Yosef, Rami Ben; Corn, Benjamin W; Vaisman, Boris; Shuhat, Shaul; Domb, Abraham J

    2009-11-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate is one of the most abundant killers for men in the western world, and it is frequently treated via Radiation therapy. Unfortunately, radiotherapy side effects include rectal irritation and bleeding, erectile dysfunction and urinary frequency. Because radiation intensity decays rapidly as a function of distance, displacing irradiated prostate away from normal tissues would reduce damage and therefore side effects. The objective of this study is to develop an inflatable balloon that is implanted via a minimal invasive procedure. The balloon is made of a biodegradable polymer called poly(lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone). The implant is inserted rolled throughout the perineum; inflated in situ with a physiological saline; sealed and placed between the rectum wall, and the prostate gland. Balloon's mechanical and chemical properties were extensively characterized both in vitro and in vivo. The balloon's preparation ensures no bonding across surfaces as these may endanger the implant mechanical stability. Moreover, the coating method does not alter the polymer's molecular weight and therefore preserve its mechanical properties. Balloon's sterilization was carried out using ethylene oxide which, as our results show and in comparison with gamma-irradiation, doesn't damage the mechanical stability of the implant. The proper functionality of the insertion-mounting device as well as the balloon capability to retain its inflated form during patients' radiation session was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19582846

  5. Size-Dependent Photodynamic Anticancer Activity of Biocompatible Multifunctional Magnetic Submicron Particles in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Nam, Ki Chang; Malkinski, Leszek; Choi, Eun Ha; Jung, Jin-Seung; Park, Bong Joo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, newly designed biocompatible multifunctional magnetic submicron particles (CoFe₂O₄-HPs-FAs) of well-defined sizes (60, 133, 245, and 335 nm) were fabricated for application as a photosensitizer delivery agent for photodynamic therapy in cancer cells. To provide selective targeting of cancer cells and destruction of cancer cell functionality, basic cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂O₄) particles were covalently bonded with a photosensitizer (PS), which comprises hematoporphyrin (HP), and folic acid (FA) molecules. The magnetic properties of the CoFe₂O₄ particles were finely adjusted by controlling the size of the primary CoFe₂O₄ nanograins, and secondary superstructured composite particles were formed by aggregation of the nanograins. The prepared CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA exhibited high water solubility, good MR-imaging capacity, and biocompatibility without any in vitro cytotoxicity. In particular, our CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA exhibited remarkable photodynamic anticancer efficiency via induction of apoptotic death in PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a particle size- and concentration-dependent manner. This size-dependent effect was determined by the specific surface area of the particles because the number of HP molecules increased with decreasing size and increasing surface area. These results indicate that our CoFe₂O₄-HP-FA may be applicable for photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a PS delivery material and a therapeutic agent for MR-imaging based PDT owing to their high saturation value for magnetization and superparamagnetism. PMID:27607999

  6. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  7. Reducing stray radiation dose to patients receiving passively scattered proton radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Phillip J; Fontenot, Jonas D; Zheng, Yuanshui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Lee, Andrew K; Titt, Uwe; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2014-01-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy exposes healthy tissue to stray radiation emanating from the treatment unit and secondary radiation produced within the patient. These exposures provide no known benefit and may increase a patient's risk of developing a radiogenic second cancer. The aim of this study was to explore strategies to reduce stray radiation dose to a patient receiving a 76 Gy proton beam treatment for cancer of the prostate. The whole-body effective dose from stray radiation, E, was estimated using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of a passively scattered proton treatment unit and an anthropomorphic phantom. The predicted value of E was 567 mSv, of which 320 mSv was attributed to leakage from the treatment unit; the remainder arose from scattered radiation that originated within the patient. Modest modifications of the treatment unit reduced E by 212 mSv. Surprisingly, E from a modified passive-scattering device was only slightly higher (109 mSv) than from a nozzle with no leakage, e.g., that which may be approached with a spot-scanning technique. These results add to the body of evidence supporting the suitability of passively scattered proton beams for the treatment of prostate cancer, confirm that the effective dose from stray radiation was not excessive, and, importantly, show that it can be substantially reduced by modest enhancements to the treatment unit. PMID:18369278

  8. Reducing stray radiation dose to patients receiving passively scattered proton radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Fontenot, Jonas D.; Zheng, Yuanshui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Lee, Andrew K.; Titt, Uwe; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2008-04-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy exposes healthy tissue to stray radiation emanating from the treatment unit and secondary radiation produced within the patient. These exposures provide no known benefit and may increase a patient's risk of developing a radiogenic second cancer. The aim of this study was to explore strategies to reduce stray radiation dose to a patient receiving a 76 Gy proton beam treatment for cancer of the prostate. The whole-body effective dose from stray radiation, E, was estimated using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of a passively scattered proton treatment unit and an anthropomorphic phantom. The predicted value of E was 567 mSv, of which 320 mSv was attributed to leakage from the treatment unit; the remainder arose from scattered radiation that originated within the patient. Modest modifications of the treatment unit reduced E by 212 mSv. Surprisingly, E from a modified passive-scattering device was only slightly higher (109 mSv) than from a nozzle with no leakage, e.g., that which may be approached with a spot-scanning technique. These results add to the body of evidence supporting the suitability of passively scattered proton beams for the treatment of prostate cancer, confirm that the effective dose from stray radiation was not excessive, and, importantly, show that it can be substantially reduced by modest enhancements to the treatment unit.

  9. Reducing myocardial infarct size: challenges and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Yellon, Derek M; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Despite prompt reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), the mortality and morbidity of patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remain significant with 9% death and 10% heart failure at 1 year. In these patients, one important neglected therapeutic target is ‘myocardial reperfusion injury’, a term given to the cardiomyocyte death and microvascular dysfunction which occurs on reperfusing ischaemic myocardium. A number of cardioprotective therapies (both mechanical and pharmacological), which are known to target myocardial reperfusion injury, have been shown to reduce myocardial infarct (MI) size in small proof-of-concept clinical studies—however, being able to demonstrate improved clinical outcomes has been elusive. In this article, we review the challenges facing clinical cardioprotection research, and highlight future therapies for reducing MI size and preventing heart failure in patients presenting with STEMI at risk of myocardial reperfusion injury. PMID:26674987

  10. Role of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Reducing Toxicity in Dose Escalation for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Peeters, Stephanie T.H.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To compare the acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated to a total dose of 78 Gy with either a three-conformal radiotherapy technique with a sequential boost (SEQ) or a simultaneous integrated boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 78 prostate cancer patients participating in the randomized Dutch trial comparing 68 Gy and 78 Gy were the subject of this analysis. They were all treated at the same institution to a total dose of 78 Gy. The median follow-up was 76 and 56 months for the SEQ and SIB-IMRT groups, respectively. The primary endpoints were acute and late GI and GU toxicity. Results: A significantly lower incidence of acute Grade 2 or greater GI toxicity occurred in patients treated with SIB-IMRT compared with SEQ (20% vs. 61%, p = 0.001). For acute GU toxicity and late GI and GU toxicity, the incidence was lower after SIB-IMRT, but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant difference were found in the 5-year freedom from biochemical failure rate (Phoenix definition) between the two groups (70% for the SIB-IMRT group vs. 61% for the SEQ group, p = 0.3). The same was true for the 5-year freedom from clinical failure rate (90% vs. 72%, p = 0.07). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that SIB-IMRT reduced the toxicity without compromising the outcome in patients with localized prostate cancer treated to 78 Gy radiation.

  11. Radiobiological Impact of Reduced Margins and Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer in Terms of Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Ingelise; Carl, Jesper; Lund, Bente; Larsen, Erik H.; Nielsen, Jane

    2011-07-01

    Dose escalation in prostate radiotherapy is limited by normal tissue toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of margin size on tumor control and side effects for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) treatment plans with increased dose. Eighteen patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled. 3DCRT and IMRT plans were compared for a variety of margin sizes. A marker detectable on daily portal images was presupposed for narrow margins. Prescribed dose was 82 Gy within 41 fractions to the prostate clinical target volume (CTV). Tumor control probability (TCP) calculations based on the Poisson model including the linear quadratic approach were performed. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was calculated for bladder, rectum and femoral heads according to the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman method. All plan types presented essentially identical TCP values and very low NTCP for bladder and femoral heads. Mean doses for these critical structures reached a minimum for IMRT with reduced margins. Two endpoints for rectal complications were analyzed. A marked decrease in NTCP for IMRT plans with narrow margins was seen for mild RTOG grade 2/3 as well as for proctitis/necrosis/stenosis/fistula, for which NTCP <7% was obtained. For equivalent TCP values, sparing of normal tissue was demonstrated with the narrow margin approach. The effect was more pronounced for IMRT than 3DCRT, with respect to NTCP for mild, as well as severe, rectal complications.

  12. Aspirin, NSAID and risk of prostate cancer: Results from the REDUCE study

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Adriana C.; Howard, Lauren E.; Moreira, Daniel M.; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A recent meta-analysis showed aspirin was associated with reduced prostate cancer (PC) risk. As anti-inflammatory medications lower PSA levels, whether these findings reflect reduced PC detection or lower PC risk is unknown. We tested the association between aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID on PC diagnosis in REDUCE, where all men received biopsies at 2- and 4-years largely independent of PSA. REDUCE tested dutasteride for PC risk reduction in men with a PSA of 2.5-10.0 ng/mL and a negative pre-study biopsy. Experimental Design We examined the association between aspirin, NSAID or both and total, low-grade (Gleason<7), or high-grade (Gleason≥7) PC vs. no PC using multinomial logistic regression among 6,390 men who underwent ≥1 on-study biopsy. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, race, geographic region, PSA, prostate volume, digital rectal examination, BMI, treatment arm, smoking, alcohol, statins, hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Results Overall, 3,169 men (50%) were non-users, 1,368 (21%) used aspirin, 1,176 (18%) used NSAID, and 677 (11%) used both. In unadjusted models, aspirin was associated with reduced PC risk (OR=0.85, p=0.036). In multivariable analyses, aspirin was associated with reduced total PC risk (OR=0.81, p=0.015). Use of NSAID or NSAIDs and aspirin was not associated with total, low- or high-grade PC, though all ORs were <1 (all p≥0.08). Therefore, we created a dichotomous variable of aspirin and/or NSAID user vs. not. On multivariable analysis, the use of aspirin and/or NSAID was significantly associated with decreased total (OR=0.87, p=0.030) and high-grade (OR=0.80, p=0.040), but not with low-grade PC risk (OR=0.90, p=0.15). Results were similar in placebo and dutasteride arms. Conclusions Among men with a negative biopsy, aspirin and/or NSAID use was associated with decreased PC risk. Additional studies are warranted. PMID:25520389

  13. Lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal reduce cell proliferation and alter cell cycle progression in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nikki A; Elsen, Amy C; Zuniga, Krystle; Lindshield, Brian L; Erdman, John W

    2011-01-01

    Lycopene is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. However, lycopene may not be wholly responsible for the effects seen in vivo or in cell culture systems. Apo-lycopenals or other lycopene metabolites, whether produced by cleavage enzymes within the body or consumed with tomato products, can be found in tissues at concentrations equivalent to physiological retinoid concentrations. Therefore, it is plausible that lycopenoids, like retinoids, are bioactive within tissues. Androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells were treated with lycopene, apo-8'-lycopenal, or apo-12'-lycopenal. DU145 cell proliferation was significantly reduced by supra-physiological levels of lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal, in part, through alteration of the normal cell cycle. Levels of the gap junction protein, connexin 43, were unaltered by lycopene or apo-lycopenal treatment while cell apoptosis rates significantly decreased. We further confirmed that connexin 43 protein levels were unaltered by lycopene treatment in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or in Dunning R3327-H rat prostate tumor. The present data indicate that lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal reduce the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, in part, by inhibiting normal cell cycle progression. PMID:21207319

  14. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate gland biopsy; Transrectal prostate biopsy; Fine needle biopsy of the prostate; Core biopsy of the prostate; Targeted prostate biopsy; Prostate biopsy - transrectal ultrasound (TRUS); Stereotactic ...

  15. What is the optimum minimum segment size used in step and shoot IMRT for prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Koizumi, Masahiko; Sumida, Iori; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Akino, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Konishi, Koji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Takehiro

    2010-01-01

    Although the use of small segments in step and shoot IMRT provides better dose distribution, extremely small segments decrease treatment accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum minimum segment size (MSS) in two-step optimization in prostate step and shoot IMRT with regard to both planning quality and dosimetric accuracy. The XiO treatment planning system and Oncor Impression Plus were used. Results showed that the difference in homogeneity index (HI), defined as the ratio of maximum to minimum doses for planning target volume, between the MSS 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm plans, and 2.0 cm plans, was 0.1%, and 9.6%, respectively. With regard to V107 of PTV, the volume receiving 107% of the prescribed dose of the PTV, the difference between MSS 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm was 2%. However, the value of the MSS 2.0 cm or greater plans was more than 2.5-fold that of the MSS 1.0 cm plan. With regard to maximum rectal dose, a significant difference was seen between the MSS 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm plans, whereas no significant difference was seen between the MSS 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm plans. Composite plan verification revealed a greater than 5% dose difference between planned and measured dose in many regions with the MSS 1.0 cm plan, but in only limited regions in the MSS 1.5 cm plan. Our data suggest that the MSS should be determined with regard to both planning quality and dosimetric accuracy. PMID:20683175

  16. Smoking Is Associated with Acute and Chronic Prostatic Inflammation: Results from the REDUCE Study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Daniel M; Nickel, J Curtis; Gerber, Leah; Muller, Roberto L; Andriole, Gerald L; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Freedland, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Both anti- and proinflammatory effects of cigarette smoking have been described. As prostate inflammation is common, we hypothesized smoking could contribute to prostate inflammation. Thus, we evaluated the association of smoking status with acute and chronic inflammation within the prostate of men undergoing prostate biopsy. We retrospectively analyzed 8,190 men ages 50 to 75 years with PSA levels between 2.5 and 10 ng/mL enrolled in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study. Smoking status was self-defined as never, former, or current. Prostate inflammation was assessed by systematic central review blinded to smoking status. The association of smoking with inflammation in the baseline, 2-year, and 4-year biopsies was evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. At study enrollment, 1,233 (15%), 3,203 (39%), and 3,754 (46%) men were current, former, and never smokers, respectively. Current smokers were significantly younger and had smaller prostates than former and never smokers (all P < 0.05). Former smokers were significantly heavier than current and never smokers (P < 0.001). Acute and chronic prostate inflammations were identified in 1,261 (15%) and 6,352 (78%) baseline biopsies, respectively. In univariable analysis, current smokers were more likely to have acute inflammation than former (OR, 1.35; P, 0.001) and never smokers (OR, 1.36; P, 0.001). The results were unchanged at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In contrast, current smoking was linked with chronic inflammation in the baseline biopsy, but not at 2- and 4-year biopsies. In conclusion, among men undergoing prostate biopsy, current smoking was independently associated with acute and possibly chronic prostate inflammations. PMID:25644151

  17. Prostate Cancer Discrimination in the Peripheral Zone With a Reduced Field-of-View T2-mapping MRI Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Fernando I.; Penzkofer, Tobias; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Chu, Renxin; Maier, Stephan E.; Tempany, Clare M.C.; Mulkern, Robert V.; Panych, Lawrence P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the performance of T2 mapping in discriminating prostate cancer from normal prostate tissue in the peripheral zone using a practical reduced field-of-view MRI sequence requiring less than 3 minutes of scan time. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients with biopsy-proven peripheral zone prostate cancer without prior treatment underwent routine multiparametric MRI at 3.0T with an endorectal coil. An Inner-Volume Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill imaging sequence that required 2.8 minutes to obtain data for quantitative T2 mapping covering the entire prostate gland was added to the routine multiparametric protocol. Suspected cancer (SC) and suspected healthy (SH) tissue in the peripheral zone were identified in consensus by three radiologists and were correlated with available biopsy results. Differences in mean T2 values in SC and SH ROIs were tested for significance using unpaired Student’s two-tailed t test. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the optimal threshold T2 value for cancer discrimination. Results ROI analyses revealed significantly (p<0.0001) shorter T2 values in SC (85.4 ± 12.3 ms) compared to SH (169.6 ± 38.7 ms). An estimated T2 threshold of 99 ms yielded a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 97% for prostate cancer discrimination. Conclusions Quantitative values derived from this clinically practical T2-mapping sequence allow high precision discrimination between healthy and cancerous peripheral zone in the prostate. PMID:25687187

  18. Tunable Reduced Size Planar Folded Slot Antenna Utilizing Varactor Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Jordan, Jennifer L.; Jastram, Nathan; Mahaffey, Joshua V.

    2010-01-01

    A tunable folded slot antenna that utilizes varactor diodes is presented. The antenna is fabricated on Rogers 6006 Duriod with a dielectric constant and thickness of 6.15 and 635 m, respectively. A copper cladding layer of 17 m defines the antenna on the top side (no ground on backside). The antenna is fed with a CPW 50 (Omega) feed line, has a center frequency of 3 GHz, and incorporates Micrometrics microwave hyper-abrupt 500MHV varactors to tune the resonant frequency. The varactors have a capacitance range of 2.52 pF at 0 V to 0.4 pF at 20 V; they are placed across the radiating slot of the antenna. The tunable 10 dB bandwidth of the 3 GHz antenna is 150 MHz. The varactors also reduce the size of the antenna by 30% by capacitively loading the resonating slot line. At the center frequency, 3 GHz, the antenna has a measured return loss of 44 dB and a gain of 1.6 dBi. Full-wave electromagnetic simulations using HFSS are presented that validate the measured data. Index Terms capacitive loading, Duriod, folded slot antenna, varactor.

  19. NPM1 Silencing Reduces Tumour Growth and MAPK Signalling in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Loubeau, Gaëlle; Boudra, Rafik; Maquaire, Sabrina; Lours-Calet, Corinne; Beaudoin, Claude; Verrelle, Pierre; Morel, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The chaperone nucleophosmin (NPM1) is over-expressed in the epithelial compartment of prostate tumours compared to adjacent healthy epithelium and may represent one of the key actors that support the neoplastic phenotype of prostate adenocarcinoma cells. Yet, the mechanisms that underlie NPM1 mediated phenotype remain elusive in the prostate. To better understand NPM1 functions in prostate cancer cells, we sought to characterize its impact on prostate cancer cells behaviour and decipher the mechanisms by which it may act. Here we show that NPM1 favors prostate tumour cell migration, invasion and colony forming. Furthermore, knockdown of NPM1 leads to a decrease in the growth of LNCaP-derived tumours grafted in Nude mice in vivo. Such oncogenic-like properties are found in conjunction with a positive regulation of NPM1 on the ERK1/2 (Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinases 1/2) kinase phosphorylation in response to EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) stimulus, which is critical for prostate cancer progression following the setting of an autonomous production of the growth factor. NPM1 could then be a target to switch off specifically ERK1/2 pathway activation in order to decrease or inhibit cancer cell growth and migration. PMID:24796332

  20. Denosumab Reduces Risk of Bone Side Effects in Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The biological agent denosumab (Xgeva) is more effective than zoledronic acid at decreasing the risk of bone fractures and other skeletal-related events (SRE) in men with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, according to results from a randomi

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  3. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. PMID:21762188

  4. A Cinematic Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Milk of Magnesia Laxative and an Antiflatulent Diet to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Nichol, Alan M.; Warde, Padraig R.; Lockwood, Gina A.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the reduction of prostate motion during a typical radiotherapy (RT) fraction from a bowel regimen comprising an antiflatulent diet and daily milk of magnesia. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with T1c-T2c prostate cancer voided the bladder and rectum before three cinematic magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained every 9 s for 9 min in a vacuum immobilization device. The MRIs were at baseline without bowel regimen (MRI-BL), before CT planning with bowel regimen (MRI-CT), and before a randomly assigned RT fraction (1-42) with bowel regimen (MRI-RT). A single observer tracked displacement of the posterior midpoint (PM) of the prostate. The primary endpoints were comparisons of the proportion of time that the PM was displaced >3 mm (PTPM3) from its initial position, and the secondary endpoints were comparisons of the reduction of initial rectal area, with and without the bowel regimen. Results: The mean rectal area was: 13.5 cm{sup 2} at MRI-BL, 12.7 cm{sup 2} at MRI-CT, and 12.3 cm{sup 2} at MRI-RT (MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.11; MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.07). Moving rectal gas alone (56%) and moving gas and stool (18%) caused 74% of intrafraction prostate motion. The PTPM3 was 11.3% at MRI-BL, 4.8% at MRI-CT, and 12.0% at MRI-RT (MRI-BL vs. MRI-CT, p = 0.12; MRI-BL vs. MRI-RT, p = 0.89). Conclusion: For subjects voiding their rectum before imaging, an antiflatulent diet and milk of magnesia laxative did not significantly reduce initial rectal area or intrafraction prostate motion.

  5. Can Images Obtained With High Field Strength Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reduce Contouring Variability of the Prostate?

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, Nawaid; Sloboda, Ron; Kamal, Wafa; Ghosh, Sunita; Pervez, Nadeem; Pedersen, John; Yee, Don; Danielson, Brita; Murtha, Albert; Amanie, John; Monajemi, Tara

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine whether there is less contouring variability of the prostate using higher-strength magnetic resonance images (MRI) compared with standard MRI and computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Forty patients treated with prostate brachytherapy were accrued to a prospective study that included the acquisition of 1.5-T MR and CT images at specified time points. A subset of 10 patients had additional 3.0-T MR images acquired at the same time as their 1.5-T MR scans. Images from each of these patients were contoured by 5 radiation oncologists, with a random subset of patients repeated to quantify intraobserver contouring variability. To minimize bias in contouring the prostate, the image sets were placed in folders in a random order with all identifiers removed from the images. Results: Although there was less interobserver contouring variability in the overall prostate volumes in 1.5-T MRI compared with 3.0-T MRI (p < 0.01), there was no significant differences in contouring variability in the different regions of the prostate between 1.5-T MRI and 3.0-T MRI. MRI demonstrated significantly less interobserver contouring variability in both 1.5-T and 3.0-T compared with CT in overall prostate volumes (p < 0.01, p = 0.01), with the greatest benefits being appreciated in the base of the prostate. Overall, there was less intraobserver contouring variability than interobserver contouring variability for all of the measurements analyzed. Conclusions: Use of 3.0-T MRI does not demonstrate a significant improvement in contouring variability compared with 1.5-T MRI, although both magnetic strengths demonstrated less contouring variability compared with CT.

  6. Rye Bread Consumption in Early Life and Reduced Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torfadottir, Johanna E.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Mucci, Lorelei; Stampfer, Meir; Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Fall, Katja; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Aspelund, Thor; Olafsson, Orn; Harris, Tamara B.; Jonsson, Eirikur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Adami, Hans-Olov; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether consumption of whole-grain; rye bread, oatmeal, and whole-wheat bread, during different periods of life, is associated with risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods In 2002 to 2006, 2,268 men, aged 67-96 years, reported their dietary habits in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed for early-, mid- , and current life using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Through linkage to cancer- and mortality registers, we retrieved information on PCa diagnosis and mortality through 2009. We used regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) for PCa according to whole grain consumption, adjusted for possible confounding factors including fish-, fish liver oil-, meat-, and milk intake. Results Of the 2,268 men, 347 had or were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up, 63 with advanced disease (stage 3+ or died of PCa). Daily rye bread consumption in adolescence (vs. less than daily) was associated with a decreased risk of PCa diagnosis (OR = 0.76, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.98), and of advanced PCa (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.84). High intake of oatmeal in adolescence (≥5 vs. ≤4 times/ week) was not significantly associated with risk of PCa diagnosis (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77-1.27) nor advanced PCa (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.37-1.20). Mid-, and late life consumption of rye bread, oatmeal, or whole-wheat bread was not associated with PCa risk. Conclusion Our results suggest that rye bread consumption in adolescence may be associated with reduced risk of PCa, particularly advanced disease. PMID:22527172

  7. Reducing the Cost of Proton Radiation Therapy: The Feasibility of a Streamlined Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui; Jones, Timothy G.; Giebeler, Annelise; Taddei, Phillip J.; Stewart, Robert D.; Lee, Andrew; Vassiliev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature has been paid to the costs associated with collimators, range compensators and hypofractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cost-saving modifications to the present standard of care for proton treatments for prostate cancer. In particular, we quantified the dosimetric impact of a treatment technique in which custom fabricated collimators were replaced with a multileaf collimator (MLC) and the custom range compensators (RC) were eliminated. The dosimetric impacts of these modifications were assessed for 10 patients with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and confirmed with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed the impact on lifetime risks of radiogenic second cancers using detailed dose reconstructions and predictive dose-risk models based on epidemiologic data. We also performed illustrative calculations, using an isoeffect model, to examine the potential for hypofractionation. Specifically, we bracketed plausible intervals of proton fraction size and total treatment dose that were equivalent to a conventional photon treatment of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Our results revealed that eliminating the RC and using an MLC had negligible effect on predicted dose distributions and second cancer risks. Even modest hypofractionation strategies can yield substantial cost savings. Together, our results suggest that it is feasible to modify the standard of care to increase treatment efficiency, reduce treatment costs to patients and insurers, while preserving high treatment quality. PMID:25920039

  8. Synthesis And Characterization Of Reduced Size Ferrite Reinforced Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Borah, Subasit; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi S.

    2008-04-24

    Small sized Co{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite particles are synthesized by chemical route. The precursor materials are annealed at 400, 600 and 800 C. The crystallographic structure and phases of the samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The annealed ferrite samples crystallized into cubic spinel structure. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) micrographs show that the average particle size of the samples are <20 nm. Particulate magneto-polymer composite materials are fabricated by reinforcing low density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix with the ferrite samples. The B-H loop study conducted at 10 kHz on the toroid shaped composite samples shows reduction in magnetic losses with decrease in size of the filler sample. Magnetic losses are detrimental for applications of ferrite at high powers. The reduction in magnetic loss shows a possible application of Co-Ni ferrites at high microwave power levels.

  9. 13 CFR 121.802 - What size standards are applicable to reduced patent fees programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What size standards are applicable to reduced patent fees programs? 121.802 Section 121.802 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for Paying Reduced...

  10. Inhibiting Vimentin or beta 1-integrin Reverts Prostate Tumor Cells in IrECM and Reduces Tumor Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V.; Ware, Joy L.; Bissell, Mina J.; Zehner, Zendra E.

    2009-07-27

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphological changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional (3D) lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the parental prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin or {alpha}6-, {beta}4- and {beta}1-integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via siRNA interference or {beta}1-integrin expression by the addition of the blocking antibody, AIIB2, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by subcutaneous injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in 3D lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1-integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acini in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis.

  11. Reducing Router Forwarding Table Size Using Aggregation and Caching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yaoqing

    2013-01-01

    The fast growth of global routing table size has been causing concerns that the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) will not be able to fit in existing routers' expensive line-card memory, and upgrades will lead to a higher cost for network operators and customers. FIB Aggregation, a technique that merges multiple FIB entries into one, is probably…

  12. SULT2B1b Sulfotransferase: Induction by Vitamin D Receptor and Reduced Expression in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young-Kyo; Mirkheshti, Nooshin; Song, Chung S.; Kim, Soyoung; Dodds, Sherry; Ahn, Soon C.; Christy, Barbara; Mendez-Meza, Rosario; Ittmann, Michael M.; Abboud-Werner, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    An elevated tumor tissue androgen level, which reactivates androgen receptor in recurrent prostate cancer, arises from the intratumor synthesis of 5α-dihydrotestosterone through use of the precursor steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and is fueled by the steroidogenic enzymes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD1), aldoketoreductase (AKR1C3), and steroid 5-alpha reductase, type 1 (SRD5A1) present in cancer tissue. Sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) (in short, SULT2B) is a prostate-expressed hydroxysteroid SULT that converts cholesterol, oxysterols, and DHEA to 3β-sulfates. DHEA metabolism involving sulfonation by SULT2B can potentially interfere with intraprostate androgen synthesis due to reduction of free DHEA pool and, thus, conversion of DHEA to androstenedione. Here we report that in prostatectomy specimens from treatment-naive patients, SULT2B expression is markedly reduced in malignant tissue (P < .001, Mann-Whitney U test) compared with robust expression in adjacent nonmalignant glands. SULT2B was detected in formalin-fixed specimens by immunohistochemistry on individual sections and tissue array. Immunoblotting of protein lysates of frozen cancer and matched benign tissue confirmed immunohistochemistry results. An in-house–developed rabbit polyclonal antibody against full-length human SULT2B was validated for specificity and used in the analyses. Ligand-activated vitamin D receptor induced the SULT2B1 promoter in vivo in mouse prostate and increased SULT2B mRNA and protein levels in vitro in prostate cancer cells. A vitamin D receptor/retinoid X receptor-α–bound DNA element (with a DR7 motif) mediated induction of the transfected SULT2B1 promoter in calcitriol-treated cells. SULT2B knockdown caused an increased proliferation rate of prostate cancer cells upon stimulation by DHEA. These results suggest that the tumor tissue SULT2B level may partly control prostate cancer growth, and its induction in a therapeutic setting may inhibit disease

  13. On being the right size: increased body size is associated with reduced telomere length under natural conditions.

    PubMed

    Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Pärn, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Holand, Håkon; Hagen, Ingerid Julie; Rønning, Bernt; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for larger size is imposed in natural populations. We report here on the relationship between structural body size and telomere length in wild house sparrows at the beginning and end of a selection regime for larger parent size that was imposed for 4 years in an isolated population of house sparrows. A negative relationship between fledgling size and telomere length was present at the start of the selection; this was extended when fledgling size increased under the selection regime, demonstrating a persistent covariance between structural size and telomere length. Changes in telomere dynamics, either as a correlated trait or a consequence of larger size, could reduce potential longevity and the consequent trade-offs could thereby play an important role in the evolution of optimal body size. PMID:26631569

  14. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is encased within the prostate gland. As a man ages, the prostate typically enlarges in size in ... urinate, and incontinence. Less than half of all men with BPH have symptoms of the disease, or ...

  15. Reduced risk of prostate cancer in childless men as compared to fathers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yeqing; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The previously reported association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer risk was controversial. We carried out the present meta-analysis of all relevant studies to summarize evidence on this association. A comprehensive literature search of studies was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, covering all the papers published from their inception to September 2015. The combined risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. A total of 11 studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. We found a significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with being childless (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.96). There was statistically significant heterogeneity across the studies (P < 0.001, I(2) = 88.2%). In summary, this meta-analysis supports that being fatherless is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Because of the substantial heterogeneity and residual confounding, using other study designs to further explore this association and the underling mechanism is warranted. PMID:26752096

  16. Reduced risk of prostate cancer in childless men as compared to fathers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yeqing; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The previously reported association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer risk was controversial. We carried out the present meta-analysis of all relevant studies to summarize evidence on this association. A comprehensive literature search of studies was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, covering all the papers published from their inception to September 2015. The combined risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. A total of 11 studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. We found a significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with being childless (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.96). There was statistically significant heterogeneity across the studies (P < 0.001, I2 = 88.2%). In summary, this meta-analysis supports that being fatherless is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Because of the substantial heterogeneity and residual confounding, using other study designs to further explore this association and the underling mechanism is warranted. PMID:26752096

  17. High Speed Gear Sized and Configured to Reduce Windage Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Robert F. (Inventor); Medvitz, Richard B. (Inventor); Hill, Matthew John (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gear and drive system utilizing the gear include teeth. Each of the teeth has a first side and a second side opposite the first side that extends from a body of the gear. For each tooth of the gear, a first extended portion is attached to the first side of the tooth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates. The gear may be utilized in drive systems that may have high rotational speeds, such as speeds where the tip velocities are greater than or equal to about 68 m/s. Some embodiments of the gear may also utilize teeth that also have second extended portions attached to the second sides of the teeth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates.

  18. A high-fat diet containing lard accelerates prostate cancer progression and reduces survival rate in mice: possible contribution of adipose tissue-derived cytokines.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han Jin; Kwon, Gyoo Taik; Park, Heesook; Song, Hyerim; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jung-In; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) containing lard on prostate cancer development and progression and its underlying mechanisms, transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) and TRAMP-C2 allograft models, as well as in vitro culture models, were employed. In TRAMP mice, HFD feeding increased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma and decreased that of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate, which was accompanied by increased expression of proteins associated with proliferation and angiogenesis. HFD feeding also led to increased metastasis and decreased survival rate in TRAMP mice. In the allograft model, HFD increased solid tumor growth, the expression of proteins related to proliferation/angiogenesis, the number of lipid vacuoles in tumor tissues, and levels of several cytokines in serum and adipose tissue. In vitro results revealed that adipose tissue-conditioned media from HFD-fed mice stimulated the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and angiogenesis compared to those from control-diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the increase of adipose tissue-derived soluble factors by HFD feeding plays a role in the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. These results provide evidence that a HFD containing lard increases prostate cancer development and progression, thereby reducing the survival rate. PMID:25912035

  19. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, W.P.; O'Brien, J.B.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Co., acting as contractor for the City of Long Beach, operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Co. currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four manmade islands and one landfill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100% pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and to lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump-performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from using more efficient pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  20. Testing new submersible pumps for proper sizing and reduced costs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, W.P.; O'Brien, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to improve overall submersible pump performance by Thums Long Beach Company, acting as Contractor of the City of Long Beach, Operator of the Long Beach Unit. Thums Long Beach Company currently operates 700 submersible pump installations located on four man-made islands and one land fill pier location. The program began with spot testing of submersible pumps for Thums' use. It has evolved to 100 percent pump testing and the stipulation that only pumps with newly manufactured parts are acceptable. The primary goals of this program are to increase well production and lower lifting costs. Critical to these goals is increasing the average length of run by using accurate pump performance data to design equipment and by rejecting defective pumps before they are run. Increased production is realized from better designs. Lower lifting costs result from utilizing higher efficiency pumps and a reduced frequency of pulling submersible equipment.

  1. Prostatic Relaxation Induced by Loperamide Is Reduced in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Liang-Ming; Lu, Chih-Cheng; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows a new finding about the decrease of relaxative response to loperamide in prostate of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as compare to normal rats (WKY). Authors demonstrated the reduction of ATP-sensitive potassium channels is resposible for this change using immunoblotting analysis and the decrease of action induced by diazoxide. This view is not mentioned before and is the first one reporting this result. PMID:22645476

  2. CT, MR, and ultrasound image artifacts from prostate brachytherapy seed implants: The impact of seed size

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Andrew K. H.; Basran, Parminder S.; Thomas, Steven D.; Wells, Derek

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of brachytherapy seed size on the quality of x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) images and seed localization through comparison of the 6711 and 9011 {sup 125}I sources. Methods: For CT images, an acrylic phantom mimicking a clinical implantation plan and embedded with low contrast regions of interest (ROIs) was designed for both the 0.774 mm diameter 6711 (standard) and the 0.508 mm diameter 9011 (thin) seed models (Oncura, Inc., and GE Healthcare, Arlington Heights, IL). Image quality metrics were assessed using the standard deviation of ROIs between the seeds and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) within the low contrast ROIs. For US images, water phantoms with both single and multiseed arrangements were constructed for both seed sizes. For MR images, both seeds were implanted into a porcine gel and imaged with pelvic imaging protocols. The standard deviation of ROIs and CNR values were used as metrics of artifact quantification. Seed localization within the CT images was assessed using the automated seed finder in a commercial brachytherapy treatment planning system. The number of erroneous seed placements and the average and maximum error in seed placements were recorded as metrics of the localization accuracy. Results: With the thin seeds, CT image noise was reduced from 48.5 {+-} 0.2 to 32.0 {+-} 0.2 HU and CNR improved by a median value of 74% when compared with the standard seeds. Ultrasound image noise was measured at 50.3 {+-} 17.1 dB for the thin seed images and 50.0 {+-} 19.8 dB for the standard seed images, and artifacts directly behind the seeds were smaller and less prominent with the thin seed model. For MR images, CNR of the standard seeds reduced on average 17% when using the thin seeds for all different imaging sequences and seed orientations, but these differences are not appreciable. Automated seed localization required an average ({+-}SD) of 7.0 {+-} 3.5 manual

  3. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the... number of reindeer you are grazing; or (b) When disposal, withdrawal, natural causes, such as drought...

  4. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the... number of reindeer you are grazing; or (b) When disposal, withdrawal, natural causes, such as drought...

  5. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the... number of reindeer you are grazing; or (b) When disposal, withdrawal, natural causes, such as drought...

  6. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the... number of reindeer you are grazing; or (b) When disposal, withdrawal, natural causes, such as drought...

  7. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Attard, Gerhardt; Parker, Chris; Eeles, Ros A; Schröder, Fritz; Tomlins, Scott A; Tannock, Ian; Drake, Charles G; de Bono, Johann S

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in research for prostate cancer in the past decade. There is now greater understanding for the genetic basis of familial prostate cancer with identification of rare but high-risk mutations (eg, BRCA2, HOXB13) and low-risk but common alleles (77 identified so far by genome-wide association studies) that could lead to targeted screening of patients at risk. This is especially important because screening for prostate cancer based on prostate-specific antigen remains controversial due to the high rate of overdiagnosis and unnecessary prostate biopsies, despite evidence that it reduces mortality. Classification of prostate cancer into distinct molecular subtypes, including mutually exclusive ETS-gene-fusion-positive and SPINK1-overexpressing, CHD1-loss cancers, could allow stratification of patients for different management strategies. Presently, men with localised disease can have very different prognoses and treatment options, ranging from observation alone through to radical surgery, with few good-quality randomised trials to inform on the best approach for an individual patient. The survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer progressing on androgen-deprivation therapy (castration-resistant prostate cancer) has improved substantially. In addition to docetaxel, which has been used for more than a decade, in the past 4 years five new drugs have shown efficacy with improvements in overall survival leading to licensing for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Because of this rapid change in the therapeutic landscape, no robust data exist to inform on the selection of patients for a specific treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer or the best sequence of administration. Moreover, the high cost of the newer drugs limits their widespread use in several countries. Data from continuing clinical and translational research are urgently needed to improve, and, crucially, to personalise management. PMID

  8. Reducing Infectious Complications Following Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jordon T; Singla, Nirmish; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2016-01-01

    A rise in antimicrobial resistant uropathogens has generated a global increase in infections following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx). We performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE® and PubMed to comprehensively review strategies to mitigate infections. Of 1664 articles retrieved, 62 were included. The data suggest that augmented prophylaxis and povidone-iodine bowel preparation warrant consideration in regions with high rates of antimicrobial resistance. Transperineal biopsy may be a safer, equally effective alternative to TRUS-Bx in select cases. Recent international travel appears to increase patients' risk for experiencing infections. These findings can aid clinicians in minimizing post-TRUS-Bx infectious complications. PMID:27601966

  9. Reducing Infectious Complications Following Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jordon T.; Singla, Nirmish; Roehrborn, Claus G.

    2016-01-01

    A rise in antimicrobial resistant uropathogens has generated a global increase in infections following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx). We performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE® and PubMed to comprehensively review strategies to mitigate infections. Of 1664 articles retrieved, 62 were included. The data suggest that augmented prophylaxis and povidone-iodine bowel preparation warrant consideration in regions with high rates of antimicrobial resistance. Transperineal biopsy may be a safer, equally effective alternative to TRUS-Bx in select cases. Recent international travel appears to increase patients’ risk for experiencing infections. These findings can aid clinicians in minimizing post-TRUS-Bx infectious complications. PMID:27601966

  10. Uncovering myths and transforming realities among low-SES African-American men: implications for reducing prostate cancer disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Joann T.; Webster, J. DeWitt; Fields, Norma J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Prostate cancer provides the most dramatic evidence of cancer disparities based on race and ethnicity among U.S. men. African-American men still hold a commanding lead in both prostate cancer incidence and mortality, particularly among those of low socioeconomic status (SES) and the medically underserved. Therefore, the need for early intervention persists. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study was to: a) assess the knowledge of a cohort of low-SES African-American men regarding prostate health/prostate cancer, and b) uncover myths/misinformation as barriers to prostate health decisions and behaviors. PROCEDURES: Asymptomatic African-American men participated in focus groups to candidly discuss: a) health concerns, b) prostate health, c) prostate cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment, and d) factors influencing prostate health decisions/behaviors. FINDINGS: Participants revealed sociocultural and psychological barriers: myths and lack of accurate/adequate knowledge about prostate health and cancer, fear, denial and apathy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest factors that may explain the reluctance and limited participation in prostate health and prostate cancer services among medically underserved, socioeconomically disadvantaged, African-American men. Lack of knowledge, which affects all barriers to care, is amenable to change. Therefore, improvements in prostate cancer outcomes are achievable through culturally and linguistically appropriate health education tailored to their specific needs. PMID:15540880

  11. Cancer–Osteoblast Interaction Reduces Sost Expression in Osteoblasts and Up-Regulates lncRNA MALAT1 in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Aimy; Hum, Nicholas R.; Hudson, Bryan D.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic interaction between prostate cancer and the bone microenvironment is a major contributor to metastasis of prostate cancer to bone. In this study, we utilized an in vitro co-culture model of PC3 prostate cancer cells and osteoblasts followed by microarray based gene expression profiling to identify previously unrecognized prostate cancer–bone microenvironment interactions. Factors secreted by PC3 cells resulted in the up-regulation of many genes in osteoblasts associated with bone metabolism and cancer metastasis, including Mmp13, Il-6 and Tgfb2, and down-regulation of Wnt inhibitor Sost. To determine whether altered Sost expression in the bone microenvironment has an effect on prostate cancer metastasis, we co-cultured PC3 cells with Sost knockout (SostKO) osteoblasts and wildtype (WT) osteoblasts and identified several genes differentially regulated between PC3-SostKO osteoblast co-cultures and PC3-WT osteoblast co-cultures. Co-culturing PC3 cells with WT osteoblasts up-regulated cancer-associated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MALAT1 in PC3 cells. MALAT1 expression was further enhanced when PC3 cells were co-cultured with SostKO osteoblasts and treatment with recombinant Sost down-regulated MALAT1 expression in these cells. Our results suggest that reduced Sost expression in the tumor microenvironment may promote bone metastasis by up-regulating MALAT1 in prostate cancer.

  12. Simultaneous Treatment with Statins and Aspirin Reduces the Risk of Prostate Cancer Detection and Tumorigenic Properties in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Olivan, M.; Rigau, M.; Colás, E.; Garcia, M.; Montes, M.; Sequeiros, T.; Regis, L.; Celma, A.; Planas, J.; Placer, J.; Reventós, J.; de Torres, I.; Doll, A.; Morote, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor in men from industrialized countries and the second leading cause of death. At the ages when PCa is usually diagnosed, mortality related to cardiovascular morbidity is high; therefore, men at risk for PCa frequently receive chronic lipid-lowering and antiplatelet treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze how chronic treatment with statins, aspirin, and their combination influenced the risk of PCa detection. The tumorigenic properties of these treatments were evaluated by proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and migration assays using different PCa cell lines, in order to assess how these treatments act at molecular level. The results showed that a combination of statins and aspirin enhances the effect of individual treatments and seems to reduce the risk of PCa detection (OR: 0.616 (95% CI: 0.467–0.812), P < 0.001). However, if treatments are maintained, aspirin (OR: 1.835 (95% CI: 1.068–3.155), P = 0.028) or the combination of both drugs (OR: 3.059 (95% CI: 1.894–4.939), P < 0.001) represents an increased risk of HGPCa. As observed at clinical level, these beneficial effects in vitro are enhanced when both treatments are administered simultaneously, suggesting that chronic, concomitant treatment with statins and aspirin has a protective effect on PCa incidence. PMID:25649906

  13. Simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder cancer and prostate may reduce recurrence rates: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHENG; ZENG, XIAN-TAO; RUAN, XIAO-LAN; WANG, XING-HUAN; GUO, YI; YANG, ZHONG-HUA

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence rate of simultaneous transurethral resection of bladder cancer and prostate (TURBT+TURP) in the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases from their establishment until March 2012, to collect all the original studies on TURBT+TURP vs. TURBT alone in the treatment of NMIBC with BPH. After screening the literature, methodological quality assessment and data extraction was conducted independently by two reviewers and meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.1 software. The quality of data was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Eight studies, including seven non-randomized concurrent controlled trials (NRCCTs) and one randomized controlled trial (RCT), involving a total of 1,372 patients met the criteria. Meta-analyses of NRCCTs showed that in the TURBT+TURP group, overall recurrence rates were lower [odds ratio (OR), 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60–0.96; P=0.02] and the difference was statistically significant. The postoperative recurrence rate in the prostatic fossa/bladder neck (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64–1.45; P=0.86) and bladder tumor progression rates (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.49–1.87; P=0.91) were similar between the TURBT+TURP and TURBT groups, but the difference was not significant. According to the GRADE approach, the level of evidence was moderate or low. Only one RCT demonstrated that overall postoperative tumor recurrence rates, recurrence rates at prostate fossa/bladder neck and bladder tumor progression rates between simultaneous groups and control groups were almost equal. There was no significant difference (P>0.05), and the level of evidence was moderate. For patients with NMIBC and BPH, simultaneous resection did not increase the overall

  14. Consumption of soy isoflavone enriched bread in men with prostate cancer is associated with reduced proinflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive cells.

    PubMed

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Reville, Patrick K; Mace, Thomas A; Young, Gregory S; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer; Vodovotz, Yael; Ameen, Zeenath; Grainger, Elizabeth; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-11-01

    We hypothesized that soy phytochemicals may have immunomodulatory properties that may affect prostate carcinogenesis and progression. A randomized, phase II trial was conducted in 32 patients with prostate cancer with asymptomatic biochemical recurrence but no measurable disease on standard staging studies. Patients were randomized to two slices of soy bread (34 mg isoflavones/slice) or soy bread containing almond powder daily as a source of β-glucosidase. Flow cytometry and bioplex assays were used to measure cytokines or immune cell phenotype in blood at baseline (day 0) and following intervention (day 56). Adequate blood samples were available at enrollment and day 56 and evaluated. Multiple plasma cytokines and chemokines were significantly decreased on day 56 versus baseline. Subgroup analysis indicated reduced TH1 (P = 0.028) and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-associated cytokines (P = 0.035). TH2 and TH17 cytokines were not significantly altered. Phenotypic analysis revealed no change in CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells but showed increased CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells (P = 0.038). The percentage of cells with a T regulatory cell phenotype (CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) was significantly decreased after 56 days of soy bread (P = 0.0136). Significantly decreased monocytic (CD33(+)HLADR(neg)CD14(+)) MDSC were observed in patients consuming soy bread (P = 0.0056). These data suggest that soy bread modulates systemic soluble and cellular biomarkers consistent with limiting inflammation and suppression of MDSCs. Additional studies to elucidate impact on the carcinogenic process or as a complement to immune-based therapy are required. PMID:26276751

  15. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Cancer.gov

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  16. Ultrasonic processor reduces drill-cuttings size and eliminates subsea mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddy, D.E.

    1997-10-06

    Drill cuttings size reduction using ultrasonics eliminated a subsea clean-up and significantly reduced the environmental impact in a North Sea drilling project. Reduction in cuttings size allows for a wider areal dispersion when released into the ocean because they are held in suspension longer than larger sizes. Thus, ocean currents carry the smaller cuttings farther away from the well template, leaving a much wider footprint than larger cuttings sizes. This eliminates the pile-up of cuttings that otherwise would contaminate and harm the marine habitat.

  17. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline.

    PubMed

    Rode, Karyn D; Amstrup, Steven C; Regehr, Eric V

    2010-04-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long-term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a long-term data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population. PMID:20437962

  18. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, K.D.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of reproduction and survival are dependent upon adequate body size and condition of individuals. Declines in size and condition have provided early indicators of population decline in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) near the southern extreme of their range. We tested whether patterns in body size, condition, and cub recruitment of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska were related to the availability of preferred sea ice habitats and whether these measures and habitat availability exhibited trends over time, between 1982 and 2006. The mean skull size and body length of all polar bears over three years of age declined over time, corresponding with long-term declines in the spatial and temporal availability of sea ice habitat. Body size of young, growing bears declined over time and was smaller after years when sea ice availability was reduced. Reduced litter mass and numbers of yearlings per female following years with lower availability of optimal sea ice habitat, suggest reduced reproductive output and juvenile survival. These results, based on analysis of a longterm data set, suggest that declining sea ice is associated with nutritional limitations that reduced body size and reproduction in this population. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Magnitude of observer error using cone beam CT for prostate interfraction motion estimation: effect of reducing scan length or increasing exposure

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Emma J; Hansen, Vibeke N; Thomas, Karen; South, Christopher; Hafeez, Shaista; Huddart, Robert; Dearnaley, David P

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cone beam CT (CBCT) enables soft-tissue registration to planning CT for position verification in radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the interobserver error (IOE) in prostate position verification using a standard CBCT protocol, and the effect of reducing CBCT scan length or increasing exposure, compared with standard imaging protocol. Methods: CBCT images were acquired using a novel 7 cm length image with standard exposure (1644 mAs) at Fraction 1 (7), standard 12 cm length image (1644 mAs) at Fraction 2 (12) and a 7 cm length image with higher exposure (2632 mAs) at Fraction 3 (7H) on 31 patients receiving radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Eight observers (two clinicians and six radiographers) registered the images. Guidelines and training were provided. The means of the IOEs were compared using a Kruzkal–Wallis test. Levene's test was used to test for differences in the variances of the IOEs and the independent prostate position. Results: No significant difference was found between the IOEs of each image protocol in any direction. Mean absolute IOE was the greatest in the anteroposterior direction. Standard deviation (SD) of the IOE was the least in the left–right direction for each of the three image protocols. The SD of the IOE was significantly less than the independent prostate motion in the anterior–posterior (AP) direction only (1.8 and 3.0 mm, respectively: p = 0.017). IOEs were within 1 SD of the independent prostate motion in 95%, 77% and 96% of the images in the RL, SI and AP direction. Conclusion: Reducing CBCT scan length and increasing exposure did not have a significant effect on IOEs. To reduce imaging dose, a reduction in CBCT scan length could be considered without increasing the uncertainty in prostate registration. Precision of CBCT verification of prostate radiotherapy is affected by IOE and should be quantified prior to implementation. Advances in knowledge: This study shows the importance

  20. Differential responses of nitrate reducer community size, structure, and activity to tillage systems.

    PubMed

    Chèneby, D; Brauman, A; Rabary, B; Philippot, L

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine how the size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community were affected by adoption of a conservative tillage system as an alternative to conventional tillage. The experimental field, established in Madagascar in 1991, consists of plots subjected to conventional tillage or direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DM), both amended with three different fertilization regimes. Comparisons of size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community in samples collected from the top layer in 2005 and 2006 revealed that all characteristics of this functional community were affected by the tillage system, with increased nitrate reduction activity and numbers of nitrate reducers under DM. Nitrate reduction activity was also stimulated by combined organic and mineral fertilization but not by organic fertilization alone. In contrast, both negative and positive effects of combined organic and mineral fertilization on the size of the nitrate reducer community were observed. The size of the nitrate reducer community was a significant predictor of the nitrate reduction rates except in one treatment, which highlighted the inherent complexities in understanding the relationships the between size, diversity, and structure of functional microbial communities along environmental gradients. PMID:19304827

  1. Differential Responses of Nitrate Reducer Community Size, Structure, and Activity to Tillage Systems▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Chèneby, D.; Brauman, A.; Rabary, B.; Philippot, L.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine how the size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community were affected by adoption of a conservative tillage system as an alternative to conventional tillage. The experimental field, established in Madagascar in 1991, consists of plots subjected to conventional tillage or direct-seeding mulch-based cropping systems (DM), both amended with three different fertilization regimes. Comparisons of size, structure, and activity of the nitrate reducer community in samples collected from the top layer in 2005 and 2006 revealed that all characteristics of this functional community were affected by the tillage system, with increased nitrate reduction activity and numbers of nitrate reducers under DM. Nitrate reduction activity was also stimulated by combined organic and mineral fertilization but not by organic fertilization alone. In contrast, both negative and positive effects of combined organic and mineral fertilization on the size of the nitrate reducer community were observed. The size of the nitrate reducer community was a significant predictor of the nitrate reduction rates except in one treatment, which highlighted the inherent complexities in understanding the relationships the between size, diversity, and structure of functional microbial communities along environmental gradients. PMID:19304827

  2. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  3. The Sphingosine Kinase 2 Inhibitor ABC294640 Reduces the Growth of Prostate Cancer Cells and Results in Accumulation of Dihydroceramides In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Venant, Heather; Rahmaniyan, Mehrdad; Jones, E Ellen; Lu, Ping; Lilly, Michael B; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Drake, Richard R; Kraveka, Jacqueline M; Smith, Charles D; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of novel therapies against castration-resistant prostate cancer, the advanced form of the disease remains a major treatment challenge. Aberrant sphingolipid signaling through sphingosine kinases and their product, sphingosine-1-phosphate, can promote proliferation, drug resistance, angiogenesis, and inflammation. The sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitor ABC294640 is undergoing clinical testing in cancer patients, and in this study we investigated the effects this first-in-class inhibitor in castration-resistant prostate cancer. In vitro, ABC294640 decreased prostate cancer cell viability as well as the expression of c-Myc and the androgen receptor, while lysosomal acidification increased. ABC294640 also induced a greater than 3-fold increase in dihydroceramides that inversely correlated with inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase (DEGS) activity. Expression of sphingosine kinase 2 was dispensable for the ABC294640-mediated increase in dihydroceramides. In vivo, ABC294640 diminished the growth rate of TRAMP-C2 xenografts in syngeneic hosts and elevated dihydroceramides within tumors as visualized by MALDI imaging mass spectroscopy. The plasma of ABC294640-treated mice contained significantly higher levels of C16- and C24:1-ceramides (but not dihydro-C16-ceramide) compared with vehicle-treated mice. In summary, our results suggest that ABC294640 may reduce the proliferative capacity of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells through inhibition of both sphingosine kinase 2 and dihydroceramide desaturase, thereby providing a foundation for future exploration of this small-molecule inhibitor for the treatment of advanced disease. PMID:26494858

  4. Portion size me: plate-size induced consumption norms and win-win solutions for reducing food intake and waste.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert

    2013-12-01

    Research on the self-serving of food has empirically ignored the role that visual consumption norms play in determining how much food we serve on different sized dinnerware. We contend that dinnerware provides a visual anchor of an appropriate fill-level, which in turn, serves as a consumption norm (Study 1). The trouble with these dinnerware-suggested consumption norms is that they vary directly with dinnerware size--Study 2 shows Chinese buffet diners with large plates served 52% more, ate 45% more, and wasted 135% more food than those with smaller plates. Moreover, education does not appear effective in reducing such biases. Even a 60-min, interactive, multimedia warning on the dangers of using large plates had seemingly no impact on 209 health conference attendees, who subsequently served nearly twice as much food when given a large buffet plate 2 hr later (Study 3). These findings suggest that people may have a visual plate-fill level--perhaps 70% full--that they anchor on when determining the appropriate consumption norm and serving themselves. Study 4 suggests that the Delboeuf illusion offers an explanation why people do not fully adjust away from this fill-level anchor and continue to be biased across a large range of dishware sizes. These findings have surprisingly wide-ranging win-win implications for the welfare of consumers as well as for food service managers, restaurateurs, packaged goods managers, and public policy officials. PMID:24341317

  5. New mechanism to reduce the size of the monopivot magnetic suspension blood pump: direct drive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Nishida, M; Kijima, T; Maekawa, J

    1997-07-01

    Size reduction of the monopivot magnetic suspension blood pump has been achieved by reducing the size of the magnetic suspension and employing a direct drive mechanism in place of a brushless DC motor and a magnetic coupling. The flow has also been improved using a closed hollow impeller to remove flow obstruction at the inlet and using radial straight vanes to reduce the impeller speed by 30%. Hemolysis testing was conducted for the new models. Results showed that model DD1 presented only a slightly higher level of hemolysis than a regular extracorporeal centrifugal pump. PMID:9212927

  6. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

  7. Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells by Reducing Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Shern; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Cheng, Hsing-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin obtained from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), was found to exert anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, the effect of diosgenin on cancer metastasis remains unclear. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of diosgenin on migration and invasion in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Methods and Principal Findings Diosgenin inhibited proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of diosgenin, cell migration and invasion were markedly suppressed by in vitro wound healing assay and Boyden chamber invasion assay, respectively. Furthermore, diosgenin reduced the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography assay. The mRNA level of MMP-2, -9, -7 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN) were also suppressed while tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was increased by diosgenin. In addition, diosgenin abolished the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in PC-3 cells and tube formation of endothelial cells. Our immunoblotting assays indicated that diosgenin potently suppressed the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In addition, diosgenin significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), suggesting that diosgenin inhibited NF-κB activity. Conclusion/Significance The results suggested that diosgenin inhibited migration and invasion of PC-3 cells by reducing MMPs expression. It also inhibited ERK, JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways as well as NF-κB activity. These findings reveal new therapeutic potential for diosgenin in anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:21629786

  8. Shikonin inhibits prostate cancer cells metastasis by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 expression via AKT/mTOR and ROS/ERK1/2 pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongqiang; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Junquan; Zhou, Zhonghai; Cao, Xiliang; Lv, Xiaoting; Chen, Fuxing

    2014-08-01

    Metastasis is one of the most important factors related to prostate cancer therapeutic efficacy. In previous studies, shikonin, an active naphthoquinone isolated from the Chinese medicine Zi Cao, has various anticancer activities both in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying shikonin's anticancer activity are not fully elucidated on prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential effects of shikonin on prostate cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms by which shikonin exerted its actions. With cell proliferation, flow cytometric cell cycle, migration and invasion assays, we found that shikonin potently suppressed PC-3 and DU145 cell growth by cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase and metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanically, we presented that shikonin could suppress the metastasis of PC-3 and DU145 cells via inhibiting the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expression and activation. In addition, shikonin significantly decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR in a dose-dependent manner while it induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism revealed that shikonin also induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was reversed by the ROS scavenger dithiothreitol (DTT). Additionally, DTT reversed the shikonin induced activation of ERK1/2, thereby maintaining MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and restoring cell metastasis. Together, shikonin inhibits aggressive prostate cancer cell migration and invasion by reducing MMP-2/-9 expression via AKT/mTOR and ROS/ERK1/2 pathways and presents a potential novel alternative agent for the treatment of human prostate cancer. PMID:24905636

  9. Reduced tabletability of roller compacted granules as a result of granule size enlargement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Changquan Calvin; Himmelspach, Micah W

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism for the frequently observed "loss of reworkability or tabletability" of dry-granulated (DG) powders was investigated in detail using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). It was hypothesized that granule size enlargement is the primary mechanism to the phenomenon. Detrimental effects of size enlargement on tabletability of plastic materials are predictable based on the physical model of interparticulate bonding within a tablet. In absence of extensive fracture of particles/granules, larger particles/granules exhibit lower surface area available for bonding thus lower tensile strength when compressed under identical conditions. Size effects were first demonstrated using different grades of MCC powders, both whole and sieved, of different particle size distributions. Regardless grade and sieve fraction, larger particles always resulted in lower tabletability, that is, lower tensile strength at the same compaction pressure. It was subsequently shown that enlargement of granules also reduced powder tabletability regardless grade of MCC. Tabletability of sieved granules after roller compacted for one, two, and four times decreased monotonically with increasing granule size but independent of the total number of roller compaction. Moreover, tabletability of fine granules (44-106 microm) was higher than that of coarse MCC powder (Avicel PH-200). These results suggest that the primary mechanism for reduced tabletabilty of DG granules of MCC is granule size enlargement rather than "work-hardening." PMID:16315244

  10. Electromagnetic Transponders Indicate Prostate Size Increase Followed by Decrease During the Course of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Benjamin L.; Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and the perimeter of the triangle formed by the transponders was used to calculate prostate volumes at sequential time points throughout the course of radiation therapy to a dose of 81 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean prostate volume of 10.9% from the first to the final day of radiation therapy. The volume loss did not occur monotonically but increased in most patients (75%) during the first several weeks to a median maximum on Day 7. The volume increased by a mean of 6.1% before decreasing by a mean maximum difference of 18.4% to nadir (p < 0.001 for both increase and decrease). Glandular shrinkage was asymmetric, with the apex to right base dimension varying more than twice that of the lateral dimension. For all dimensions, the mean change was <0.5 cm. Conclusion: Real-time transponder positions indicated a volume increase during the initial days of radiation therapy and then significant and asymmetric shrinkage by the final day. Understanding and tracking volume fluctuations of the prostate during radiation therapy can help real-time imaging technology perform to its fullest potential.

  11. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, David D; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH as a causal factor for prostate cancer development could improve the accuracy of prognostication and expedite intervention, potentially reducing the number of men who die from prostate cancer. PMID:23165396

  12. Intraoperative Frozen Section of the Prostate Reduces the Risk of Positive Margin Whilst Ensuring Nerve Sparing in Patients with Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Undergoing Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: First Reported UK Series

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Nikhil; Agarwal, Samita; Rai, Bhavan P.; Soosainathan, Arany; Shaw, Gregory; Chang, Sebastian; Prasad, Venkat; Mohan-S, Gowrie; Adshead, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nerve sparing during robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP) considerably improves post-operative potency and urinary continence as long as it does not compromise oncological outcome. Excision of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) is often performed in patients with intermediate and high risk prostate cancer to reduce the risk of positive surgical margin raising the risk of urinary incontinence and impotence. We present the first UK series outcomes of such patients who underwent an intra-operative frozen section (IOFS) analysis of the prostate during RRP allowing nerve sparing. Patients and Methods We prospectively analysed the data of 40 patients who underwent an IOFS during RRP at our centre from November 2012 until November 2014. Our IOFS technique involved whole lateral circumferential analysis of the prostate during RRP with the corresponding neurovascular tissue. An intrafascial nerve spare was performed and the specimen was removed intra-operatively via an extension of the 12 mm Autosuture™ camera port without undocking robotic arms. It was then painted by the surgeon and sprayed with “Ink Aid” prior to frozen section analysis. The corresponding NVB was excised if the histopathologist found a positive surgical margin on frozen section. Results Median time to extract the specimen, wound closure and re-establishment of pneumoperitoneum increased the operative time by 8 min. Median blood loss for IOFS was 130 ± 97 ml vs. 90 ± 72 ml (p = NS). IOFS was not associated with major complications or with blood transfusion. PSM decreased significantly from non-IOFS RRP series of 28.7 to 7.8% (p < 0.05). Intra-operative PSM on the prostate specimen was seen in 8/40 margin analysis (20%) leading to an excision of the contra-lateral nerve bundle. On analysis of the nerve bundle on a paraffin embedded block, 6 nerve bundle matched tumor on the specimen whereas 2 NVB were retrospectively removed unnecessarily in our series. All 40 patients have undetectable PSA

  13. [Blindness after prostate biopsy].

    PubMed

    Heinzelbecker, J; von Zastrow, C; Alken, P

    2009-02-01

    We report on a case of sepsis-associated irreversible blindness in a patient after transrectal rebiopsy of the prostate. The patient was on immunosuppressive and long-term antibiotic treatment. Such a severe complication after transrectal biopsy of the prostate is unusual. Peri-interventional antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the general risk for infections after needle biopsy of the prostate. To avoid severe complications, suitable antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients is recommended. PMID:19037622

  14. Do antioxidant vitamins reduce infarct size following acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion?

    PubMed

    Bellows, S D; Hale, S L; Simkhovich, B Z; Kay, G L; Kloner, R A

    1995-02-01

    There is controversy concerning the ability of antioxidant vitamins to reduce myocardial infarct size. We sought to determine whether a brief prophylactic treatment of vitamin C or vitamin C plus Trolox (a water-soluble form of vitamin E) could reduce myocardial infarct size in an experimental model. We used an anesthetized open-chest rabbit model in which a branch of the circumflex coronary artery was ligated for 30 minutes followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Experiments were performed in a randomized and blinded fashion. An IV injection of normal saline pH balanced to 7.4 (control group n = 15), vitamin C (150 mg/kg, n = 14), or vitamin C plus Trolox (150 mg/kg plus 100 mg/kg, respectively, n = 15) was administered prior to coronary occlusion. Collateral blood flow during coronary occlusion was measured by radioactive microspheres, myocardial risk zone (AR) was assessed by blue dye injection, and myocardial infarct size (AN) was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. All rabbits received comparable ischemic insult: Collateral blood flow and AR were similar among all three groups. Infarct size, measured as a percent of AR, did not differ significantly among the controls (21%), vitamin C (29%), or the vitamin C plus Trolox (18%) groups. Therefore, in this ischemia/reperfusion model, antioxidant vitamins did not alter myocardial infarct size. PMID:7540423

  15. Dose-Volume Constraints to Reduce Rectal Side Effects From Prostate Radiotherapy: Evidence From MRC RT01 Trial ISRCTN 47772397

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliford, Sarah L.; Foo, Kerwyn; Morgan, Rachel C.; Aird, Edwin G.; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Critchley, Helen; Evans, Philip M. D.Phil.; Gianolini, Stefano; Mayles, W. Philip; Moore, A. Rollo; Sanchez-Nieto, Beatriz; Partridge, Mike; Sydes, Matthew R. C.Stat; Webb, Steve; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer is effective but dose limited because of the proximity of normal tissues. Comprehensive dose-volume analysis of the incidence of clinically relevant late rectal toxicities could indicate how the dose to the rectum should be constrained. Previous emphasis has been on constraining the mid-to-high dose range (>=50 Gy). Evidence is emerging that lower doses could also be important. Methods and Materials: Data from a large multicenter randomized trial were used to investigate the correlation between seven clinically relevant rectal toxicity endpoints (including patient- and clinician-reported outcomes) and an absolute 5% increase in the volume of rectum receiving the specified doses. The results were quantified using odds ratios. Rectal dose-volume constraints were applied retrospectively to investigate the association of constraints with the incidence of late rectal toxicity. Results: A statistically significant dose-volume response was observed for six of the seven endpoints for at least one of the dose levels tested in the range of 30-70 Gy. Statistically significant reductions in the incidence of these late rectal toxicities were observed for the group of patients whose treatment plans met specific proposed dose-volume constraints. The incidence of moderate/severe toxicity (any endpoint) decreased incrementally for patients whose treatment plans met increasing numbers of dose-volume constraints from the set of V30<=80%, V40<=65%, V50<=55%, V60<=40%, V65<=30%, V70<=15%, and V75<=3%. Conclusion: Considering the entire dose distribution to the rectum by applying dose-volume constraints such as those tested here in the present will reduce the incidence of late rectal toxicity.

  16. Salmon calcitonin reduces food intake through changes in meal sizes in male rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Kemm, Matthew H.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    Amylinergic mechanisms are believed to be involved in the control of appetite. This study examined the effects of the amylin agonist, salmon calcitonin, on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Fifteen minutes before the onset of their 6-h daily feeding period, monkeys received intramuscular injections of various doses of salmon calcitonin (0.032, 0.056, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 μg/kg) or saline. Salmon calcitonin dose dependently reduced total daily and hourly food intake, with significant decreases at the 0.1, 0.32, and 1 μg/kg doses. Daily food intake was reduced by ∼35%, 62%, and 96%, at these doses, respectively. An analysis of meal patterns revealed that size of the first meal was significantly reduced across the dose range of 0.056 to 1 μg/kg, while average meal size was reduced with the 0.32 and 1 μg/kg doses. Meal number was only affected at the 1 μg/kg dose. Repeated 5-day administration of the 0.1 μg/kg dose resulted in a reduction in daily food intake only on injection day 2, while significant reductions in food intake were observed on all five injection days with a 0.32 μg/kg dose. Daily food intake was also reduced for 1 day after the termination of the 5-day injections of the 0.32 μg/kg salmon calcitonin dose. These sustained reductions in intake were expressed through decreases in meal size. These data demonstrate that salmon calcitonin acutely and consistently decreases food intake mainly through reductions in meal sizes in nonhuman primates. PMID:18480241

  17. Salmon calcitonin reduces food intake through changes in meal sizes in male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Kemm, Matthew H; Moran, Timothy H

    2008-07-01

    Amylinergic mechanisms are believed to be involved in the control of appetite. This study examined the effects of the amylin agonist, salmon calcitonin, on food intake and meal patterns in adult male rhesus monkeys. Fifteen minutes before the onset of their 6-h daily feeding period, monkeys received intramuscular injections of various doses of salmon calcitonin (0.032, 0.056, 0.1, 0.32, and 1 microg/kg) or saline. Salmon calcitonin dose dependently reduced total daily and hourly food intake, with significant decreases at the 0.1, 0.32, and 1 microg/kg doses. Daily food intake was reduced by approximately 35%, 62%, and 96%, at these doses, respectively. An analysis of meal patterns revealed that size of the first meal was significantly reduced across the dose range of 0.056 to 1 microg/kg, while average meal size was reduced with the 0.32 and 1 microg/kg doses. Meal number was only affected at the 1 microg/kg dose. Repeated 5-day administration of the 0.1 microg/kg dose resulted in a reduction in daily food intake only on injection day 2, while significant reductions in food intake were observed on all five injection days with a 0.32 microg/kg dose. Daily food intake was also reduced for 1 day after the termination of the 5-day injections of the 0.32 microg/kg salmon calcitonin dose. These sustained reductions in intake were expressed through decreases in meal size. These data demonstrate that salmon calcitonin acutely and consistently decreases food intake mainly through reductions in meal sizes in nonhuman primates. PMID:18480241

  18. Inhibition of vimentin or B1 integrin reverts morphology of prostate tumor cells grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels and reduces tumor growth in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V; Ware, Joy L; Bissell, Mina J; Yacoub, Adly; Zehner, Zendra E

    2008-06-12

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphologic changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the immortalized, prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in athymic, nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the parental, nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin, or {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via small interfering RNA interference or the expression of {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins by the addition of blocking antibodies, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by s.c. injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in three-dimensional lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1 integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acinus in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(3):499-508].

  19. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  20. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) management in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Anil

    2012-10-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in up to 50% of men by age 50, and the incidence increases with age. This common clinical problem is diagnosed by history, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and physical examination by digital rectal examination (DRE). Initial management for BPH includes lifestyle modification, and smooth muscle relaxant alpha blocker therapy. Alpha blockers usually take effect quickly within 3-5 days, and have minimal side effects. Current commonly used alpha blockers include the selective alpha blockers tamsulosin (Flomax), alfusosin (Xatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo). For patients with larger prostates, the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor class (finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart)) work effectively to shrink prostate stroma resulting in improved voiding. The 5-ARI class of drugs, in addition to reducing prostate size, also reduce the need for future BPH-related surgery, and reduce the risk of future urinary retention. Drugs from the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor class may now be considered for treating BPH. Once daily 5 mg tadalafil has been shown to improve BPH-related symptoms and is currently approved to treat patients with BPH. Referral to a urologist can be considered for patients with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA), especially while on 5-ARI, failure of urinary symptom control despite maximal medical therapy, suspicion of prostate cancer, hematuria, recurrent urinary infections, urinary retention, or renal failure. Currently the primary care physician is armed with multiple treatment options to effectively treat men with symptomatic BPH. PMID:23089343

  1. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-12-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry. PMID:27119158

  2. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-04-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry.

  3. Enhanced G2/M Arrest, Caspase Related Apoptosis and Reduced E-Cadherin Dependent Intercellular Adhesion by Trabectedin in Prostate Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Acikgoz, Eda; Guven, Ummu; Duzagac, Fahriye; Uslu, Ruchan; Kara, Mikail; Soner, Burak Cem; Oktem, Gulperi

    2015-01-01

    Trabectedin (Yondelis, ET-743) is a marine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid. It is originally derived from the Caribbean marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata and currently produced synthetically. Trabectedin is active against a variety of tumor cell lines growing in culture. The present study focused on the effect of trabectedin in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and spheroid formation in prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Cluster of differentiation (CD) 133+high/CD44+high prostate CSCs were isolated from the DU145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line through flow cytometry. We studied the growth-inhibitory effects of trabectedin and its molecular mechanisms on human prostate CSCs and non-CSCs. DU-145 and PC-3 CSCs were treated with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 nM trabectedin for 24, 48 and 72 h and the growth inhibition rates were examined using the sphere-forming assay. Annexin-V assay and immunofluorescence analyses were performed for the detection of the cell death. Concentration-dependent effects of trabectedin on the cell cycle were also evaluated. The cells were exposed to the different doses of trabectedin for 24, 48 and 72 h to evaluate the effect of trabectedin on the number and diameter of spheroids. According to the results, trabectedin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at the IC50 dose, resulting in a significant increase expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53 and decrease expression of bcl-2 in dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analyses revealed that trabectedin induces dose-dependent G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, particularly at high-dose treatments. Three-dimensional culture studies showed that trabectedin reduced the number and diameter of spheroids of DU145 and PC3 CSCs. Furthermore, we have found that trabectedin disrupted cell-cell interactions via E-cadherin in prostasphere of DU-145 and PC-3 CSCs. Our results showed that trabectedin inhibits cellular proliferation and accelerates apoptotic events in

  4. A DRAMATICALLY REDUCED SIZE IN THE GANTRY DESIGN FOR THE PROTON-CARBON THERAPY.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC, D.; GUPTA, R.; PARKER, B.; KEIL, E.; SESSLER, A.M.

    2006-06-23

    Gantries in the proton/carbon cancer therapy machines represent the major cost and are of the largest size. This report explains a new way to the gantry design. The size and cost of the gantries are reduced and their use is simplified by using the fixed magnetic field. The ''new'' gantry is made of a very large momentum acceptance non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) quarter and half arc beam lines. The gantry is made of combined function magnets with a very strong focusing and small dispersion function. Additional magnets with a fast response are required to allow adjustments of the beam position for different energies at the beginning of the gantry. Additional strong focusing magnets following the gantry have also to be adjustable to provide required spot size and radial scanning above the patients. The fixed field combined function magnets could be made of small permanent magnets for the proton machine, or of the high temperature superconductors or superconductors for the carbon machine, reducing dramatically the size.

  5. Salicylate activates AMPK and synergizes with metformin to reduce the survival of prostate and lung cancer cells ex vivo through inhibition of de novo lipogenesis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Andrew J; Villani, Linda A; Broadfield, Lindsay A; Houde, Vanessa P; Galic, Sandra; Blandino, Giovanni; Kemp, Bruce E; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Muti, Paola; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2015-07-15

    Aspirin, the pro-drug of salicylate, is associated with reduced incidence of death from cancers of the colon, lung and prostate and is commonly prescribed in combination with metformin in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Salicylate activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by binding at the A-769662 drug binding site on the AMPK β1-subunit, a mechanism that is distinct from metformin which disrupts the adenylate charge of the cell. A hallmark of many cancers is high rates of fatty acid synthesis and AMPK inhibits this pathway through phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). It is currently unknown whether targeting the AMPK-ACC-lipogenic pathway using salicylate and/or metformin may be effective for inhibiting cancer cell survival. Salicylate suppresses clonogenic survival of prostate and lung cancer cells at therapeutic concentrations achievable following the ingestion of aspirin (<1.0 mM); effects not observed in prostate (PNT1A) and lung (MRC-5) epithelial cell lines. Salicylate concentrations of 1 mM increased the phosphorylation of ACC and suppressed de novo lipogenesis and these effects were enhanced with the addition of clinical concentrations of metformin (100 μM) and eliminated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in AMPK β1. Supplementation of media with fatty acids and/or cholesterol reverses the suppressive effects of salicylate and metformin on cell survival indicating the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis is probably important. Pre-clinical studies evaluating the use of salicylate based drugs alone and in combination with metformin to inhibit de novo lipogenesis and the survival of prostate and lung cancers are warranted. PMID:25940306

  6. Configuring the mesh size, side taper and wing depth of penaeid trawls to reduce environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Sterling, David J; Millar, Russell B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the '41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or 'long' and ∼28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or 'short' and ∼35o) and wing depths ('deep'-97 T vs 'shallow'-60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings--by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  7. Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ∼28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ∼35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  8. Morphine Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size via Heat Shock Protein 90 in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Small, Bryce A.; Lu, Yao; Hsu, Anna K.; Gross, Garrett J.; Gross, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Opioids reduce injury from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in humans. In experimental models, this mechanism involves GSK3β inhibition. HSP90 regulates mitochondrial protein import, with GSK3β inhibition increasing HSP90 mitochondrial content. Therefore, we determined whether morphine-induced cardioprotection is mediated by HSP90 and if the protective effect is downstream of GSK3β inhibition. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 8–10 weeks, were subjected to an in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury protocol involving 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Hemodynamics were continually monitored and myocardial infarct size determined. Rats received morphine (0.3 mg/kg), the GSK3β inhibitor, SB216763 (0.6 mg/kg), or saline, 10 minutes prior to ischemia. Some rats received selective HSP90 inhibitors, radicicol (0.3 mg/kg), or deoxyspergualin (DSG, 0.6 mg/kg) alone or 5 minutes prior to morphine or SB216763. Morphine reduced myocardial infarct size when compared to control (42 ± 2% versus 60 ± 1%). This protection was abolished by prior treatment of radicicol or DSG (59 ± 1%, 56 ± 2%). GSK3β inhibition also reduced myocardial infarct size (41 ± 2%) with HSP90 inhibition by radicicol or DSG partially inhibiting SB216763-induced infarct size reduction (54 ± 3%, 47 ± 1%, resp.). These data suggest that opioid-induced cardioprotection is mediated by HSP90. Part of this protection afforded by HSP90 is downstream of GSK3β, potentially via the HSP-TOM mitochondrial import pathway. PMID:26413502

  9. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  10. Prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000380.htm Prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. ...

  11. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... CT scan to plan and then place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds ...

  12. Prostatitis - bacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... or tender scrotum The provider may perform a digital rectal exam to examine your prostate. During this ... samples may be collected for urinalysis and urine culture . Prostatitis may affect the results of the prostate- ...

  13. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you should still take it. SURGERY Prostate surgery may be recommended if you have: Incontinence Recurrent ... of your prostate gland. Most men who have prostate surgery have improvement in urine flow rates and symptoms. ...

  14. The Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about ...

  15. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    BPH; Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy); Prostate - enlarged ... The actual cause of prostate enlargement is unknown. Factors linked to aging and changes in the cells of the testicles may have a role in the growth ...

  16. Anisotropic remastering for reducing feature sizes on UV nanoimprint lithography replica molds.

    PubMed

    Lausecker, E; Grydlik, M; Brehm, M; Bergmair, I; Mühlberger, M; Fromherz, T; Bauer, G

    2012-04-27

    We present an approach that uses existing nanoimprint molds and reduces the size of the resulting features significantly via a remastering process utilizing the anisotropic etchant tetramethylammonium hydroxide and a mold casting step. Inverted pyramidal structures and V-grooves were imprinted using these 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) replica molds. Pattern transfer into silicon (Si) substrates was established with an intermediate silicon nitride (SiN(x)) layer that can be etched with a much larger selectivity against the imprint resist than the Si substrate. The 2.5D resist profiles are thus transferred back into binary structures in the SiN(x) layer and subsequently into the Si substrate. A substantial size reduction of the diameter of pits from 91 to 33 nm and the width of lines from 600 to 142 nm was achieved. PMID:22469617

  17. Cerebral complexity preceded enlarged brain size and reduced olfactory bulbs in Old World monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Lauren A.; Benefit, Brenda R.; McCrossin, Monte L.; Spoor, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the only complete early cercopithecoid (Old World monkey) endocast currently known, that of 15-million-year (Myr)-old Victoriapithecus, reveals an unexpectedly small endocranial volume (ECV) relative to body size and a large olfactory bulb volume relative to ECV, similar to extant lemurs and Oligocene anthropoids. However, the Victoriapithecus brain has principal and arcuate sulci of the frontal lobe not seen in the stem catarrhine Aegyptopithecus, as well as a distinctive cercopithecoid pattern of gyrification, indicating that cerebral complexity preceded encephalization in cercopithecoids. Since larger ECVs, expanded frontal lobes, and reduced olfactory bulbs are already present in the 17- to 18-Myr-old ape Proconsul these features evolved independently in hominoids (apes) and cercopithecoids and much earlier in the former. Moreover, the order of encephalization and brain reorganization was apparently different in hominoids and cercopithecoids, showing that brain size and cerebral organization evolve independently. PMID:26138795

  18. Transient response in longitudinal grain size to reduced gravel supply in a large river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael Bliss

    2010-09-01

    The first extensive dataset on subaqueous bed material grain size in a large river subject to reduced sediment supply is investigated alongside bathymetry, modeled flow, and sediment flux. Results suggest that following sediment supply decline and a shift to a finer sediment supply, the gravel-sand transition (GST) in fluvial systems extends and subsequently migrates upstream. The non-abrupt (˜125 km) GST in the Sacramento River corresponds with a hump in the long profile, indicating recent downstream redistribution of sediment that impacts grain sizes. The hump is composed of sediments winnowed from upstream gravel beds that accumulate downstream where slope declines. This increases local sorting values and coarse sediment flux rates in the GST, leading to further gravel loss by burial and net efflux. Thus, in a transient response to sediment supply changes, whether anthropogenic or natural, the GST extends upstream as a longitudinally patchy bed modulated by bedload sheet transport that favors the loss of gravel.

  19. Transient response in longitudinal grain size to reduced gravel supply in a large river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The first extensive dataset on subaqueous bed material grain size in a large river subject to reduced sediment supply is investigated alongside bathymetry, modeled flow, and sediment flux. Results suggest that following sediment supply decline and a shift to a finer sediment supply, the gravel-sand transition (GST) in fluvial systems extends and subsequently migrates upstream. The non-abrupt (~125 km) GST in the Sacramento River corresponds with a hump in the long profile, indicating recent downstream redistribution of sediment that impacts grain sizes. The hump is composed of sediments winnowed from upstream gravel beds that accumulate downstream where slope declines. This increases local sorting values and coarse sediment flux rates in the GST, leading to further gravel loss by burial and net efflux. Thus, in a transient response to sediment supply changes, whether anthropogenic or natural, the GST extends upstream as a longitudinally patchy bed modulated by bedload sheet transport that favors the loss of gravel.

  20. Anisotropic remastering for reducing feature sizes on UV nanoimprint lithography replica molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lausecker, E.; Grydlik, M.; Brehm, M.; Bergmair, I.; Mühlberger, M.; Fromherz, T.; Bauer, G.

    2012-04-01

    We present an approach that uses existing nanoimprint molds and reduces the size of the resulting features significantly via a remastering process utilizing the anisotropic etchant tetramethylammonium hydroxide and a mold casting step. Inverted pyramidal structures and V-grooves were imprinted using these 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) replica molds. Pattern transfer into silicon (Si) substrates was established with an intermediate silicon nitride (SiNx) layer that can be etched with a much larger selectivity against the imprint resist than the Si substrate. The 2.5D resist profiles are thus transferred back into binary structures in the SiNx layer and subsequently into the Si substrate. A substantial size reduction of the diameter of pits from 91 to 33 nm and the width of lines from 600 to 142 nm was achieved.

  1. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing Normative Relevance Reduces the Effect of Portion Size on Consumption Decisions.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Iris; Papies, Esther K

    2016-01-01

    People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63), we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group) or of another university (out-group). In the main experiment (N = 321), we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot) or approved only by a minority (main experiment). These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial, other

  2. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing Normative Relevance Reduces the Effect of Portion Size on Consumption Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Versluis, Iris; Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63), we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group) or of another university (out-group). In the main experiment (N = 321), we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot) or approved only by a minority (main experiment). These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial, other

  3. Radiation damage in protein crystals is reduced with a micron-sized X-ray beam

    PubMed Central

    Sanishvili, Ruslan; Yoder, Derek W.; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Xu, Shenglan; Vogt, Stefan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg A.; Corcoran, Stephen; Benn, Richard; Nagarajan, Venugopalan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation damage is a major limitation in crystallography of biological macromolecules, even for cryocooled samples, and is particularly acute in microdiffraction. For the X-ray energies most commonly used for protein crystallography at synchrotron sources, photoelectrons are the predominant source of radiation damage. If the beam size is small relative to the photoelectron path length, then the photoelectron may escape the beam footprint, resulting in less damage in the illuminated volume. Thus, it may be possible to exploit this phenomenon to reduce radiation-induced damage during data measurement for techniques such as diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging that use X-rays to probe both crystalline and noncrystalline biological samples. In a systematic and direct experimental demonstration of reduced radiation damage in protein crystals with small beams, damage was measured as a function of micron-sized X-ray beams of decreasing dimensions. The damage rate normalized for dose was reduced by a factor of three from the largest (15.6 μm) to the smallest (0.84 μm) X-ray beam used. Radiation-induced damage to protein crystals was also mapped parallel and perpendicular to the polarization direction of an incident 1-μm X-ray beam. Damage was greatest at the beam center and decreased monotonically to zero at a distance of about 4 μm, establishing the range of photoelectrons. The observed damage is less anisotropic than photoelectron emission probability, consistent with photoelectron trajectory simulations. These experimental results provide the basis for data collection protocols to mitigate with micron-sized X-ray beams the effects of radiation damage. PMID:21444772

  4. Protective role of normothermic machine perfusion during reduced-size liver transplantation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Gao, Wei; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Lei; Ma, Ning; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) preservation is superior to cold preservation during reduced-size liver transplantation (RSLT) in pigs. Twenty-four healthy Ba-Ma mini pigs were used (aged >13 months; weight 25-35 kg; regardless of sex). The animals were randomized into 2 groups. In group A (NMP), donor livers were harvested without warm ischemia time and heartbeats and then were connected to the NMP system to reduce the livers' size under the normothermic condition. In group B (University of Wisconsin [UW] solution), donor livers were harvested without warm ischemia time and heartbeats after being perfused by UW solution and were then preserved in 0°C-4°C UW solution to reduce the livers' size under cold conditions. After that, liver transplantation without venovenous bypass was performed. General RSLT information of the pigs from the 2 groups was recorded; the serological indices were measured; and routine pathological examination of liver tissue was observed. A significant difference was observed in the intraoperative bleeding between the 2 groups (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was found in the other indices (all P > 0.05). Significant differences of alanine aminotransferase levels, aspartate aminotransferase levels, and lactate dehydrogenase levels between the 2 groups were observed between postoperative days 3 and 5 (P < 0.05). Significant differences of lactic acid levels between the 2 groups were observed between postoperative days 2 and 5 (P < 0.05). Compared with the cold preservation group, the liver tissues of the NMP preservation group only rarely experienced liver cell necrosis and maintained integrities in the hepatic sinusoid spaces and endothelial cells. In conclusion, NMP preservation is superior to cold preservation during RSLT in pigs. Liver Transplantation 22 968-978 2016 AASLD. PMID:27037634

  5. Irradiation testing of full-sized, reduced-enrichment fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the irradiation testing of full-sized, reduced-enrichment fuel elements and fuel rods under the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is reported. Being tested are UAl/sub x/-Al, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Al, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al, and U/sub 3/Si-Al dispersion fuels and UZrH/sub x/ (TRIGA) fuel at uranium densities in the fuel meat ranging from 1.7 to 6.0 Mg/m/sup 3/. Generally good performance has been experienced to date. Some preliminary results of postirradiation examinations are also included. A whole-core demonstration in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor is planned. Some details of this demonstration are provided.

  6. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K.; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K.; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1–5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47phox). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity. PMID:26979487

  7. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1-5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47(phox)). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity. PMID:26979487

  8. REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE genes from Arabidopsis thaliana help to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.; Stefano, Giovanni; Ruckle, Michael E.; Stavoe, Andrea K.; Sinkler, Christopher A.; Brandizzi, Federica; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells require mechanisms to establish the proportion of cellular volume devoted to particular organelles. These mechanisms are poorly understood. From a screen for plastid-to-nucleus signaling mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we cloned a mutant allele of a gene that encodes a protein of unknown function that is homologous to two other Arabidopsis genes of unknown function and to FRIENDLY, which was previously shown to promote the normal distribution of mitochondria in Arabidopsis. In contrast to FRIENDLY, these three homologs of FRIENDLY are found only in photosynthetic organisms. Based on these data, we proposed that FRIENDLY expanded into a small gene family to help regulate the energy metabolism of cells that contain both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Indeed, we found that knocking out these genes caused a number of chloroplast phenotypes, including a reduction in the proportion of cellular volume devoted to chloroplasts to 50% of wild type. Thus, we refer to these genes as REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE (REC). The size of the chloroplast compartment was reduced most in rec1 mutants. The REC1 protein accumulated in the cytosol and the nucleus. REC1 was excluded from the nucleus when plants were treated with amitrole, which inhibits cell expansion and chloroplast function. We conclude that REC1 is an extraplastidic protein that helps to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment, and that signals derived from cell expansion or chloroplasts may regulate REC1. PMID:26862170

  9. Insulin Resistance in Human iPS Cells Reduces Mitochondrial Size and Function

    PubMed Central

    Burkart, Alison M.; Tan, Kelly; Warren, Laura; Iovino, Salvatore; Hughes, Katelyn J.; Kahn, C. Ronald; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance, a critical component of type 2 diabetes (T2D), precedes and predicts T2D onset. T2D is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. To define the cause-effect relationship between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction, we compared mitochondrial metabolism in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from 5 healthy individuals and 4 patients with genetic insulin resistance due to insulin receptor mutations. Insulin-resistant iPSC had increased mitochondrial number and decreased mitochondrial size. Mitochondrial oxidative function was impaired, with decreased citrate synthase activity and spare respiratory capacity. Simultaneously, expression of multiple glycolytic enzymes was decreased, while lactate production increased 80%. These perturbations were accompanied by an increase in ADP/ATP ratio and 3-fold increase in AMPK activity, indicating energetic stress. Insulin-resistant iPSC also showed reduced catalase activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. Thus, insulin resistance can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with reduced mitochondrial size, oxidative activity, and energy production. PMID:26948272

  10. Optical Film for LED with Triangular-Pyramidal Array Using Size-Reducible Embossing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. F.; Pan, C. T.; Liu, K. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chen, J. L.; Huang, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents a modified hot-embossing process to fabricate micro-triangular-pyramidal array (MTPA). First, a tungsten (W) steel mold (as the first mold) is manufactured by precision machining including optical projection grinding, lapping, and polishing processes. The dimension of a triangular pyramid with acute angle of 85° on the W-steel mold is about 300 μm in width and 139 μm in height. The pitch between two triangular-pyramidal tips is about 170 μm. Then, only the portion of the tip area of the triangular-pyramidal patterns is transferred on bulk metallic glass (BMG, Mg58Cu31Y11) using this modified multi-step hot-embossing method to reduce the pattern size. With a position-adjustable mechanism, size-reduced concaved-shaped MTPA can be selectively formed, used as the secondary mold. In this way, not only can the size of triangular-pyramidal patterns on W-steel mold be reduced down on BMG, but also the tool arc between each triangular-pyramid on W-steel mold caused by machine tool can be eliminated. This is based on the fact that amorphous glass alloys contain no dislocation that can be responsible for yielding in crystalline materials. Thus, BMG is expected to be strong and hard enough to be used as a mold material. Then the secondary mold is used to emboss convex-shaped MTPA on PolymethylMethacrylate (PMMA) optical film. Experiments with different embossing times and embossing pressures are conducted and discussed. Large-sized triangular-pyramidal array on the W-steel mold has been successfully and selectively miniaturized on BMG, and then transferred on PMMA. Finally, this optical film of PMMA with MTPA is packaged on light-emitting diode (LED) to improve its lighting uniformity and luminance. In comparison with commercial 3M™ optical film (3M™ Vikuiti™ TBEF2-T-65i), the film with MTPA shows a good optical performance.

  11. Experimentally increased badge size increases male competition and reduces male parental care in the collared flycatcher

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnstroöm, A.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental enlargement of sexually selected traits that are energetically cheap to produce is expected to reveal costs resulting from increased risk of predation or social competition. Given a trade-off between sexually selected traits and life history traits such costs may be expected to affect not only the males themselves but also their offspring. In this study I manipulated the size of the forehead patch, a sexually selected trait that functions as a badge of status in male collared flycatchersFicedula albicollis). First, I found that a male's likelihood to establish a breeding territory with respect to his original badge size was affected by the treatment such that old males (older than or equal to two years) with relatively small original badges enjoyed an increased likelihood of establishing a breeding territory while young males (yearlings) suffered a reduced likelihood of establishment when their badges were enlarged as compared to unchanged. Second, young males with enlarged badges that were able to establish a territory fed their nestlings less in relation to their females compared to the control males. However, the females adjusted their parental effort to such an extent that no significant differences were observed in total feeding rate nor in reproductive success between the two groups of males. These results suggest that experimentally enlarged badge size in the collared flycatcher may result in increased male competition and that males have to trade their effort spent in male contest against their parental effort.

  12. Polyamine contents in current foods: a basis for polyamine reduced diet and a study of its long term observance and tolerance in prostate carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, B G; Havouis, R; Moulinoux, J P

    2007-08-01

    Polyamine contents were assessed by mass spectrometry in 233 current foods and beverages. In order to reduce gut polyamine uptake, a polyamine reduced diet (PRD) and partial intermittent intestinal tract decontamination (PIITD) with neomycin or nifuroxazide was proposed as nutritional therapy to 33 prostate carcinoma patients, 30 of whom with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Mean PRD observance was 22 +/- 19 (median: 16; range: 3-72) months. 10, 8 and 3 patients were respectively on PRD for more than 30, 36 and 64 months. No diet toxicity was observed. 8 patients had moderate intestinal intolerance due to PIITD which was interrupted. No significant differences in body weight, blood counts or serum protein levels were observed during the follow-up of patients under PRD. Performance status and pain scores were relatively stable during the trial with improved pain scores at 6 months. A PRD associated with intermittent PIITD is a safe and well observed nutritional regimen and long term observance is possible. PMID:17578651

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery as Anxiety Reducing Interventions in Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Andreas; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Bozas, Evangelos; Paikousis, Lefkios

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To test the effectiveness of guided imagery (GI) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) as stress reducing interventions in patients with prostate and breast cancer who undergo chemotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomly assigned to either the control group or the intervention group (PMR and GI). Patients were observed for a total duration of 3 weeks and assessed with the SAS and BECK-II questionnaires for anxiety and depression, respectively, in addiotion to two biological markers (saliva cortisol and saliva amylase) (trial registration number: NCT01275872). Results. 256 patients were registered and 236 were randomly assigned. In total 104 were randomised to the control group and 104 to the intervention group. Intervention's mean anxiety score and depression score changes were significantly different compared to the control's (b = −29.4, p < 0.001; b = −29.4, p < 0.001, resp.). Intervention group's cortisol levels before the intervention (0.30 ± 0.25) gradually decreased up to week 3 (0.16 ± 0.18), whilst the control group's cortisol levels before the intervention (0.21 ± 0.22) gradually increased up to week 3 (0.44 ± 0.35). The same interaction appears for the Amylase levels (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The findings showed that patients with prostate and breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment can benefit from PMR and GI sessions to reduce their anxiety and depression. PMID:26347018

  14. Walnuts lower TRAMP prostate tumor growth by altering IGF-1, energy and cholesterol metabolism and is not due to their fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary changes could potentially reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality. Prostate tumor size, gene expression, metabolite and plasma responses to a 100 g of fat/kg diet (whole walnuts, walnut oil and other oils; balanced for macronutrients, tocopherols (a-and ' ) for 18 weeks were assessed ...

  15. High-Dose Conformal Radiotherapy Reduces Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: Results of a Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Godoi Bernardes da Silva, Lucas; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To determine in a meta-analysis whether prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), biochemical or clinical failure (BCF), and overall mortality (OM) in men with localized prostate cancer treated with conformal high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT) are better than those in men treated with conventional-dose radiotherapy (CDRT). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, Embase, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as the proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing conformal HDRT with CDRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: Five randomized, controlled trials (2508 patients) that met the study criteria were identified. Pooled results from these randomized, controlled trials showed a significant reduction in the incidence of PCSM and BCF rates at 5 years in patients treated with HDRT (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001, respectively), with an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of PCSM and BCF at 5 years of 1.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Two trials evaluated PCSM with 10 years of follow up. The pooled results from these trials showed a statistical benefit for HDRT in terms of PCSM (p = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, trials that used androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) showed an ARR for BCF of 12.9% (number needed to treat = 7.7, p < 0.00001), whereas trials without ADT had an ARR of 13.6% (number needed to treat = 7, p < 0.00001). There was no difference in the OM rate at 5 and 10 years (p = 0.99 and p = 0.11, respectively) between the groups receiving HDRT and CDRT. Conclusions: This meta-analysis is the first study to show that HDRT is superior to CDRT in preventing disease progression and prostate cancer-specific death in trials that used conformational technique to increase the total dose. Despite the limitations of our study in evaluating the role of ADT and HDRT, our data show no benefit for HDRT arms in terms of BCF in trials with or without ADT.

  16. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  17. Epigenetic upregulation of endogenous VEGF-A reduces myocardial infarct size in mice.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Mikko P; Husso, Tiia; Musthafa, Haja; Laidinen, Svetlana; Dragneva, Galina; Laham-Karam, Nihay; Honkanen, Sanna; Paakinaho, Anne; Laakkonen, Johanna P; Gao, Erhe; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Liimatainen, Timo; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    "Epigenetherapy" alters epigenetic status of the targeted chromatin and modifies expression of the endogenous therapeutic gene. In this study we used lentiviral in vivo delivery of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) into hearts in a murine infarction model. shRNA complementary to the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) was able to upregulate endogenous VEGF-A expression. Histological and multiphoton microscope analysis confirmed the therapeutic effect in the transduced hearts. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed in vivo that the infarct size was significantly reduced in the treatment group 14 days after the epigenetherapy. Importantly, we show that promoter-targeted shRNA upregulates all isoforms of endogenous VEGF-A and that an intact hairpin structure is required for the shRNA activity. In conclusion, regulation of gene expression at the promoter level is a promising new treatment strategy for myocardial infarction and also potentially useful for the upregulation of other endogenous genes. PMID:24587164

  18. CTRP3 deficiency reduces liver size and alters IL-6 and TGFβ levels in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Risa M; Lei, Xia; Yang, Zhi-Chun; Nyandjo, Maeva; Tan, Stefanie Y; Wong, G William

    2016-03-01

    C1q/TNF-related protein 3 (CTRP3) is a secreted metabolic regulator whose circulating levels are reduced in human and rodent models of obesity and diabetes. Previously, we showed that CTRP3 infusion lowers blood glucose by suppressing gluconeogenesis and that transgenic overexpression of CTRP3 protects mice against diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Here, we used a genetic loss-of-function mouse model to further address whether CTRP3 is indeed required for metabolic homeostasis under normal and obese states. Both male and female mice lacking CTRP3 had similar weight gain when fed a control low-fat (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD). Regardless of diet, no differences were observed in adiposity, food intake, metabolic rate, energy expenditure, or physical activity levels between wild-type (WT) and Ctrp3-knockout (KO) animals of either sex. Contrary to expectations, loss of CTRP3 in LFD- or HFD-fed male and female mice also had minimal or no impact on whole body glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Unexpectedly, the liver sizes of HFD-fed Ctrp3-KO male mice were markedly reduced despite a modest increase in triglyceride content. Furthermore, liver expression of fat oxidation genes was upregulated in the Ctrp3-KO mice. Whereas the liver and adipose expression of profibrotic TGFβ1, as well as its serum levels, was suppressed in HFD-fed KO mice, circulating proinflammatory IL-6 levels were markedly increased; these changes, however, were insufficient to affect systemic metabolic outcome. We conclude that, although it is dispensable for physiological control of energy balance, CTRP3 plays a previously unsuspected role in modulating liver size and circulating cytokine levels in response to obesity. PMID:26670485

  19. Gripe water as reducing and stabilizing agent for synthesis of size controlled gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kirubha, E; Palanisamy, P K

    2013-03-01

    Green synthesis techniques are emerging as more facile and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles compared to chemical reduction methods. Herein we report a new approach to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using gripe water as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. Good control over the size of the nanoparticles from 3.2 nm to 25 nm has been achieved with this method by simply varying the experimental conditions. The Surface Plasmon Resonance bands of tunable gold nanospheres with high monodispersity and polydispersity have been obtained by this technique and monitored using UV-Visible spectrum. The morphology and the size of these AuNPs are determined using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the crystalline nature and the phase of the AuNPs. The as-synthesized AuNPs exhibit good optical nonlinearity. The nonlinear optical studies have been carried out by Z-scan technique to demonstrate its optical limiting property. The threshold limit of the AuNPs is obtained at a input intensity of 30 mW. The nonlinear refractive index of the nanoparticles is in the order of 10(-9) cm2/W and the third-order nonlinearity is estimated to be 7 x 10(-5) esu. PMID:23755681

  20. Plasmid-mediated VEGF gene transfer induces cardiomyogenesis and reduces myocardial infarct size in sheep.

    PubMed

    Vera Janavel, G; Crottogini, A; Cabeza Meckert, P; Cuniberti, L; Mele, A; Papouchado, M; Fernández, N; Bercovich, A; Criscuolo, M; Melo, C; Laguens, R

    2006-08-01

    We have recently reported that in pigs with chronic myocardial ischemia heart transfection with a plasmid encoding the 165 isoform of human vascular endothelial growth factor (pVEGF165) induces an increase in the mitotic index of adult cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocyte hyperplasia. On these bases we hypothesized that VEGF gene transfer could also modify the evolution of experimental myocardial infarct. In adult sheep pVEGF165 (3.8 mg, n=7) or empty plasmid (n=7) was injected intramyocardially 1 h after coronary artery ligation. After 15 days infarct area was 11.3+/-1.3% of the left ventricle in the VEGF group and 18.2+/-2.1% in the empty plasmid group (P<0.02). The mechanisms involved in infarct size reduction (assessed in additional sheep at 7 and 10 days after infarction) included an increase in early angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, a decrease in peri-infarct fibrosis, a decrease in myofibroblast proliferation, enhanced cardiomyoblast proliferation and mitosis of adult cardiomyocytes with occasional cytokinesis. Resting myocardial perfusion (99mTc-sestamibi SPECT) was higher in VEGF-treated group than in empty plasmid group 15 days after myocardial infarction. We conclude that plasmid-mediated VEGF gene transfer reduces myocardial infarct size by a combination of effects including neovascular proliferation, modification of fibrosis and cardiomyocyte regeneration. PMID:16572192

  1. Magnetic resonance image enhancement by reducing receptors' effective size and enabling multiple channel acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yepes-Calderon, Fernando; Velasquez, Adriana; Lepore, Natasha; Beuf, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is empowered by parallel reading, which reduces acquisition time dramatically. The time saved by parallelization can be used to increase image quality or to enable specialized scanning protocols in clinical and research environments. In small animals, the sizing constraints render the use of multi-channeled approaches even more necessary, as they help to improve the typically low spatial resolution and lesser signal-to-noise ratio; however, the use of multiple channels also generates mutual induction (MI) effects that impairs imaging creation. Here, we created coils and used the shared capacitor technique to diminish first degree MI effects and pre-amplifiers to deal with higher order MI-related image deterioration. The constructed devices are tested by imaging phantoms that contain identical solutions; thus, creating the conditions for several statistical comparisons. We confirm that the shared capacitor strategy can recover the receptor capacity in compounded coils when working at the dimensions imposed by small animal imaging. Additionally, we demonstrate that the use of pre-amplifiers does not significantly reduce the quality of the images. Moreover, in light of our results, the two MI-avoiding techniques can be used together, therefore establishing the practical feasibility of flexible array coils populated with multiple loops for small animal imaging. PMID:25570478

  2. Somatostatin analogue, octreotide, reduces increased glomerular filtration rate and kidney size in insulin-dependent diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Serri, O.; Beauregard, H.; Brazeau, P.; Abribat, T.; Lambert, J.; Harris, A.; Vachon, L. Sandoz Canada Inc., Dorval, Quebec )

    1991-02-20

    To determine whether treatment with a somatostatin analogue can reduce kidney hyperfiltration and hypertrophy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the authors studied 11 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and glomerular hyperfiltration. The patients were assigned randomly to receive continuous subcutaneous infusion of either octreotide, 300 {mu}g/24 h (five patients) or placebo (six patients) for 12 weeks. At baseline, mean glomerular filtration rate and mean total kidney volume were not significantly different in the two groups. However, after 12 weeks of treatment, the mean glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in the octreotide group than in the placebo group. Furthermore, the mean total kidney volume was significantly lower after treatment in the octreotide group than in the placebo group. Glycemic control did not change significantly in either group. They conclude that subcutaneous infusion of octreotide for 12 weeks reduces increased glomerular filtration rate and kidney size in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus despite the fact that glycemic control remains unchanged.

  3. Morphology, structural properties and reducibility of size-selected CeO2- x nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, Maria Chiara; D'Addato, Sergio; Gasperi, Gabriele; Benedetti, Francesco; Luches, Paola; Grillo, Vincenzo; Bertoni, Giovanni; Valeri, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Non-stoichiometric ceria nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by a gas aggregation source with a magnetron and were mass-selected with a quadrupole mass filter. By varying magnetron power, Ar gas flow, and the length of the aggregation tube, NPs with an average diameter of 6, 9, and 14 nm were synthesized and deposited onto a substrate, thus obtaining NP films. The morphology of the films was studied with scanning electron microscopy, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to gain a deeper insight into the atomic structure of individual NPs. By using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we analyzed the degree of reduction of the NPs of different diameters, before and after thermal treatments in vacuum (reduction cycle) and in O2 atmosphere (oxidation cycle) at different temperatures. From this analysis we inferred that the size is an important parameter only at intermediate temperatures. As a comparison, we evaluated the reducibility of an ultra-thin ceria film with the same surface to volume ratio as the 9 nm diameter NPs film, observing that NPs are more reducible than the ceria film. PMID:25671152

  4. Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. Methods In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Results Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. Conclusion A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic. PMID:24650622

  5. Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Gasco, M; Malheiros-Pereira, A; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2008-06-01

    The plants from the Lepidium gender have demonstrated to have effect on the size of the prostate. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian plant that grows exclusively over 4000 m above sea level. The present study was designed to determine the effect of red maca (RM) in the prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone enanthate (TE) in adult mice. Prostate hyperplasia was induced by administering TE, and then these animals (n = 6, each group) were treated with RM or Finasteride (positive control) for 21 days. There was an additional group without prostate hyperplasia (vehicle). Mice were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 after treatment with RM. Testosterone and oestradiol levels were measured on the last day of treatment. Prostatic stroma, epithelium and acini were measured histologically. RM reduced prostate weight at 21 days of treatment. Weights of seminal vesicles, testis and epididymis were not affected by RM treatment. The reduction in prostate size by RM was 1.59 times. Histological analysis showed that TE increased 2-fold the acinar area, effect prevented in the groups receiving TE + RM for 14 (P < 0.05) and 21 (P < 0.05) days and the group receiving TE + Finasteride for 21 days (P < 0.05). TE increased prostatic stroma area and this effect was prevented by treatment with RM since 7 days of treatment or Finasteride. The reduction in prostatic stroma area by RM was 1.42 times. RM has an anti-hyperplastic effect on the prostate of adult mice when hyperplasia was induced with TE acting first at prostatic stromal level. PMID:18477205

  6. The Prostate Health Index Selectively Identifies Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Sanda, Martin G.; Broyles, Dennis L.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Bangma, Chris H.; Wei, John T.; Partin, Alan W.; Klee, George G.; Slawin, Kevin M.; Marks, Leonard S.; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Chan, Daniel W.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Cruz, Amabelle B.; Mizrahi, Isaac A.; Catalona, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer and can help reduce prostate cancer over diagnosis. Materials and Methods From a multicenter prospective trial we identified 658 men age 50 years or older with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination who underwent prostate biopsy. In this population we compared the performance of prostate specific antigen, % free prostate specific antigen, [-2]proPSA and phi to predict biopsy results and, specifically, the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiple criteria. Results The Prostate Health Index was significantly higher in men with Gleason 7 or greater and “Epstein significant” cancer. On receiver operating characteristic analysis phi had the highest AUC for overall cancer (AUCs phi 0.708, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.648, [-2]proPSA 0.550 and prostate specific antigen 0.516), Gleason 7 or greater (AUCs phi 0.707, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.661, [-2]proPSA 0.558, prostate specific antigen 0.551) and significant cancer (AUCs phi 0.698, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.654, [-2]proPSA 0.550, prostate specific antigen 0.549). At the 90% sensitivity cut point for phi (a score less than 28.6) 30.1% of patients could have been spared an unnecessary biopsy for benign disease or insignificant prostate cancer compared to 21.7% using percent free prostate specific antigen. Conclusions The new phi test outperforms its individual components of total, free and [-2]proPSA for the identification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Phi may be useful as part of a multivariable approach to reduce prostate biopsies and over diagnosis. PMID:25463993

  7. Estradiol and G1 Reduce Infarct Size and Improve Immunosuppression after Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Subramanian, Sandhya; Dziennis, Suzan; Jia, Jia; Uchida, Masayoshi; Akiyoshi, Kozaburo; Migliati, Elton; Lewis, Anne D.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Offner, Halina; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced risk and severity of stroke in adult females is thought to depend on normal endogenous levels of estrogen, a well-known neuroprotectant and immunomodulator. In male mice, experimental stroke induces immunosuppression of the peripheral immune system, characterized by a reduction in spleen size and cell numbers and decreased cytokine and chemokine expression. However, stroke-induced immunosuppression has not been evaluated in female mice. To test the hypothesis that estradiol (E2) deficiency exacerbates immunosuppression after focal stroke in females, we evaluated the effect of middle cerebral artery occlusion on infarct size and peripheral and CNS immune responses in ovariectomized mice with or without sustained, controlled levels of 17-β–E2 administered by s.c. implant or the putative membrane estrogen receptor agonist, G1. Both E2- and G1-replacement decreased infarct volume and partially restored splenocyte numbers. Moreover, E2-replacement increased splenocyte proliferation in response to stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs and normalized aberrant mRNA expression for cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors and percentage of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells observed in E2-deficient animals. These beneficial changes in peripheral immunity after E2 replacement were accompanied by a profound reduction in expression of the chemokine, MIP-2, and a 40-fold increased expression of CCR7 in the lesioned brain hemisphere. These results demonstrate for the first time that E2 replacement in ovariectomized female mice improves stroke-induced peripheral immunosuppression. PMID:20304826

  8. Handling large datasets of hyperspectral images: reducing data size without loss of useful information.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Carlotta; Foca, Giorgia; Ulrici, Alessandro

    2013-11-13

    Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is gaining increasing interest in the field of analytical chemistry, since this fast and non-destructive technique allows one to easily acquire a large amount of spectral and spatial information on a wide number of samples in very short times. However, the large size of hyperspectral image data often limits the possible uses of this technique, due to the difficulty of evaluating many samples altogether, for example when one needs to consider a representative number of samples for the implementation of on-line applications. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel chemometric strategy aimed to significantly reduce the dataset size, which allows to analyze in a completely automated way from tens up to hundreds of hyperspectral images altogether, without losing neither spectral nor spatial information. The approach essentially consists in compressing each hyperspectral image into a signal, named hyperspectrogram, which is created by combining several quantities obtained by applying PCA to each single hyperspectral image. Hyperspectrograms can then be used as a compact set of descriptors and subjected to blind analysis techniques. Moreover, a further improvement of both data compression and calibration/classification performances can be achieved by applying proper variable selection methods to the hyperspectrograms. A visual evaluation of the correctness of the choices made by the algorithm can be obtained by representing the selected features back into the original image domain. Likewise, the interpretation of the chemical information underlying the selected regions of the hyperspectrograms related to the loadings is enabled by projecting them in the original spectral domain. Examples of applications of the hyperspectrogram-based approach to hyperspectral images of food samples in the NIR range (1000-1700 nm) and in the vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm), facing a calibration and a defect detection issue respectively, demonstrate the

  9. Reduced Activity of Double-Strand Break Repair Genes in Prostate Cancer Patients With Late Normal Tissue Radiation Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Oorschot, Bregje van; Hovingh, Suzanne E.; Moerland, Perry D.; Medema, Jan Paul; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Vrieling, Harry; Franken, Nicolaas A.P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate clinical parameters and DNA damage response as possible risk factors for radiation toxicity in the setting of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Clinical parameters of 61 prostate cancer patients, 34 with (overresponding, OR) and 27 without (non-responding, NR) severe late radiation toxicity were assembled. In addition, for a matched subset the DNA damage repair kinetics (γ-H2AX assay) and expression profiles of DNA repair genes were determined in ex vivo irradiated lymphocytes. Results: Examination of clinical data indicated none of the considered clinical parameters to be correlated with the susceptibility of patients to develop late radiation toxicity. Although frequencies of γ-H2AX foci induced immediately after irradiation were similar (P=.32), significantly higher numbers of γ-H2AX foci were found 24 hours after irradiation in OR compared with NR patients (P=.03). Patient-specific γ-H2AX foci decay ratios were significantly higher in NR patients than in OR patients (P<.0001). Consequently, NR patients seem to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) more efficiently than OR patients. Moreover, gene expression analysis indicated several genes of the homologous recombination pathway to be stronger induced in NR compared with OR patients (P<.05). A similar trend was observed in genes of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway (P=.09). This is congruent with more proficient repair of DNA DSBs in patients without late radiation toxicity. Conclusions: Both gene expression profiling and DNA DSB repair kinetics data imply that less-efficient repair of radiation-induced DSBs may contribute to the development of late normal tissue damage. Induction levels of DSB repair genes (eg, RAD51) may potentially be used to assess the risk for late radiation toxicity.

  10. An Evaluation of a Community-Academic-Clinical Partnership to Reduce Prostate Cancer Disparities in the South

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Owens, Otis L.; Jackson, Dawnyea D.; Johnson, Kim M.; Gansauer, Lucy; Dickey, Joe; Miller, Ron; Payne, Johnny; Bearden, James D.; Hebert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Engaging partners in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of cancer education programs is critical for improving the health of our communities. A two-year pilot education intervention on prostate cancer decision making and participation in medical research was funded by the National Cancer Institute. The partnership involving community members and clinical staff at a cancer center was used to develop recruitment strategies and plan for the implementation of the intervention with African-American (AA) middle-age and older men and female family members. We assessed partners’ perceptions of this community-academic-clinical research collaboration. Methods In year 2, eight project advisory council members were selected among existing partners and year 1 participants to serve as a formal committee. Council members were required to participate in telephone and in-person meetings and actively support recruitment/implementation efforts. At the conclusion of the project, 20 individuals (all clinical and community partners, including the eight advisory council members) were invited to complete a survey to assess their perceived impact of the collaboration on the community and provide suggestions for future collaborations. Results Most partners agreed that their organization benefitted from the collaboration and that various aspects of the advisory council process (e.g., both formal and informal communication) worked well. The most noted accomplishment of the partnership related to leveraging the collaboration to make men more knowledgeable about prostate cancer decision making. Suggested improvements for future collaborations included distributing more frequent updates regarding project successes. Conclusions Evaluating partners’ perceptions of this collaboration provided important recommendations for future planning, implementation, and evaluation of community-based cancer education programs. PMID:24078315

  11. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vemana, Goutham; Hamilton, Robert J; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Large prospective randomized trials, such as the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), have provided practitioners with considerable data regarding methods of treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The best-studied medications for prevention are 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Their efficacy and side effects are well characterized. Other medications, dietary nutrients, and supplements have not been as well studied and generally do not demonstrate efficacy for disease prevention with an acceptable level of evidence. PMID:24188663

  12. Using Ancillary Information to Reduce Sample Size in Discovery Sampling and the Effects of Measurement Error

    SciTech Connect

    Axelrod, M

    2005-08-18

    big sample size might bust the budget, or the number seems intuitively excessive. To reduce the sample size, you can increase the tolerable number of defectives, the ''10'' in the preceding example, or back off on the confidence level, say from 95% to 90%. Auditors also frequently bump up the sample size as a safety factor. They know that something can go wrong. For example, they might find out that the measurements or inspections were subject to errors. Unless the auditors know exactly how measurement error affects sample size, they might be forced to give up the safety factor. Clients often choose to ''live dangerously'' (without a compelling argument to the contrary) to save money. Thus, sometimes the auditor finds that ''you just can't get there from here'', because the goals of the audit and the resources available are inherently in conflict. For discovery audits, there is a way out of this apparent conundrum. It turns out that the classical method of confidence intervals uses an implicit and very conservative assumption. We will see that this assumption is too pessimistic and too conservative in the context of a discovery audit. If we abandon this assumption and use ancillary information about the inventory, then we can significantly reduce the sample size required to achieve the desired confidence level. We will see exactly how the classical method ignores this ancillary information and misses the opportunity for an efficient audit. In the following sections, we first review the standard approach using confidence intervals. Then we present a method that incorporates the ancillary information about the inventory to design a very efficient discovery audit. We also provide results on how measurement errors affect the audit, and how exactly how much the sample size must be modified to compensate for these errors. Finally, we state asymptotic formulas that provide useful approximations for large inventories. It is suggested that the reader review the glossary of

  13. Reduced salivary gland size and increased presence of epithelial progenitor cells in DLK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gallastegui, P; Luzuriaga, J; Aurrekoetxea, M; Baladrón, V; Ruiz-Hidalgo, M J; García-Ramírez, J J; Laborda, J; Unda, F; Ibarretxe, G

    2016-06-01

    DLK1 (PREF1, pG2, or FA1) is a transmembrane and secreted protein containing epidermal growth factor-like repeats. Dlk1 expression is abundant in many tissues during embryonic and fetal development and is believed to play an important role in the regulation of tissue differentiation and fetal growth. After birth, Dlk1 expression is abolished in most tissues but is possibly reactivated to regulate stem cell activation and responses to injury. We have recently reported that DLK1 regulates many aspects of salivary gland organogenesis. Here, we have extended our studies of the salivary gland phenotype of Dlk1 knock-out mice. We have observed that salivary glands are smaller and weigh significantly less in both Dlk1 knock-out males and females compared with gender and age-matched wild-type mice and regardless of the natural sexual dimorphism in rodent salivary glands. This reduced size correlates with a reduced capacity of Dlk1-deficient mice to secrete saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine. However, histological and ultrastructural analyses of both adult and developing salivary gland tissues have revealed no defects in Dlk1 ((-/-)) mice, indicating that genetic compensation accounts for the relatively mild salivary phenotype in these animals. Finally, despite their lack of severe anomalies, we have found that salivary glands from Dlk1-deficient mice present a higher amount of CK14-positive epithelial progenitors at various developmental stages, suggesting a role for DLK1 in the regulation of salivary epithelial stem cell balance. PMID:26711912

  14. Dynamic clustering threshold reduces conformer ensemble size while maintaining a biologically relevant ensemble.

    PubMed

    Yongye, Austin B; Bender, Andreas; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina

    2010-08-01

    Representing the 3D structures of ligands in virtual screenings via multi-conformer ensembles can be computationally intensive, especially for compounds with a large number of rotatable bonds. Thus, reducing the size of multi-conformer databases and the number of query conformers, while simultaneously reproducing the bioactive conformer with good accuracy, is of crucial interest. While clustering and RMSD filtering methods are employed in existing conformer generators, the novelty of this work is the inclusion of a clustering scheme (NMRCLUST) that does not require a user-defined cut-off value. This algorithm simultaneously optimizes the number and the average spread of the clusters. Here we describe and test four inter-dependent approaches for selecting computer-generated conformers, namely: OMEGA, NMRCLUST, RMS filtering and averaged-RMS filtering. The bioactive conformations of 65 selected ligands were extracted from the corresponding protein:ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank, including eight ligands that adopted dissimilar bound conformations within different receptors. We show that NMRCLUST can be employed to further filter OMEGA-generated conformers while maintaining biological relevance of the ensemble. It was observed that NMRCLUST (containing on average 10 times fewer conformers per compound) performed nearly as well as OMEGA, and both outperformed RMS filtering and averaged-RMS filtering in terms of identifying the bioactive conformations with excellent and good matches (0.5 < RMSD < 1.0 A). Furthermore, we propose thresholds for OMEGA root-mean square filtering depending on the number of rotors in a compound: 0.8, 1.0 and 1.4 for structures with low (1-4), medium (5-9) and high (10-15) numbers of rotatable bonds, respectively. The protocol employed is general and can be applied to reduce the number of conformers in multi-conformer compound collections and alleviate the complexity of downstream data processing in virtual screening experiments

  15. Does Inflammation Mediate the Obesity and BPH Relationship? An Epidemiologic Analysis of Body Composition and Inflammatory Markers in Blood, Urine, and Prostate Tissue, and the Relationship with Prostate Enlargement and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Fadare, Oluwole; Clark, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    The WHR, an estimate of centralized obesity, was associated with the severity of inflammatory regions in prostate tissue and with LUTS severity among men with inflammation. Our results suggest centralized obesity advances prostate tissue inflammation to increase LUTS severity. Clinically targeting centralized fat deposition may reduce LUTS severity. Mechanistically, the lack of a clear relationship between systemic inflammatory or oxidative stress markers in blood or urine with prostate size or LUTS suggests pathways other than systemic inflammatory signaling may link body adiposity to BPH outcomes. PMID:27336586

  16. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rittmaster, Roger S

    2011-06-01

    Over the past two decades, many more men are diagnosed with prostate cancer then die of the disease. This increase in diagnosis has led to aggressive treatment of indolent disease in many individuals and has been the impetus for finding a means of reducing the risk of prostate cancer. In the past decade, there have been eight large trials of prostate cancer risk reduction using dietary supplements, 5α-reductase inhibitors, or anti-estrogens. The only two trials which have demonstrated efficacy are those involving 5α-reductase inhibitors: the PCPT (finasteride) and REDUCE (dutasteride). This review examines prostate cancer risk reduction, with emphasis on conclusions that can be drawn from these two landmark studies. PMID:21604953

  17. From micro- to nanomagnetic dots: evolution of the eigenmode spectrum on reducing the lateral size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Madami, M.; Tacchi, S.; Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.

    2014-07-01

    Brillouin light scattering experiments and micromagnetic simulations have been exploited to investigate the spectrum of thermally excited magnetic eigenmodes in 10 nm-thick elliptical Permalloy dots, when the longer axis D is scaled down from about 1000 to 100 nm. It is shown that for D larger than about 200 nm the characteristics of the spin-wave eigenmodes are dominated by dipolar energy, while for D in the range of about 100 to 200 nm exchange energy effects cause qualitative and quantitative differences in the spin-wave spectrum. In this ‘mesoscopic’ regime, the usual classification scheme, involving one fundamental mode with large average magnetization and many other modes collected in families with specific symmetries, no longer holds. Rather, one finds the simultaneous presence of two modes with ‘fundamental’ character, i.e. with a significant and comparable value of the average dynamical magnetization: the former is at larger frequency and has its maximum amplitude at the dot's centre, while the latter occurs at lower frequency and is localized at the dot's edges. Interestingly, the maximum intensity swaps from the higher frequency mode to the lower frequency one, just when the dot size is reduced from about 200 to 100 nm. This is relevant in view of the exploitation of nanodots for the design of nanomagnetic devices with lateral dimensions in the above interval, such as memory cells, logic gates, reading heads and spin-torque oscillators.

  18. Flocculated sediments can reduce the size of sediment basin at construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; King, Scott E; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-01-15

    Due to stringent water quality regulations on stormwater discharges, there is increasing interest in chemically-assisted settling of suspended sediments at construction sites. This study investigated settling characteristics of flocculated sediment by polyacrylamide (PAM) in a top-loading settling tube. Studied sediment materials were obtained from construction sites in North Carolina, USA: Coastal Plain loamy sand (CPLS), Piedmont sandy clay loam (PSCL), Piedmont silt loam (PSL), and Mountain clay loam (MCL). The four different sediment suspensions mixed with and without dissolved PAM were introduced to the top of the column individually. During a 1-h settling period, samples were taken at 1-m depth from surface at various times and analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS). Flocculated sediment by PAM greatly increased its settled TSS fraction up to 95-97% only in 1-min settling period compared to those of unflocculated sediment (16-72%). The settling improvement by PAM was profound in the finer-textured soils (PSL and MCL) by increasing their median particle settling velocity (>2 cm s(-1)) compared to unflocculated counterparts (<1.1 cm s(-1)). Estimated surface area requirement of sediment basin suggested that the basins receiving flocculated sediment could be reduced in size (surface area) by 2- to 4-times compared to those receiving unflocculated sediment. Our results suggests that current sediment basin design could be modified when chemically-assisted settling is implemented, taking up less space and cost in construction sites. PMID:26555101

  19. Epigenetic Upregulation of Endogenous VEGF-A Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Musthafa, Haja; Laidinen, Svetlana; Dragneva, Galina; Laham-Karam, Nihay; Honkanen, Sanna; Paakinaho, Anne; Laakkonen, Johanna P.; Gao, Erhe; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Liimatainen, Timo; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    “Epigenetherapy” alters epigenetic status of the targeted chromatin and modifies expression of the endogenous therapeutic gene. In this study we used lentiviral in vivo delivery of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) into hearts in a murine infarction model. shRNA complementary to the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) was able to upregulate endogenous VEGF-A expression. Histological and multiphoton microscope analysis confirmed the therapeutic effect in the transduced hearts. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed in vivo that the infarct size was significantly reduced in the treatment group 14 days after the epigenetherapy. Importantly, we show that promoter-targeted shRNA upregulates all isoforms of endogenous VEGF-A and that an intact hairpin structure is required for the shRNA activity. In conclusion, regulation of gene expression at the promoter level is a promising new treatment strategy for myocardial infarction and also potentially useful for the upregulation of other endogenous genes. PMID:24587164

  20. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Morote, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Morales-Bárrera, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    The Vall d'Hebron multidisciplinary prostate cancer (PC) team reviews recent advances in the management of this neoplasm. Screening studies with long follow-up show a reduction in mortality, whereas active surveillance is emerging as a therapeutic approach of non-aggressive cancers. New markers increase the specificity of PSA and also allow targeting suspected aggressive cancers. Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mMRI) has emerged as the most effective method in the selection of patients for biopsy and also for local tumor staging. The paradigm of random prostatic biopsy is changing through the fusion techniques that allow guiding ultrasonography-driven biopsy of suspicious areas detected in mMRI. Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are curative treatments of localized PC and both have experienced significant technological improvements. RP is highly effective and the incorporation of robotic surgery is reducing morbidity. Modern RT allows the possibility of high tumor dose with minimal adjacent dose reducing its toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogues remains the treatment of choice for advanced PC, but should be limited to this indication. The loss of bone mass and adverse metabolic effects increases the frequency of fractures and cardiovascular morbimortality. After castration resistance in metastatic disease, new hormone-based drugs have demonstrated efficacy even after chemotherapy resistance. PMID:25727526

  1. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... radiation safety precautions. If you have a permanent implant, your provider may tell you to limit the ...

  2. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  3. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Aliotta PJ, Fowler GC. Prostate and seminal vesicle ultrasonography and biopsy. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... 1/2015. Trabulsi EJ, Halpern EJ, Gomella LG. Ultrasonography and biopsy of the prostate. In: Wein AJ, ...

  4. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  5. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W; Brown, Powel H; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ford, Leslie G; Hamdy, Freddie C; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L; Minasian, Lori M; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J; Schröder, Fritz H; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-10-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5α-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  6. Prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo Alonso; Gabilondo-Navarro, Fernando Bernardo

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent tumor found in men worldwide and in Mexico in particular. Age and family history are the main risk factors. The diagnosis is made by prostate biopsy in patients with abnormalities detected in their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels or digital rectal exam (DRE). This article reviews screening and diagnostic methods as well as treatment options for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. PMID:27557386

  7. Invasive surgery reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function in a porcine model of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    van Hout, Gerardus PJ; Teuben, Michel PJ; Heeres, Marjolein; de Maat, Steven; de Jong, Renate; Maas, Coen; Kouwenberg, Lisanne HJA; Koenderman, Leo; van Solinge, Wouter W; de Jager, Saskia CA; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Hoefer, Imo E

    2015-01-01

    Reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction (MI) increases infarct size (IS) and deteriorates cardiac function. Cardioprotective strategies in large animal MI models often failed in clinical trials, suggesting translational failure. Experimentally, MI is induced artificially and the effect of the experimental procedures may influence outcome and thus clinical applicability. The aim of this study was to investigate if invasive surgery, as in the common open chest MI model affects IS and cardiac function. Twenty female landrace pigs were subjected to MI by transluminal balloon occlusion. In 10 of 20 pigs, balloon occlusion was preceded by invasive surgery (medial sternotomy). After 72 hrs, pigs were subjected to echocardiography and Evans blue/triphenyl tetrazoliumchloride double staining to determine IS and area at risk. Quantification of IS showed a significant IS reduction in the open chest group compared to the closed chest group (IS versus area at risk: 50.9 ± 5.4% versus 69.9 ± 3.4%, P = 0.007). End systolic LV volume and LV ejection fraction measured by echocardiography at follow-up differed significantly between both groups (51 ± 5 ml versus 65 ± 3 ml, P = 0.033; 47.5 ± 2.6% versus 38.8 ± 1.2%, P = 0.005). The inflammatory response in the damaged myocardium did not differ between groups. This study indicates that invasive surgery reduces IS and preserves cardiac function in a porcine MI model. Future studies need to elucidate the effect of infarct induction technique on the efficacy of pharmacological therapies in large animal cardioprotection studies. PMID:26282710

  8. Different effects of laser contrast on proton emission from normal large foils and transverse-size-reduced targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuan; Ge, Xulei; Yang, Su; Wei, Wenqing; Yu, Tongpu; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Liu, Jingquan; Yuan, Xiaohui; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    We report experimental results on the effects of laser contrast on beam divergence and energy spectrum of protons emitted from ultrashort intense laser interactions with normal large foils and transverse-size-reduced targets. Correlations between beam divergence and spectral shape are found. Large divergence and near-plateau shape energy spectrum are observed for both types of targets when the laser pulse contrast is low. With high contrast laser irradiation, proton beam divergence is remarkably reduced and the energy spectral shape is changed to exponential for large foil targets. In comparison, a similar large divergence and the near-plateau spectral shape remain for transverse-size-reduced targets. The results could be explained by the preplasma formation and target deformation at different laser contrasts and modified accelerating sheath field evolution in transverse-size-reduced target, which were supported by the 2D hydrodynamic and PIC simulations.

  9. MnTE-2-PyP reduces prostate cancer growth and metastasis by suppressing p300 activity and p300/HIF-1/CREB binding to the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiang; Weaver, Michael R; Kosmacek, Elizabeth A; O'Connor, Brian P; Harmacek, Laura; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E

    2016-05-01

    To improve radiation therapy-induced quality of life impairments for prostate cancer patients, the development of radio-protectors is needed. Our previous work has demonstrated that MnTE-2-PyP significantly protects urogenital tissues from radiation-induced damage. So, in order for MnTE-2-PyP to be used clinically as a radio-protector, it is fully necessary to explore the effect of MnTE-2-PyP on human prostate cancer progression. MnTE-2-PyP inhibited prostate cancer growth in the presence and absence of radiation and also inhibited prostate cancer migration and invasion. MnTE-2-PyP altered p300 DNA binding, which resulted in the inhibition of HIF-1β and CREB signaling pathways. Accordingly, we also found that MnTE-2-PyP reduced the expression of three genes regulated by HIF-1β and/or CREB: TGF-β2, FGF-1 and PAI-1. Specifically, MnTE-2-PyP decreased p300 complex binding to a specific HRE motif within the PAI-1 gene promoter region, suppressed H3K9 acetylation, and consequently, repressed PAI-1 expression. Mechanistically, less p300 transcriptional complex binding is not due to the reduction of binding between p300 and HIF-1/CREB transcription factors, but through inhibiting the binding of HIF-1/CREB transcription factors to DNA. Our data provide an in depth mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP reduces prostate cancer growth and metastasis, which validates the clinical use of MnTE-2-PyP as a radio-protector to enhance treatment outcomes in prostate cancer radiotherapy. PMID:26944191

  10. Reducing Class Size: A Smart Way To Improve America's Urban Schools. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, Manish; Casserly, Michael; Uro, Gabriela

    The Council of the Great City Schools, a coalition of the largest urban public schools in the United States, surveyed its membership to determine how they were using federal class size reduction funds in the 2000-2001 school year. Thirty-six major urban school systems responded. Results indicate that the federal class size reduction program is…

  11. A probability tracking approach to segmentation of ultrasound prostate images using weak shape priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Robert S.; Michailovich, Oleg V.; Solovey, Igor; Salama, Magdy M. A.

    2010-03-01

    Prostate specific antigen density is an established parameter for indicating the likelihood of prostate cancer. To this end, the size and volume of the gland have become pivotal quantities used by clinicians during the standard cancer screening process. As an alternative to manual palpation, an increasing number of volume estimation methods are based on the imagery data of the prostate. The necessity to process large volumes of such data requires automatic segmentation algorithms, which can accurately and reliably identify the true prostate region. In particular, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging has become a standard means of assessing the prostate due to its safe nature and high benefit-to-cost ratio. Unfortunately, modern TRUS images are still plagued by many ultrasound imaging artifacts such as speckle noise and shadowing, which results in relatively low contrast and reduced SNR of the acquired images. Consequently, many modern segmentation methods incorporate prior knowledge about the prostate geometry to enhance traditional segmentation techniques. In this paper, a novel approach to the problem of TRUS segmentation, particularly the definition of the prostate shape prior, is presented. The proposed approach is based on the concept of distribution tracking, which provides a unified framework for tracking both photometric and morphological features of the prostate. In particular, the tracking of morphological features defines a novel type of "weak" shape priors. The latter acts as a regularization force, which minimally bias the segmentation procedure, while rendering the final estimate stable and robust. The value of the proposed methodology is demonstrated in a series of experiments.

  12. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Andrew J; Abouassaly, Robert; Klein, Eric A

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is an appropriate target for primary chemoprevention because of its ubiquity, disease-related mortality, treatment-related morbidity, and long latency period. The PCPT and REDUCE trials demonstrate that this cancer can be prevented by a relatively nontoxic oral pharmacologic agent (5alpha-reductase inhibitors). Evidence from the SELECT trial argues against the recommendation of the use of vitamins and micronutrients as chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Dietary modification may substantially alter a man's risk of prostate cancer, but the specific dietary manipulations that are necessary are poorly defined and these may need to be instituted in early adulthood to be successful. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors represent an effective primary prevention strategy, and these agents should be used more liberally for the prevention of prostate cancer, particularly in high-risk patients. PMID:20152515

  13. Association of genetic and non-genetic risk factors with the development of prostate cancer in Malaysian men.

    PubMed

    Munretnam, Khamsigan; Alex, Livy; Ramzi, Nurul Hanis; Chahil, Jagdish Kaur; Kavitha, I S; Hashim, Nikman Adli Nor; Lye, Say Hean; Velapasamy, Sharmila; Ler, Lian Wee

    2014-01-01

    There is growing global interest to stratify men into different levels of risk to developing prostate cancer, thus it is important to identify common genetic variants that confer the risk. Although many studies have identified more than a dozen common genetic variants which are highly associated with prostate cancer, none have been done in Malaysian population. To determine the association of such variants in Malaysian men with prostate cancer, we evaluated a panel of 768 SNPs found previously associated with various cancers which also included the prostate specific SNPs in a population based case control study (51 case subjects with prostate cancer and 51 control subjects) in Malaysian men of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnicity. We identified 21 SNPs significantly associated with prostate cancer. Among these, 12 SNPs were strongly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer while remaining nine SNPs were associated with reduced risk. However, data analysis based on ethnic stratification led to only five SNPs in Malays and 3 SNPs in Chinese which remained significant. This could be due to small sample size in each ethnic group. Significant non-genetic risk factors were also identified for their association with prostate cancer. Our study is the first to investigate the involvement of multiple variants towards susceptibility for PC in Malaysian men using genotyping approach. Identified SNPs and non-genetic risk factors have a significant association with prostate cancer. PMID:24443231

  14. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics for prostate cancer What is prostate cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  15. Human phosphodiesterase 4D7 (PDE4D7) expression is increased in TMPRSS2-ERG-positive primary prostate cancer and independently adds to a reduced risk of post-surgical disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, R; Henderson, D J P; Dulla, K; van Strijp, D; Waanders, L F; Tevz, G; Lehman, M L; Merkle, D; van Leenders, G J L H; Baillie, G S; Jenster, G; Houslay, M D; Hoffmann, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is an acute need to uncover biomarkers that reflect the molecular pathologies, underpinning prostate cancer progression and poor patient outcome. We have previously demonstrated that in prostate cancer cell lines PDE4D7 is downregulated in advanced cases of the disease. To investigate further the prognostic power of PDE4D7 expression during prostate cancer progression and assess how downregulation of this PDE isoform may affect disease outcome, we have examined PDE4D7 expression in physiologically relevant primary human samples. Methods: About 1405 patient samples across 8 publically available qPCR, Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST arrays and RNA sequencing data sets were screened for PDE4D7 expression. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangement status of patient samples was determined by transformation of the exon array and RNA seq expression data to robust z-scores followed by the application of a threshold >3 to define a positive TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion event in a tumour sample. Results: We demonstrate that PDE4D7 expression positively correlates with primary tumour development. We also show a positive association with the highly prostate cancer-specific gene rearrangement between TMPRSS2 and the ETS transcription factor family member ERG. In addition, we find that in primary TMPRSS2-ERG-positive tumours PDE4D7 expression is significantly positively correlated with low-grade disease and a reduced likelihood of progression after primary treatment. Conversely, PDE4D7 transcript levels become significantly decreased in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Conclusions: We further characterise and add physiological relevance to PDE4D7 as a novel marker that is associated with the development and progression of prostate tumours. We propose that the assessment of PDE4D7 levels may provide a novel, independent predictor of post-surgical disease progression. PMID:26575822

  16. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model.

    PubMed

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  17. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model

    PubMed Central

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  18. Reducing bias in rainfall estimates from microwave links by considering variable drop size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fencl, Martin; Jörg, Rieckermann; Vojtěch, Bareš

    2015-04-01

    Commercial microwave links (MWL) are point-to-point radio systems which are used in backhaul networks of cellular operators. For several years, they have been suggested as rainfall sensors complementary to rain gauges and weather radars, because, first, they operate at frequencies where rain drops represent significant source of attenuation and, second, cellular networks almost completely cover urban and rural areas. Usually, path-average rain rates along a MWL are retrieved from the rain-induced attenuation of received MWL signals with a simple model based on a power law relationship. The model is often parameterized based on the characteristics of a particular MWL, such as frequency, polarization and the drop size distribution (DSD) along the MWL. As information on the DSD is usually not available in operational conditions, the model parameters are usually considered constant. Unfortunately, this introduces bias into rainfall estimates from MWL. In this investigation, we propose a generic method to eliminate this bias in MWL rainfall estimates. Specifically, we search for attenuation statistics which makes it possible to classify rain events into distinct groups for which same power-law parameters can be used. The theoretical attenuation used in the analysis is calculated from DSD data using T-Matrix method. We test the validity of our approach on observations from a dedicated field experiment in Dübendorf (CH) with a 1.85-km long commercial dual-polarized microwave link transmitting at a frequency of 38 GHz, an autonomous network of 5 optical distrometers and 3 rain gauges distributed along the path of the MWL. The data is recorded at a high temporal resolution of up to 30s. It is further tested on data from an experimental catchment in Prague (CZ), where 14 MWLs, operating at 26, 32 and 38 GHz frequencies, and reference rainfall from three RGs is recorded every minute. Our results suggest that, for our purpose, rain events can be nicely characterized based on

  19. Screening for prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cher, M L; Carroll, P R

    1995-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a serious health care problem in the United States. Whether or not to screen for it has become a timely issue. Although a large number of men have clinically important, asymptomatic, undetected prostate cancer, an even larger number have clinically unimportant cancer. To justify screening programs, not only must we avoid detecting biologically unimportant cancers, we must also detect and effectively treat that subset of tumors that, if undiagnosed, would progress, produce symptoms, and reduce life expectancy. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay, or its variations such as PSA density, PSA velocity, and age-specific reference ranges, and the digital rectal examination are the best tests for detecting clinically important, asymptomatic, curable tumors. Recent data suggest that using serum PSA levels does not result in an overdetection of unimportant tumors. Highly effective, curative treatment of localized prostate cancer is available. These factors promote optimism that screening for prostate cancer will ultimately prove beneficial. Nonetheless, men should be informed regarding the benefits and possible risks before being screened for prostate cancer. PMID:7536993

  20. An Informatics Based Approach to Reduce the Grain Size of Cast Hadfield Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Swati; Pathak, Shankha; Sheoran, Sumit; Kela, Damodar H.; Datta, Shubhabrata

    2016-04-01

    Materials Informatics concept using computational intelligence based approaches are employed to bring out the significant alloying additions to achieve grain refinement in cast Hadfield steel. Castings of Hadfield steels used for railway crossings, requires fine grained austenitic structure. Maintaining proper grain size of this component is very crucial in order to achieve the desired properties and service life. This work studies the important variables affecting the grain size of such steels which includes the compositional and processing variables. The computational findings and prior knowledge is used to design the alloy, which is subjected to a few trials to validate the findings.

  1. Project STAR Research Synopsis: The Effect of Reduced Class Size on Kindergarten Reading Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Helen Pate; Jacobs, Roseanne

    Effects of teacher-pupil ratio on kindergartners' mastery of reading readiness objectives were studied. The study was part of Tennessee's Project STAR, a 4-year study of class size. About 2,850 students in 38 elementary schools that served 4 types of communities: innercity, suburban, urban, and rural, in 26 Tennessee school systems participated.…

  2. Winter grazing can reduce wildfire size, intensity, and behavior in a shrub-grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. An increase in mega-fires and wildfires in general is a global issue that is expected to become worse with climate change. Fuel treatments are often recommended to decrease the risk, size, intensity, and severity of wildfires; however, the extensive nature of rangelands limits the use of many po...

  3. Motor-Reducer Sizing through a MATLAB-Based Graphical Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giberti, H.; Cinquemani, S.

    2012-01-01

    The design of the drive system for an automatic machine and its correct sizing is a very important competence for an electrical or mechatronic engineer. This requires knowledge that crosses the fields of electrical engineering, electronics and mechanics, as well as the skill to choose commercial components based upon their technical documentation.…

  4. 30 CFR 203.76 - When might MMS withdraw or reduce the approved size of my relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When might MMS withdraw or reduce the approved size of my relief? 203.76 Section 203.76 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and...

  5. The Cumulative Effects of Indiana PRIME TIME: A State Sponsored Reduced Class Size Program, on Basic Skills Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Leanne; Gilman, David

    The purpose of this paper was to analyze the initial results of statewide implementation of the PRIME TIME program in Indiana. PRIME TIME is a state-wide program to reduce class size in the primary grades. Mean scores from 65,911 third graders who had completed the Indiana Competency Test in the spring of 1987 after completing 3 years of the…

  6. Testing Probation Outcomes in an Evidence-Based Practice Setting: Reduced Caseload Size and Intensive Supervision Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalbert, Sarah Kuck; Rhodes, William; Flygare, Christopher; Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Probation and parole professionals argue that supervision outcomes would improve if caseloads were reduced below commonly achieved standards. Criminal justice researchers are skeptical because random assignment and strong observation studies have failed to show that criminal recidivism falls with reductions in caseload sizes. One explanation is…

  7. Brokering Dialogue between Secondary Students and Teachers to Co-Construct Appropriate Pedagogy in Reduced-Size Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on how two teachers working in reduced-size secondary classes of the same grade adapted their pedagogy as a result of a brokered dialogue between myself as researcher and 43 grade 10 students from the teachers' classes. Research was carried out over the course of one academic year. First, students' perspectives on…

  8. BIOREACTOR ECONOMICS, SIZE AND TIME OF OPERATION (BEST) COMPUTER SIMULATOR FOR DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is an Excel™ spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with the public domain geochemical modeling software, PHREEQCI. The BEST model is used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) field bioreacto...

  9. Derivatives of a statically reduced stiffness matrix with respect to sizing variables. [for aircraft weight minimization with flutter constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, R. F.; Hassig, H. J.; Radovcich, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    An expression is obtained for the first derivatives with respect to the sizing variables of a statically reduced stiffness matrix that is a nonlinear function of the sizing variables, where the unreduced stiffness matrix is a linear function of the sizing variables. An accepted procedure to reduce the number of degrees of freedom is to eliminate a number of nodal displacements from the degrees of freedom such that the accuracy of the flutter analysis is not significantly affected. In a typical optimization procedure with flutter constraints, the derivative of the stiffness matrix may be used in a form that contains the characteristic vector of the flutter matrix equation and the transpose of the characteristic vector of the adjoint flutter matrix equation corresponding to a particular solution of the flutter equation.

  10. Enhancement of coercivity with reduced grain size in CoCrPt film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Hu, X. F.; Li, H. Q.; He, X. X.; Wang, Xiaoru; Zhang, W.

    2006-04-01

    We report a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) growth of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer with a magnetic coercivity ( Hc) of 2.2 kOe and a grain size of 12 nm. The effects of VMn underlayer on magnetic properties of CoCrPt layer were studied. The coercivity, Hc, and squareness, S, of VMn/CoCrPt bilayer, is dependent on the thickness of VMn. The grain size of the CoCrPt film can also be modified by laser parameters. High laser fluence used for CoCrPt deposition produces a smaller grain size. Enhanced Hc and reduced grain size in VMn/CoCrPt is explained by more pronounced surface phase segregation during deposition at high laser fluence.

  11. Is vector body size the key to reduced malaria transmission in the irrigated region of Niono, Mali?

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Touré, Mahamoudou B; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Doumbia, Seydou; Traoré, Sekou F; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A; Taylor, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    Malaria vectors can reach very high densities in villages near irrigated rice fields in Africa, leading to the expectation that malaria should be especially prevalent there. Surprisingly, this is not always the case. In Niono, Mali, villages from nonirrigated areas have higher malaria prevalence than those within the irrigated regions, which suffer from higher mosquito numbers. One hypothesis explaining this observation is that mosquitoes from irrigated fields with high densities are inefficient vectors. This could occur if higher larval densities lead to smaller mosquitoes that suffer elevated mortality. Three predictions of the hypothesis were studied. First, the effect of larval density on larval body size was measured for both Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles funestus Giles. Second, the relationship between larval and adult body size was tested. Third, evidence of an effect of adult size on survivorship in both irrigated and nonirrigated villages during the wet and dry seasons was sought. There was a modest positive relationship between densities of immatures and larval size, and a strong relationship between larval and adult size. Furthermore, adult survivorship was higher in nonirrigated areas. However, there was no effect of size on survivorship between comparable samples from both the irrigated and nonirrigated zones. Although density may have a causal relationship with reduced transmission in the irrigated areas of Niono, it is unlikely to be because higher density leads to smaller body size and lower survivorship. PMID:17017214

  12. Reduced Cardiovascular Capacity and Resting Metabolic Rate in Men with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Bradley A.; Galvão, Daniel A.; Fatehee, Naeem; Taaffe, Dennis R.; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Newton, Robert U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate if androgen deprivation therapy exposure is associated with additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic treatment-related toxicities. Methods. One hundred and seven men (42–89 years) with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy completed a maximal graded objective exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, assessments for resting metabolic rate, body composition, blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and blood biomarker analysis. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to investigate the potential impact of therapy exposure with participants stratified into two groups according to duration of androgen deprivation therapy (<3 months and ≥3 months). Results. Maximal oxygen uptake (26.1 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min versus 23.2 ± 5.8 mL/kg/min, p = 0.020) and resting metabolic rate (1795 ± 256 kcal/d versus 1647 ± 236 kcal/d, p = 0.005) were significantly higher in those with shorter exposure to androgen deprivation. There were no differences between groups for peripheral and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness, or metabolic profile. Conclusion. Three months or longer exposure to androgen deprivation therapy was associated with reduced cardiorespiratory capacity and resting metabolic rate, but not in a range of blood biomarkers. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to androgen deprivation therapy is associated with negative alterations in cardiovascular outcomes. Trial registry is: ACTRN12609000200280. PMID:26587019

  13. Reducible self-assembling cationic polypeptide-based micelles mediate co-delivery of doxorubicin and microRNA-34a for androgen-independent prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chong; Liu, Jiyong; Wu, Xin; Tai, Zongguang; Gao, Yuan; Zhu, Quangang; Li, Jiafei; Zhang, Lijuan; Hu, Chuling; Gu, Fenfen; Gao, Jing; Gao, Shen

    2016-06-28

    The co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and microRNAs (miR) represents a promising strategy for tumor therapy due to the synergistic effect achieved. In the present study, hydrophobic doxorubicin (DOX) and negatively charged miR-34a were simultaneously delivered via a reducible self-assembling disulfide cross-linked stearyl-peptide-based micellar system (SHRss) using poly(l-arginine)-poly(l-histidine)-stearoyl as the copolymer building unit. The nanoscale SHRss micelles exhibited a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) with positive surface charge. In addition, the present micellar system facilitated the escape of miR-34a from the endosome and release of DOX into the cell nucleus, leading to the downregulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) expression and inhibition of DU145 and PC3 androgen-independent prostate cancer cell proliferation. In addition, DOX and miR-34a, delivered by SHRss micelles, passively targeted tumor tissue. Furthermore, a synergistic anti-proliferative effect was observed compared with DOX or miR-34a treatment alone in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the SHRss micelles developed in the present study represent a promising approach for combined delivery of gene agents and hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:27126903

  14. High-intensity training reduces intermittent hypoxia-induced ER stress and myocardial infarct size.

    PubMed

    Bourdier, Guillaume; Flore, Patrice; Sanchez, Hervé; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Belaidi, Elise; Arnaud, Claire

    2016-01-15

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) is described as the major detrimental factor leading to cardiovascular morbimortality in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. OSA patients exhibit increased infarct size after a myocardial event, and previous animal studies have shown that chronic IH could be the main mechanism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. High-intensity training (HIT) exerts beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Thus, we hypothesized that HIT could prevent IH-induced ER stress and the increase in infarct size. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 21 days of IH (21-5% fraction of inspired O2, 60-s cycle, 8 h/day) or normoxia. After 1 wk of IH alone, rats were submitted daily to both IH and HIT (2 × 24 min, 15-30m/min). Rat hearts were either rapidly frozen to evaluate ER stress by Western blot analysis or submitted to an ischemia-reperfusion protocol ex vivo (30 min of global ischemia/120 min of reperfusion). IH induced cardiac proapoptotic ER stress, characterized by increased expression of glucose-regulated protein kinase 78, phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 4, and C/EBP homologous protein. IH-induced myocardial apoptosis was confirmed by increased expression of cleaved caspase-3. These IH-associated proapoptotic alterations were associated with a significant increase in infarct size (35.4 ± 3.2% vs. 22.7 ± 1.7% of ventricles in IH + sedenary and normoxia + sedentary groups, respectively, P < 0.05). HIT prevented both the IH-induced proapoptotic ER stress and increased myocardial infarct size (28.8 ± 3.9% and 21.0 ± 5.1% in IH + HIT and normoxia + HIT groups, respectively, P = 0.28). In conclusion, these findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damages in OSA patients. PMID:26566725

  15. The importance of prostate bed tilt during postprostatectomy intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Linda J.; Cox, Jennifer; Eade, Thomas; Rinks, Marianne; Kneebone, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Variations in rectal and bladder filling can create a tilt of the prostate bed, which generates the potential for a geographic miss during postprostatectomy radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to assess the effect that bladder and rectum filling has on planning target volume angle, to determine a method to assess prostate bed tilt leading to potential geographic miss, and to discuss possible implementation issues. The cone-beam computed tomography images (n = 377) of 40 patients who received postprostatectomy radiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy were reviewed. The amount of tilt in the prostate bed was defined as the angle change between 2 surgical clips, one in the upper prostate bed and another in the lower. A potential geographic miss was defined as movement of any clip of more than 1 cm in any direction or 0.5 cm posteriorly when aligned to bone anatomy. Variations in bladder and rectum size were correlated with the degree of prostate bed tilt, and the rate of potential geographic miss was determined. A possible clinical use of prostate bed tilt was then assessed for different imaging techniques. A tilt of more than 10° was seen in 20.2% of images, which resulted in a 57.9% geographic miss rate of the superior clip. When tilt remained within 10°, there was only a 9% rate of geographic miss. Potential geographic miss of the inferior surgical clip was rare, occurring in only 1.9% of all images reviewed. The most common occurrence when the prostate bed tilt increased by more than 10° was a smaller bladder and larger rectum (6.4% of all images). The most common occurrence when the prostate bed tilt decreased by more than 10° was a larger bladder and smaller rectum (1.3% of all images). Significant prostate bed tilt (>± 10°) occurred in more than 20% of images, creating a 58% rate of geographic miss. Greatest prostate bed tilt occurred when the bladder size increased or reduced by more than 2 cm or the superior rectum size increased by more

  16. Herniated disks unchanged over time: Size reduced after oxygen-ozone therapy.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Matteo; Zambello, Alessio; Leonardi, Marco; Princiotta, Ciro

    2016-08-01

    The spontaneous regression of disk herniation secondary to dehydration is a much-debated topic in medicine. Some physicians wonder whether surgical removal of the extruded nucleus pulposus is really necessary when the spontaneous disappearance of a herniated lumbar disk is a well-known phenomenon. Unfortunately, without spontaneous regression, chronic pain leads to progressive disability for which surgery seems to be the only solution. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the utility of oxygen-ozone therapy in the treatment of disk herniation, resulting in disk shrinkage. This retrospective study evaluates the outcomes of a series of patients with a history of herniated disks neuroradiologically unchanged in size for over two years, treated with oxygen-ozone therapy at our center over the last 15 years. We treated 96 patients, 84 (87.5%) presenting low back pain complicated or not by chronic sciatica. No drug therapy had yielded significant benefits. A number of specialists had been consulted in two or more years resulting in several neuroradiological scans prior to the decision to undertake oxygen-ozone therapy. Our study documents how ozone therapy for slipped disks "unchanged over time" solved the problem, with disk disruption or a significant reduction in the size of the prolapsed disk material extruded into the spinal canal. PMID:27066816

  17. Significant enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit of polycrystalline Si films by reducing grain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valalaki, K.; Vouroutzis, N.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.

    2016-08-01

    The thermoelectric properties of p-type polycrystalline silicon thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) were accurately determined at room temperature and the thermoelectric figure of merit was deduced as a function of film thickness, ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The effect of film thickness on their thermoelectric performance is discussed. More than threefold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of the 100 nm thick polysilicon film was observed compared to the 500 nm thick film, reaching a value as high as 0.033. This enhancement is mainly the result of the smaller grain size in the thinner films. With the decrease in grain size the resistivity of the films is increased twofold and electrical conductivity decreased, however the Seebeck coefficient is increased by 30% and the thermal conductivity is decreased eightfold, being mainly at the origin of the increased figure of merit of the 100 nm film. Our experimental results were compared to known theoretical models and the possible mechanisms involved are presented and discussed.

  18. Transient response in longitudinal grain size to reduced sediment supply in a large river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Bed material grain size is an important degree of freedom in fluvial systems as they adjust to system-wide perturbations such as sediment supply changes. However, little is known about processes and patterns of such adjustment in longitudinal grain size sorting in large rivers. This research uses unprecedented datasets collected in a large fluvial system to investigate transient response to recent supply changes associated with anthropogenic activities. Separate fining trends for gravel and fines, a protracted gravel-sand (G-S) transition, and bed patchiness identified in Singer (2008) were interrogated using output from a hydraulic model with grain size distributions (GSDs) extracted from ~125 cross sections spanning ~400 river kilometers of the Sacramento River, California. The analysis suggests that interactions between hydraulics, bed material sorting, and sediment flux explain these previously identified anomalies. Highest values of sorting occur in the G-S transition and represent the overlap of separate fining trends for gravel and fines, where the long profile is jagged with evidence of progressive incision. Much of the sediment in this poorly sorted zone is organized into patches, where transport apparently occurs as bedload sheets. Patchiness occurs over short length scales leading to strong differences in entrainment and flux, regardless of hydraulic conditions. A modified Shields stress is proposed that is scaled by GSD sorting to improve characterization of entrainment/disentrainment. Sediment flux calculations based on an equation sensitive bed material conditions (Singer and Dunne, 2004) reveal a strong relationship between fine sediment flux and d90, suggesting that the efficiency of fine patch flux controls bed material bed surface roughness. Results are in part consistent with Paola and Seal (1995) suggesting that patches are a result of overlapping pdfs of shear stress and sorting and with Ferguson (2003) in that the final end of the protracted G

  19. Povidone Iodine Rectal Preparation at Time of Prostate Needle Biopsy is a Simple and Reproducible Means to Reduce Risk of Procedural Infection.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jay D; Lehman, Kathleen K; Dewan, Kalyan; Kirimanjeswara, Girish

    2015-01-01

    Single institution and population-based studies highlight that infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy (TRUS PNB) are increasing. Such infections are largely attributable to quinolone resistant microorganisms which colonize the rectal vault and are translocated into the bloodstream during the biopsy procedure. A povidone iodine rectal preparation (PIRP) at time of biopsy is a simple, reproducible method to reduce rectal microorganism colony counts and therefore resultant infections following TRUS PNB. All patients are administered three days of oral antibiotic therapy prior to biopsy. The PIRP technique involves initially positioning the patient in the standard manner for a TRUS PNB. Following digital rectal examination, 15 ml of a 10% solution of commercially available povidone iodine is mixed with 5 ml of 1% lidocaine jelly to create slurry. A 4 cmx4 cm sterile gauze is soaked in this slurry and then inserted into the rectal vault for 2 min after which it is removed. Thereafter, a disposable cotton gynecologic swab is used to paint both the perianal area and the rectal vault to a distance of 3 cm from the anus. The povidone iodine solution is then allowed to dry for 2-3 min prior to proceeding with standard transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent biopsy. This PIRP technique has been in practice at our institution since March of 2012 with an associated reduction of post-biopsy infections from 4.3% to 0.6% (p=0.02). The principal advantage of this prophylaxis regimen is its simplicity and reproducibility with use of an easily available, inexpensive agent to reduce infections. Furthermore, the technique avoids exposing patients to additional systemic antibiotics with potential further propagation of multi-drug resistant organisms. Usage of PIRP at TRUS PNB, however, is not applicable for patients with iodine or shellfish allergies. PMID:26436913

  20. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  1. Laser system refinements to reduce variability in infarct size in the rat photothrombotic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Paterson, Phyllis G.; Bradley, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rat photothrombotic stroke model can induce brain infarcts with reasonable biological variability. Nevertheless, we observed unexplained high inter-individual variability despite using a rigorous protocol. Of the three major determinants of infarct volume, photosensitive dye concentration and illumination period were strictly controlled, whereas undetected fluctuation in laser power output was suspected to account for the variability. New method The frequently utilized Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) lasers emitting 532 nm (green) light can exhibit fluctuations in output power due to temperature and input power alterations. The polarization properties of the Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals commonly used in these lasers are another potential source of fluctuation, since one means of controlling output power uses a polarizer with a variable transmission axis. Thus, the properties of DPSS lasers and the relationship between power output and infarct size were explored. Results DPSS laser beam intensity showed considerable variation. Either a polarizer or a variable neutral density filter allowed adjustment of a polarized laser beam to the desired intensity. When the beam was unpolarized, the experimenter was restricted to using a variable neutral density filter. Comparison with existing method(s) Our refined approach includes continuous monitoring of DPSS laser intensity via beam sampling using a pellicle beamsplitter and photodiode sensor. This guarantees the desired beam intensity at the targeted brain area during stroke induction, with the intensity controlled either through a polarizer or variable neutral density filter. Conclusions Continuous monitoring and control of laser beam intensity is critical for ensuring consistent infarct size. PMID:25840363

  2. Nonlinear optical phase-conjugation techniques to reduce the physical size of lasers. Final technical report, May-July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, H.L.

    1987-09-01

    Optical phase conjugation involves the use of various techniques to reverse the wavefront of an optical beam. Nonlinear optical interactions within various media may be used to generate phase conjugation. This report reviews the most-promising techniques for nonlinear optical phase conjugation and postulates how phase conjugation might be used to reduce the physical size of laser systems. A number of examples from literature are cited.

  3. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rebetzke, G. J.; Bonnett, D. G.; Reynolds, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned–awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38–7.93 t ha−1) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned–awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (–5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains (‘screenings’) to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced

  4. Awns reduce grain number to increase grain size and harvestable yield in irrigated and rainfed spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Rebetzke, G J; Bonnett, D G; Reynolds, M P

    2016-04-01

    Genotypic variation in ear morphology is linked to differences in photosynthetic potential to influence grain yield in winter cereals. Awns contribute to photosynthesis, particularly under water-limited conditions when canopy assimilation is restricted. We assessed performance of up to 45 backcross-derived, awned-awnletted NILs representing four diverse genetic backgrounds in 25 irrigated or rainfed, and droughted environments in Australia and Mexico. Mean environment grain yields were wide-ranging (1.38-7.93 t ha(-1)) with vegetative and maturity biomass, plant height, anthesis date, spike number, and harvest index all similar (P >0.05) for awned and awnletted NILs. Overall, grain yields of awned-awnletted sister-NILs were equivalent, irrespective of yield potential and genetic background. Awnletted wheats produced significantly more grains per unit area (+4%) and per spike (+5%) reflecting more fertile spikelets and grains in tertiary florets. Increases in grain number were compensated for by significant reductions in grain size (-5%) and increased frequency (+0.8%) of small, shrivelled grains ('screenings') to reduce seed-lot quality of awnletted NILs. Post-anthesis canopies of awnletted NILs were marginally warmer over all environments (+0.27 °C) but were not different and were sometimes cooler than awned NILs at cooler air temperatures. Awns develop early and represented up to 40% of total spikelet biomass prior to ear emergence. We hypothesize that the allocation of assimilate to large and rapidly developing awns decreases spikelet number and floret fertility to reduce grain number, particularly in distal florets. Individual grain size is increased to reduce screenings and to increase test weight and milling quality, particularly in droughted environments. Despite the average reduction in grain size, awnless lines could be identified that combined higher grain yield with larger grain size, increased grain protein concentration, and reduced screenings. PMID

  5. Use of pharmacogenetics in bioequivalence studies to reduce sample size: an example with mirtazapine and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    González-Vacarezza, N; Abad-Santos, F; Carcas-Sansuan, A; Dorado, P; Peñas-Lledó, E; Estévez-Carrizo, F; Llerena, A

    2013-10-01

    In bioequivalence studies, intra-individual variability (CV(w)) is critical in determining sample size. In particular, highly variable drugs may require enrollment of a greater number of subjects. We hypothesize that a strategy to reduce pharmacokinetic CV(w), and hence sample size and costs, would be to include subjects with decreased metabolic enzyme capacity for the drug under study. Therefore, two mirtazapine studies, two-way, two-period crossover design (n=68) were re-analysed to calculate the total CV(w) and the CV(w)s in three different CYP2D6 genotype groups (0, 1 and ≥ 2 active genes). The results showed that a 29.2 or 15.3% sample size reduction would have been possible if the recruitment had been of individuals carrying just 0 or 0 plus 1 CYP2D6 active genes, due to the lower CV(w). This suggests that there may be a role for pharmacogenetics in the design of bioequivalence studies to reduce sample size and costs, thus introducing a new paradigm for the biopharmaceutical evaluation of drug products. PMID:22733239

  6. Effect of homogenization techniques on reducing the size of microcapsules and the survival of probiotic bacteria therein.

    PubMed

    Ding, W K; Shah, N P

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated 2 different homogenization techniques for reducing the size of calcium alginate beads during the microencapsulation process of 8 probiotic bacteria strains, namely, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. salivarius, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium longum, B. lactis type Bi-04, and B. lactis type Bi-07. Two different homogenization techniques were used, namely, ultra-turrax benchtop homogenizer and Microfluidics microfluidizer. Various settings on the homogenization equipment were studied such as the number of passes, speed (rpm), duration (min), and pressure (psi). The traditional mixing method using a magnetic stirrer was used as a control. The size of microcapsules resulting from the homogenization technique, and the various settings were measured using a light microscope and a stage micrometer. The smallest capsules measuring (31.2 microm) were created with the microfluidizer using 26 passes at 1200 psi for 40 min. The greatest loss in viability of 3.21 log CFU/mL was observed when using the ultra-turrax benchtop homogenizer with a speed of 1300 rpm for 5 min. Overall, both homogenization techniques reduced capsule sizes; however, homogenization settings at high rpm also greatly reduced the viability of probiotic organisms. PMID:19723206

  7. Reduced molecular size and altered disaccharide composition of cerebral chondroitin sulfate upon Alzheimer's pathogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zui; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Uchimura, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disorder leading to cognitive impairment and neuronal loss. Cerebral extracellular accumulation and deposition of amyloid ß plaques is a pathological hallmark of AD. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an extracellular component abundant in the brain. CS is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan covalently attached to a core protein, forming chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The structure of CS is heterogeneous with sulfation modification and elongation of the chain. The structural diversity of CS allows it to play various roles in the brain. Increasing evidence has shown that CS promotes aggregation of amyloid ß peptides into higher-order species such as insoluble amyloid ß fibrils. Difficulties in the structural analysis of brain CS, as well as its heterogeneity, limit the study of potential roles of CS in AD pathology. Here we established a microanalysis method with reversed-phase ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography and found that CS in the brains of Tg2576 AD model mice show a lower molecular size and an increased ratio of CS-B motif di-sulfated disaccharide. Our findings provide insight into the structural changes of cerebral CS upon Alzheimer's pathogenesis. PMID:27578913

  8. Reducing the size of the human physiological blind spot through training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Wallis, Guy; Bex, Peter J; Arnold, Derek H

    2015-08-31

    The physiological blind spot refers to a zone of functional blindness all normally sighted people have in each eye, due to an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve passes through the surface of the retina. Here we report that the functional size of the physiological blind spot can be shrunk through training to distinguish direction signals at the blind spot periphery. Training on twenty successive weekdays improved sensitivity to both direction and colour, suggesting a generalizable benefit. Training on one blind spot, however, did not transfer to the blind spot in the untrained eye, ruling out mediation via a generic practice effect; nor could training benefits be attributed to eye movements, which were monitored to ensure stable fixation. These data suggest that training enhances the response gains of neurons with receptive fields that partially overlap, or abut, the physiological blind spot, thereby enhancing sensitivity to weak signals originating primarily from within the functionally-defined region of blindness [1-3]. Our results have important implications for situations where localised blindness has been acquired through damage to components of the visual system [4,5], and support proposals that these situations might be improved through perceptual training [5-7]. PMID:26325131

  9. The impact of using reduced capacity baskets on cask fleet size and cask fleet mix

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Andress, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System transportation system will encounter a wide range of spent fuel characteristics. Since the Initiative I casks are being designed to transport 10-year-old fuel with a burnup of 35,000 MWd/MTU, there is a good likelihood that a number of the cask shipments will need to be derated in order to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission radiation guidelines. This report discusses the impact of cask derating by using reduced-capacity baskets. Cask derating, while enhancing the ability to move spent fuel with a wider range of age and burnup characteristics, increases the number of shipments; the amount of equipment (cask bodies, baskets, etc.); and the number of visits to both shipping and receiving sites required to transport a specific amount of spent fuel.

  10. Prostate Cancer and Sexual Function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused by prostate cancer or its treatments. Prostate cancer by itself reduces sexual desire and the frequency of sexual intercourse. Additionally, surgery or hormonal therapy to block testosterone further increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is primarily attributable to nerve injury caused by intraoperative nerve traction, thermal injury, ischemic injury, and local inflammatory reactions. Additionally, the absence of nocturnal penile tumescence causes persistent hypoxia of the corpus cavernosum, which, secondarily, causes anatomical and functional changes in the corpus cavernosum. Preservation of erectile function is one of the most significant issues for patients with local prostate cancer. Erectile dysfunction following radical prostatectomy is known to have various prognoses, depending on preservation of the neurovascular bundle, patient age, and preoperative erectile status. Intracavernosal injections, PDE5 inhibitors, and penile rehabilitation therapy using a vacuum constriction device after radical prostatectomy are known to improve the recovery of erectile function. Recently, testosterone replacement therapy has also drawn attention as a treatment method. PMID:23596596

  11. Breast IMRT Reduces Time Spent with Acute Dermatitis For Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Gary M; Li, Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen, Yan; Ma, Charlie C-M; Anderson, Penny R

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Materials and methods The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 – 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n=405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n=399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, grade 0; 34%, grade 1; 61%, grade 2; and 2%, grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, grade 0/1, and 52%, grade 2/3, for IMRT, and 25%, grade 0/1, and 75%, grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p<0.0001). IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p<0.0001). Further, the time spent with grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p=0.0015), medium (p<0.0001), and large (p<0.0001) breasts. Conclusions Breast IMRT is associated with both a significant decrease in the time spent during treatment with grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with conventional radiation regardless of breast size. PMID:19362779

  12. Total Mechanical Unloading Minimizes Metabolic Demand of Left Ventricle and Dramatically Reduces Infarct Size in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kakino, Takamori; Arimura, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Takuya; Sakamoto, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masataka; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) mechanically unloads the left ventricle (LV). Theoretical analysis indicates that partial LVAD support (p-LVAD), where LV remains ejecting, reduces LV preload while increases afterload resulting from the elevation of total cardiac output and mean aortic pressure, and consequently does not markedly decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2). In contrast, total LVAD support (t-LVAD), where LV no longer ejects, markedly decreases LV preload volume and afterload pressure, thereby strikingly reduces MVO2. Since an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand is the fundamental pathophysiology of myocardial infarction (MI), we hypothesized that t-LVAD minimizes MVO2 and reduces infarct size in MI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential impact of the support level of LVAD on MVO2 and infarct size in a canine model of ischemia-reperfusion. Methods In 5 normal mongrel dogs, we examined the impact of LVAD on MVO2 at 3 support levels: Control (no LVAD support), p-LVAD and t-LVAD. In another 16 dogs, ischemia was induced by occluding major branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery (90 min) followed by reperfusion (300 min). We activated LVAD from the beginning of ischemia until 300 min of reperfusion, and compared the infarct size among 3 different levels of LVAD support. Results t-LVAD markedly reduced MVO2 (% reduction against Control: -56 ± 9%, p<0.01) whereas p-LVAD did less (-21 ± 14%, p<0.05). t-LVAD markedly reduced infarct size compared to p-LVAD (infarct area/area at risk: Control; 41.8 ± 6.4, p-LVAD; 29.1 ± 5.6 and t-LVAD; 5.0 ± 3.1%, p<0.01). Changes in creatine kinase-MB paralleled those in infarct size. Conclusions Total LVAD support that minimizes metabolic demand maximizes the benefit of LVAD in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27124411

  13. Selective endothelin A receptor antagonism with sitaxentan reduces neointimal lesion size in a mouse model of intraluminal injury

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, Karolina M; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Miller, Eileen; Ivy, Jessica R; McShane, John F; Lim, Win Gel; Webb, David J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonism reduces neointimal lesion formation in animal models. This investigation addressed the hypothesis that the selective ETA receptor antagonist sitaxentan would be more effective than mixed ETA/B receptor antagonism at inhibiting neointimal proliferation in a mouse model of intraluminal injury. Experimental Approach Antagonism of ETA receptors by sitaxentan (1–100 nM) was assessed in femoral arteries isolated from adult, male C57Bl6 mice using isometric wire myography. Neointimal lesion development was induced by intraluminal injury in mice receiving sitaxentan (ETA antagonist; 15 mg·kg−1·day−1), A192621 (ETB antagonist; 30 mg·kg−1·day−1), the combination of both antagonists or vehicle. Treatment began 1 week before, and continued for 28 days after, surgery. Femoral arteries were then harvested for analysis of lesion size and composition. Key Results Sitaxentan produced a selective, concentration-dependent parallel rightward shift of ET-1-mediated contraction in isolated femoral arteries. Sitaxentan reduced neointimal lesion size, whereas ETB and combined ETA/B receptor antagonism did not. Macrophage and α-smooth muscle actin content were unaltered by ET receptor antagonism but sitaxentan reduced the amount of collagen in lesions. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that ETA receptor antagonism would be more effective than combined ETA/ETB receptor antagonism at reducing neointimal lesion formation. PMID:25598351

  14. [Reducing the side effects of aggressive chemotherapy (cisplatin and epirubicin) with xenogenic peptides (factor AF2) in patients with hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer. A prospective, randomized study].

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, I; Wand, H

    1989-06-01

    The indication of a chemotherapy is advisable with patients who are suffering from a progressively metastasised, secondarily hormone refractory carcinoma of the prostate. In search of efficient chemotherapy protocols we combined cisplatin with epirubicin (PE scheme) in our clinic. Massive side effects of that aggressive chemotherapy scheme like gastro-intestinal trouble and myelotoxicity are the limiting factors of the scheme. With measures like reducing the dosage, delaying the next cycle, or breaking off the therapy the effective dosage can often not be achieved. The anti-emetics which are usually used today exclusively give anti-emetic protection. The additional administration of xenogenic peptides (Factor AF2) had additionally myeloprotective effect in former studies. In this study we examined whether, by additionally giving Factor AF2, the patients' subjective condition, and above all their hemogram, could be stabilised in order to achieve the effective dosage or dosage intensity. For that, the patients were prospectively randomised in two groups by means of a random selection board. The analysis of the data gained in the protocol showed that the additional administration of Factor AF2 improves the patients' subjective conditions significantly. Apart from that, we noticed a considerable reduction of the vomiting frequency. Concerning the objective measured parameters of the leukocytes, thrombocytes, erythrocytes, and the hemoglobin level, the significantly myeloprotective effect of Factor AF2 could be proved. Due to the fact that in the verum group there were considerably fewer cases of breaking off or delays of the treatment than in the control group, the effective dosage intensity could be achieved with a higher number of patients in that group. PMID:2691943

  15. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Reduces Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Patients Treated With Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Navesh K.; Li Tianyu; Chen, David Y.; Pollack, Alan; Horwitz, Eric M.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (AD) has been shown to increase late Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity when used concurrently with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicity by limiting the radiation dose received by the bowel and bladder. The present study compared the genitourinary and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in men treated with 3D-CRT+AD vs. IMRT+AD. Methods and Materials: Between July 1992 and July 2004, 293 men underwent 3D-CRT (n = 170) or IMRT (n = 123) with concurrent AD (<6 months, n = 123; {>=}6 months, n = 170). The median radiation dose was 76 Gy for 3D-CRT (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements) and 76 Gy for IMRT (95% to the planning target volume). Toxicity was assessed by a patient symptom questionnaire that was completed at each visit and recorded using a Fox Chase Modified Late Effects Normal Tissue Task radiation morbidity scale. Results: The mean follow-up was 86 months (standard deviation, 29.3) for the 3D-CRT group and 40 months (standard deviation, 9.7) for the IMRT group. Acute GI toxicity (odds ratio, 4; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-11.7; p = .005) was significantly greater with 3D-CRT than with IMRT and was independent of the AD duration (i.e., <6 vs. {>=}6 months). The interval to the development of late GI toxicity was significantly longer in the IMRT group. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimate for Grade 2 or greater GI toxicity was 20% for 3D-CRT and 8% for IMRT (p = .01). On multivariate analysis, Grade 2 or greater late GI toxicity (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.3; p = .04) was more prevalent in the 3D-CRT patients. Conclusion: Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT significantly decreased the acute and late GI toxicity in patients treated with AD.

  16. Soluble epoxide hydrolase gene deletion improves blood flow and reduces infarct size after cerebral ischemia in reproductively senescent female mice

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Kristen L.; Zhang, Wenri; Roese, Natalie E.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key enzyme in the metabolism of vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by estrogen, and contributes to underlying sex differences in cerebral blood flow and injury after cerebral ischemia. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition or gene deletion in reproductively senescent (RS) female mice would increase cerebral perfusion and decrease infarct size following stroke. RS (15–18 month old) and young (3–4 month old) female sEH knockout (sEHKO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 45 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. WT mice were treated with vehicle or a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB at the time of reperfusion and every 24 h thereafter for 3 days. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow were measured in vivo using optical microangiography (OMAG). Infarct size was measured 3 days after reperfusion. Infarct size and cerebral perfusion 24 h after MCAO were not altered by age. Both sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition increased cortical perfusion 24 h after MCAO. Neither sEH gene deletion nor sEH inhibition reduced infarct size in young mice. However, sEH gene deletion, but not sEH inhibition of the hydrolase domain of the enzyme, decreased infarct size in RS mice. Results of these studies show that sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition enhance cortical perfusion following MCAO and sEH gene deletion reduces damage after ischemia in RS female mice; however this neuroprotection in absent is young mice. PMID:25642188

  17. Optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab

    Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. These microscopic nerves course along the surface of the prostate within a few millimeters of the prostate capsule, and they vary in size and location from one patient to another, making preservation of the nerves difficult during dissection and removal of a cancerous prostate gland. These observations may explain in part the wide variability in reported sexual potency rates (9--86%) following prostate cancer surgery. Any technology capable of providing improved identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery would be of great assistance in improving sexual function after surgery, and result in direct patient benefit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique capable of performing high-resolution cross-sectional in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructures in biological tissues. OCT imaging of the cavernous nerves in the rat and human prostate has recently been demonstrated. However, improvements in the OCT system and the quality of the images for identification of the cavernous nerves is necessary before clinical use. The following chapters describe complementary approaches to improving identification and imaging of the cavernous nerves during OCT of the prostate gland. After the introduction to OCT imaging of the prostate gland, the optimal wavelength for deep imaging of the prostate is studied in Chapter 2. An oblique-incidence single point measurement technique using a normal-detector scanning system was implemented to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, mua and m's , of fresh canine prostate tissue, ex vivo, from the diffuse reflectance profile of near-IR light as a function of source-detector distance. The effective attenuation coefficient, mueff, and the Optical Penetration Depth (OPD) were

  18. Reduced infarct size in neuroglobin-null mice after experimental stroke in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroglobin is considered to be a novel important pharmacological target in combating stroke and neurodegenerative disorders, although the mechanism by which this protection is accomplished remains an enigma. We hypothesized that if neuroglobin is directly involved in neuroprotection, then permanent cerebral ischemia would lead to larger infarct volumes in neuroglobin-null mice than in wild-type mice. Methods Using neuroglobin-null mice, we estimated the infarct volume 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion using Cavalieri’s Principle, and compared the infarct volume in neuroglobin-null and wild-type mice. Neuroglobin antibody staining was used to examine neuroglobin expression in the infarct area of wild-type mice. Results Infarct volumes 24 hours after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion were significantly smaller in neuroglobin-null mice than in wild-types (p < 0.01). Neuroglobin immunostaining of the penumbra area revealed no visible up-regulation of neuroglobin protein in ischemic wild-type mice when compared to uninjured wild-type mice. In uninjured wild-type mice, neuroglobin protein was seen throughout cortical layer II and sparsely in layer V. In contrast, no neuroglobin-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the aforementioned layers of the ischemia injured cortical area, or in the surrounding penumbra of ischemic wild-type mice. This suggests no selective sparing of neuroglobin expressing neurons in ischemia. Conclusions Neuroglobin-deficiency resulted in reduced tissue infarction, suggesting that, at least at endogenous expression levels, neuroglobin in itself is non-protective against ischemic injury. PMID:22901501

  19. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  20. Effect of endorectal balloon positioning errors on target deformation and dosimetric quality during prostate SBRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Bernard L.; Gan, Gregory; Kavanagh, Brian; Miften, Moyed

    2013-11-01

    An inflatable endorectal balloon (ERB) is often used during stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for treatment of prostate cancer in order to reduce both intrafraction motion of the target and risk of rectal toxicity. However, the ERB can exert significant force on the prostate, and this work assessed the impact of ERB position errors on deformation of the prostate and treatment dose metrics. Seventy-one cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image datasets of nine patients with clinical stage T1cN0M0 prostate cancer were studied. An ERB (Flexi-Cuff, EZ-EM, Westbury, NY) inflated with 60 cm3 of air was used during simulation and treatment, and daily kilovoltage (kV) CBCT imaging was performed to localize the prostate. The shape of the ERB in each CBCT was analyzed to determine errors in position, size, and shape. A deformable registration algorithm was used to track the dose received by (and deformation of) the prostate, and dosimetric values such as D95, PTV coverage, and Dice coefficient for the prostate were calculated. The average balloon position error was 0.5 cm in the inferior direction, with errors ranging from 2 cm inferiorly to 1 cm superiorly. The prostate was deformed primarily in the AP direction, and tilted primarily in the anterior-posterior/superior-inferior plane. A significant correlation was seen between errors in depth of ERB insertion (DOI) and mean voxel-wise deformation, prostate tilt, Dice coefficient, and planning-to-treatment prostate inter-surface distance (p < 0.001). Dosimetrically, DOI is negatively correlated with prostate D95 and PTV coverage (p < 0.001). For the model of ERB studied, error in ERB position can cause deformations in the prostate that negatively affect treatment, and this additional aspect of setup error should be considered when ERBs are used for prostate SBRT. Before treatment, the ERB position should be verified, and the ERB should be adjusted if the error is observed to exceed tolerable values.

  1. Enhanced hydrogenation and reduced lattice distortion in size selected Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Kulriya, P. K.; Khan, S. A.

    2013-10-21

    Important correlation between valence band spectra and hydrogenation properties in Pd alloy nanoparticles is established by studying the properties of size selected and monocrystalline Pd, Ag, Cu, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Cu nanoparticles. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis show that size induced Pd4d centroid shift is related to enhanced hydrogenation with H/Pd ratio of 0.57 and 0.49 in Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu nanoparticles in comparison to reported bulk values of 0.2 and 0.1, respectively. Pd-alloy nanoparticles show lower hydrogen induced lattice distortion. The reduced distortion and higher hydrogen reactivity of Pd-alloy nanoparticles is important for numerous hydrogen related applications.

  2. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... F Race . Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men. F Family History . If your father or ... Healthcare Research and Quality Publications Clearinghouse P.O. Box 8547 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8547 1-800- ...

  3. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk. Race . Prostate cancer is most common among African-American men. Family history . If your father or brother ... Healthcare Research and Quality Publications Clearinghouse P.O. Box 8547 Silver Spring, MD 20907-8547 1-800- ...

  4. Prostatitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder, such as alcohol, caffeinated foods and drinks, citrus juices, and hot or spicy foods. Drink more ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prostate Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  5. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower urinary tract Parasites Pelvic floor muscle problem Sexual abuse Viruses Life stresses and emotional factors may play a part in the problem. Most men with chronic prostatitis have the nonbacterial form.

  6. Choice of Stimulus Range and Size Can Reduce Test-Retest Variability in Glaucomatous Visual Field Defects

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, William H.; Horner, Douglas G.; Dul, Mitchell W.; Malinovsky, Victor E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop guidelines for engineering perimetric stimuli to reduce test-retest variability in glaucomatous defects. Methods Perimetric testing was performed on one eye for 62 patients with glaucoma and 41 age-similar controls on size III and frequency-doubling perimetry and three custom tests with Gaussian blob and Gabor sinusoid stimuli. Stimulus range was controlled by values for ceiling (maximum sensitivity) and floor (minimum sensitivity). Bland-Altman analysis was used to derive 95% limits of agreement on test and retest, and bootstrap analysis was used to test the hypotheses about peak variability. Results Limits of agreement for the three custom stimuli were similar in width (0.72 to 0.79 log units) and peak variability (0.22 to 0.29 log units) for a stimulus range of 1.7 log units. The width of the limits of agreement for size III decreased from 1.78 to 1.37 to 0.99 log units for stimulus ranges of 3.9, 2.7, and 1.7 log units, respectively (F = 3.23, P < 0.001); peak variability was 0.99, 0.54, and 0.34 log units, respectively (P < 0.01). For a stimulus range of 1.3 log units, limits of agreement were narrowest with Gabor and widest with size III stimuli, and peak variability was lower (P < 0.01) with Gabor (0.18 log units) and frequency-doubling perimetry (0.24 log units) than with size III stimuli (0.38 log units). Conclusions Test-retest variability in glaucomatous visual field defects was substantially reduced by engineering the stimuli. Translational Relevance The guidelines should allow developers to choose from a wide range of stimuli. PMID:25371855

  7. Plasmodesmata formation and cell-to-cell transport are reduced in decreased size exclusion limit 1 during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Cho, Euna; Burch-Smith, Tessa M.; Zambryski, Patricia C.

    2012-01-01

    In plants, plasmodesmata (PD) serve as channels for micromolecular and macromolecular cell-to-cell transport. Based on structure, PD in immature tissues are classified into two types, simple and branched (X- and Y-shaped) or twinned. The maximum size of molecules capable of PD transport defines PD aperture, known as the PD size exclusion limit. Here we report an Arabidopsis mutation, decreased size exclusion limit1 (dse1), that exhibits reduced cell-to-cell transport of the small (524 Da) fluorescent tracer 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid at the midtorpedo stage of embryogenesis. Correspondingly, the fraction of X- and Y-shaped and twinned PD was reduced in dse1 embryos compared with WT embryos at this stage, suggesting that the frequency of PD is related to transport capability. dse1 is caused by a point mutation in At4g29860 (previously termed TANMEI) at the last donor splice site of its transcript, resulting in alternative splicing in both the first intron and the last intron. AtDSE1 is a conserved eukaryotic 386-aa WD-repeat protein critical for Arabidopsis morphogenesis and reproduction. Similar to its homologs in mouse, null mutants are embryo-lethal. The weak loss-of-function mutant dse1 exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes, including retarded vegetative growth, delayed flowering time, dysfunctional male and female organs, and delayed senescence. Finally, silencing of DSE1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves leads to reduced movement of GFP fused to tobacco mosaic virus movement protein. Thus, DSE1 is important for regulating PD transport between plant cells. PMID:22411811

  8. Decoration of BiOI quantum size nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide in enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhang; Xu, Weicheng; Fang, Jianzhang; Xu, Xiaoxin; Wu, Shuxing; Zhu, Ximiao; Chen, Zehua

    2012-10-01

    Herein, a reverse microemulsion route was developed to synthesize bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) nanocrystals and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites as a highly efficient photocatalyst, and both the formation of BiOI and the reduction of RGO were achieved in situ in microemulsions simultaneously at low temperature (60 °C). The uniform nanocrystal size and structure were indicated by XRD, TEM, and the reduction of GO by ascorbic acid was evidenced by FTIR, XPS, and Raman spectra techniques. The enhanced photoactivity of RGO/BiOI nanocomposites under visible light was attributed to improved light absorption and efficient charge separation and transportation.

  9. Effects of verbenalin on prostatitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Mingsan; Guo, Lin; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tan; Li, Zuming

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the treatment characteristics of verbenalin on a prostatitis mouse model. Give Xiaozhiling injection in the prostate locally to make a prostatitis mouse model. High, medium and low doses of verbenalin were each given to different mouse groups. The amount of water was determined in 14th, 28th. The number of white cells and lecithin corpuscle density in prostatic fluid were determined. Morphological changes in the prostate, testis, epididymis and kidney were detected. Compared with the model control group, the mice treated with high, medium and low doses of verbenalin had significantly increased amounts of water, and prostate white blood cell count and prostate volume density (Vv) were decreased significantly, the density of lecithin corpuscle score increased, and pathologic prostatitis changes were significantly reduced. Pathological change in the testis was significantly reduced and the change in the epididymis was obviously reduced. The thymic cortex thickness and the number of lymphocytes increased significantly and could reduce the renal pathological changes in potential. Verbenalin has a good therapeutic effect on the prostatitis mouse model. PMID:26858560

  10. Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Tara A. van de; Lomax, Antony J.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Hug, Eugen B.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality

  11. Mercury induces proliferation and reduces cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells through MAPK, oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, Andrea; Galán, María; Zhenyukh, Olha; Wiggers, Giulia A.; Roque, Fernanda R.; Redondo, Santiago; Peçanha, Franck; Martín, Angela; Fortuño, Ana; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Tejerina, Teresa; Salaices, Mercedes; and others

    2013-04-15

    MAPK activation, oxidative stress and COX-2 expression. ► Inhibition of MAPK reduces HgCl{sub 2}-induced oxidative stress and COX-2 expression. ► Inhibition of MAPK, oxidative stress and COX-2 restores the altered cell proliferation and size.

  12. Impact of particle size distribution on rheological and textural properties of chocolate models with reduced fat content.

    PubMed

    Do, T-A L; Hargreaves, J M; Wolf, B; Hort, J; Mitchell, J R

    2007-11-01

    With an increasing consumption of lipids nowadays, decreasing the fat content in food products has become a trend. Chocolate is a fat-based suspension that contains about 30%wt fat. Reducing fat content causes an increase in the molten chocolate viscosity. This leads to 2 major issues: difficulties in the process and a loss of eating quality in the final product, reported to have poor in-mouth melting properties, remain hard, and difficult to swallow. Literature shows that optimizing the particle size distribution (PSD), that is, having one with an increased packing fraction, can decrease the viscosity of highly concentrated suspensions. This study focuses on the impact of the PSD and fat content on the rheological properties, melting behavior, and hardness of chocolate models (dispersions of sugar in fat). We show that optimizing the PSD while reducing the fat content to a critical amount (22%wt) can decrease the viscosity of the molten material and reduce the hardness of the crystallized chocolate models. Melting in the mouth, characterized by an in vitro collapse speed, is faster for the samples with an optimized PSD. The decrease in the viscosity by optimizing the PSD in systems with a constant fraction of medium phase is based on the decrease of interparticle contact, reducing the particle aggregates strength, and structure buildup during flow or meltdown. In its crystallized state, the particle network is less interconnected, providing less resistance to breakage and meltdown. PMID:18034724

  13. Short-term pretreatment with atorvastatin attenuates left ventricular dysfunction, reduces infarct size and apoptosis in acute myocardial infarction rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tie-Long; Zhu, Guang-Li; He, Xiao-Long; Wang, Jian-An; Wang, Yu; Qi, Guo-An

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atorvastatin showed a number of cardiovascular benefits, however, the role and underlying molecular mechanisms of short-term atorvastatin-mediated protection remain unclear. Methods: 30 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group, acute myocardial infarction model group and atorvastatin group. The rats of acute myocardial infarction model were established by ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary arteries. Before surgery, rats in the atorvastatin group received 20 mg/kg/d atorvastatin for 7 days in atorvastatin group. After 4 hours of model established, changes in hemodynamics parameters were recorded and myocardial infarct size was achieved by Evans blue-TTC staining. Myocardium apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL. The expression of FAS, FAS-L, Bcl-2, Bax, p-BAD, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 in myocardium were examined by Western blot. Results: In the atorvastatin group, left ventricular function was elevated and infarct size was decreased compared with the model group. Moreover, in the atorvastatin group, the cell apoptosis index was reduced in response to myocardial infarction. The expressions of Bcl-2 were increased and Bax, p-BAD, Fas, Fas-L, caspase-8 and caspase-3 in myocardium were decreased in atorvastatin group. Conclusions: Short-term atorvastatin pretreatment restored left ventricular function and limited infarct size in acute myocardial infarction, which were associated with reduction of the apoptosis in myocardium through Bcl-2 and Fas pathway. PMID:25663976

  14. Impact of Prostate Inflammation on Lesion Development in the POET3+Pten+/− Mouse Model of Prostate Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Burcham, Grant N.; Cresswell, Gregory M.; Snyder, Paul W.; Chen, Long; Liu, Xiaoqi; Crist, Scott A.; Henry, Michael D.; Ratliff, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence linking prostatitis and prostate cancer development is contradictory. To study this link, the POET3 mouse, an inducible model of prostatitis, was crossed with a Pten-loss model of prostate cancer (Pten+/−) containing the ROSA26 luciferase allele to monitor prostate size. Prostatitis was induced, and prostate bioluminescence was tracked over 12 months, with lesion development, inflammation, and cytokine expression analyzed at 4, 8, and 12 months and compared with mice without induction of prostatitis. Acute prostatitis led to more proliferative epithelium and enhanced bioluminescence. However, 4 months after initiation of prostatitis, mice with induced inflammation had lower grade pre-neoplastic lesions. A trend existed toward greater development of carcinoma 12 months after induction of inflammation, including one of two mice with carcinoma developing perineural invasion. Two of 18 mice at the later time points developed lesions with similarities to proliferative inflammatory atrophy, including one mouse with associated carcinoma. Pten+/− mice developed spontaneous inflammation, and prostatitis was similar among groups of mice at 8 and 12 months. Analyzed as one cohort, lesion number and grade were positively correlated with prostatitis. Specifically, amounts of CD11b+Gr1+ cells were correlated with lesion development. These results support the hypothesis that myeloid-based inflammation is associated with lesion development in the murine prostate, and previous bouts of CD8-driven prostatitis may promote invasion in the Pten+/− model of cancer. PMID:25455686

  15. Local delivery of soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 gene reduces infarct size following ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Masahiro; Hata, Tomoji; Tsuchida, Keiko; Suematsu, Nobuhiro; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Satoh, Shinji; Makino, Naoki

    2004-11-01

    Apoptosis in the myocardium is linked to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and TNF-alpha induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. A significant amount of TNF-alpha is detected after ischemia and reperfusion. Soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 (sTNFR1) is an extracellular domain of TNF-alpha receptor 1 and is an antagonist to TNF-alpha. In the present study, we examined the effects of sTNFR1 on infarct size in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following ischemia/reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were subjected to left coronary artery (LCA) ligation. After 30 min of LCA occlusion, the temporary ligature on the LCA was released and blood flow was restored. Immediately after reperfusion, a total of 200 microg of sTNFR1 or LacZ plasmid was injected into three different sites of the left ventricular wall. At 6 h, 1 and 2 days after reperfusion, the TNF-alpha bioactivity in the myocardium was significantly higher in rats receiving LacZ plasmid than in sham-operated rats, whereas sTNFR1 plasmid significantly suppressed the increase in the TNF-alpha bioactivity. The sTNFR1 plasmid significantly reduced DNA fragmentation and caspase activity compared to the LacZ plasmid. Finally, the sTNFR1 expression-plasmid treatment significantly reduced the area of myocardial infarction at 2 days after ischemia/reperfusion compared to LacZ plasmid. In conclusion, the TNF-alpha bioactivity in the heart increased from the early stage of ischemia/reperfusion, and this increase was thought to contribute in part to the increased area of myocardial infarction. Suppression of TNF-alpha bioactivity with the sTNFR1 plasmid reduced the infarct size in AMI following ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:15646033

  16. YAP is closely correlated with castration-resistant prostate cancer, and downregulation of YAP reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis of PC-3 cells

    PubMed Central

    SHENG, XIA; LI, WEN-BIN; WANG, DE-LIN; CHEN, KE-HONG; CAO, JIAN-JIA; LUO, ZHAO; HE, JIANG; LI, MEI-CAI; LIU, WU-JIANG; YU, CHAO

    2015-01-01

    Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP65) has been implicated as an oncogene, and its expression is increased in human cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations in YAP activity may result in tumourigenesis of the prostate. With androgen deprivation therapies becoming progressively ineffective, often leading to life-threatening androgen-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The present study aimed to analyse the role of YAP in prostate cancer (PCa), particularly in CRPC. YAP protein was detected using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis in different prostatic tissues. In addition, three specific RNA interference vectors targeting the human YAP gene were synthesised, and PC-3 cells with a stable inhibition of YAP were obtained by transfection. MTT, flow cytometry, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to analyse the effects of YAP inhibition on the proliferation and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. The frequency of cells that were positive for YAP protein in PCa (78.13%) was significantly higher, compared with para-PCa (26.67%; P=0.007) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (0%; P=0.002). The frequency of cells, which were positive for the expression of YAP exhibited a positive correlation (P=0.008) with the Gleason score, the tumour-node-metastasis staging (P=0.033) and the level of prostate specific antigens (P=0.0032) in PCa. The proliferative capacity of the transfected group was significantly lower, compared with the negative control group (P=0.022). The cell-cycle of the transfected group was arrested in the G1 stage, which was detected using flow cytometry, and there was a significant increase in the apoptosis of cells in the transfected group (P=0.002). The mRNA and protein levels of TEA domain family member 1 were inhibited in the transfected group (P=0.001 and P=0.00, respectively). Therefore, it was concluded that gene transcription and protein expression of YAP may be involved in the development

  17. Blood lipids and prostate cancer: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    PubMed

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P; Perks, Claire M; Davies, Neil; Haycock, Philip; Yu, Oriana Hoi Yun; Richards, J Brent; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; MacInnis, Robert J; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Micheal, Agnieszka; Pandha, Hardev; Smith, George Davey; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL consortium were analyzed. Allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to be uniquely associated with each of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels, were first validated in an independent dataset, and then entered into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL, comparing high- (≥7 Gleason score) versus low-grade (<7 Gleason score) cancers was 1.50 (95% CI: 0.92, 2.46; P = 0.11). A genetically instrumented SD increase in TGs was weakly associated with stage: the OR for advanced versus localized cancer per unit increase in genetic risk score was 1.68 (95% CI: 0.95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk. We found weak evidence that higher LDL and TG levels increase aggressive prostate cancer risk, and that a variant in HMGCR (that mimics the LDL lowering effect of statin drugs) reduces risk. However, inferences are limited by sample size and evidence of pleiotropy. PMID:26992435

  18. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Coker, Timothy J; Dierfeldt, Daniel M

    2016-01-15

    Acute bacterial prostatitis is an acute infection of the prostate gland that causes pelvic pain and urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria, urinary frequency, and urinary retention, and may lead to systemic symptoms, such as fevers, chills, nausea, emesis, and malaise. Although the true incidence is unknown, acute bacterial prostatitis is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all cases of prostatitis. Most acute bacterial prostatitis infections are community acquired, but some occur after transurethral manipulation procedures, such as urethral catheterization and cystoscopy, or after transrectal prostate biopsy. The physical examination should include abdominal, genital, and digital rectal examination to assess for a tender, enlarged, or boggy prostate. Diagnosis is predominantly made based on history and physical examination, but may be aided by urinalysis. Urine cultures should be obtained in all patients who are suspected of having acute bacterial prostatitis to determine the responsible bacteria and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Additional laboratory studies can be obtained based on risk factors and severity of illness. Radiography is typically unnecessary. Most patients can be treated as outpatients with oral antibiotics and supportive measures. Hospitalization and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics should be considered in patients who are systemically ill, unable to voluntarily urinate, unable to tolerate oral intake, or have risk factors for antibiotic resistance. Typical antibiotic regimens include ceftriaxone and doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. The risk of nosocomial bacterial prostatitis can be reduced by using antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, before transrectal prostate biopsy. PMID:26926407

  19. Exophytic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Blaschko, Sarah D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2011-08-01

    A 60-year-old man had incidental finding of a multilobular 8 × 7 × 7-cm mass identified posterior to the urinary bladder in continuity with the prostate. The man's prostate-specific antigen was 1.87, and he denied any lower urinary tract symptoms. A transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy demonstrated benign prostatic tissue. A computed tomography-guided needle aspiration demonstrated a benign epithelium-lined cyst, likely prostatic in origin. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a proliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Although prostatic hyperplasia is usually restricted to the prostate gland, hyperplastic nodules occasionally protrude outside the prostate and rarely form exophytic pelvic masses. PMID:20869104

  20. Role of plant residues in determining temporal patterns of the activity, size, and structure of nitrate reducer communities in soil.

    PubMed

    Chèneby, D; Bru, D; Pascault, N; Maron, P A; Ranjard, L; Philippot, L

    2010-11-01

    The incorporation of plant residues into soil not only represents an opportunity to limit soil organic matter depletion resulting from cultivation but also provides a valuable source of nutrients such as nitrogen. However, the consequences of plant residue addition on soil microbial communities involved in biochemical cycles other than the carbon cycle are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the responses of one N-cycling microbial community, the nitrate reducers, to wheat, rape, and alfalfa residues for 11 months after incorporation into soil in a field experiment. A 20- to 27-fold increase in potential nitrate reduction activity was observed for residue-amended plots compared to the nonamended plots during the first week. This stimulating effect of residues on the activity of the nitrate-reducing community rapidly decreased but remained significant over 11 months. During this period, our results suggest that the potential nitrate reduction activity was regulated by both carbon availability and temperature. The presence of residues also had a significant effect on the abundance of nitrate reducers estimated by quantitative PCR of the narG and napA genes, encoding the membrane-bound and periplasmic nitrate reductases, respectively. In contrast, the incorporation of the plant residues into soil had little impact on the structure of the narG and napA nitrate-reducing community determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting. Overall, our results revealed that the addition of plant residues can lead to important long-term changes in the activity and size of a microbial community involved in N cycling but with limited effects of the type of plant residue itself. PMID:20833788

  1. Systematic adjustment of charge densities and size of polyglycerol amines reduces cytotoxic effects and enhances cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Hellmund, Markus; Achazi, Katharina; Neumann, Falko; Thota, Bala N S; Ma, Nan; Haag, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Excessive cationic charge density of polyplexes during cellular uptake is still a major hurdle in the field of non-viral gene delivery. The most efficient cationic vectors such as polyethylene imine (PEI) or polyamidoamine (PAMAM) can be highly toxic and may induce strong side effects due to their high cationic charge densities. Alternatives like polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used to 'shield' these charges and thus to reduce the cytotoxic effects known for PEI/PEG-core-shell architectures. In this study, we compared the ability of hyperbranched polyglycerol amines (hPG amines) with different amine densities and molecular weights as non-viral cationic vectors for DNA delivery. By adjusting the hydroxyl to amine group ratio on varying molecular weights, we were able to perform a systematic study on the cytotoxic effects caused by the effective charge density in correlation to size. We could demonstrate that carriers with moderate charge density have a higher potential for effective DNA delivery as compared to high/low charged ones independent of their size, but the final efficiency can be optimized by the molecular weight. We analyzed the physicochemical properties and cellular uptake capacity as well as the cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of these new vector systems. PMID:26244171

  2. Continuous nicotinamide administration improves behavioral recovery and reduces lesion size following bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact injury.

    PubMed

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Anderson, Gail D; Hoane, Michael R

    2011-10-31

    Previous research has demonstrated considerable preclinical efficacy of nicotinamide (NAM; vitamin B(3)) in animal models of TBI with systemic dosing at 50 and 500 mg/kg yielding improvements on sensory, motor, cognitive and histological measures. The current study aimed to utilize a more specific dosing paradigm in a clinically relevant delivery mechanism: continuously secreting subcutaneous pumps. A bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham surgery was performed and rats were treated with NAM (150 mg/kg day) or saline (1 ml/kg) pumps 30 min after CCI, continuing until seven days post-CCI. Rats were given a loading dose of NAM (50mg/kg) or saline (1 ml/kg) following pump implant. Rats received behavioral testing (bilateral tactile adhesive removal, locomotor placing task and Morris water maze) starting on day two post-CCI and were sacrificed at 31 days post-CCI and brains were stained to examine lesion size. NAM-treated rats had reductions in sensory, motor and cognitive behavioral deficits compared to vehicle-treated rats. Specifically, NAM-treated rats significantly improved on the bilateral tactile adhesive removal task, locomotor placing task and the reference memory paradigm of the Morris water maze. Lesion size was also significantly reduced in the NAM-treated group. The results from this study indicate that at the current dose, NAM produces beneficial effects on recovery from a bilateral frontal brain injury and that it may be a relevant compound to be explored in human studies. PMID:21704653

  3. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Antunes, Alberto A.

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  4. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  5. Morphology, structural properties and reducibility of size-selected CeO2− x nanoparticle films

    PubMed Central

    D’Addato, Sergio; Gasperi, Gabriele; Benedetti, Francesco; Luches, Paola; Grillo, Vincenzo; Bertoni, Giovanni; Valeri, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Non-stoichiometric ceria nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by a gas aggregation source with a magnetron and were mass-selected with a quadrupole mass filter. By varying magnetron power, Ar gas flow, and the length of the aggregation tube, NPs with an average diameter of 6, 9, and 14 nm were synthesized and deposited onto a substrate, thus obtaining NP films. The morphology of the films was studied with scanning electron microscopy, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to gain a deeper insight into the atomic structure of individual NPs. By using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we analyzed the degree of reduction of the NPs of different diameters, before and after thermal treatments in vacuum (reduction cycle) and in O2 atmosphere (oxidation cycle) at different temperatures. From this analysis we inferred that the size is an important parameter only at intermediate temperatures. As a comparison, we evaluated the reducibility of an ultra-thin ceria film with the same surface to volume ratio as the 9 nm diameter NPs film, observing that NPs are more reducible than the ceria film. PMID:25671152

  6. A natural antipredation experiment: predator control and reduced sea ice increases colony size in a long-lived duck

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Sveinn A; Moe, Børge; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Hanssen, Frank; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic impact on the environment and wildlife are multifaceted and far-reaching. On a smaller scale, controlling for predators has been increasing the yield from local natural prey resources. Globally, human-induced global warming is expected to impose severe negative effects on ecosystems, an effect that is expected to be even more pronounced in the scarcely populated northern latitudes. The clearest indication of a changing Arctic climate is an increase in both air and ocean temperatures leading to reduced sea ice distribution. Population viability is for long-lived species dependent on adult survival and recruitment. Predation is the main mortality cause in many bird populations, and egg predation is considered the main cause of reproductive failure in many birds. To assess the effect of predation and climate, we compared population time series from a natural experiment where a trapper/down collector has been licensed to actively protect breeding common eiders Somateria mollissima (a large seaduck) by shooting/chasing egg predators, with time series from another eider colony located within a nature reserve with no manipulation of egg predators. We found that actively limiting predator activity led to an increase in the population growth rate and carrying capacity with a factor of 3–4 compared to that found in the control population. We also found that population numbers were higher in years with reduced concentration of spring sea ice. We conclude that there was a large positive impact of human limitation of egg predators, and that this lead to higher population growth rate and a large increase in size of the breeding colony. We also report a positive effect of warming climate in the high arctic as reduced sea-ice concentrations was associated with higher numbers of breeding birds. PMID:24223290

  7. The etiology of prostate cancer: what does the epidemiology suggest

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.K.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    The two most important demographic characteristics of prostate cancer in Los Angeles are the high rates among blacks, which are two times those among whites and four times those among Asians, and the rapid increase in rates with age after age 40. Despite the high rates among blacks, a birth cohort analysis indicates that mortality rates among black men born after 1900 have decreased. In this report, epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting each of three etiologic hypotheses--industrial exposure to cadmium, sexual transmission by an infectious agent, and endocrine factors--are reviewed. Evidence from descriptive data in Los Angeles suggests that only a small portion of cases might be attributable to industrial exposures. In a cohort study of Catholic priests, we found no deficit of prostate cancer mortality, strong evidence against sexual transmission of the disease. Experimental evidence and a limited amount of human data support an endocrine hypothesis. Preliminary results of a case-control study of prostate cancer are presented, but these results are unable to distinguish among these hypotheses further. This study finds a substantial protective effect of vasectomy, an event that is accompanied by reduced prostatic function and size, but this result is thus far statistically insignificant.

  8. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... finasteride who did have prostate cancer had more aggressive tumors . The number of deaths from prostate cancer ... men that did not. The number of less aggressive prostate cancers was lower, but the number of ...

  10. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. PMID:14988915

  11. Does Hormone Therapy Reduce Disease Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy? An Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06

    SciTech Connect

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Bae, Kwounghwa; Michalski, Jeff; Sandler, Howard; Shipley, William; Lin, Alex; Cox, James

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on freedom from biochemical failure (bNED) or disease-free survival (DFS) by adding hormone therapy (HT) to dose-escalated radiation therapy (HDRT). Methods and Materials: We used 883 analyzable prostate cancer patients who enrolled on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-06, a Phase I/II dose escalation trial, and whose mean planning target volume dose exceeded 73.8 Gy (mean, 78.5 Gy; maximum, 84.3 Gy). We defined biochemical failure according to the Phoenix definition. Results: A total of 259 men started HT 2 to 3 months before HDRT, but not longer than 6 months, and 66 men with high-risk prostate cancer received HT for a longer duration. At 5 years, the biochemical failure rates after HDRT alone were 12%, 18%, and 29% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively (p < 0.0001). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusted for covariates revealed that pretreatment PSA level was a significant factor, whereas risk group, Gleason score, T-stage, and age were not. When the patients were stratified by risk groups, the Cox proportion hazards regression model (after adjusting for pretreatment PSA, biopsy Gleason score, and T stage) did not reveal a significant effect on bNED or DFS by adding HT to HDRT Conclusion: The addition of HT did not significantly improve bNED survival or DFS in all prostate cancer patients receiving HDRT, but did approach significance in high-risk patient subgroup. The result of this study is hypothesis generating and requires testing in a prospective randomized trial.

  12. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces CYP24A1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Chernov, Mikhail; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and anti-tumor effects. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D3. Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D3 anti-tumor activity. In order to isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D3 in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D3 induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D3 mediated target gene expression. Lastly, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhanced 1,25D3 mediated anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D3 and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D3 mediated anti-tumor effect. PMID:23358686

  13. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: from Bench to Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Ju

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease, especially in old men, and often results in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This chronic disease has important care implications and financial risks to the health care system. LUTS are caused not only by mechanical prostatic obstruction but also by the dynamic component of obstruction. The exact etiology of BPH and its consequences, benign prostatic enlargement and benign prostatic obstruction, are not identified. Various theories concerning the causes of benign prostate enlargement and LUTS, such as metabolic syndrome, inflammation, growth factors, androgen receptor, epithelial-stromal interaction, and lifestyle, are discussed. Incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction encourages focus on symptoms rather than prostate enlargement and the shifting from surgery to medicine as the treatment of BPH. Several alpha antagonists, including alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, have shown excellent efficacy without severe adverse effects. In addition, new alpha antagonists, silodosin and naftopidil, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are emerging as BPH treatments. In surgical treatment, laser surgery such as photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser prostatectomy have been introduced to reduce complications and are used as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and open prostatectomy. The status of TURP as the gold standard treatment of BPH is still evolving. We review several preclinical and clinical studies about the etiology of BPH and treatment options. PMID:22468207

  14. Disrupting the EMMPRIN-Cyclophilin A interaction reduces infarct size and preserves systolic function after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Seizer, Peter; Ochmann, Carmen; Schönberger, Tanja; Zach, Sebastian; Rose, Melanie; Borst, Oliver; Klingel, Karin; Kandolf, Reinhard; MacDonald, H. Robson; Nowak, Romana A.; Engelhardt, Stefan; Lang, Florian; Gawaz, Meinrad; May, Andreas E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Inflammation and proteolysis crucially contribute to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. The Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN, CD147) and its ligand Cyclophilin A (CyPA) may be involved in both processes. The aim of the study was to characterize the role of the CD147 and CyPA interplay in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and results Immunohistochemistry showed enhanced expression of CD147 and CyPA in myocardial sections from human autopsies of patients who had died from acute myocardial infarction and from mice at 24 hours after I/R. At 24 hours and 7 days after I/R, the infarct size was reduced in CD147+/− mice versus CD147+/+ mice (C57Bl/6), in mice (C57Bl/6) treated with mAb anti-CD147 vs. control mAb, and in CyPA−/− mice vs. CyPA+/+ mice (129S6/SvEv), all of which being associated with reduced monocyte and neutrophil recruitment at 24h and with a preserved systolic function at 7 days. Combination of CyPA−/− mice with anti-CD147 treatment did not yield further protection in comparison to either inhibition strategy alone. In vitro, treatment with CyPA induced monocyte chemotaxis in a CD147- and PI3-kinase dependent manner and induced monocyte rolling and adhesion to endothelium (HUVEC) under flow in a CD147-dependent manner. Conclusion CD147 and its ligand CyPA are inflammatory mediators after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion and represent potential targets to prevent myocardial I/R injury. PMID:21441138

  15. Innate immune response after acute myocardial infarction and pharmacomodulatory action of tacrolimus in reducing infarct size and preserving myocardial integrity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the association between innate immune reaction and myocardial damage after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and anti-inflammatory role of tacrolimus in reducing infarct size. Male mini-pigs (n=18) were equally categorized into sham control (SC), untreated AMI (by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery), and AMI-Tacrolimus (AMI-Tac) (0.5 mg intra-coronary injection 30 minutes post-AMI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at post-AMI days 2, 5 and 21 before sacrificing the animals. Results By post-AMI day 21, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was lowest in untreated AMI animals, significantly higher in SC than in AMI-Tac group (all p<0.003). Infarct areas at basal, middle, and apical levels, numbers of CD14+ and iNOS+ cells in infarct area (IA) and peri-IA, and protein expression of CD14, CD68, and Ly6g from circulating inflammatory cells showed an opposite pattern compared with that of LVEF in all groups (all p<0.005). Protein expressions of MCP-1, MIP-1, TNF-α, NF-κB, iNOS, and IL-12 in IA and peri-IA exhibited an identical pattern compared to that of CD14, CD68, and Ly6g from circulating inflammatory cells (all p<0.01). Expressions of myocardial damage biomarkers in IA and peri-IA [γ-H2AX, β-myosin heavy chain (MHC), Smad3, TGF-β] were highest in AMI and higher in AMI-Tac than in SC, whereas expressions of myocardial integrity biomarkers (connexin43, mitochondrial cytochrome-C, α-MHC, BMP-2, Smad1/5) were opposite to those of damage biomarkers (all p<0.001). Conclusion Innate immune responses were markedly augmented and LVEF was significantly reduced after AMI but were remarkably improved after tacrolimus treatment. PMID:24165293

  16. [Screening for prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Koch, Klaus; Büchter, Roland; Lange, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Prostate cancer screening has been a controversial for decades. The recently published findings of large trials have further intensified the debate. The prospect of reducing mortality from prostate cancer is measured against the risk of over-diagnosing the disease. In individual cases, the trade-off between possible benefits and harms is possible to ascertain, so general recommendations in favor of or against PSA tests for individuals cannot be made. The majority of men, however, are not well-informed on the possible advantages and drawbacks of screening. This situation urgently needs to be corrected. The PSA test is promoted to healthy men, who need to be provided with especially detailed information. If not provided with clear and unbiased information on the risks associated with the test (above all over-diagnosis and over-treatment), these men cannot be considered to be fully informed. PMID:23535548

  17. An Examination of Teachers' Perceptions and Practice when Teaching Large and Reduced-Size Classes: Do Teachers Really Teach Them in the Same Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2012-01-01

    Class size research suggests that teachers do not vary their teaching strategies when moving from large to smaller classes. This study draws on interviews and classroom observations of three experienced English language teachers working with large and reduced-size classes in Hong Kong secondary schools. Findings from the study point to subtle…

  18. Testosterone regulates smooth muscle contractile pathways in the rat prostate: emphasis on PDE5 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Zang, Ning; Wei, Yu; Yin, Jin; Teng, Ruobing; Seftel, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) plays a permissive role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) have been found to be effective for BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in clinical trials. This study investigated the effect of T on smooth muscle (SM) contractile and regulatory signaling pathways, including PDE5 expression and functional activity in prostate in male rats (sham-operated, surgically castrated, and castrated with T supplementation). In vitro organ bath studies, real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were performed. Castration heavily attenuated contractility, including sensitivity to phenylephrine with SM myosin immunostaining revealing a disrupted SM cell arrangement in the stroma. PDE5 was immunolocalized exclusively in the prostate stroma, and orchiectomy signficantly reduced PDE5 immunopositivity, mRNA, and protein expression, along with nNOS and ROKβ mRNA, whereas it increased eNOS plus α1a and α1b adrenoreceptor expression in castrated animals. The PDE5i zaprinast significantly increased prostate strip relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in control but not castrated rats. But SNP alone was more effective on castrated rats, comparable with sham treated with SNP plus zaprinast. T supplementation prevented or restored all above changes, including SNP and zaprinast in vitro responsiveness. In conclusion, our data show that T positively regulates PDE5 expression and functional activities in prostate, and T ablation not only suppresses prostate size but also reduces prostatic SM contractility, with several potential SM contraction/relaxation pathways implicated. Zaprinast findings strongly suggest a major role for PDE5/cGMP in this signaling cascade. PDE5 inhibition may represent a novel mechanism for treatment of BPH. PMID:22028410

  19. A Self-Organizing Map-Based Approach to Generating Reduced-Size, Statistically Similar Climate Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabell, R.; Delle Monache, L.; Alessandrini, S.; Rodriguez, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate-based studies require large amounts of data in order to produce accurate and reliable results. Many of these studies have used 30-plus year data sets in order to produce stable and high-quality results, and as a result, many such data sets are available, generally in the form of global reanalyses. While the analysis of these data lead to high-fidelity results, its processing can be very computationally expensive. This computational burden prevents the utilization of these data sets for certain applications, e.g., when rapid response is needed in crisis management and disaster planning scenarios resulting from release of toxic material in the atmosphere. We have developed a methodology to reduce large climate datasets to more manageable sizes while retaining statistically similar results when used to produce ensembles of possible outcomes. We do this by employing a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm to analyze general patterns of meteorological fields over a regional domain of interest to produce a small set of "typical days" with which to generate the model ensemble. The SOM algorithm takes as input a set of vectors and generates a 2D map of representative vectors deemed most similar to the input set and to each other. Input predictors are selected that are correlated with the model output, which in our case is an Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion (T&D) model that is highly dependent on surface winds and boundary layer depth. To choose a subset of "typical days," each input day is assigned to its closest SOM map node vector and then ranked by distance. Each node vector is treated as a distribution and days are sampled from them by percentile. Using a 30-node SOM, with sampling every 20th percentile, we have been able to reduce 30 years of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data for the month of October to 150 "typical days." To estimate the skill of this approach, the "Measure of Effectiveness" (MOE) metric is used to compare area and overlap

  20. Prostate Volume Changes Over Time: Results From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Kettermann, Anna; Carter, H. Ballentine; Ferrucci, Luigi; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Walsh, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose According to a 1944 publication by Swyer benign prostatic hyperplasia develops in some men after age 45 with further prostatic growth whereas in other men prostate size remains stable or decreases with advancing age. Although there is an abundance of literature describing prostatic enlargement in association with benign prostatic hyperplasia, less is known about the phenomenon of prostate atrophy. Materials and Methods In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging serial pelvic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in men without prostate cancer beginning in 1993. From this population we retrospectively identified 278 men with 2 or more magnetic resonance imaging determined prostate volume measurements to examine differential growth rates in a cohort of community men over time. Results Median age was 58 years and median prostate size was 28 cc at study entry. At a median followup of 4.3 years prostate size increased in 61.9% and remained stable or decreased in 38.1% of men. The median rate of volume change was 0.6 cc per year (range −9.9 to 62.1), corresponding to a median growth rate of 2.5% per year (range −29.2 to 176.4%). During followup 64.6% of men with an initial prostate size less than 40 cc had prostate growth compared to only 50.9% of men with an initial prostate size of 40 cc or greater. Conclusions These results suggest that changes in prostate size are highly variable among aging men. Although benign prostatic hyperplasia is common, a considerable proportion of aging men have a stable or decreasing prostate size. Further research is needed to identify the underlying mechanism for such differences in prostate growth. PMID:19683305

  1. Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jungmi; Park, Sulgi; Zuniga, Baltazar; Bera, Alakesh; Song, Chung Seog; Chatterjee, Bandana

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a progressive, noncurable disease induced by androgen receptor (AR) upon its activation by tumor tissue androgen, which is generated from adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) through intracrine androgen biosynthesis. Inhibition of mCRPC and early-stage, androgen-dependent prostate cancer by calcitriol, the bioactive vitamin D3 metabolite, is amply documented in cell culture and animal studies. However, clinical trials of calcitriol or synthetic analogs are inconclusive, although encouraging results have recently emerged from pilot studies showing efficacy of a safe-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in reducing tumor tissue inflammation and progression of low-grade prostate cancer. Vitamin D-mediated inhibition of normal and malignant prostate cells is caused by diverse mechanisms including G1/S cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, prodifferentiation gene expression changes, and suppressed angiogenesis and cell migration. Biological effects of vitamin D are mediated by altered expression of a gene network regulated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a multidomain, ligand-inducible transcription factor similar to AR and other nuclear receptors. AR-VDR cross talk modulates androgen metabolism in prostate cancer cells. Androgen inhibits vitamin D-mediated induction of CYP24A1, the calcitriol-degrading enzyme, while vitamin D promotes androgen inactivation by inducing phase I monooxygenases (e.g., CYP3A4) and phase II transferases (e.g., SULT2B1b, a DHEA-sulfotransferase). CYP3A4 and SULT2B1b levels are markedly reduced and CYP24A1 is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. In future trials, combining low-calcemic, potent next-generation calcitriol analogs with CYP24A1 inhibition or androgen supplementation, or cancer stem cell suppression by a phytonutrient such as sulfarophane, may prove fruitful in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:26827958

  2. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschter, Rolf

    1994-12-01

    Urinary outflow obstruction by prostatic enlargement is usually treated by resection or, recently, less invasively by thermal `ablation' of tissue through the urethra. With the latter technique, the amount of tissue that can be removed is limited by the limited penetration depth of suitable radiation sources, e.g. lasers, or conduction of heat. Interstitial thermotherapy was expected to overcome this problem. Our initial in vitro and animal studies with different light guides for interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser radiation showed small carbonized lesions with bare fibers, but large homogeneous coagulation zones with special `ITT' (interstitial thermotherapy) fibers. Further studies using these applicators resulted in a technique to be apt for clinical routine in the treatment of symptomatic prostatic enlargement. The tip of the light guide was repeatedly inserted into the prostate either transurethrally through a cystoscope under direct vision or percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The number of fiber placements depended on the size and configuration of the gland. Irradiation was performed either for 10 min with 5 or 7 W or in the advanced `turbo'- mode for 5 or 3 min per fiber placement using automatically stepwise reduced power (20 W for 30 s, 15 W for 30 s, 10 W for 30 s, and 7 W for 210 or 90 s). By optical feedback control the laser was switched off automatically in the case of carbonization to avoid fiber damage. From July 15, 1991 to October 1, 1993 239 patients with BPH and 14 patients with advanced prostate cancer, suffering from severe urinary outflow obstruction, were treated by laser induced interstitial thermotherapy. The results and complications of treatment are reported.

  3. Metabolomic Imaging for Human Prostate Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin-Lee; Jordan, Kate W.; Ratai, Eva M.; Sheng, Jinhua; Adkins, Christen B.; DeFeo, Elita M; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Ying, Leslie; McDougal, W. Scott; Cheng, Leo L.

    2010-01-01

    As current radiological approaches cannot accurately localize prostate cancer in vivo, biopsies are conducted at random within prostates for at-risk patients, leading to high false-negative rates. Metabolomic imaging can map cancer-specific biomolecular profile values onto anatomical structures to direct biopsy. In this preliminary study, we evaluated five prostatectomy-removed whole prostates from biopsy-proven cancer patients on a 7 Tesla human, whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Localized, multi-cross-sectional, multi-voxel magnetic resonance spectra were used to construct a malignancy index based on prostate cancer metabolomic profiles obtained from previous, intact tissue analyses by a 14 Tesla spectrometer. This calculated Malignancy Index shows linear correlation with lesion size (p<0.013) and demonstrates a 93–97% overall accuracy for detecting the presence of prostate cancer lesions. PMID:20371475

  4. Dietary gamma-linolenate attenuates tumor growth in a rodent model of prostatic adenocarcinoma via suppression of elevated generation of PGE(2) and 5S-HETE.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung; Vang, Kao; Ziboh, Vincent A

    2006-04-01

    Prostate cancer poses considerable threat to the aging male population as it has become a leading cause of cancer death to this group. Due to the complexity of this age-related disease, the mechanism(s) and factors resulting in prostate cancer remain unclear. Reports showing an increase risk in prostatic cancer with increasing dietary fat are contrasted by other studies suggesting the beneficial effects of certain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the modulation of tumor development. The n-6 PUFA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), has been shown to suppress tumor growth in vitro. Therefore, using the Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rat model of prostate cancer, we tested the hypothesis whether dietary supplementation of GLA could suppress tumor growth and development in vivo. Prostatic adenocarcinomas were induced in two groups of L-W rats, the experimental group (N-nitroso-N-methylurea, NMU/testosterone propionate, TP) and the GLA group (NMU/TP/GLA fed) undergoing similar treatment but fed a purified diet supplemented with GLA. Our findings revealed a decrease in prostate growth in the NMU/TP/GLA-fed group as determined by weight, tissue size, DNA content and prostate-specific antigen (tumor marker of prostate cancer). Comparison between the two groups showed a significant increase in 5S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and prostaglandin E(2) in the NMU/TP group. These increases paralleled the increased protein expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 as well as increased activity of 5-lipoxygenase. Taken together, the findings showed that intake of GLA-enriched diet does reduce prostatic cancer development in L-W rats and could serve as a non-toxic adjunct in management of human prostatic cancer. PMID:16567086

  5. Dietary Lycopene, Angiogenesis, and Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Prostate-Specific Antigen Era

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of lycopene in prostate cancer prevention remains controversial. We examined the associations between dietary lycopene intake and prostate cancer, paying particular attention to the influence of prostate-specific antigen screening, and evaluated tissue biomarkers in prostate cancers in relation to lycopene intake. Methods Among 49898 male health professionals, we obtained dietary information through questionnaires and ascertained total and lethal prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 2010. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess tumor biomarker expression in a subset of men. Two-sided χ2 tests were used to calculate the P values. Results Higher lycopene intake was inversely associated with total prostate cancer and more strongly with lethal prostate cancer (top vs bottom quintile: HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.94; P trend = .04). In a restricted population of screened participants, the inverse associations became markedly stronger (for lethal prostate cancer: HR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.75; P trend = .009). Comparing different measures of dietary lycopene, early intake, but not recent intake, was inversely associated with prostate cancer. Higher lycopene intake was associated with biomarkers in the cancer indicative of less angiogenic potential. Conclusions Dietary intake of lycopene was associated with reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer and with a lesser degree of angiogenesis in the tumor. Because angiogenesis is a strong progression factor, an endpoint of lethal prostate cancer may be more relevant than an endpoint of indolent prostate cancer for lycopene in the era of highly prevalent prostate-specific antigen screening. PMID:24463248

  6. How Well Does Fracture Set Characterization Reduce Uncertainty in Capture Zone Size for Wells Situated in Sedimentary Bedrock Aquifers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. C.; Novakowski, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    Regional groundwater flow models are rife with uncertainty. The three-dimensional flux vector fields must generally be inferred using inverse modelling from sparse measurements of hydraulic head, from measurements of hydraulic parameters at a scale that is miniscule in comparison to that of the domain, and from none to a very few measurements of recharge or discharge rate. Despite the inherent uncertainty in these models they are routinely used to delineate steady-state or time-of-travel capture zones for the purpose of wellhead protection. The latter are defined as the volume of the aquifer within which released particles will arrive at the well within the specified time and their delineation requires the additional step of dividing the magnitudes of the flux vectors by the assumed porosity to arrive at the ``average linear groundwater velocity'' vector field. Since the porosity is usually assumed constant over the domain one could be forgiven for thinking that the uncertainty introduced at this step is minor in comparison to the flow model calibration step. We consider this question when the porosity in question is fracture porosity in flat-lying sedimentary bedrock. We also consider whether or not the diffusive uptake of solute into the rock matrix which lies between the source and the production well reduces or enhances the uncertainty. To evaluate the uncertainty an aquifer cross section is conceptualized as an array of horizontal, randomly-spaced, parallel-plate fractures of random aperture, with adjacent horizontal fractures connected by vertical fractures again of random spacing and aperture. The source is assumed to be a continuous concentration (i.e. a dirichlet boundary condition) representing a leaking tank or a DNAPL pool, and the receptor is a fully pentrating well located in the down-gradient direction. In this context the time-of-travel capture zone is defined as the separation distance required such that the source does not contaminate the well

  7. Intrameal Hepatic Portal and Intraperitoneal Infusions of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Reduce Spontaneous Meal Size in the Rat via Different Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann, Elisabeth B.; Arnold, Myrtha; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J.; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral administration of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 reduces food intake in animals and humans, but the sites and mechanism of this effect and its physiological significance are not yet clear. To investigate these issues, we prepared rats with chronic catheters and infused GLP-1 (0.2 ml/min; 2.5 or 5.0 min) during the first spontaneous dark-phase meals. Infusions were remotely triggered 2–3 min after meal onset. Hepatic portal vein (HPV) infusion of 1.0 or 3.0 (but not 0.33) nmol/kg GLP-1 reduced the size of the ongoing meal compared with vehicle without affecting the subsequent intermeal interval, the size of subsequent meals, or cumulative food intake. In double-cannulated rats, HPV and vena cava infusions of 1.0 nmol/kg GLP-1 reduced meal size similarly. HPV GLP-1 infusions of 1.0 nmol/kg GLP-1 also reduced meal size similarly in rats with subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentations and in sham-operated rats. Finally, HPV and ip infusions of 10 nmol/kg GLP-1 reduced meal size similarly in sham-operated rats, but only HPV GLP-1 reduced meal size in subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation rats. These data indicate that peripherally infused GLP-1 acutely and specifically reduces the size of ongoing meals in rats and that the satiating effect of ip, but not iv, GLP-1 requires vagal afferent signaling. The findings suggest that iv GLP-1 infusions do not inhibit eating via hepatic portal or hepatic GLP-1 receptors but may act directly on the brain. PMID:18948395

  8. Shorter, Intensive Radiation Works for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A slightly higher dose of radiation therapy for early stage prostate cancer may reduce treatment time without compromising effectiveness, researchers report. The ...

  9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Forde, James C; Thomas, Dominique Dana Marie; Laor, Leanna; Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry H; Te, Alexis E; Kaplan, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which causes lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), is a common diagnosis among the ageing male population with increasing prevalence. Many risks factors, both modifiable and non-modifiable, can increase the risk of development and progression of BPH and LUTS. The symptoms can be obstructive (resulting in urinary hesitancy, weak stream, straining or prolonged voiding) or irritative (resulting in increased urinary frequency and urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence and reduced voiding volumes), or can affect the patient after micturition (for example, postvoid dribble or incomplete emptying). BPH occurs when both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate in the transitional zone proliferate by processes that are thought to be influenced by inflammation and sex hormones, causing prostate enlargement. Patients with LUTS undergo several key diagnostic investigations before being diagnosed with BPH. Treatment options for men with BPH start at watchful waiting and progress through medical to surgical interventions. For the majority of patients, the starting point on the treatment pathway will be dictated by their symptoms and degree of bother. PMID:27147135

  10. The role of targeted prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy in reducing infection rates: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cussans, Amelia; Somani, Bhaskar K; Basarab, Adriana; Dudderidge, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    To compare the incidence of infective complications after transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy with either empirical fluoroquinolone or culture-based targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis, and the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (FQ-R) in men undergoing prostate biopsy. A systematic review of the literature was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We included studies of patients undergoing TRUS-guided biopsy that compared infective outcomes of those who received targeted antimicrobial therapy based on the results of pre-procedural rectal swab cultures, with those receiving empiric fluoroquinolone antimicrobial prophylaxis. The prevalence of FQ-R was recorded as a secondary outcome measure. Studies with no control group were excluded. From 125 studies screened, nine studies (4 571 patients) met the inclusion criteria. All studies were of cohort design, and included a combination of retrospective and prospective data. Six studies included were undertaken in North America. The remaining studies were undertaken in Spain, Turkey and Columbia. Within these studies, 2 484 (54.3%) patients received empirical fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, whilst 2 087 (45.7%) patients had pre-biopsy rectal swabs and targeted antibiotics. The mean FQ-R was 22.8%. Post-biopsy infection and sepsis rates were significantly higher in groups given empirical prophylaxis (4.55% and 2.21%) compared with groups receiving targeted antibiotics (0.72% and 0.48%). Based on these results 27 men would need to receive targeted antibiotics to prevent one infective complication. Our systematic review suggests that targeted prophylactic antimicrobial therapy before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is associated with lower rates of sepsis. We therefore recommend changing current pathways to adopt this measure. PMID:26709240

  11. Risk of Hormone Escape in a Human Prostate Cancer Model Depends on Therapy Modalities and Can Be Reduced by Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Guyader, Charlotte; Céraline, Jocelyn; Gravier, Eléonore; Morin, Aurélie; Michel, Sandrine; Erdmann, Eva; de Pinieux, Gonzague; Cabon, Florence; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Poupon, Marie-France; Oudard, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Almost all prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation treatment but many recur. We postulated that risk of hormone escape -frequency and delay- are influenced by hormone therapy modalities. More, hormone therapies induce crucial biological changes involving androgen receptors; some might be targets for escape prevention. We investigated the relationship between the androgen deprivation treatment and the risk of recurrence using nude mice bearing the high grade, hormone-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft PAC120. Tumor-bearing mice were treated by Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH) antagonist alone, continuous or intermittent regimen, or combined with androgen receptor (AR) antagonists (bicalutamide or flutamide). Tumor growth was monitored. Biological changes were studied as for genomic alterations, AR mutations and protein expression in a large series of recurrent tumors according to hormone therapy modalities. Therapies targeting Her-2 or AKT were tested in combination with castration. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tumor growth was inhibited by continuous administration of the LH-RH antagonist degarelix (castration), but 40% of tumors recurred. Intermittent castration or complete blockade induced by degarelix and antiandrogens combination, inhibited tumor growth but increased the risk of recurrence (RR) as compared to continuous castration (RRintermittent: 14.5, RRcomplete blockade: 6.5 and 1.35). All recurrent tumors displayed new quantitative genetic alterations and AR mutations, whatever the treatment modalities. AR amplification was found after complete blockade. Increased expression of Her-2/neu with frequent ERK/AKT activation was detected in all variants. Combination of castration with a Her-2/neu inhibitor decreased recurrence risk (0.17) and combination with an mTOR inhibitor prevented it. Anti-hormone treatments influence risk of recurrence although tumor growth inhibition was initially similar. Recurrent tumors displayed

  12. Uric acid: a modulator of prostate cells and activin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sangkop, Febbie; Singh, Geeta; Rodrigues, Ely; Gold, Elspeth; Bahn, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) or urate is associated with inflammation and gout. Recent evidence has linked urate to cancers, but little is known about urate effects in prostate cancer. Activins are inflammatory cytokines and negative growth regulators in the prostate. A hallmark of prostate cancer progression is activin insensitivity; however, mechanisms underlying this are unclear. We propose that elevated SUA is associated with prostate cancer counteracting the growth inhibitory effects of activins. The expression of activins A and B, urate transporter GLUT9 and tissue urate levels were examined in human prostate disease. Intracellular and secreted urate and GLUT9 expression were assessed in human prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of urate and probenecid, a known urate transport inhibitor, were determined in combination with activin A. Activin A expression was increased in low-grade prostate cancer, whereas activin B expression was reduced in high-grade prostate cancer. Intracellular urate levels decreased in all prostate pathologies, while GLUT9 expression decreased in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and high-grade prostate cancer. Activin responsive LNCaP cells had higher intracellular and lower secreted urate levels than activin-insensitive PC3 cells. GLUT9 expression in prostate cancer cells was progressively lower than in prostate epithelial cells. Elevated extracellular urate was growth promoting in vitro, which was abolished by the gout medication probenecid, and it antagonized the growth inhibitory effects of activins. This study shows for the first time that a change in plasma or intracellular urate levels, possibly involving GLUT9 and a urate efflux transporter, has an impact on prostate cancer cell growth, and that lowering SUA levels in prostate cancer is likely to be therapeutically beneficial. PMID:26910779

  13. A huge benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Basatac, Cem; Cicek, Mehmet Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of the prostate is still standard of care in many patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia, traditional open prostatectomy (OP) seems as a widely applied method in larger glands. In spite of the fact that holmium laser enucleation can be performed in large glands, upper limits of prostate size in this method are not clearly identified in the current literature. In this case, we aim to report feasibility and efficacy of OP in huge prostate size measured as 680 ml by transrectal ultrasound and review the current literature. PMID:26034239

  14. Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Effectiveness, Safety, and Overcoming of the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Chul; Park, Sang Myung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy and safety of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and to estimate the time to overcome the learning curve. Materials and Methods From May 2008 to October 2009, 164 consecutive patients treated with HoLEP were enrolled in this study. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual urine (PVR) were documented preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months postoperatively. The 164 study subjects were divided into 3 groups (group 1 the first 50 patients treated, group 2 the second 50, and group 3 the third 64), and perioperative data and complications were analyzed in these groups to determine the learning curve. In addition, the inverse and upward techniques were compared in terms of the effects and the stability of morcellation. Results The mean patient age was 69 years, and the average operation time was 62 minutes (range, 20-208 minutes). Mean prostate volume was 54.2 ml and mean resected tissue weight was 18.6 g. Postoperatively, IPSS and PVR decreased and Qmax increased significantly. Postoperative complications were transient incontinence (8.5%), urinary retention (4.3%), hematuria (3.0%), urinary tract infection (1.2%), and urethral stricture (0.6%), and intraoperative complications were minor capsular perforation (4%) and bladder injury (8%). Conclusions HoLEP was found to be effective and safe regardless of prostate size. We recommend that a systematic educational program be established to reduce the learning curve. PMID:20856646

  15. Allocating Sample Sizes to Reduce Budget for Fixed-Effect 2×2 Heterogeneous Analysis of Variance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the sample size requirements for the interaction, row, and column effects, respectively, by forming a linear contrast for a 2×2 factorial design for fixed-effects heterogeneous analysis of variance. The proposed method uses the Welch t test and its corresponding degrees of freedom to calculate the final sample size in a…

  16. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M.; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M.; Figg, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Methods Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Results and Conclusions Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106 PMID:25955319

  17. Lycopene: Redress for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pisipati, Sai Venkata Vedavyas; Pathapati, Harshavardhan; Bhukya, Ganesh; Nuthakki, Suresh; Chandu, Baburao; Nama, SreeKanth; Adeps, RajDev

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid is what that gives red colour to some fruits like pomegranate, tomato, papaya etc... People with a sound diet of lycopene may have a less risk of cancers especially prostate cancer which is most impedent for the males of age 40-50 years. So, in countries of north America and Europe food contains much of the lycopene supplements. In accordance with the American journal of epidemiology 2002 studies implies that men with crushed serum lycopene levels are more divulged to prostate cancer and those with sound diet of lycopene have a less risk of prostate cancer. In a care study conveyed by The British journal of urology, men with prostate cancer are subjected to surgery and the tumour is detonated. Amongst the men half a set were supplemented with lycopene supplements and half were not. Those subjected with lycopene supplements have less bone pains and live longer than those not supplemented. This paints a picture about importance of lycopene in treatment of prostate cancer. This article evokes the importance of lycopene and its way of destroying the cancer. Lycopene reduces the risk of cancer by diverging its effect on the plasma Insulin like growth factor, on Connexins , and the most acceptable one, by quench of free radicals. PMID:24826034

  18. Lycopene: redress for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pisipati, Sai Venkata Vedavyas; Pathapati, Harshavardhan; Bhukya, Ganesh; Nuthakki, Suresh; Chandu, Baburao; Nama, SreeKanth; Adeps, RajDev

    2012-03-01

    Lycopene, a carotenoid is what that gives red colour to some fruits like pomegranate, tomato, papaya etc... People with a sound diet of lycopene may have a less risk of cancers especially prostate cancer which is most impedent for the males of age 40-50 years. So, in countries of north America and Europe food contains much of the lycopene supplements. In accordance with the American journal of epidemiology 2002 studies implies that men with crushed serum lycopene levels are more divulged to prostate cancer and those with sound diet of lycopene have a less risk of prostate cancer. In a care study conveyed by The British journal of urology, men with prostate cancer are subjected to surgery and the tumour is detonated. Amongst the men half a set were supplemented with lycopene supplements and half were not. Those subjected with lycopene supplements have less bone pains and live longer than those not supplemented. This paints a picture about importance of lycopene in treatment of prostate cancer. This article evokes the importance of lycopene and its way of destroying the cancer. Lycopene reduces the risk of cancer by diverging its effect on the plasma Insulin like growth factor, on Connexins , and the most acceptable one, by quench of free radicals. PMID:24826034

  19. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  20. Active surveillance for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Otero, Javier; García-Gómez, Borja; Duarte-Ojeda, José M; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Vilaseca, Antoni; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Touijer, Karim A

    2016-03-01

    It is worth distinguishing between the two strategies of expectant management for prostate cancer. Watchful waiting entails administering non-curative androgen deprivation therapy to patients on development of symptomatic progression, whereas active surveillance entails delivering curative treatment on signs of disease progression. The objectives of the two management strategies and the patients enrolled in either are different: (i) to review the role of active surveillance as a management strategy for patients with low-risk prostate cancer; and (ii) review the benefits and pitfalls of active surveillance. We carried out a systematic review of active surveillance for prostate cancer in the literature using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's electronic database, PubMed. We carried out a search in English using the terms: active surveillance, prostate cancer, watchful waiting and conservative management. Selected studies were required to have a comprehensive description of the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis, inclusion criteria for surveillance, and a protocol for the patients' follow up. Review articles were included, but not multiple papers from the same datasets. Active surveillance appears to reduce overtreatment in patients with low-risk prostate cancer without compromising cancer-specific survival at 10 years. Therefore, active surveillance is an option for select patients who want to avoid the side-effects inherent to the different types of immediate treatment. However, inclusion criteria for active surveillance and the most appropriate method of monitoring patients on active surveillance have not yet been standardized. PMID:26621054

  1. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Rittmaster, Roger S

    2008-04-01

    Androgens play an essential role in prostatic development and function, but are also involved in prostate disease pathogenesis. The primary prostatic androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is synthesized from testosterone by 5alpha-reductase types 1 and 2. Inhibition of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzymes therefore has potential therapeutic benefit in prostate disease. The two currently approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), finasteride and dutasteride, have demonstrated long-term efficacy and safety in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Finasteride, a type-2 5ARI, has also been studied for its ability to reduce the incidence of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Treatment with dutasteride, a dual 5ARI, has been shown to result in a greater degree and consistency of DHT suppression compared with finasteride. Two large-scale studies of dutasteride are currently investigating the role of near-maximal DHT suppression in the settings of prostate cancer risk reduction and expectant management of localized prostate cancer. PMID:18471794

  2. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) contributes to reduced size in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, Barbara C.; Rimbault, Maud; Liebers, David; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds have undergone intense selection for a variety of morphologic features, including size. Among small-dog breeds, defined as those averaging less than ~15 in. at the withers, there remains still considerable variation in body size. Yet essentially all such dogs are fixed for the same allele at the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene, which we and others previously found to be a size locus of large effect. In this study we sought to identify additional genes that contribute to tiny size in dogs using an association scan with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset CanMap, in which 915 purebred dogs were genotyped at 60,968 SNP markers. Our strongest association for tiny size (defined as breed-average height not more than 10 in. at the withers) was on canine chromosome 3 (p = 1.9 × 10−70). Fine mapping revealed a nonsynonymous SNP at chr3:44,706,389 that changes a highly conserved arginine at amino acid 204 to histidine in the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). This mutation is predicted to prevent formation of several hydrogen bonds within the cysteine-rich domain of the receptor’s ligand-binding extracellular subunit. Nine of 13 tiny dog breeds carry the mutation and many dogs are homozygous for it. This work underscores the central importance of the IGF1 pathway in controlling the tremendous size diversity of dogs. PMID:22903739

  3. The Japanese guideline for prostate cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Nakayama, Tomio; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, there were 9264 deaths from prostate cancer, accounting for 4.7% of the total number of cancer deaths in Japan. As the population continues to age, interest in prostate cancer screening has increased, and opportunistic screening for prostate cancer has been conducted worldwide. The guideline for prostate cancer screening was developed based on the established method. The efficacies of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screening were formulated. Two methods of prostate cancer screening were evaluated. Based on the analytic framework involving key questions, 1186 articles published from January 1985 to October 2006 were selected using MEDLINE and other methods. After the systematic literature review, 28 articles were identified as providing evidence of mortality reduction from prostate cancer, including 5 observational studies for DRE screening, 1 meta-analysis, 3 randomized controlled trials and 19 observational studies for PSA screening. Although several studies showed that PSA screening had a beneficial effect, the results of the selected studies were inconsistent. Overall, the evidence that screening reduced mortality from prostate cancer was insufficient. Furthermore, prostate cancer screening is associated with serious harms, including overdiagnosis, adverse effects of needle biopsy and adverse effects of local prostatectomy. At present, the evidence for the effect of prostate cancer screening is insufficient. Both PSA and DRE were not recommended for population-based screening programs, but they could be conducted as individual-based screening if basic requirements were met. PMID:19346535

  4. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: a comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior and intensity metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchg...

  5. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: A comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior and intensity metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchg...

  6. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: A comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native peren...

  7. PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors enhance radiosensitivity in radioresistant prostate cancer cells through inducing apoptosis, reducing autophagy, suppressing NHEJ and HR repair pathways.

    PubMed

    Chang, L; Graham, P H; Hao, J; Ni, J; Bucci, J; Cozzi, P J; Kearsley, J H; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a central role in cancer metastasis and radiotherapy. To develop effective therapeutics to improve radiosensitivity, understanding the possible pathways of radioresistance involved and the effects of a combination of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors with radiotherapy on prostate cancer (CaP) radioresistant cells is needed. We found that compared with parent CaP cells, CaP-radioresistant cells demonstrated G0/G1 and S phase arrest, activation of cell cycle check point, autophagy and DNA repair pathway proteins, and inactivation of apoptotic proteins. We also demonstrated that compared with combination of single PI3K or mTOR inhibitors (BKM120 or Rapamycin) and radiation, low-dose of dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors (BEZ235 or PI103) combined with radiation greatly improved treatment efficacy by repressing colony formation, inducing more apoptosis, leading to the arrest of the G2/M phase, increased double-strand break levels and less inactivation of cell cycle check point, autophagy and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)/homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway proteins in CaP-radioresistant cells. This study describes the possible pathways associated with CaP radioresistance and demonstrates the putative mechanisms of the radiosensitization effect in CaP-resistant cells in the combination treatment. The findings from this study suggest that the combination of dual PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors (BEZ235 or PI103) with radiotherapy is a promising modality for the treatment of CaP to overcome radioresistance. PMID:25275598

  8. Discrete element method modeling of the triboelectric charging of polyethylene particles: Can particle size distribution and segregation reduce the charging?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj

    2015-10-01

    Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles.

  9. Vaporization of the Prostate with 150-W Thulium Laser: Complications with 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    García-Larrosa, Alejandro; Capdevila, Santiago; Laborda, Ainhoa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To analyze the efficacy and safety of vaporization of the prostate (VP) with the 150-W thulium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Tm:YAG) laser. Patients and Methods: In a prospective series of 55 patients with small- and medium-size prostates undergoing major outpatient surgery (MOS), the primary objectives were to analyze changes in maximum flow (Qmax) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) after 6 months. Immediate (<30 days) and late (>30 days) complications were subsequently recorded. Results: An increase in mean Qmax of 9.33 mL/s (95% confidence interval [CI] of the mean difference 6.73–11.93; P<0.001) was recorded, and mean IPSS was reduced by 16.88 points (95% CI 14.22–19.54; P<0.001). The immediate complications recorded were acute urinary retention (one patient), urinary tract infection without fever (two patients), and macroscopic hematuria (two patients). The only late complication observed was bladder neck sclerosis (one patient). Conclusion: After 6 months, VP with 150-W Tm:YAG presents promising results in the clinical improvement of patients with small- and medium-size prostates. Its complication rate is low and it offers excellent hemostasis. The data from our study provide the basis for the design of clinical trials to compare this technique with other procedures. PMID:24521152

  10. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are important factors to consider. This review provides a comparative update on the reduce and pcpt trials and some clinical recommendations. Other potential primary preventive strategies with statins, selective estrogen response modulators, and nutraceutical compounds—including current evidence for these agents and their roles in clinical practice—are discussed. Many substances that have been examined in the primary prevention of pca and for which clinical data are either negative or particularly weak are not covered. The future of pca prevention continues to expand, with several ongoing clinical trials and much interest in tertiary prostate cancer prevention. PMID:20882132

  11. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N; Fleshner, N E

    2010-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are important factors to consider.This review provides a comparative update on the REDUCE and PCPT trials and some clinical recommendations. Other potential primary preventive strategies with statins, selective estrogen response modulators, and nutraceutical compounds-including current evidence for these agents and their roles in clinical practice-are discussed. Many substances that have been examined in the primary prevention of pca and for which clinical data are either negative or particularly weak are not covered.The future of PCa prevention continues to expand, with several ongoing clinical trials and much interest in tertiary prostate cancer prevention. PMID:20882132

  12. Analysis of Urinary Prostate-Specific Antigen Glycoforms in Samples of Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Tzai, Tzong-Shin; Chen, Chein-Hung; Yang, Wen-Horng; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Glycans of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer were found to be different from that in benign disease. It is difficult to analyze heterogeneous PSA glycoforms in each individual specimen because of low protein abundance and the limitation of detection sensitivity. We developed a method for prostate cancer diagnosis based on PSA glycoforms. Specific glycoforms were screened in each clinical sample based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with ion accumulation. To look for potential biomarkers, normalized abundance of each glycoform in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and in prostate cancer was evaluated. The PSA glycoform, Hex5HexNAc4NeuAc1dHex1, and monosialylated, sialylated, and unfucosylated glycoforms differed significantly between the prostate cancer and BPH samples. The detection sensitivity (87.5%) and specificity (60%) for prostate cancer identification are higher than those of the serum PSA marker. As low as 100 amol PSA could be detected with the ion accumulation method which has not been reported before. The improved detection specificity can help reduce unnecessary examinations. PMID:27065039

  13. Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy with prostatic urethra preservation for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinglu; Yang, Feiya; Tian, Long; Zhang, Junhui; Yan, Yong; Kang, Ning; Xin, Zhongcheng; Niu, Yinong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy for large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been reported in the literature and may be a viable alternative to open surgery for large prostate glands. While previous publications have shown comparable outcomes between laparoscopic and open simple prostatectomy, there have been few publications describing improved laparoscopic operative technique to further improve these outcomes. The authors describe a novel technique of prostatic urethra preservation during laparoscopic simple prostatectomy. Materials and methods From January 2006 to September 2009, laparoscopic simple prostatectomy with prostatic urethra preservation was performed in 51 patients with symptomatic BPH. This technique included extraperitoneal insufflation of the retropubic space by balloon dilation, placement of five trocars in an inverted U shape, transverse prostatic capsular incision, development of a subcapsular plane, and removal of prostatic adenoma with preservation of the prostatic urethra followed by suturing of the prostatic capsule. Demographic, perioperative and outcome data were recorded. Results The mean operative time was 126±51.98 min and the estimated blood loss was 232.55±199.54 mL. Significant improvements were noted in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) questionnaires and maximum flow rate (Qmax) of patients three months after surgery. No incontinence was reported in any patient. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the 5-Item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) score pre- and post- operatively in patients who had erectile function before surgery and no patient complained of retrograde ejaculation during the postoperative follow-up period. Conclusions Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy with prostatic urethra preservation for benign prostatic hyperplasia is feasible and reproducible. With this technique, postoperative morbidity can be reduced and antegrade

  14. Dendritic nonlinearities reduce network size requirements and mediate ON and OFF states of persistent activity in a PFC microcircuit model.

    PubMed

    Papoutsi, Athanasia; Sidiropoulou, Kyriaki; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2014-07-01

    Technological advances have unraveled the existence of small clusters of co-active neurons in the neocortex. The functional implications of these microcircuits are in large part unexplored. Using a heavily constrained biophysical model of a L5 PFC microcircuit, we recently showed that these structures act as tunable modules of persistent activity, the cellular correlate of working memory. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that underlie persistent activity emergence (ON) and termination (OFF) and search for the minimum network size required for expressing these states within physiological regimes. We show that (a) NMDA-mediated dendritic spikes gate the induction of persistent firing in the microcircuit. (b) The minimum network size required for persistent activity induction is inversely proportional to the synaptic drive of each excitatory neuron. (c) Relaxation of connectivity and synaptic delay constraints eliminates the gating effect of NMDA spikes, albeit at a cost of much larger networks. (d) Persistent activity termination by increased inhibition depends on the strength of the synaptic input and is negatively modulated by dADP. (e) Slow synaptic mechanisms and network activity contain predictive information regarding the ability of a given stimulus to turn ON and/or OFF persistent firing in the microcircuit model. Overall, this study zooms out from dendrites to cell assemblies and suggests a tight interaction between dendritic non-linearities and network properties (size/connectivity) that may facilitate the short-memory function of the PFC. PMID:25077940

  15. Dendritic Nonlinearities Reduce Network Size Requirements and Mediate ON and OFF States of Persistent Activity in a PFC Microcircuit Model

    PubMed Central

    Papoutsi, Athanasia; Sidiropoulou, Kyriaki; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have unraveled the existence of small clusters of co-active neurons in the neocortex. The functional implications of these microcircuits are in large part unexplored. Using a heavily constrained biophysical model of a L5 PFC microcircuit, we recently showed that these structures act as tunable modules of persistent activity, the cellular correlate of working memory. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that underlie persistent activity emergence (ON) and termination (OFF) and search for the minimum network size required for expressing these states within physiological regimes. We show that (a) NMDA-mediated dendritic spikes gate the induction of persistent firing in the microcircuit. (b) The minimum network size required for persistent activity induction is inversely proportional to the synaptic drive of each excitatory neuron. (c) Relaxation of connectivity and synaptic delay constraints eliminates the gating effect of NMDA spikes, albeit at a cost of much larger networks. (d) Persistent activity termination by increased inhibition depends on the strength of the synaptic input and is negatively modulated by dADP. (e) Slow synaptic mechanisms and network activity contain predictive information regarding the ability of a given stimulus to turn ON and/or OFF persistent firing in the microcircuit model. Overall, this study zooms out from dendrites to cell assemblies and suggests a tight interaction between dendritic non-linearities and network properties (size/connectivity) that may facilitate the short-memory function of the PFC. PMID:25077940

  16. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Smith, Bryan A; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Shokat, Kevan M; Gustafson, W Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-11

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance, and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27050099

  17. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  18. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... present it is not clear if screening for prostate cancer is helpful for most men. For this reason, ...

  19. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles to the prostate gland. Then, very cold gas passes through the needles, creating ice balls that destroy the prostate gland. Warm salt water will flow through the catheter to keep your urethra (the tube from the bladder to ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCF Spotlight Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ... Foundation News Prostate Cancer Foundation and Major League Baseball Step Up To The Plate To Raise Awareness ...

  1. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Laser prostatectomy; Transurethral needle ablation; TUNA; Transurethral incision; TUIP; Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate; HoLep; Interstitial laser coagulation; ILC; Photoselective vaporization of the prostate; PVP; Transurethral ...

  2. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  4. Enlarged prostate - after care

    MedlinePlus

    BPH - self-care; Benign prostatic hypertrophy - self-care; Benign prostatic hyperplasia - self-care ... Your health care provider may have you take a medicine called alpha-1- blocker. Most people find that these drugs help ...

  5. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cryotherapy uses very cold temperatures to freeze and kill prostate cancer cells. The goal of cryosurgery is ... Possible short-term side effects of cryotherapy for prostate ... of the penis or scrotum Problems controlling your bladder (more ...

  6. Characterization of a PET Camera Optimized for ProstateImaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.; Qi,Jinyi; Hu, Jicun; Wang, G.C.; Wilson, David; Oh, Sang; Huesman, RonaldH.; Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2005-11-11

    We present the characterization of a positron emission tomograph for prostate imaging that centers a patient between a pair of external curved detector banks (ellipse: 45 cm minor, 70 cm major axis). The distance between detector banks adjusts to allow patient access and to position the detectors as closely as possible for maximum sensitivity with patients of various sizes. Each bank is composed of two axial rows of 20 HR+ block detectors for a total of 80 detectors in the camera. The individual detectors are angled in the transaxial plane to point towards the prostate to reduce resolution degradation in that region. The detectors are read out by modified HRRT data acquisition electronics. Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our dedicated-prostate camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less background (less randoms and lower scatter fraction) and a lower cost. We have completed construction of the camera. Characterization data and reconstructed images of several phantoms are shown. Sensitivity of a point source in the center is 946 cps/mu Ci. Spatial resolution is 4 mm FWHM in the central region.

  7. DNA microarrays in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Lau, Kin-Mang

    2002-02-01

    DNA microarray technology provides a means to examine large numbers of molecular changes related to a biological process in a high throughput manner. This review discusses plausible utilities of this technology in prostate cancer research, including definition of prostate cancer predisposition, global profiling of gene expression patterns associated with cancer initiation and progression, identification of new diagnostic and prognostic markers, and discovery of novel patient classification schemes. The technology, at present, has only been explored in a limited fashion in prostate cancer research. Some hurdles to be overcome are the high cost of the technology, insufficient sample size and repeated experiments, and the inadequate use of bioinformatics. With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advance of several highly complementary technologies, such as laser capture microdissection, unbiased RNA amplification, customized functional arrays (eg, single-nucleotide polymorphism chips), and amenable bioinformatics software, this technology will become widely used by investigators in the field. The large amount of novel, unbiased hypotheses and insights generated by this technology is expected to have a significant impact on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of prostate cancer. Finally, this review emphasizes existing, but currently underutilized, data-mining tools, such as multivariate statistical analyses, neural networking, and machine learning techniques, to stimulate wider usage. PMID:12084220

  8. A Perspective on Prostate Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Bosland, Maarten C.; Ozten, Nur; Eskra, Jillian N.; Mahmoud, Abeer M.

    2015-01-01

    In this perspective, modifiable carcinogenic factors for the prostate are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of how current knowledge about causation of prostate cancer and chemoprevention of prostate cancer can be used to develop preventive strategies. Prostate cancer is a slowly developing cancer which offers opportunities for preventive interventions. Only a few randomized clinical trials of prostate cancer prevention have been completed. The SELECT study with selenium and vitamin E did not find protective effects, but in two trials with 5α-reductase inhibitors risk was reduced about 25%, showing that chemoprevention is possible and indicating that the androgen receptor is a suitable target. Besides smoking cessation and reduction of obesity, there are no known dietary or life style interventions that will have a major impact on prostate cancer risk. Inflammation of the prostate is an attractive target and aspirin may be a promising candidate agent, but has not been addressed yet in preclinical and clinical studies. Antioxidants other than selenium and vitamin E are unlikely to be very effective and data on several dietary supplements are not encouraging. More candidate agents need to be identified and tested in relevant and adequate preclinical models and Phase II trials that have predictive value for outcome of Phase III randomized studies. Doing this will require a systematic approach comparing preclinical and clinical study outcomes to determine their predictive value of preventive efficacy. PMID:26442200

  9. Technical Aspects of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn-Ey

    2013-01-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive procedure and a size-independent treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with excellent long-term surgical outcome. HoLEP has become an alternative to conventional transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy owing to its efficacy and safety. Although HoLEP is known to have a steep learning curve, very few articles have addressed the technical aspects of HoLEP. Herein, we described detailed techniques and tips for HoLEP as performed at Seoul National University Hospital in a step-by-step manner with extensive review of the literature. PMID:24044089

  10. Technical aspects of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn-Ey; Oh, Seung-June

    2013-09-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive procedure and a size-independent treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with excellent long-term surgical outcome. HoLEP has become an alternative to conventional transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy owing to its efficacy and safety. Although HoLEP is known to have a steep learning curve, very few articles have addressed the technical aspects of HoLEP. Herein, we described detailed techniques and tips for HoLEP as performed at Seoul National University Hospital in a step-by-step manner with extensive review of the literature. PMID:24044089

  11. N-acetylcysteine reduces the size and activity of von Willebrand factor in human plasma and mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junmei; Reheman, Adili; Gushiken, Francisca C; Nolasco, Leticia; Fu, Xiaoyun; Moake, Joel L; Ni, Heyu; López, José A

    2011-02-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disease characterized by systemic microvascular thrombosis caused by adhesion of platelets to ultra-large vWF (ULVWF) multimers. These multimers accumulate because of a deficiency of the processing enzyme ADAMTS13. vWF protein forms long multimers from homodimers that first form through C-terminal disulfide bonds and then join through their N termini by further disulfide bonding. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an FDA-approved drug that has long been used to treat chronic obstructive lung disease and acetaminophen toxicity and is known to function in the former disorder by reducing mucin multimers. Here, we examined whether NAC could reduce vWF multimers, which polymerize in a manner similar to mucins. In vitro, NAC reduced soluble plasma-type vWF multimers in a concentration-dependent manner and rapidly degraded ULVWF multimer strings extruded from activated ECs. The effect was preceded by reduction of the intrachain disulfide bond encompassing the platelet-binding A1 domain. NAC also inhibited vWF-dependent platelet aggregation and collagen binding. Injection of NAC into ADAMTS13-deficient mice led to the rapid resolution of thrombi produced by ionophore treatment of the mesenteric venules and reduced plasma vWF multimers. These results suggest that NAC may be a rapid and effective treatment for patients with TTP. PMID:21266777

  12. Prostate cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test that checks the level of PSA in your blood. In some cases, a high level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high level, such as infection in the prostate or ...

  13. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...

  14. Salt Stress Reduces Root Meristem Size by Nitric Oxide-Mediated Modulation of Auxin Accumulation and Signaling in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Li, Rong-Jun; Han, Tong-Tong; Cai, Wei; Fu, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The development of the plant root system is highly plastic, which allows the plant to adapt to various environmental stresses. Salt stress inhibits root elongation by reducing the size of the root meristem. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, we explored whether and how auxin and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in salt-mediated inhibition of root meristem growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using physiological, pharmacological, and genetic approaches. We found that salt stress significantly reduced root meristem size by down-regulating the expression of PINFORMED (PIN) genes, thereby reducing auxin levels. In addition, salt stress promoted AUXIN RESISTANT3 (AXR3)/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID17 (IAA17) stabilization, which repressed auxin signaling during this process. Furthermore, salt stress stimulated NO accumulation, whereas blocking NO production with the inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine-methylester compromised the salt-mediated reduction of root meristem size, PIN down-regulation, and stabilization of AXR3/IAA17, indicating that NO is involved in salt-mediated inhibition of root meristem growth. Taken together, these findings suggest that salt stress inhibits root meristem growth by repressing PIN expression (thereby reducing auxin levels) and stabilizing IAA17 (thereby repressing auxin signaling) via increasing NO levels. PMID:25818700

  15. Dosimetric Consequences of Intrafraction Prostate Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haisen S. Chetty, Indrin J.; Enke, Charles A.; Foster, Ryan D.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupellian, Patrick A.; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze characteristics of intrafraction prostate motion, monitored using the Calypso system, and investigate dosimetric consequences of the motion for different clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins. Methods and Materials: Motion characteristics were analyzed for 1,267 tracking sessions and 35 patients. Using prostate-PTV margins of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mm, dose metrics for the prostate gland, bladder, and rectum were evaluated for scenarios including patient population, individual patients showing the greatest motion during the course of treatment, and the individual session with the largest overall movement. Composite dose distributions incorporating motion blurring were calculated by convolving static intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans with corresponding motion probability functions. Results: For prostate-PTV margins of 2 mm or greater, intrafraction motion did not compromise prostate dose coverage for either the patient population or individual patients. For the patient showing the largest overall movement, the prostate equivalent uniform dose was reduced by only 17.4 cGy (0.23%), and the minimum prostate dose remained greater than 95% of the nominal dose. For margins less than 2 mm, the prostate dose-volume histogram in the same patient was slightly compromised, and the equivalent uniform dose was reduced by 38.5 cGy (0.51%). Sparing of the bladder and rectum was improved substantially by reducing margins. Conclusions: Although significant motion can be observed during individual fractions, the dosimetric consequences are insignificant during a typical course of radiotherapy (30-40 fractions) with CTV-PTV margins of 2 mm or greater provided that the Calypso system is applied for pretreatment localization. Further reduction of the margin is possible if intrafraction realignment is performed.

  16. Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Chang, R T M; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, B J

    2012-04-01

    BPH is one of the most common diseases of older men, with more than 70% of men over 70 years affected, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Prostate cancer generally presents in one of three ways: asymptomatic patients who are screened (usually by a PSA test); men with LUTS who are investigated and undergo prostate biopsy; or patients with symptoms of metastasis such as bone pain. Men can be reassured that the main cause of LUTS is BPH. Only a small proportion of men have LUTS that are directly attributable to prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) gives an evaluation of prostate size, which is relevant in particular to BPH management, and along with PSA testing it is one of the only ways of differentiating clinically between BPH and prostate cancer. If a nodular abnormality is present there is around a 50% chance of a diagnosis of prostate cancer being made on biopsy. Raised levels of serum PSA may be suggestive of prostate cancer, but diagnosis requires histological confirmation in almost every case. A normal PSA, PSA density and DRE can give reasonable confidence with regards to excluding clinically significant prostate cancer. BPH is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, although the two frequently coexist. Age is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer risk, along with family history. BPH is not considered to be a precursor of prostate cancer. It is likely that although BPH may not make prostate cancer more likely to occur, it may increase the chance of diagnosing an incidental cancer. PMID:22792684

  17. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Niżański, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (±4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (±8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (±11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (±8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (±9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (±0.5); rW - 2.39 (±0.53) and rH - 2.16 (±0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH. PMID:26303126

  18. Marine reserves reduce risk of climate-driven phase shift by reinstating size- and habitat-specific trophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R

    2012-06-01

    Spatial closures in the marine environment are widely accepted as effective conservation and fisheries management tools. Given increasing human-derived stressors acting on marine ecosystems, the need for such effective action is urgently clear. Here we explore mechanisms underlying the utility of marine reserves to reinstate trophic dynamics and to increase resilience of kelp beds against climate-driven phase shift to sea urchin barrens on the rapidly warming Tasmanian east coast. Tethering and tagging experiments were used to examine size- and shelter-specific survival of the range-extending sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii (Diadematidae) translocated to reefs inside and outside no-take Tasmanian marine reserves. Results show that survival rates of C. rodgersii exposed on flat reef substratum by tethering were approximately seven times (small urchins 10.1 times; large urchins 6.1 times) lower on protected reef within marine reserve boundaries (high abundance of large predatory-capable lobsters) compared to fished reef (large predatory lobsters absent). When able to seek crevice shelter, tag-resighting models estimated that mortality rates of C. rodgersii were lower overall but remained 3.3 times (small urchins 2.1 times; large urchins 6.4 times) higher in the presence of large lobsters inside marine reserves, with higher survival of small urchins owing to greater access to crevices relative to large urchins. Indeed, shelter was 6.3 times and 3.1 times more important to survival of small and large urchins, respectively, on reserved relative to fished reef. Experimental results corroborate with surveys throughout the range extension region, showing greater occurrence of overgrazing on high-relief rocky habitats where shelter for C. rodgersii is readily available. This shows that ecosystem impacts mediated by range extension of such habitat-modifying organisms will be heterogeneous in space, and that marine systems with a more natural complement of large and thus

  19. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application. PMID:26022498

  20. Reduced size of ordered moments of a quasi 1d antiferromagnet Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, K.; Larkin, M.; Luke, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    The quasi one-dimensional antiferromagnet Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 3} exhibits Neel order of Cu{sup 2+} moments (S = 1/2) at T{sub N} = 5.41(1) K, as demonstrated by (1) almost resolution-limited magnetic Bragg reflections in neutron scattering measurements, and (2) spontaneous muon spin precession in zero-field muon spin relaxation ({mu}SR) measurements. The temperature dependence of the order parameters are consistent between the two experimental techniques. From the neutron data, the authors obtained an upper-limit for the ordered moment size of {approximately} 0.06 {mu}{sub B}. This indicates a significant moment reduction from quantum fluctuations.

  1. Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowler, Derik Wesley

    The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

  2. Increased left atrial size is associated with reduced atrial stiffness and preserved reservoir function in athlete's heart.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Pelliccia, Antonio; Natali, Benedetta Maria; Cameli, Matteo; Andrei, Valentina; Incampo, Eufemia; Alvino, Federico; Lisi, Matteo; Padeletti, Margherita; Focardi, Marta; Bonifazi, Marco; Mondillo, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    Left atrial (LA) fibrosis with increased stiffness has been assumed to be the substrates for occurrence of atrial arrhythmias in athletes. However, this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed in humans. Aim of this study was, therefore, to assess LA remodeling and stiffness in competitive athletes. 150 competitive athletes and 90 age and sex-matched sedentary subjects were analyzed by speckle-tracking echocardiography to measure peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) and peak atrial contraction strain (PACS). LA stiffness was determined using E/e' ratio in conjunction with PALS. Left ventricular (LV) stiffness was also calculated. LA volume index was greater in athletes as compared with controls (24.6 ± 7.3 vs. 18.4 ± 7.8 mL/m(2), p < .0001). LA PALS, LA PACS, and E/e' ratio were lower in athletes in comparison with controls (p < .05, p ≤ .001, and p < .0001, respectively). Despite greater LA size, competitive athletes had lower LA stiffness as compared with controls (0.13 ± 0.04 vs. 0.16 ± 0.06, p ≤ .001). In addition, LV stiffness was lower in athletes (0.84 ± 0.27 vs. 1.07 ± 0.46, p ≤ .001). The only independent predictor of LA stiffness was LV stiffness (β = 0.46, p < .0001), while the only independent predictor of LA volume index was LV end-systolic volume index (β = 0.25, p = .002). Competitive athletes showed greater LA size associated with lower stiffness as compared with controls. Thus, LA remodeling in the context of the athlete's heart is not associated with increased LA stiffness. These findings support the benign nature of LA remodeling in athletes, occurring as a physiological adaptation to exercise conditioning. PMID:25627780

  3. Treatment with anti-RANKL antibody reduces infarct size and attenuates dysfunction impacting on neutrophil-mediated injury.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Federico; Crowe, Lindsey A; Roth, Aline; Burger, Fabienne; Lenglet, Sébastien; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Brandt, Karim J; Quercioli, Alessandra; Mach, François; Vallée, Jean-Paul; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    Selective pharmacological treatments targeting reperfusion injury produced modest protective effects and might be associated with immunosuppression. In order to identify novel and better-tolerated approaches, we focused on the neutralization of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand [RANKL], a cytokine recently shown to activate inflammatory cells (i.e. neutrophils) orchestrating post-infarction injury and repair. Myocardial ischemia (60min) and reperfusion injury was surgically induced in C57Bl/6 mice. In hearts and serum, RANKL was early upregulated during reperfusion. A "one-shot" injection with neutralizing anti-RANKL IgG during ischemia ameliorated myocardial infarct size and function, but not adverse remodeling (determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging [MRI]) as compared to Vehicle or control IgG. These beneficial effects were accompanied in vivo by reduction in cardiac neutrophil infiltration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MMP-9 release. Anti-RANKL IgG treatment suppressed sudden peak of neutrophil granule products in mouse serum early after reperfusion onset. In vitro, RANK mRNA expression was detected in isolated mouse neutrophils. Co-incubation with neutralizing anti-RANKL IgG abrogated RANKL-induced mouse neutrophil degranulation and migration, suggesting a critical role of RANKL in neutrophil-mediated injury. Conversely, anti-RANKL IgG did not affect salvage pathways in cardiac cells (i.e. ERK p42/p44, Akt and STAT-3) or macrophage cardiac infiltration. Finally, treatment with anti-RANKL IgG showed no effect on B and T lymphocyte polarization (in serum, spleen and infarcted myocardium) and circulating chemokines as compared with Vehicle or control IgG. In conclusion, acute treatment with anti-RANKL IgG improved cardiac infarct size and function by potentially impacting on neutrophil-mediated injury and repair. PMID:27056420

  4. Angiogenesis Is Induced and Wound Size Is Reduced by Electrical Stimulation in an Acute Wound Healing Model in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ud-Din, Sara; Sebastian, Anil; Giddings, Pamela; Colthurst, James; Whiteside, Sigrid; Morris, Julie; Nuccitelli, Richard; Pullar, Christine; Baguneid, Mo; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for wound healing. Insufficient angiogenesis can result in impaired wound healing and chronic wound formation. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance angiogenesis. We previously showed that ES enhanced angiogenesis in acute wounds at one time point (day 14). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of ES in affecting angiogenesis during the acute phase of cutaneous wound healing over multiple time points. We compared the angiogenic response to wounding in 40 healthy volunteers (divided into two groups and randomised), treated with ES (post-ES) and compared them to secondary intention wound healing (control). Biopsy time points monitored were days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14. Objective non-invasive measures and H&E analysis were performed in addition to immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). Wound volume was significantly reduced on D7, 10 and 14 post-ES (p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p<0.001 respectively), surface area was reduced on days 10 (p = 0.001) and 14 (p<0.001) and wound diameter reduced on days 10 (p = 0.009) and 14 (p = 0.002). Blood flow increased significantly post-ES on D10 (p = 0.002) and 14 (p = 0.001). Angiogenic markers were up-regulated following ES application; protein analysis by IHC showed an increase (p<0.05) in VEGF-A expression by ES treatment on days 7, 10 and 14 (39%, 27% and 35% respectively) and PLGF expression on days 3 and 7 (40% on both days), compared to normal healing. Similarly, WB demonstrated an increase (p<0.05) in PLGF on days 7 and 14 (51% and 35% respectively). WB studies showed a significant increase of 30% (p>0.05) on day 14 in VEGF-A expression post-ES compared to controls. Furthermore, organisation of granulation tissue was improved on day 14 post-ES. This randomised controlled trial has shown that ES enhanced wound healing by reduced wound dimensions and increased VEGF-A and PLGF expression in acute cutaneous wounds, which further substantiates the role of ES in up

  5. WISP1/CCN4: A Potential Target for Inhibiting Prostate Cancer Growth and Spread to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Sonn, Robert; Kilts, Tina M.; de Castro, Luis F.; Maeda, Azusa; Fisher, Larry W.; Robey, Pamela G.; Berendsen, Agnes D.; Li, Li; McCartney-Francis, Nancy; Brown, Aaron C.; Crawford, Nigel P. S.; Molinolo, Alfredo; Jain, Alka; Fedarko, Neal S.; Young, Marian F.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a leading cause of death in men however the factors that regulate its progression and eventual metastasis to bone remain unclear. Here we show that WISP1/CCN4 expression in prostate cancer tissues was up-regulated in early stages of the disease and, further, that it correlated with increased circulating levels of WISP1 in the sera of patients at early stages of the disease. WISP1 was also elevated in the mouse prostate cancer model TRAMP in the hypoplastic diseased tissue that develops prior to advanced carcinoma formation. When the ability of anti-WISP1 antibodies to reduce the spread of PC3-Luc cells to distant sites was tested it showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced the number and overall size of distant tumors developed after intracardiac (IC) injection of PC3-Luc cells in mice. The ability of antibodies against WISP1 to inhibit growth of PC3-Luc cancer cells in mice was also evaluated and showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced local tumor growth when examined in xenografts. To better understand the mechanism of action, the migration of PC3-Luc cells through membranes with or without a Matrigel™ barrier showed the cells were attracted to WISP1, and that this attraction was inhibited by treatment with anti-WISP1 antibodies. We also show the expression of WISP1 at the bone-tumor interface and in the stroma of early grade cancers suggested WISP1 expression is well placed to play roles in both fostering growth of the cancer and its spread to bone. In summary, the up-regulation of WISP1 in the early stages of cancer development coupled with its ability to inhibit spread and growth of prostate cancer cells makes it both a potential target and an accessible diagnostic marker for prostate cancer. PMID:23977121

  6. Solitary fibrous tumors of the prostate: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YANG, WENYAN; SUN, FUGUANG; LIU, HONGJUN; WANG, GUANGJIAN; SHI, PEIQING; SHAO, ZHIQIANG; GUO, FENGFU

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of extrapleural solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs), including the prostate SFT, have been reported over the last 10-years. Prostate SFT is relatively uncommon, with <20 cases reported in the literature worldwide. In the present study, a prostate SFT case, which was initially misdiagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is presented. The patient was subjected to three surgeries (cystoscopy and per urethra lithocystotomy, transurethral resection of the prostate and nerve-sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy) prior to SFT diagnosis. It was demonstrated that histopathological and immunohistochemical factors (positive staining for CD34 and B cell lyphoma-2 expression) were of significant diagnostic value. Thus, nerve-sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy for total resection may be the best therapeutic strategy to treat prostate SFT, allowing the preservation of sexual function and reducing the risk of locoregional recurrence. PMID:26622720

  7. β-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Braadland, Peder Rustøen; Ramberg, Håkon; Grytli, Helene Hartvedt; Taskén, Kristin Austlid

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced sympathetic signaling, often associated with obesity and chronic stress, is increasingly acknowledged as a contributor to cancer aggressiveness. In prostate cancer, intact sympathetic nerves are critical for tumor formation, and sympathectomy induces apoptosis and blocks tumor growth. Perineural invasion, involving enrichment of intra-prostatic nerves, is frequently observed in prostate cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), the most abundant receptor for sympathetic signals in prostate luminal cells, has been shown to regulate trans-differentiation of cancer cells to neuroendocrine-like cells and to affect apoptosis, angiogenesis, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, migration, and metastasis. Epidemiologic studies have shown that use of β-blockers, inhibiting β-adrenergic receptor activity, is associated with reduced prostate cancer-specific mortality. In this review, we aim to present an overview on how β-adrenergic receptor and its downstream signaling cascade influence the development of aggressive prostate cancer, primarily through regulating neuroendocrine differentiation. PMID:25629002

  8. Chromium-Modified Li4Ti5O12 with a Synergistic Effect of Bulk Doping, Surface Coating, and Size Reducing.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hailin; Liang, Xin; Feng, Xuyong; Xiang, Hongfa

    2016-08-24

    Bulk doping, surface coating, and size reducing are three strategies for improving the electrochemical properties of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO). In this work, chromium (Cr)-modified LTO with a synergistic effect of bulk doping, surface coating, and size reducing is synthesized by a facile sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman analysis prove that Cr dopes into the LTO bulk lattice, which effectively inhibits the generation of TiO2 impurities. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verifies the surface coating of Li2CrO4 on the LTO surface, which decreases impedance of the LTO electrode. More importantly, the size of LTO particles can be significantly reduced from submicroscale to nanoscale as a result of the protection of the Li2CrO4 surface layer and the suppression from Cr atoms on the long-range order in the LTO lattice. As anode material, Li4-xCr3xTi5-2xO12 (x = 0.1) delivers a reversible capacity of 141 mAh g(-1) at 10 °C, and over 155 mAh g(-1) at 1 °C after 1000 cycles. Therefore, the Cr-modified Li4Ti5O12 prepared via a sol-gel method has potential for applications in high-power, long-life lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27479172

  9. Reduced molecular size and altered disaccharide composition of cerebral chondroitin sulfate upon Alzheimer’s pathogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zui; Ohtake-Niimi, Shiori; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Uchimura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive disorder leading to cognitive impairment and neuronal loss. Cerebral extracellular accumulation and deposition of amyloid ß plaques is a pathological hallmark of AD. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an extracellular component abundant in the brain. CS is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan covalently attached to a core protein, forming chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The structure of CS is heterogeneous with sulfation modification and elongation of the chain. The structural diversity of CS allows it to play various roles in the brain. Increasing evidence has shown that CS promotes aggregation of amyloid ß peptides into higher-order species such as insoluble amyloid ß fibrils. Difficulties in the structural analysis of brain CS, as well as its heterogeneity, limit the study of potential roles of CS in AD pathology. Here we established a microanalysis method with reversed-phase ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography and found that CS in the brains of Tg2576 AD model mice show a lower molecular size and an increased ratio of CS-B motif di-sulfated disaccharide. Our findings provide insight into the structural changes of cerebral CS upon Alzheimer’s pathogenesis. PMID:27578913

  10. Modified carbon fibers to improve composite properties. [sizing fibers for reduced electrical conductivity and adhesion during combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepler, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thin coatings, 5 to 10 wt. percent, were applied to PAN-based carbon fibers. These coatings were intended to make the carbon fibers less electrically conductive or to cause fibers to stick together when a carbon fiber/epoxy composite burned. The effectiveness of the coatings in these regards was evaluated in burn tests with a test rig designed to simulate burning, impact and wind conditions which might release carbon fibers. The effect of the coatings on fiber and composite properties and handling was also investigated. Attempts at sizing carbon fibers with silicon dioxide, silicon carbide and boron nitride meet with varying degrees of success; however, none of these materials provided an electrically nonconductive coating. Coatings intended to stick carbon fibers together after a composite burned were sodium silicate, silica gel, ethyl silicate, boric acid and ammonium borate. Of these, only the sodium silicate and silica gel provided any sticking together of fibers. The amount of sticking was insufficient to achieve the desired objectives.

  11. Inflammation and preneoplastic lesions in benign prostate as risk factors for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Jankowski, Michelle; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Tang, Deliang; Rundle, Andrew; Trudeau, Sheri; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2013-01-01

    Benign changes ranging from atrophy and inflammation to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) are common findings on prostate core needle biopsies. Although atrophy and inflammation may be precursors of prostate cancer, only HGPIN is currently recommended to be included in surgical pathology reports. To determine whether these benign findings increase prostate cancer risk, we conducted a case–control study nested within a historical cohort of 6692 men with a benign prostate specimen collected between 1990 and 2002. The analytic sample included 574 case–control pairs comprised of cases diagnosed with prostate cancer a minimum of 1 year after cohort entry and controls matched to cases on date and age at cohort entry, race, and type of specimen. The initial benign specimen was reviewed for presence of HGPIN, atrophy (simple, lobular, and partial) and inflammation (glandular and/or stromal). HGPIN significantly increased risk for prostate cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25–3.20). Inflammation within the stromal compartment was associated with decreased risk (OR = 0.66; CI = 0.52–0.84), and diffuse stromal inflammation of severe grade had the strongest inverse association with risk (OR = 0.21; CI = 0.07–0.62). In a model adjusted for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at cohort entry and inflammation, simple atrophy was associated with a 33% increased prostate cancer risk that was marginally significant (P = 0.03). Clinicians should consider patterns and extent of inflammation when managing high-risk patients with negative biopsy results. Identifying benign inflammatory processes that underlie high PSA levels would help to reduce the number of unnecessary repeated prostate biopsies. PMID:22460812

  12. Prostate cancer: a serious disease suitable for prevention.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John M; Schulman, Claude; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Schröder, Fritz H

    2009-04-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of death from cancer in men, and accounts for 10% of all new male cancers worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer place a substantial physical and emotional burden on patients and their families, and have considerable financial implications for healthcare providers and society. Given that the risk of prostate cancer continues to increase with age, the burden of the disease is likely to increase in line with population life-expectancy. Reducing the risk of prostate cancer has gained increasing coverage in recent years, with proof of principle shown in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with the type 2 5alpha-reductase (5AR) inhibitor, finasteride. The long latency period, high disease prevalence, and significant associated morbidity and mortality make prostate cancer a suitable target for a risk-reduction approach. Several agents are under investigation for reducing the risk of prostate cancer, including selenium/vitamin E and selective oestrogen receptors modulators (e.g. toremifene). In addition, the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, involving >8000 men, is evaluating the effect of the dual 5AR inhibitor, dutasteride, on the risk of developing prostate cancer. A successful risk-reduction strategy might decrease the incidence of the disease, as well as the anxiety, cost and morbidity associated with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19302133

  13. Assessment of a particle size fractionation as a technology for reducing heavy metal, salinity and impurities from compost produced by municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Zahed; Renella, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    A physical fractionation of a compost obtained by municipal solid wastes (MSW) was conducted by dry-sieving process, to quantify coarse impurities and assess the distribution of nutrients, heavy metals and salinity values in particle size fractions of 2, 1.2-2, 0.8-1.2, 0.4-0.8, 0.2-0.4, 0.1-0.2 and <0.1mm diameter. The whole unfractionated compost and all physical fractions were analyzed for the same chemical parameters. The results showed that the studied compost was of a low grade due to high salinity and heavy metal concentrations, and the presence of coarse impurities, mainly glass. The physical fractionation analysis showed that heavy metal and base cations concentrations, and salinity values significantly increased with decreasing of particle size, whereas macro nutrients such as C, N and P were more evenly distributed among the different particle size fractions. Overall, our results showed that the removal of selected particle size fractions <0.8mm and coarse impurities (e.g. glass impurity >2mm) could significantly improve the compost quality without reduce its fertilization potential. We concluded that particle size fractionation is a feasible and sustainable approach to improve composted MSW materials for their safe recycle in agriculture. PMID:25660906

  14. Warring arthropod societies: Social spider colonies can delay annihilation by predatory ants via reduced apparency and increased group size.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Carl N; Wright, Colin M; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2015-10-01

    Sociality provides individuals with benefits via collective foraging and anti-predator defense. One of the costs of living in large groups, however, is increased apparency to natural enemies. Here, we test how the individual-level and collective traits of spider societies can increase the risk of discovery and death by predatory ants. We transplanted colonies of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola into a habitat dense with one of their top predators, the pugnacious ant Anoplolepis custodiens. With three different experiments, we test how colony-wide survivorship in a predator-dense habitat can be altered by colony apparency (i.e., the presence of a capture web), group size, and group composition (i.e., the proportion of bold and shy personality types present). We also test how spiders' social context (i.e., living solitarily vs. among conspecifics) modifies their behaviour toward ants in their capture web. Colonies with capture webs intact were discovered by predatory ants on average 25% faster than colonies with the capture web removed, and all discovered colonies eventually collapsed and succumbed to predation. However, the lag time from discovery by ants to colony collapse was greater for colonies containing more individuals. The composition of individual personality types in the group had no influence on survivorship. Spiders in a social group were more likely to approach ants caught in their web than were isolated spiders. Isolated spiders were more likely to attack a safe prey item (a moth) than they were to attack ants and were more likely to retreat from ants after contact than they were after contact with moths. Together, our data suggest that the physical structures produced by large animal societies can increase their apparency to natural enemies, though larger groups can facilitate a longer lag time between discovery and demise. Lastly, the interaction between spiders and predatory ants seems to depend on the social context in which spiders reside

  15. Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Time Spent With Acute Dermatitis for Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Gary M. Li Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen Yan; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Anderson, Penny R.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 to 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n = 405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n = 399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results: The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, Grade 0; 34%, Grade 1; 61%, Grade 2; and 2%, Grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, Grade 0/1, and 52%, Grade 2/3, for IMRT; and 25%, Grade 0/1, and 75%, Grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p < 0.0001). The IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with Grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with Grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the time spent with Grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p = 0.0015), medium (p < 0.0001), and large (p < 0.0001) breasts. Conclusions: Breast IMRT is associated with a significant decrease both in the time spent during treatment with Grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with that associated with conventional radiation, regardless of breast size.

  16. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  17. Reduction in the risk of prostate cancer: future directions after the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Crawford, E David; Andriole, Gerald L; Marberger, Michael; Rittmaster, Roger S

    2010-03-01

    The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) generated interest in the potential health benefits and cost of reducing prostate cancer risk--specifically, the potential role of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, the PCPT raised several unanswered questions, including the cause and significance of the increased incidence of high-grade tumors associated with finasteride. In the present study, we review the PCPT findings and unanswered questions, next steps in this field, and ongoing prostate cancer prevention trials addressing these unanswered questions. Particular emphasis is placed on the design of the second large-scale trial of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. PMID:20035983

  18. Progress Against Prostate Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the bladder. The urethra (the tube carrying urine from the bladder to outside the body) runs ... in size. This can narrow the urethra, decreasing urine flow. Prostate cancer is made up of cells ...

  19. [Pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Oelke, M; Martinelli, E

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is indicated when men suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) but there are no absolute indications for prostate surgery or severe bladder outlet obstruction. Phytotherapy can be used in men with mild to moderate LUTS and alpha-blockers can quickly and effectively decrease the LUTS and symptomatic disease progression. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-I) are an alternative to alpha-blockers when men experience bothersome side effects from alpha-blockers or erectile dysfunction. If patients predominantly have bladder storage symptoms and a small prostate, muscarinic receptor antagonists are a viable treatment option. The combination of alpha-blocker plus muscarinic receptor antagonist is more efficacious in reducing LUTS than the single drugs alone. The 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) can significantly decrease LUTS and disease progression (e.g. acute urinary retention and need for prostate surgery) in men with larger prostates (> 30-40 ml). The combination of 5ARI plus alpha-blocker can reduce LUTS and disease progression more effectively than drug monotherapy. Combination therapy with PDE5-I (tadalafil) plus 5ARI (finasteride) reduces LUTS more substantially than 5ARI alone and, additionally, PDE5-Is reduce the sexual side effects during 5ARI treatment. PMID:26676726

  20. Recent trends in prostate cancer mortality show a continuous decrease in several countries.

    PubMed

    Bouchardy, Christine; Fioretta, Gerald; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Verkooijen, Helena Maria; Rapin, Charles Henry; Schmidlin, France; Miralbell, Raymond; Zanetti, Roberto

    2008-07-15

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening was introduced to detect prostate cancer at an early stage and to reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality. Until results from clinical trials are available, the efficacy of PSA screening in reducing prostate cancer mortality can be estimated by surveillance of prostate cancer mortality trends. Our study analyzes recent trends in prostate cancer mortality in 38 countries. We used the IARC-WHO cancer mortality database and performed joinpoint analysis to examine prostate cancer mortality trends and identified 3 patterns. In USA, and to a lesser extent in Germany, Switzerland, Canada, France, Italy and Spain, prostate cancer-specific mortality decreased to a level lower than before the introduction of PSA screening. In Australia, New Zealand, Austria, Finland, The Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, Hungary, Slovakia, Israel, Singapore, Sweden and Portugal, mortality from prostate cancer decreased but rates remain higher than before the introduction of PSA screening. Prostate cancer mortality continued to increase in Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Belarus, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Romania, Poland, Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Japan, China Hong Kong and the Republic of Korea. The trends in prostate cancer mortality rates in examined countries suggest that PSA screening may be effective in reducing mortality from prostate cancer. PMID:18452171

  1. Analysis of Interfraction Prostate Motion Using Megavoltage Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bylund, Kevin C. Bayouth, John E.; Smith, Mark C.; Hass, A. Curtis; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Buatti, John M..

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: Determine the degree of interfraction prostate motion and its components measured by using daily megavoltage (MV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Methods and Materials: A total of 984 daily MV CBCT images from 24 patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Pretreatment couch shifts, based on physician registration of MV CBCT to planning CT data sets, were used as a measure of daily interfraction motion. Off-line bony registration was performed to separate bony misalignment from internal organ motion. Interobserver and intraobserver variation studies were performed on 20 MV CBCT images. Results: Mean interfraction prostate motion was 6.7 mm, with the greatest single-axis deviation in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction. The largest positional inaccuracy was accounted for by systematic deviations in bony misalignment, whereas random deviations occurred from bony misalignment and internal prostate motion. In the aggregate, AP motion did not correlate with days elapsed since beginning therapy or on average with rectal size at treatment planning. Interobserver variation was greatest in the AP direction, decreased in experienced observers, and further decreased in intraobserver studies. Mean interfraction motion during the first 6 days of therapy, when used as a subsequent offset, reduced acceptable AP planning target volume margins by 50%. Conclusion: The MV CBCT is a practical direct method of daily localization that shows significant interfraction motion with respect to conventional three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy margins, similar to that measured in other modalities.

  2. Is angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers therapy protective against prostate cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yeqing; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xiao; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may act as a molecular and therapeutic target for treating site-specific cancers, including prostate cancer. However, previous observational studies regarding the association between RAS inhibitors and prostate cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We examined this association by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 20,267 patients from nine cohort studies were enrolled. Compared with non-users of RAS inhibitors, individuals using RAS inhibitors had a reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.87-0.98), without statistically significant heterogeneity among studies (P = 0.118 for heterogeneity, I2 = 37.6 %). In addition, when subgroup analyses by study quality and number of cases, more statistically significant associations were observed in studies of high quality (RR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.88-0.97) and large sample size (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.91-0.98). There was no evidence of significant publication bias with Begg's test (P = 0.602) or with Egger's test (P = 0.350). Overall, this study indicates that use of RAS inhibitors may be associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. Large-scale well designed studies are needed to further explore this association. PMID:26760503

  3. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  4. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  5. Outcomes following Thulium vapoenucleation of large prostates

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Shane M.; Pariser, Joseph J.; Malik, Rena D.; Famakinwa, Olufenwa J.; Chung, Doreen E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Thulium laser VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) is an evolving surgical technique for BPH. Most studies have focused on outcomes in small to medium sized prostates and have originated from Europe and Asia. We sought to describe our experience with ThuVEP for very large prostates in a North American cohort. Materials and Methods: From December 2010 to October 2014, 25 men underwent ThuVEP using the CyberTM® (Quantastem, Italy) thulium laser, all with prostate volume >75mL. Data collected included patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative parameters, complications, and post-operative outcomes including maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life score (QoL) in one year of follow-up. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: At baseline, mean age was 70±9 years and prostate size was 163±62g. Most patients (84%) were in retention and 10 (40%) patients were on anticoagulation. Seven (28%) patients went home the day of surgery (mean hospital stay: 1.2±1.2d). There were 2 intraoperative complications (8%), both cystotomies related to morcellation. Nine patients (36%) experienced a complication, all within 30 days. There were no Clavien ≥III complications. Significant improvements were seen in Qmax, PVR, IPSS, and QoL score at each time interval to 12-months following surgery (all p<0.05). Of 21 patients initially in retention, all were voiding at last follow-up. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ThuVEP is an effective treatment for BPH in patients with large prostates with sustained results for one year. PMID:27564287

  6. The influence of isotope and prostate volume on urinary morbidity after prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Niehaus, Angela; Merrick, Gregory S. . E-mail: gmerrick@wheelinghospital.com; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Adamovich, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of isotope and prostate size on International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) normalization, catheter dependency, and the need for surgical intervention secondary to bladder outlet obstruction after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 1998 and June 2003, 976 consecutive patients underwent brachytherapy for clinical stage T1b-T3a (2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer) prostate cancer. Seven hundred eighty-nine (80.8%) were implanted with {sup 103}Pd and 187 (19.2%) with {sup 125}I. The median follow-up was 41.2 months. Patients were stratified into size cohorts {<=}25 cm{sup 3}, 25.1-35 cm{sup 3}, 35.1-45 cm{sup 3}, and >45 cm{sup 3}. Four hundred eighteen patients (42.8%) received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Four hundred eighty-six patients (49.7%) received supplemental external-beam radiation therapy (XRT). In all patients, an alpha blocker was initiated before implantation and continued at least until the IPSS returned to baseline. IPSS resolution was defined as a return to within one point of baseline. The median number of IPSS determinations per patient was 21. Clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters evaluated included patient age, pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, clinical T stage, percent positive biopsies, preimplant IPSS, ultrasound volume, planning volume, isotope, V{sub 100/150/20}, D{sub 9}, urethral dose (average and maximum), supplemental XRT, ADT, and the duration of ADT ({<=}6 months vs. >6 months). Catheter dependency and the need for postsurgical intervention were also evaluated. Results: For both isotopes and all prostate size cohorts, IPSS peaked 1 month after implantation and returned to baseline at a mean of 1.9 months. Stratification of prostate size cohorts by isotope demonstrated no significant differences in prolonged catheter dependency ({>=}5 days), IPSS resolution, or postimplant surgical intervention. In Cox regression analysis, IPSS normalization was best

  7. [Prostate cancer. Current and practice-relevant news from urology in 2011].

    PubMed

    Wirth, M; Zastrow, S

    2011-09-01

    The effect of 5α reductase inhibitors in prostate cancer has been extensively investigated. The studies determined that finasteride and also dutasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer; however, particularly high-grade cancer was not reduced and may possibly even have been increased. This is appropriately reflected in the S3 guideline on prostate cancer. New data on early recognition show that after longer term observation prostate cancer-specific mortality can be more effectively reduced by screening than was initially shown by the original data from the ERSPC study. Active surveillance is becoming more important for the therapy of early prostate cancer. Other new publications have shown good results for patients who underwent surgery for high risk prostate cancer. For metastasized prostate cancer new immunotherapeutic, chemotherapeutic and hormonal options are now available or will soon be approved. PMID:21842194

  8. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  9. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  10. Combination of Autoantibody Signature with PSA Level Enables a Highly Accurate Blood-Based Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Patients from Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Milchram, Lisa; Harz, Christian; Hart, Martin; Werth, Angelika; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients’ sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:26039628

  11. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  12. Induction of prostate apoptosis by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists: mechanistic significance of the quinazoline component.

    PubMed

    Anglin, I E; Glassman, D T; Kyprianou, N

    2002-01-01

    alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor antagonists, have been documented to induce apoptosis and reduce prostate tumor vascularity in benign and malignant prostate cells. The quinazoline based alpha(1)-antagonists, doxazosin and terazosin but not tamsulosin (a sulphonamide derivative) suppress prostate growth without affecting cell proliferation. These quinazoline-mediated apoptotic effects occur via an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor independent mechanism potentially involving activation of the TGF-beta signal transduction pathway. This review discusses the current knowledge of the action of quinazoline-derived alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists in the benign and malignant prostate and their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Finally, a molecular pathway is proposed for their observed apoptotic function against prostate cells. Increased understanding of the action of these established and clinically accepted agents would provide a basis for the design of safe, effective therapeutic regimens in the treatment of prostatic diseases. PMID:12496995

  13. Defining the threshold for significant versus insignificant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Van der Kwast, Theo H; Roobol, Monique J

    2013-08-01

    Autopsy studies have shown the presence of a large reservoir of latent prostate cancers in adult men. Serum PSA testing of asymptomatic men leads to the detection of a proportion of these latent prostate cancers. The unequivocal demonstration of a substantial (30-50%) risk of overdiagnosis by the two largest randomized population-based screening trials has led to a growing awareness of this unwanted effect. Unsurprisingly, active surveillance is now becoming the favoured strategy for deferring active treatment in men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer and reducing their risk of overtreatment. Almost all eligibility criteria for active surveillance refer to a strict pathological definition of insignificant prostate cancer, based on two landmark studies published about 20 years ago. However, current epidemiological data suggest that this original pathological definition of insignificant prostate cancer is too restrictive. In addition, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2005 modification to the Gleason grading system might have resulted in a marked upgrading of biopsy-diagnosed prostate cancers, reducing the number of men eligible for active surveillance. An updated definition of insignificant prostate cancer should reflect the optimal trade-off between reducing the risk of underestimating a significant prostate cancer and including as many men as possible in active surveillance programmes. PMID:23712205

  14. Widespread telomere instability in prostatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Tu, LiRen; Huda, Nazmul; Grimes, Brenda R; Slee, Roger B; Bates, Alison M; Cheng, Liang; Gilley, David

    2016-05-01

    A critical function of the telomere is to disguise chromosome ends from cellular recognition as double strand breaks, thereby preventing aberrant chromosome fusion events. Such chromosome end-to-end fusions are known to initiate genomic instability via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Telomere dysfunction and other forms of genomic assault likely result in misregulation of genes involved in growth control, cell death, and senescence pathways, lowering the threshold to malignancy and likely drive disease progression. Shortened telomeres and anaphase bridges have been reported in a wide variety of early precursor and malignant cancer lesions including those of the prostate. These findings are being extended using methods for the analysis of telomere fusions (decisive genetic markers for telomere dysfunction) specifically within human tissue DNA. Here we report that benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and prostate cancer (PCa) prostate lesions all contain similarly high frequencies of telomere fusions and anaphase bridges. Tumor-adjacent, histologically normal prostate tissue generally did not contain telomere fusions or anaphase bridges as compared to matched PCa tissues. However, we found relatively high levels of telomerase activity in this histologically normal tumor-adjacent tissue that was reduced but closely correlated with telomerase levels in corresponding PCa samples. Thus, we present evidence of high levels of telomere dysfunction in BPH, an established early precursor (PIN) and prostate cancer lesions but not generally in tumor adjacent normal tissue. Our results suggest that telomere dysfunction may be a common gateway event leading to genomic instability in prostate tumorigenesis. . PMID:25917938

  15. A Single-Phase Current Source Solar Inverter with Constant Instantaneous Power, Improved Reliability, and Reduced-Size DC-Link Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Craig R.

    This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of line frequency) ripple that is common to single-phase inverters is greatly reduced; b) the absence of low frequency ripple enables significantly reduced size pass components to achieve necessary DC-link stiffness and c) improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance is readily achieved due to the tightened current ripple even with reduced-size passive components. The proposed topology does not utilize any electrolytic capacitors. Instead an inductor is used as the DC-link filter and reliable AC film capacitors are utilized for the filter and auxiliary capacitor. The proposed topology has a life expectancy on par with PV panels. The proposed modulation technique can be used for any current source inverter where an unbalanced three-phase operation is desires such as active filters and power controllers. The proposed topology is ready for the next phase of microgrid and power system controllers in that it accepts reactive power commands. This work presents the proposed topology and its working principle supported by with numerical verifications and hardware results. Conclusions and future work are also presented.

  16. A Dominant Negative Mutant of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase A Reduces Endoreduplication but Not Cell Size or Gene Expression in Maize Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Leiva-Neto, João T.; Grafi, Gideon; Sabelli, Paolo A.; Dante, Ricardo A.; Woo, Young-min; Maddock, Sheila; Gordon-Kamm, William J.; Larkins, Brian A.

    2004-01-01

    Cells in maize (Zea mays) endosperm undergo multiple cycles of endoreduplication, with some attaining DNA contents as high as 96C and 192C. Genome amplification begins around 10 d after pollination, coincident with cell enlargement and the onset of starch and storage protein accumulation. Although the role of endoreduplication is unclear, it is thought to provide a mechanism that increases cell size and enhances gene expression. To investigate this process, we reduced endoreduplication in transgenic maize endosperm by ectopically expressing a gene encoding a dominant negative mutant form of cyclin-dependent kinase A. This gene was regulated by the 27-kD γ-zein promoter, which restricted synthesis of the defective enzyme to the endoreduplication rather than the mitotic phase of endosperm development. Overexpression of a wild-type cyclin-dependent kinase A increased enzyme activity but had no effect on endoreduplication. By contrast, ectopic expression of the defective enzyme lowered kinase activity and reduced by half the mean C-value and total DNA content of endosperm nuclei. The lower level of endoreduplication did not affect cell size and only slightly reduced starch and storage protein accumulation. There was little difference in the level of endosperm gene expression with high and low levels of endoreduplication, suggesting that this process may not enhance transcription of genes associated with starch and storage protein synthesis. PMID:15208390

  17. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  18. Nutraceuticals in Prostate Disease: The Urologist’s Role

    PubMed Central

    Curtis Nickel, J; Shoskes, Daniel; Roehrborn, Claus G; Moyad, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Interest in and use of complementary and alternative therapies, especially nutraceuticals, is high in prostate disease. These therapies have shown potential in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, and prostate cancer. Some have produced results equal to or better than pharmaceuticals currently prescribed for BPH. In category III prostatitis, some nutraceuticals may offer relief to patients who get little from standard therapy. Because it is becoming apparent that inflammation may play a role in the progression of BPH and development of prostate cancer, nutraceuticals, which commonly have anti-inflammatory properties, may play a role. These therapies have also shown potential in prostate cancer treatment and prevention, especially those that also reduce cardiovascular events or risk. Nevertheless, uses of some nutraceuticals in prostate disease have had less desirable consequences, showing lack of efficacy, adulteration, and/or severe side effects or drug interactions. By ensuring that these therapies undergo careful study for effectiveness, quality, and safety, urologists can look forward to adding them to their evidence-based armamentarium for prostate disease. PMID:18836556

  19. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to prostate cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Stott-Miller, Marni; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioactive compounds found in coffee and tea may delay the progression of prostate cancer. Methods We investigated associations of pre-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption with risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Study participants were men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2002–2005 in King County, Washington, USA. We assessed the usual pattern of coffee and tea consumption two years before diagnosis date. Prostate cancer outcome events were identified using a detailed follow-up survey. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The analysis of coffee intake in relation to prostate cancer recurrence/progression included 630 patients with a median follow-up of 6.4 years, during which 140 prostate cancer recurrence/progression events were recorded. Approximately 61% of patients consumed at least one cup of coffee per day. Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression; the adjusted HR for ≥4 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.81; P for trend = 0.01). Approximately 14% of patients consumed one or more cups of tea per day, and tea consumption was unrelated to prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Conclusion Results indicate that pre-diagnostic coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. This finding will require replication in larger studies. PMID:23907772

  20. Bone imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Zohar A

    2008-08-01

    Bone metastases of solid tumors are common, and about 80% of them occur in patients with breast, lung or prostate cancer. Bone metastases can be suspected clinically and by laboratory tests; however, a final diagnosis relies on radiographic evidence. Bone metastases of prostate cancer usually have osteoblastic characteristics, manifested by pathological bone resorption and formation. Conventional bone scans (e.g. with (99m)Tc-labeled methylene diphosphonate) are preferred to plain-film radiography for surveillance of the entire skeleton. Radiologic diagnosis of bone metastases, particularly in patients with low burden of disease, is difficult because noncancerous bone lesions that mimic cancer are common. Conventional bone scans are limited by their low sensitivity and high false-negative rate (up to 40%) compared with advanced bone-imaging modalities such as PET, PET-CT and MRI, which might assist or replace conventional scanning methods. The correct diagnosis of bone involvement in prostate cancer is crucial to assess the effects of therapy on the primary tumor, the patient's prognosis, and the efficacy of bone-specific treatments that can reduce future bone-associated morbidity. In addition, predictive tools such as nomograms enable the identification of patients at risk of bone involvement during the course of their disease. Such tools may limit treatment costs by avoidance of unnecessary tests and might reduce both short-term and long-term complication rates. PMID:18682719

  1. Enhanced Effect of Human Cardiac Stem Cells and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Reduce Infarct Size and Restore Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Adam R.; Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E.; Addicott, Benjamin; McCall, Fred; Carvalho, Decio; Suncion, Viky; Morales, Azorides R.; Silva, Jose Da; Sussman, Mark A.; Heldman, Alan W.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Background As mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induce proliferation and differentiation of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in vivo and in vitro, we hypothesized that combining human (h)MSCs with c-kit+ hCSCs produces greater infarct size reduction compared to either cell administered alone after MI. Methods and Results Yorkshire swine underwent balloon occlusion of the LAD coronary artery followed by reperfusion, and were immunosuppressed after MI with cyclosporine and methylprednisolone. Intramyocardial injection of either: combination hCSCs/hMSCs (1M/200M, n=5), hCSCs alone (1M, n=5), hMSCs alone (200M, n=5), or placebo (PBS, n=5) was administered to the infarct border zones at 14 days post-MI. Phenotypic response to cell therapy was assessed by cardiac MRI and micromanometer conductance catheterization hemodynamics. While each cell therapy group had reduced MI size relative to placebo (p<0.05), the MI size reduction was 2-fold greater in combination vs. either cell therapy alone (p<0.05). Accompanying enhanced MI size reduction was substantial improvement in LV chamber compliance (end-diastolic pressure volume relationship, p<0.01) and contractility (preload recruitable stroke work and dP/dtmax, p<0.05) in combination treated swine. EF was restored to baseline in cell treated pigs, while placebo pigs had persistently depressed LV function (p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed 7-fold enhanced engraftment of stem cells in the combination therapy group vs. either cell type alone (P<0.001). Conclusions Combining hMSCs and hCSCs as a cell therapeutic enhances scar size reduction, and restores diastolic and systolic function toward normal after MI. Taken together these findings illustrate important biological interactions between c-kit+ CSCs and MSCs that enhance cell-based therapeutic responses. PMID:23224061

  2. Methylation in benign prostate and risk of disease progression in men subsequently diagnosed with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Benjamin A; Rundle, Andrew; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Mitrache, Nicoleta; Do, Kieu C; Jankowski, Michelle; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Trudeau, Sheri; Belinsky, Steven A; Tang, Deliang

    2016-06-15

    In DNA from prostate tumors, methylation patterns in gene promoter regions can be a biomarker for disease progression. It remains unclear whether methylation patterns in benign prostate tissue--prior to malignant transformation--may provide similar prognostic information. To determine whether early methylation events predict prostate cancer outcomes, we evaluated histologically benign prostate specimens from 353 men who eventually developed prostate cancer and received "definitive" treatment [radical prostatectomy (58%) or radiation therapy (42%)]. Cases were drawn from a large hospital-based cohort of men with benign prostate biopsy specimens collected between 1990 and 2002. Risk of disease progression associated with methylation was estimated using time-to-event analyses. Average follow-up was over 5 years; biochemical recurrence (BCR) occurred in 91 cases (26%). In White men, methylation of the APC gene was associated with increased risk of BCR, even after adjusting for standard clinical risk factors for prostate cancer progression (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.26; 95%CI 1.23-4.16). APC methylation was most strongly associated with a significant increased risk of BCR in White men with low prostate specific antigen at cohort entry (HR = 3.66; 95%CI 1.51-8.85). In additional stratified analyses, we found that methylation of the RARB gene significantly increased risk of BCR in African American cases who demonstrated methylation of at least one of the other four genes under study (HR = 3.80; 95%CI 1.07-13.53). These findings may have implications in the early identification of aggressive prostate cancer as well as reducing unnecessary medical procedures and emotional distress for men who present with markers of indolent disease. PMID:26860439

  3. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  4. Apparent quiescence of the metallothionein gene in the rat ventral prostate: association with cadmium-induced prostate tumors in rats.

    PubMed

    Coogan, T P; Shiraishi, N; Waalkes, M P

    1994-09-01

    Several chronic studies in rats indicating that cadmium exposure can induce tumors of the ventral prostate have recently been completed in our laboratory. In one such study, a single dose of cadmium, s.c., increased prostatic tumor incidence only at doses below 5.0 mumol/kg, the approximate threshold for cadmium-induced testicular damage. In a further study, prostatic tumors were elevated with higher doses of cadmium (30 mumol/kg, s.c.) if testicular damage was prevented by zinc pretreatment. Most recently, we found that dietary cadmium (25 to 200 micrograms/g) also can increase prostatic neoplastic lesions, but these were reduced by zinc-deficient diets. Thus it appears that cadmium produces prostatic tumors only if testicular function is maintained. Furthermore, we find that metallothionein (MT), a protein associated with cadmium tolerance, may be deficient in the rat prostate, and the prostatic MT gene, at least in the ventral lobe, is unresponsive to metal stimuli. In liver, MT gene expression, as assessed by MT-1 mRNA, was quite apparent in control tissue and was induced in a dose-dependent manner 24 hr following cadmium exposure (1 to 10 mumol/kg, s.c.). However, in the ventral prostate very low constitutive levels of MT-1 mRNA were detected and increases did not occur with cadmium exposure. Cadmium concentrations in the ventral prostate were in excess of those that cause significant induction in the liver. In sharp contrast to the gene in the ventral prostate, in the dorsal prostate the MT gene was quite active. The dorsal prostate is not susceptible to cadmium carcinogenesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7843088

  5. What's wrong with chemoprevention of prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-12-01

    When prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was introduced, proponents expected it to cut prostate-cancer mortality and did not expect it to unleash an epidemic of unnecessary treatments. Now that evidence of a mortality benefit remains unclear while evidence of overtreatment in undeniable, there is understandable interest in reducing the human costs of the PSA system. Two related drugs, finasteride and dutasteride, both proven to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer and the "risk of diagnosis," are being promoted accordingly. However, if not for the flaws of the PSA system the use of these drugs for purposes of prevention would lose its rationale. Not only are the drugs in this sense dependent on a faulty system, but their own mortality benefits are as speculative as PSA's-in addition to which, they introduce new risks. PMID:22146025

  6. TRAMP Prostate Tumor Growth Is Slowed by Walnut Diets Through Altered IGF-1 Levels, Energy Pathways, and Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsook; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dietary changes could potentially reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) prostate tumor responses to a 100 g of fat/kg diet (whole walnuts, walnut oil, and other oils; balanced for macronutrients, tocopherols [α-and γ]) for 18 weeks ad libitum were assessed. TRAMP mice (n=17 per group) were fed diets with 100 g fat from either whole walnuts (diet group WW), walnut-like fat (diet group WLF, oils blended to match walnut's fatty acid profile), or as walnut oil (diet group WO, pressed from the same walnuts as WW). Fasted plasma glucose was from tail vein blood, blood was obtained by cardiac puncture, and plasma stored frozen until analysis. Prostate (genitourinary intact [GUI]) was weighed and stored frozen at −80°C. Plasma triglyceride, lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma multianalyte levels (Myriad RBM Rat Metabolic MAP), prostate (GUI), tissue metabolites (Metabolon, Inc., Durham, NC, USA), and mRNA (by Illumina NGS) were determined. The prostate tumor size, plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), high density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol all decreased significantly (P<.05) in both WW and WO compared to WLF. Both WW and WO versus WLF showed increased insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment [HOMA]), and tissue metabolomics found reduced glucose-6-phosphate, succinylcarnitine, and 4-hydroxybutyrate in these groups suggesting effects on cellular energy status. Tissue mRNA levels also showed changes suggestive of altered glucose metabolism with WW and WO diet groups having increased PCK1 and CIDEC mRNA expression, known for their roles in gluconeogenesis and increased insulin sensitivity, respectively. WW and WO group tissues also had increased MSMB mRNa a tumor suppressor and decreased COX-2 mRNA, both reported to inhibit prostate tumor growth. Walnuts reduced prostate tumor growth by affecting energy metabolism along with decreased plasma IGF-1 and cholesterol. These

  7. TRAMP prostate tumor growth is slowed by walnut diets through altered IGF-1 levels, energy pathways, and cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Yokoyama, Wallace; Davis, Paul Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Dietary changes could potentially reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) prostate tumor responses to a 100 g of fat/kg diet (whole walnuts, walnut oil, and other oils; balanced for macronutrients, tocopherols [α-and γ]) for 18 weeks ad libitum were assessed. TRAMP mice (n=17 per group) were fed diets with 100 g fat from either whole walnuts (diet group WW), walnut-like fat (diet group WLF, oils blended to match walnut's fatty acid profile), or as walnut oil (diet group WO, pressed from the same walnuts as WW). Fasted plasma glucose was from tail vein blood, blood was obtained by cardiac puncture, and plasma stored frozen until analysis. Prostate (genitourinary intact [GUI]) was weighed and stored frozen at -80°C. Plasma triglyceride, lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma multianalyte levels (Myriad RBM Rat Metabolic MAP), prostate (GUI), tissue metabolites (Metabolon, Inc., Durham, NC, USA), and mRNA (by Illumina NGS) were determined. The prostate tumor size, plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), high density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol all decreased significantly (P<.05) in both WW and WO compared to WLF. Both WW and WO versus WLF showed increased insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment [HOMA]), and tissue metabolomics found reduced glucose-6-phosphate, succinylcarnitine, and 4-hydroxybutyrate in these groups suggesting effects on cellular energy status. Tissue mRNA levels also showed changes suggestive of altered glucose metabolism with WW and WO diet groups having increased PCK1 and CIDEC mRNA expression, known for their roles in gluconeogenesis and increased insulin sensitivity, respectively. WW and WO group tissues also had increased MSMB mRNa a tumor suppressor and decreased COX-2 mRNA, both reported to inhibit prostate tumor growth. Walnuts reduced prostate tumor growth by affecting energy metabolism along with decreased plasma IGF-1 and cholesterol. These effects are

  8. DNA double-strand breaks induce the expression of flavin-containing monooxygenase and reduce root meristem size in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Poyu; Umeda, Masaaki

    2015-08-01

    Plants use various mechanisms to cope with environmental stresses, which often threaten genome integrity. In Arabidopsis, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) reduce root meristem size in a SOG1-dependent manner. SOG1 is a key transcription factor controlling the response to DNA damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that treatment with the DSB inducer zeocin increased the accumulation of H2O2 in root tips. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that SOG1 directly binds to the promoter of FMO1, which encodes a flavin-containing monooxygenase and is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 in particular. Indeed, zeocin induced the expression of FMO1 in a SOG1-dependent manner, and neither the sog1 nor the fmo1 knockout mutant exhibited higher H2O2 accumulation in root tips. Consequently, both sog1 and fmo1 could tolerate exposure to zeocin, in terms of root growth and the maintenance of the meristem size. However, transgenic plants over-expressing FMO1 also accumulated H2O2 in response to zeocin exposure, suggesting that other ROS-synthesis genes are also involved in the regulation of ROS production. We conclude that SOG1-mediated regulation of ROS homeostasis plays a key role in the reduction of root meristem size under DNA stress conditions. PMID:26033196

  9. Current Laser Treatments for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The latest technical improvements in the surgical armamentarium are remarkable. In particular, advancements in the urologic field are so exceptional that we could observe the flare-up of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and holmium laser prostatectomy are the most generalized options for laser surgery of BPH, and both modalities have shown good postoperative results. In comparison to transurethral prostatectomy (TURP), they showed similar efficacy and a much lower complication rate in randomized prospective clinical trials. Even in cases of large prostates, laser prostatectomy showed comparable efficacy and safety profiles compared to open prostatectomy. From a technical point of view, PVP is considered to be an easier technique for the urologist to master. Furthermore, patients can be safely followed up in an outpatient clinic. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) mimics open prostatectomy because the adenomatous tissue is peeled off the surgical capsule in both procedures. Therefore, HoLEP shows notable volume reduction of the prostate similar to open prostatectomy with fewer blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and cost reduction regardless of prostate size. Outcomes of laser prostatectomy for BPH are encouraging but sometimes are unbalanced because safety and feasibility studies were reported mainly for PVP, whereas long-term data are mostly available for HoLEP. We need longer-term randomized clinical data to identify the reoperation rate of PVP and to determine which procedure is the ideal alternative to TURP and open prostatectomy for each patient. PMID:21165192

  10. Online Adaptive Replanning Method for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahunbay, Ergun E.; Peng Cheng; Holmes, Shannon; Godley, Andrew; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X. Allen

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To report the application of an adaptive replanning technique for prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT), consisting of two steps: (1) segment aperture morphing (SAM), and (2) segment weight optimization (SWO), to account for interfraction variations. Methods and Materials: The new 'SAM+SWO' scheme was retroactively applied to the daily CT images acquired for 10 prostate cancer patients on a linear accelerator and CT-on-Rails combination during the course of RT. Doses generated by the SAM+SWO scheme based on the daily CT images were compared with doses generated after patient repositioning using the current planning target volume (PTV) margin (5 mm, 3 mm toward rectum) and a reduced margin (2 mm), along with full reoptimization scans based on the daily CT images to evaluate dosimetry benefits. Results: For all cases studied, the online replanning method provided significantly better target coverage when compared with repositioning with reduced PTV (13% increase in minimum prostate dose) and improved organ sparing when compared with repositioning with regular PTV (13% decrease in the generalized equivalent uniform dose of rectum). The time required to complete the online replanning process was 6 {+-} 2 minutes. Conclusion: The proposed online replanning method can be used to account for interfraction variations for prostate RT with a practically acceptable time frame (5-10 min) and with significant dosimetric benefits. On the basis of this study, the developed online replanning scheme is being implemented in the clinic for prostate RT.

  11. Androgens and prostate disease

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lori A; Page, Stephanie T

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has established the anabolic benefits of testosterone (T) therapy in hypogonadal men. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding the risks of exogenous androgen use in older men and the potential for adverse effects on the prostate gland. Whether T therapy in older, hypogonadal men might worsen lower urinary tract symptoms or exacerbate, unmask, or even incite prostate cancer development has tempered enthusiasm for T therapy, while known prostatic disease has served as a relative contraindication to T therapy. Androgens are necessary for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland. However, epidemiologic studies do not consistently find a positive relationship between endogenous serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate disease. Recent data demonstrate that 5α-reductase inhibitors decrease the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that modifying androgen metabolism may have beneficial effects on prostate health, yet similar reductions in high-grade disease have not been observed, thereby questioning the true clinical benefits of these agents for chemoprevention. Knowing how to best investigate the relationship between androgens and the development of prostate disease given the lack of large, randomized trials is difficult. Accumulating data challenges the assumption that alterations in serum androgens have parallel effects within the prostate hormonal environment or change androgen-regulated processes within the gland. Long-term intervention studies are needed to truly ascertain the effects of androgen manipulation on prostate tissue and disease risk. However, available data do not support the notion that restoring serum androgens to normal physiologic ranges drives prostate disease. PMID:24407178

  12. In vivo transfer of soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 gene improves cardiac function and reduces infarct size after myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Masahiro; Tsuchida, Keiko; Hata, Tomoji; Makino, Naoki

    2004-05-01

    Increased circulating and cardiac TNF-alpha levels during myocardial ischemia have been found in both experimental animals and patients with ischemic heart disease and advanced heart failure. Soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 (sTNFR1) is an antagonist to TNF-alpha. In the present study, we examined whether sTNFR1 improves cardiac function in rats after myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to left coronary artery (LCA) ligation. Immediately after the ligation, a total of 200 microg of either the sTNFR1 or LacZ plasmid was injected into three different sites in the left ventricular wall. From 1 to 21 days after LCA ligation, TNF-alpha bioactivity in the heart was higher in rats receiving LacZ plasmid than in sham-operated rats, whereas sTNFR1 plasmid significantly suppressed the increase. The LV diastolic dimension was significantly lower, and the fractional shortening was significantly higher in rats treated with the sTNFR1 plasmid than in those treated with the LacZ plasmid. At 21 days after LCA ligation, the LV end-diastolic pressure was also significantly lower in the rats treated with the sTNFR1 plasmid. In addition, the sTNFR1 expression plasmid had significantly reduced the infarct size. In conclusion, TNF-alpha bioactivity in the heart increased during the early stage of infarction and remained elevated. This elevation seemed partially responsible for the impairment of LV function and the increased infarct size. Suppression of TNF-alpha bioactivity from the early stage of infarction with the sTNFR1 plasmid improved cardiac function and reduced infarct size. PMID:15117889

  13. Targeting Prostate Cancer Cells In Vivo Using a Rapidly Internalizing Novel Human Single-Chain Antibody Fragment

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiang; Wang, Yong; Feng, Jinjin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Lan, Xiaoli; Iyer, Arun K.; Zhang, Niu; Seo, Youngho; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Liu, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Human antibodies targeting prostate cancer cell surface epitopes may be useful for imaging and therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the tumor targeting of an internalizing human antibody fragment, a small-size platform, to provide high contrast in a mouse model of human prostate carcinoma. Methods A prostate tumor-targeting single-chain antibody fragment (scFv), UA20, along with a nonbinding control scFv, N3M2, were labeled with 99mTc and evaluated for binding and rapid internalization into human prostate tumor cells in vitro and tumor homing in vivo using xenograft models. For the in vitro studies, the labeled UA20 scFv was incubated at 37°C for 1 h with metastatic prostate cancer cells (DU145) to assess the total cellular uptake versus intracellular uptake. For the animal studies, labeled UA20 and N3M2 scFvs were administered to athymic mice implanted subcutaneously with DU145 cells. Mice were imaged with small-animal SPECT/CT with concomitant biodistribution at 1 and 3 h after injection. Results The UA20 scFv was labeled in 55%–65% yield and remained stable in phosphate buffer within 24 h. The labeled UA20 scFv was taken up specifically by prostate tumor cells. Internalization was rapid, because incubation at 37°C for less than 1 h resulted in 93% internalization of total cell-associated scFvs. In animal studies, SPECT/CT showed significant tumor uptake as early as 1 h after injection. At 3 h after injection, tumor uptake was 4.4 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g), significantly greater than all organs or tissues studied (liver, 2.7 %ID/g; other organs or tissues, <1 %ID/g), except the kidneys (81.4 %ID/g), giving tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios of 12:1 and 70:1, respectively. In contrast, the control antibody exhibited a tumor uptake of only 0.26 %ID/g, similar to that of muscle and fat. Tumor-specific targeting was evidenced by reduced tumor uptake of nearly 70% on administration of a 10-fold excess of unlabeled UA20 sc

  14. Synergistic prognostic values of cardiac sympathetic innervation with left ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial size in heart failure patients without reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Takahiro; Nakata, Tomoaki; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Yuda, Satoshi; Wakabayashi, Takeru; Kouzu, Hidemichi; Kaneko, Naofumi; Hase, Mamoru; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study tested whether cardiac sympathetic innervation assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) activity has long-term prognostic value in combination with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial size in heart failure (HF) patients without reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Design A single-centre prospective cohort study. Setting/participants With primary endpoints of cardiac death and rehospitalisation due to HF progression, 178 consecutive symptomatic HF patients with 74% men, mean age of 56 years and mean LVEF of 64.5% were followed up for 80 months. The entry criteria consisted of LVEF more than 50%, completion of predischarge clinical evaluations including cardiac MIBG and echocardiographic studies and at least more than 1-year follow-up when survived. Results Thirty-four patients with cardiac evens had larger left atrial dimension (LAD), increased LV mass index, reduced MIBG activity quantified as heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR) than did the others. Multivariable Cox analysis showed that LAD and HMR were significant predictors (HR of 1.080 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.16, p=0.044) and 0.107 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.61, p=0.012, respectively). Thresholds of HMR (1.65) and LAD (37 mm) were closely related to identification of high-risk patients. In particular, HMR was a significant determinant of cardiac events in both patients with and without LV hypertrophy. Reduced HMR with enlarged LAD or LV hypertrophy identified patients at most increased risk; overall log-rank value, 11.5, p=0.0032 for LAD and 17.5, p=0.0002, respectively. Conclusions In HF patients without reduced LV ejection fraction, impairment of cardiac sympathetic innervation is related to cardiac outcomes independently and synergistically with LA size and LV hypertrophy. Cardiac sympathetic innervation assessment can contribute to better risk-stratification in combination with evaluation of LA size and LV mass but is needed to be evaluated for establishing aetiology

  15. Hepcidin regulation in prostate and its disruption in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tesfay, Lia; Clausen, Kathryn A.; Kim, Jin W.; Hegde, Poornima; Wang, Xiaohong; Miller, Lance D.; Deng, Zhiyong; Blanchette, Nicole; Arvedson, Tara; Miranti, Cindy K.; Babitt, Jodie L.; Lin, Herbert Y.; Peehl, Donna M.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a circulating peptide hormone made by the liver that is a central regulator of systemic iron uptake and recycling. Here we report that prostate epithelial cells also synthesize hepcidin, and that synthesis and secretion of hepcidin are markedly increased in prostate cancer cells and tissue. Prostatic hepcidin functions as an autocrine hormone, decreasing cell surface ferroportin, an iron exporter, increasing intracellular iron retention, and promoting prostate cancer cell survival. Synthesis of hepcidin in prostate cancer is controlled by a unique intersection of pathways that involves BMP4/7, IL6, Wnt, and the dual BMP and Wnt antagonist, SOSTDC1. Epigenetic silencing of SOSTDC1 through methylation is increased in prostate cancer, and is associated with accelerated disease progression in prostate cancer patients. These results establish a new connection between iron metabolism and prostate cancer, and suggest that prostatic dysregulation of hepcidin contributes to prostate cancer growth and progression. PMID:25858146

  16. Do Environmental Factors Modify the Genetic Risk of Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Huang, Wen-Yi; Hayes, Richard B.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Isaacs, William B.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many SNPs influence prostate cancer risk. To what extent genetic risk can be reduced by environmental factors is unknown. Methods We evaluated effect modification by environmental factors of the association between susceptibility SNPs and prostate cancer in 1,230 incident prostate cancer cases and 1,361 controls, all white and similar ages, nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Trial. Genetic risk scores were calculated as number of risk alleles for 20 validated SNPs. We estimated the association between higher genetic risk (≥ 12 SNPs) and prostate cancer within environmental factor strata and tested for interaction. Results Men with ≥12 risk alleles had 1.98, 2.04, and 1.91 times the odds of total, advanced, and nonadvanced prostate cancer, respectively. These associations were attenuated with the use of selenium supplements, aspirin, ibuprofen, and higher vegetable intake. For selenium, the attenuation was most striking for advanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and no selenium, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.55] in nonusers and 0.99 (0.38–2.58) in users (Pinteraction = 0.031). Aspirin had the most marked attenuation for nonadvanced prostate cancer: compared with <12 alleles and nonusers, the OR for ≥12 alleles was 2.25 (1.69–3.00) in nonusers and 1.70 (1.25–2.32) in users (Pinteraction = 0.009). This pattern was similar for ibuprofen (Pinteraction = 0.023) and vegetables (Pinteraction = 0.010). Conclusions This study suggests that selenium supplements may reduce genetic risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas aspirin, ibuprofen, and vegetables may reduce genetic risk of nonadvanced prostate cancer. PMID:25342390

  17. Therapy with Recombinant T-cell Receptor Ligand reduces infarct size and infiltrating inflammatory cells in brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dziennis, Suzan; Mader, Sarah; Akiyoshi, Kozaburo; Ren, Xuefang; Ayala, Patricia; Burrows, Gregory G.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Offner, Halina

    2011-01-01

    Stroke induces a biphasic effect on the peripheral immune response that involves early activation of peripheral leukocytes followed by severe immunosuppression and atrophy of the spleen. Peripheral immune cells, including T lymphocytes, migrate to the brain and exacerbate the developing infarct. Recombinant T-cell receptor (TCR) Ligand (RTL)551 is designed as a partial TCR agonist for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-reactive T cells and has demonstrated the capacity to limit infarct volume and inflammation in brain when administered to mice undergoing middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The goal of this study was to determine if RTL551 could retain protection when given within the therapeutically relevant 4h time window currently in clinical practice for stroke patients. RTL551 was administered subcutaneously 4h after MCAO, with repeated doses every 24h until the time of euthanasia. Cell numbers were assessed in the brain, blood, spleen and lymph nodes and infarct size was measured after 24 and 96h reperfusion. RTL551 reduced infarct size in both cortex and striatum at 24h and in cortex at 96h after MCAO and inhibited the accumulation of inflammatory cells in brain at both time points. At 24h post-MCAO, RTL551 reduced the frequency of the activation marker, CD44, on T-cells in blood and in the ischemic hemisphere. Moreover, RTL551 reduced expression of the chemokine receptors, CCR5 in lymph nodes and spleen, and CCR7 in the blood and lymph nodes. These data demonstrate effective treatment of experimental stroke with RTL551 within a therapeutically relevant 4h time window through immune regulation of myelin-reactive inflammatory T-cells. PMID:21472429

  18. A population-based analysis of clustering identifies a strong genetic contribution to lethal prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Quentin; Agarwal, Neeraj; Stephenson, Robert; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is a common and often deadly cancer. Decades of study have yet to identify genes that explain much familial prostate cancer. Traditional linkage analysis of pedigrees has yielded results that are rarely validated. We hypothesize that there are rare segregating variants responsible for high-risk prostate cancer pedigrees, but recognize that within-pedigree heterogeneity is responsible for significant noise that overwhelms signal. Here we introduce a method to identify homogeneous subsets of prostate cancer, based on cancer characteristics, which show the best evidence for an inherited contribution. Methods: We have modified an existing method, the Genealogical Index of Familiality (GIF) used to show evidence for significant familial clustering. The modification allows a test for excess familial clustering of a subset of prostate cancer cases when compared to all prostate cancer cases. Results: Consideration of the familial clustering of eight clinical subsets of prostate cancer cases compared to the expected familial clustering of all prostate cancer cases identified three subsets of prostate cancer cases with evidence for familial clustering significantly in excess of expected. These subsets include prostate cancer cases diagnosed before age 50 years, prostate cancer cases with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30, and prostate cancer cases for whom prostate cancer contributed to death. Conclusions: This analysis identified several subsets of prostate cancer cases that cluster significantly more than expected when compared to all prostate cancer familial clustering. A focus on high-risk prostate cancer cases or pedigrees with these characteristics will reduce noise and could allow identification of the rare predisposition genes or variants responsible. PMID:23970893

  19. The Prostate Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  20. PROSTATE AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project offers the very distinct advantages of human relevance and enhanced susceptibility in the evaluation of environmental impacts on prostate development. The goal of this pilot project is to build a platform to evaluate the developmental origins of later life prostat...

  1. Real-Time Study of Prostate Intrafraction Motion During External Beam Radiotherapy With Daily Endorectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Stefan; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Plastaras, John P.; Deville, Curtiland; Bar Ad, Voika; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate intrafraction prostate motion during radiofrequency-guided prostate radiotherapy with implanted electromagnetic transponders when daily endorectal balloon (ERB) is used. Methods and Materials: Intrafraction prostate motion from 24 patients in 787 treatment sessions was evaluated based on three-dimensional (3D), lateral, cranial-caudal (CC), and anterior-posterior (AP) displacements. The mean percentage of time with 3D, lateral, CC, and AP prostate displacements >2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 mm in 1 minute intervals was calculated for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Correlation between the mean percentage time with 3D prostate displacement >3 mm vs. treatment week was investigated. Results: The percentage of time with 3D prostate movement >2, 3, and 4 mm increased with elapsed treatment time (p < 0.05). Prostate movement >5 mm was independent of elapsed treatment time (p = 0.11). The overall mean time with prostate excursions >3 mm was 5%. Directional analysis showed negligible lateral prostate motion; AP and CC motion were comparable. The fraction of time with 3D prostate movement >3 mm did not depend on treatment week of (p > 0.05) over a 4-minute mean treatment time. Conclusions: Daily endorectal balloon consistently stabilizes the prostate, preventing clinically significant displacement (>5 mm). A 3-mm internal margin may sufficiently account for 95% of intrafraction prostate movement for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Directional analysis suggests that the lateral internal margin could be further reduced to 2 mm.

  2. Current status of 5α-reductase inhibitors in prostate disease management.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Il; Chung, Jae Il

    2013-04-01

    The key enzyme in the androgen synthesis and androgen receptor pathways is 5α-reductase (5-AR), which occurs as three isoenzymes. Types I and II 5-ARs the most important clinically, and two different 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARIs), finasteride and dutasteride, have been developed. Several urology associations have recommended and upgraded the use of 5-ARIs for an enlarged prostate with lower urinary tract symptoms. In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events Trial, 5-ARIs reduced the incidence of low-grade prostate cancer. However, despite the documented reductions in the overall incidence of prostate cancer, 5-ARIs are at the center of a dispute. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the American Urology Association (AUA) presented clinical guidelines for the use of 5-ARIs for chemoprevention of prostate cancer in 2008. However, ASCO/AUA has eliminated these from the main "Clinical Guidelines" in 2012, because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration denied a supplemental New Drug Application for the use of dutasteride for prostate cancer chemoprevention. The 5-ARIs can also be used to manage hemospermia and prostatic hematuria, and to prevent intraoperative bleeding, although there is insufficient evidence for a standard strategy. This review summarizes the current use of 5-ARIs for prostate disease, including benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer, prostate-related bleeding, and hemospermia. PMID:23614056

  3. Recent advances in image-guided targeted prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna M; Elbuluk, Osama; Mertan, Francesca; Sankineni, Sandeep; Margolis, Daniel J; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in the United States that results in over 30,000 deaths per year. The current state of prostate cancer diagnosis, based on PSA screening and sextant biopsy, has been criticized for both overdiagnosis of low-grade tumors and underdiagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancers (Gleason score ≥7). Recently, image guidance has been added to perform targeted biopsies of lesions detected on multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans. These methods have improved the ability to detect clinically significant cancer, while reducing the diagnosis of low-grade tumors. Several approaches have been explored to improve the accuracy of image-guided targeted prostate biopsy, including in-bore MRI-guided, cognitive fusion, and MRI/transrectal ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy. This review will examine recent advances in these image-guided targeted prostate biopsy techniques. PMID:25596716

  4. Potential Activity, Size, and Structure of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities in an Exposed, Grazed and a Sheltered, Non-Grazed Mangrove Stand at the Red Sea Coast

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Melike; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2015-01-01

    After oxygen, sulfate is the most important oxidant for the oxidation of organic matter in mangrove forest soils. As sulfate reducers are poor competitors for common electron donors, their relative success depends mostly on the surplus of carbon that is left by aerobic organisms due to oxygen depletion. We therefore hypothesized that sulfate-cycling in mangrove soils is influenced by the size of net primary production, and hence negatively affected by mangrove degradation and exploitation, as well as by carbon-exporting waves. To test this, we compared quantitative and qualitative traits of sulfate-reducing communities in two Saudi-Arabian mangrove stands near Jeddah, where co-occurring differences in camel-grazing pressure and tidal exposure led to a markedly different stand height and hence primary production. Potential sulfate reduction rates measured in anoxic flow-through reactors in the absence and presence of additional carbon sources were significantly higher in the samples from the non-grazed site. Near the surface (0–2 cm depth), numbers of dsrB gene copies and culturable cells also tended to be higher in the non-grazed sites, while these differences were not detected in the sub-surface (4–6 cm depth). It was concluded that sulfate-reducing microbes at the surface were indeed repressed at the low-productive site as could be expected from our hypothesis. At both sites, sulfate reduction rates as well as numbers of the dsrB gene copies and viable cells increased with depth suggesting repression of sulfate reduction near the surface in both irrespective of production level. Additionally, sequence analysis of DNA bands obtained from DGGE gels based on the dsrB gene, showed a clear difference in dominance of sulfate-reducing genera belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria and the Firmicutes between sampling sites and depths. PMID:26733999

  5. Potential Activity, Size, and Structure of Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Communities in an Exposed, Grazed and a Sheltered, Non-Grazed Mangrove Stand at the Red Sea Coast.

    PubMed

    Balk, Melike; Keuskamp, Joost A; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J

    2015-01-01

    After oxygen, sulfate is the most important oxidant for the oxidation of organic matter in mangrove forest soils. As sulfate reducers are poor competitors for common electron donors, their relative success depends mostly on the surplus of carbon that is left by aerobic organisms due to oxygen depletion. We therefore hypothesized that sulfate-cycling in mangrove soils is influenced by the size of net primary production, and hence negatively affected by mangrove degradation and exploitation, as well as by carbon-exporting waves. To test this, we compared quantitative and qualitative traits of sulfate-reducing communities in two Saudi-Arabian mangrove stands near Jeddah, where co-occurring differences in camel-grazing pressure and tidal exposure led to a markedly different stand height and hence primary production. Potential sulfate reduction rates measured in anoxic flow-through reactors in the absence and presence of additional carbon sources were significantly higher in the samples from the non-grazed site. Near the surface (0-2 cm depth), numbers of dsrB gene copies and culturable cells also tended to be higher in the non-grazed sites, while these differences were not detected in the sub-surface (4-6 cm depth). It was concluded that sulfate-reducing microbes at the surface were indeed repressed at the low-productive site as could be expected from our hypothesis. At both sites, sulfate reduction rates as well as numbers of the dsrB gene copies and viable cells increased with depth suggesting repression of sulfate reduction near the surface in both irrespective of production level. Additionally, sequence analysis of DNA bands obtained from DGGE gels based on the dsrB gene, showed a clear difference in dominance of sulfate-reducing genera belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria and the Firmicutes between sampling sites and depths. PMID:26733999

  6. Machine Learning classification of MRI features of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment subjects to reduce the sample size in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Javier; Zajicek, John P; Ifeachor, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for objective tools to help clinicians to diagnose Alzheimer's Disease (AD) early and accurately and to conduct Clinical Trials (CTs) with fewer patients. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising AD biomarker but no single MRI feature is optimal for all disease stages. Machine Learning classification can address these challenges. In this study, we have investigated the classification of MRI features from AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and control subjects from ADNI with four techniques. The highest accuracy rates for the classification of controls against ADs and MCIs were 89.2% and 72.7%, respectively. Moreover, we used the classifiers to select AD and MCI subjects who are most likely to decline for inclusion in hypothetical CTs. Using the hippocampal volume as an outcome measure, we found that the required group sizes for the CTs were reduced from 197 to 117 AD patients and from 366 to 215 MCI subjects. PMID:22256186

  7. Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detector with reduced-size active area coupled to a tapered lensed single-mode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, Maria V.; Divochiy, Alexander; Vachtomin, Yury B.; Smirnov, Konstantin V.

    2015-05-01

    We present an ultrafast NbN Superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD) with active area of 3x3 μm2, which reveals better timing performances than a previously developed SSPD with active area of 10x10 μm2. The improved SSPD demonstrates the record timing jitter <25 ps, ultra short recovery time <2 ns, extremely low dark counts level, and high detection efficiency (DE) in a wide spectral range from visible to near-infrared. The record parameters were obtained thanks to the development of a new technique of an effective optical coupling between a detector with reduced-size active area and a standard single-mode telecommunication fiber. The advantages of a new approach are experimentally confirmed by performed electro-optical measurements of the device performances.

  8. A reduced-order integral formulation to account for the finite size effect of isotropic square panels using the transfer matrix method.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Paolo; Pompoli, Francesco; Lionti, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The transfer matrix method is a well-established prediction tool for the simulation of sound transmission loss and the sound absorption coefficient of flat multilayer systems. Much research has been dedicated to enhancing the accuracy of the method by introducing a finite size effect of the structure to be simulated. The aim of this paper is to present a reduced-order integral formulation to predict radiation efficiency and radiation impedance for a panel with equal lateral dimensions. The results are presented and discussed for different materials in terms of radiation efficiency, sound transmission loss, and the sound absorption coefficient. Finally, the application of the proposed methodology for rectangular multilayer systems is also investigated and validated against experimental data. PMID:27106325

  9. Prostate segmentation with local binary patterns guided active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images could be challenging in the presence of heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate gland, and other imaging artifacts like speckle noise, shadow regions and low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this work, we propose to enhance the texture features of the prostate region using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for the propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve an optimal segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value of 0.94+/-0.01 and a mean segmentation time of 0.68+/-0.02 seconds when validated with 70 TRUS images of 7 datasets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. Our method performs computationally efficient and accurate prostate segmentation in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  10. New Multi-target Antagonists of α1A-, α1D-Adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A Receptors Reduce Human Hyperplastic Prostate Cell Growth and the Increase of Intraurethral Pressure.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Viana, Jéssica B; Carvalho, Aline R; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocío; Chagas-Silva, Fernanda; Souza, Pedro A R; Romeiro, Luiz Antonio S; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo; Noël, François; Silva, Claudia Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by stromal cell proliferation and contraction of the periurethral smooth muscle, causing lower urinary tract symptoms. Current BPH treatment, based on monotherapy with α1A-adrenoceptor antagonists, is helpful for many patients, but insufficient for others, and recent reports suggest that stimulation of α1D-adrenoceptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)1A receptors contributes to cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the potential of three N-phenylpiperazine derivatives (LDT3, LDT5, and LDT8) as multi-target antagonists of BPH-associated receptors. The affinity and efficacy of LDTs were estimated in isometric contraction and competition-binding assays using tissues (prostate and aorta) and brain membrane samples enriched in specific on- or off-target receptors. LDTs' potency was estimated in intracellular Ca(2+) elevation assays using cells overexpressing human α1-adrenoceptor subtypes. The antiproliferative effect of LDTs on prostate cells from BPH patients was evaluated by viable cell counting and 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assays. We also determined LDTs' effects on rat intraurethral and arterial pressure. LDT3 and LDT5 are potent antagonists of α1A-, α1D-adrenoceptors, and 5-HT1A receptors (Ki values in the nanomolar range), and fully inhibited phenylephrine- and 5-HT-induced proliferation of BPH cells. In vivo, LDT3 and LDT5 fully blocked the increase of intraurethral pressure (IUP) induced by phenylephrine at doses (ED50 of 0.15 and 0.09 μg.kg(-1), respectively) without effect on basal mean blood pressure. LDT3 and LDT5 are multi-target antagonists of key receptors in BPH, and are capable of triggering both prostate muscle relaxation and human hyperplastic prostate cell growth inhibition in vitro. Thus, LDT3 and LDT5 represent potential new lead compounds for BPH treatment. PMID:26493747

  11. Studies of a novel photosensitizer palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) for the treatment of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    In this study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a novel, second generation photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide, WST09, STEBA Biotech, France), is investigated as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate and spontaneous advanced prostate cancer are used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the i.v. infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug concentration, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on the PDT efficacy were studied. The prostates and adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. Light irradiation delivered during drug infusion or within 15 min post drug infusion induced the similar extend of damages. PDT induced prostate lesions in both normal and cancerous prostate were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis and atrophy. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single 1-cm interstitial treatment, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating cancerous prostatic tissue. In conclusion, the second generation photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  12. SPARCL1 suppresses metastasis in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yuzhu; Qiu, Qingchao; Jiang, Ming; Jin, Renjie; Lehmann, Brian D; Strand, Douglas W; Jovanovic, Bojana; DeGraff, David J; Zheng, Yi; Yousif, Dina A; Case, Thomas C; Yi, Jia; Cates, Justin M; Virostko, John; He, Xiusheng; Jin, Xunbo; Hayward, Simon W; Matusik, Robert J; George, Alfred L; Yi, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Metastasis, the main cause of death from cancer, remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Experimental design Based on a pattern of reduced expression in human prostate cancer tissues and tumor cell lines, a candidate suppressor gene (SPARCL1) was identified. We used in vitro approaches to determine whether overexpression of SPARCL1 affects cell growth, migration, and invasiveness. We then employed xenograft mouse models to analyze the impact of SPARCL1 on prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis in vivo. Results SPARCL1 expression did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro. By contrast, SPARCL1 did suppress tumor cell migration and invasiveness in vitro and tumor metastatic growth in vivo, conferring improved survival in xenograft mouse models. Conclusions We present the first in vivo data suggesting that SPARCL1 suppresses metastasis of prostate cancer. PMID:23916135

  13. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D R; Tree, A C; van As, N J

    2015-05-01

    The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localised prostate cancer is now supported by a substantial body of non-randomised data, with medium-term outcomes consistent with current standard radiotherapy. The ability to deliver profoundly hypofractionated treatment, combined with the relatively low α/β ratio of prostate cancer, may result in a more favourable therapeutic ratio, presenting an opportunity for isotoxic dose escalation. Furthermore, as treatment can be given in five attendances, SBRT has the potential both to reduce costs and improve patient quality of life. However, in a treatment landscape with many competing options of broadly similar efficacy, randomised trials are essential to define the relative benefits of this approach. SBRT also has an emerging application in oligometastatic prostate cancer, with promising early outcomes for delaying disease progression and deferring the need for androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:25707911

  14. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer Past ... Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer / Prostate ...

  15. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  16. Combined image-processing algorithms for improved optical coherence tomography of prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-07-01

    Cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate gland and are responsible for erectile function. These nerves are at risk of injury during surgical removal of a cancerous prostate gland. In this work, a combination of segmentation, denoising, and edge detection algorithms are applied to time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of rat prostate to improve identification of cavernous nerves. First, OCT images of the prostate are segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. Then, a locally adaptive denoising algorithm using a dual-tree complex wavelet transform is applied to reduce speckle noise. Finally, edge detection is used to provide deeper imaging of the prostate gland. Combined application of these three algorithms results in improved signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, and automatic identification of the cavernous nerves, which may be of direct benefit for use in laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  17. LIGA20, a lyso derivative of ganglioside GM1, given orally after cortical thrombosis reduces infarct size and associated cognition deficit.

    PubMed Central

    Kharlamov, A; Zivkovic, I; Polo, A; Armstrong, D M; Costa, E; Guidotti, A

    1994-01-01

    A bilateral photochemically induced thrombotic lesion of rat sensorimotor cortex (approximately 3 mm in diameter and 25 mm3 in volume) is associated with a persistent cognition (learning and memory) deficit, which was evaluated with water maze tasks. The N-dichloroacetylsphingosine derivative of lysoGM1 (LIGA20) administered after the lesion either i.v. or per or reduces the infarct size by 30-40% and attenuates the associated cognition deficits, presumably by limiting the extent of damage of neurons at risk located in the surroundings of the infarcted core (i.e., area penumbra). The LIGA20 protection is dose and time dependent. Maximal protection is afforded by a single dose of LIGA20 of 34 mumol/kg i.v. 1 hr after lesion or by a dose of 270 mumol/kg per os when administered 1 hr and 24 hr after the lesion. The protective effect of LIGA20 can be observed when the drug is administered i.v. up to 6 hr after the lesion. The protective efficacy of the oral administration of LIGA20 is related to its physiochemical properties, which, unlike those of GM1, allow absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. LIGA20 given orally reaches the brain promptly and rapidly inserts into the neuronal membranes. Here, by an unknown molecular mechanism, LIGA20 selectively reduces the pathological amplification of Ca2+ signaling elicited by persistent stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the area penumbra. PMID:8022776

  18. Inhibition of Mas G-protein signaling improves coronary blood flow, reduces myocardial infarct size, and provides long-term cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Li, Zhuangjie; Dang, Huong; Chen, Ruoping; Liaw, Chen; Tran, Thuy-Anh; Boatman, P Douglas; Connolly, Daniel T; Adams, John W

    2012-01-01

    The Mas receptor is a class I G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed in brain, testis, heart, and kidney. The intracellular signaling pathways activated downstream of Mas are still largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the expression pattern and signaling of Mas in the heart and assessed the participation of Mas in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mas mRNA and protein were present in all chambers of human hearts, with cardiomyocytes and coronary arteries being sites of enriched expression. Expression of Mas in either HEK293 cells or cardiac myocytes resulted in constitutive coupling to the G(q) protein, which in turn activated phospholipase C and caused inositol phosphate accumulation. To generate chemical tools for use in probing the function of Mas, we performed a library screen and chemistry optimization program to identify potent and selective nonpeptide agonists and inverse agonists. Mas agonists activated G(q) signaling in a dose-dependent manner and reduced coronary blood flow in isolated mouse and rat hearts. Conversely, treatment of isolated rat hearts with Mas inverse agonists improved coronary flow, reduced arrhythmias, and provided cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury, an effect that was due, at least in part, to decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Participation of Mas in ischemia-reperfusion injury was confirmed in Mas knockout mice, which had reduced infarct size relative to mice with normal Mas expression. These results suggest that activation of Mas during myocardial infarction contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury and further suggest that inhibition of Mas-G(q) signaling may provide a new therapeutic strategy directed at cardioprotection. PMID:22003054

  19. Prevention of sepsis prior to prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Liam; Bolton, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Urosepsis is the most feared complication of transrectal prostate biopsy. The incidence may be increasing from <1% to 2%–3% in contemporary series. Historically, fluoroquinolones have been effective antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective complications but antibiotic resistance is increasing. The increase in antibiotic resistance may contribute to reported increases in urosepsis and hospitalization after transrectal biopsy. This article will review other methods clinicians may employ to reduce the incidence of infective complications after prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using literature databases PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE in August 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) criteria. Results Effective strategies to reduce infective complications after transrectal prostate biopsy include augmented prophylaxis with other antibiotics, rectal swab culture directed antibiotic prophylaxis or a transperineal biopsy approach. Needle disinfection, minimizing the number of biopsy needles and rectal disinfectants may also be of use. These methods may be of particular utility in patients with risk factors for developing urosepsis such as recent antibiotic use and overseas travel. Conclusions The scientific literature describes various techniques designed to reduce infective complications caused by prostate biopsy. Clinicians should consider incorporating these novel techniques into their contemporary practice. PMID:26981590

  20. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-09-16

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot's accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  1. Engineering chemically modified viruses for prostate cancer cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K; Weiss, G A

    2015-12-01

    Specific detection of circulating tumor cells and characterization of their aggressiveness could improve cancer diagnostics and treatment. Metastasis results from such tumor cells, and causes the majority of cancer deaths. Chemically modified viruses could provide an inexpensive and efficient approach to detect tumor cells and quantitate their cell surface biomarkers. However, non-specific adhesion between the cell surface receptors and the virus surface presents a challenge. This report describes wrapping the virus surface with different PEG architectures, including as fusions to oligolysine, linkers, spacers and scaffolded ligands. The reported PEG wrappers can reduce by >75% the non-specific adhesion of phage to cell surfaces. Dynamic light scattering verified the non-covalent attachment by the reported wrappers as increased sizes of the virus particles. Further modifications resulted in specific detection of prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA, a key prostate cancer biomarker. The approach allowed quantification of PSMA levels on the cell surface, and could distinguish more aggressive forms of the disease. PMID:26463253

  2. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot’s accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  3. Semi-automatic Segmentation for Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, S. Sara; Chng, Nick; Spadinger, Ingrid; Morris, William J.; Salcudean, Septimiu E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report and characterize a semi-automatic prostate segmentation method for prostate brachytherapy. Based on anatomical evidence and requirements of the treatment procedure, a warped and tapered ellipsoid was found suitable as the a priori 3D shape of the prostate. By transforming the acquired endorectal transverse images of the prostate into ellipses, the shape fitting problem was cast into a convex problem which can be solved efficiently. The average whole gland error between volumes created from manual and semi-automatic contours from 21 patients was 6.63±0.9%. For use in brachytherapy treatment planning, the resulting contours were modified, if deemed necessary, by radiation oncologists prior to treatment. The average whole gland volume error between the volumes computed from semi-automatic contours and those computed from modified contours, from 40 patients, was 5.82±4.15%. The amount of bias in the physicians’ delineations when given an initial semi-automatic contour was measured by comparing the volume error between 10 prostate volumes computed from manual contours with those of modified contours. This error was found to be 7.25±0.39% for the whole gland. Automatic contouring reduced subjectivity, as evidenced by a decrease in segmentation inter- and intra-observer variability from 4.65% and 5.95% for manual segmentation to 3.04% and 3.48% for semi-automatic segmentation, respectively. We characterized the performance of the method relative to the reference obtained from manual segmentation by using a novel approach that divides the prostate region into nine sectors. We analyzed each sector independently as the requirements for segmentation accuracy depend on which region of the prostate is considered. The measured segmentation time is 14±1 seconds with an additional 32±14 seconds for initialization. By assuming 1–3 minutes for modification of the contours, if necessary, a total segmentation time of less than 4 minutes is required

  4. Malignant lesions in the ventral prostate of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Marques, Silvio Fernando Guideti; Alberti, Sandra; Spadella, César Tadeu; Manzato, Antônio José; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Dizeyi, Nishtman; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by chronic diabetes in the rat ventral prostate and to establish a correlation between diabetes and the development of prostatic lesions. Male rats received alloxan (42 mg/kg b.w.) to induce diabetes. Ninety days after diabetes diagnosis, animals were sacrificed and the ventral prostate was removed and prepared for general and immunohistochemical analyses. The total area showing different types of lesions was estimated. Diabetes led to a decrease in the body and prostatic weights, as well as in testosterone levels. The prostate morphology and stereology showed high variation in the diabetic group. Some animals had light changes; the great majority had an intense epithelial atrophy; and other rats showed premalignant and malignant lesions in the prostate. Such epithelial atrophy was, in some samples, combined with chronic inflammation, similar to proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). The diabetic group also presented high incidence of prostatitis, adenocarcinoma and prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). Samples with adenocarcinoma had poorly differentiated acini with high levels of cellular proliferation and nuclear atypia. These lesions exhibited an invasive feature showing Bcl-2-positive cells and interruptions in the basement membrane. An association of PIA, PIN and adenocarcinoma was detected in one sample. Reduced androgen levels have a synergic effect to insulin dysfunction promoting negative effects in the rat prostate. Diabetic individuals had a high incidence of prostatitis, and this inflammation could stimulate the incidence of other forms of prostatic pathology. PMID:18715471

  5. Recent advances in prostate development and links to prostatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    The prostate is a branched ductal-acinar gland that is part of the male reproductive tract. Prostate development depends upon the integration of steroid hormone signals, paracrine interactions between the stromal and epithelial tissue layers, and the actions of cell autonomous factors. Several genes and signaling pathways are known to be required for one or more steps of prostate development including epithelial budding, duct elongation, branching morphogenesis, and/or cellular differentiation. Recent progress in the field of prostate development has included the application of genome-wide technologies including serial analysis of gene expression, expression profiling microarrays, and other large-scale approaches to identify new genes and pathways that are essential for prostate development. The aggregation of experimental results into online databases by organized multilab projects including the Genitourinary Developmental Molecular Atlas Project has also accelerated the understanding of molecular pathways that function during prostate development and identified links between prostate anatomy and molecular signaling. Rapid progress has also recently been made in understanding the nature and role of candidate stem cells in the developing and adult prostate. This has included the identification of putative prostate stem cell markers, lineage tracing, and organ reconstitution studies. However, several issues regarding their origin, precise nature, and possible role(s) in disease remain unresolved. Nevertheless, several links between prostatic developmental mechanisms and the pathogenesis of prostatic diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer have led to recent progress on targeting developmental pathways as therapeutic strategies for these diseases. PMID:23335485

  6. [Treatment of prostate cancer using cryoablation: a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Govorov, A V; Vasil'ev, A O; Ivanov, V Iu; Kovylina, M V; Prilepskaia, E A; Pushkar', D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the choice of tactics of treatment of the patient with prostate cancer (PCa) requires to take into account the degree of differentiation and stage of tumor, age of the patient and his somatic diseases, the risk of complications, as well as the patient's desire and physician's experience. Due to the progressive development of medical technology, interest in minimally invasive treatments for prostate cancer, such as cryoablation, interstitial brachytherapy and HIFU-therapy, has grown. Cryoablation of the prostate gland is a tissue ablation by local effects of very low temperatures and is minimally invasive, highly effective treatment for prostate cancer that can be used as the primary treatment, and in the case of tumor recurrence after radiotherapy. Focal cryoablation of the prostate allows to selectively destroy the known tumor with preservation of organ function and without reducing the quality of life of the patient. Focal therapy for prostate cancer is an alternative to radical treatment and active surveillance, occupying an intermediate position between them. Due to the lack of long-term results, focal cryoablation is an experimental type of treatment. First cryoablation of the prostate using modern equipment was carried out in Russia in March 2010, at the Department of Urology MSMSU. Since that time, we performed this procedure in 122 patients with prostate cancer; cryoablation was primary treatment in 110 patients and was used as salvage treatment in 12 patients. In most cases, the operation was performed under epidural or spinal anesthesia. According to the protocol, all the patients underwent 2 cycles of freezing and thawing under transrectal ultrasound guidance. A significant improvement of equipment for cryosurgery, the use of cryoneedles with smaller diameter, and the use of temperature sensors and catheters to warm the urethral mucosa have allowed to minimize the number of complications in comparison with other methods of treatment of

  7. Phosphodiesterase 4D Inhibitors Limit Prostate Cancer Growth Potential

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Ginny L.; Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Domenech, Maribella; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita L.; Bushman, Wade; Beebe, David J.; Marker, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) has recently been implicated as a proliferation-promoting factor in prostate cancer and is over-expressed in human prostate carcinoma. However, the effects of PDE4D inhibition using pharmacological inhibitors have not been examined in prostate cancer. These studies examined the effects of selective PDE4D inhibitors, NVP-ABE171 and cilomilast, as anti-prostate cancer therapies in both in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of PDE4D inhibitors on pathways that are critical in prostate cancer and/or downstream of cyclic AMP (cAMP) were examined. Both NVP-ABE171 and cilomilast decreased cell growth. In vitro, PDE4D inhibitors lead to decreased signaling of the sonic hedgehog (SHH), Androgen Receptor (AR), and MAPK pathways, but growth inhibition was best correlated to the sonic hedgehog pathway. PDE4D inhibition also reduced proliferation of epithelial cells induced by paracrine signaling from co-cultured stromal cells that had activated hedgehog signaling. In addition, PDE4D inhibitors decreased the weight of the prostate in wild-type mice. Prostate cancer xenografts grown in nude mice that were treated with cilomilast or NVP-ABE171 had decreased wet weight and increased apoptosis compared to vehicle treated controls. These studies suggest the pharmacological inhibition of PDE4D using small molecule inhibitors is an effective option for prostate cancer therapy. Implications PDE4D inhibitors decrease the growth of prostate cancer cells in vivo and in vitro, and PDE4D inhibition has therapeutic potential in prostate cancer. PMID:25149359

  8. Glial restricted precursor cell transplant with cyclic adenosine monophosphate improved some autonomic functions but resulted in a reduced graft size after spinal cord contusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Nout, Yvette S; Culp, Esther; Schmidt, Markus H; Tovar, C Amy; Pröschel, Christoph; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Noble, Mark D; Beattie, Michael S; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells has been shown to reduce glial scarring after spinal cord injury (SCI) and, in combination with neuronal restricted precursor (NRP) cells or enhanced expression of neurotrophins, to improve recovery of function after SCI. We hypothesized that combining GRP transplants with rolipram and cAMP would improve functional recovery, similar to that seen after combining Schwann cell transplants with increasing cAMP. A short term study, (1) uninjured control, (2) SCI+vehicle, and (3) SCI+cAMP, showed that spinal cord [cAMP] was increased 14days after SCI. We used 51 male rats subjected to a thoracic SCI for a 12-week survival study: (1) SCI+vehicle, (2) SCI+GRP, (3) SCI+cAMP, (4) SCI+GRP+cAMP, and (5) uninjured endpoint age-matched control (AM). Rolipram was administered for 2weeks after SCI. At 9days after SCI, GRP transplantation and injection of dibutyryl-cAMP into the spinal cord were performed. GRP cells survived, differentiated, and formed extensive transplants that were well integrated with host tissue. Presence of GRP cells increased the amount of tissue in the lesion; however, cAMP reduced the graft size. White matter sparing at the lesion epicenter was not affected. Serotonergic input to the lumbosacral spinal cord was not affected by treatment, but the amount of serotonin immediately caudal to the lesion was reduced in the cAMP groups. Using telemetric monitoring of corpus spongiosum penis pressure we show that the cAMP groups regained the same number of micturitions per 24hours when compared to the AM group, however, the frequency of peak pressures was increased in these groups compared to the AM group. In contrast, the GRP groups had similar frequency of peak pressures compared to baseline and the AM group. Animals that received GRP cells regained the same number of erectile events per 24hours compared to baseline and the AM group. Since cAMP reduced the GRP transplant graft, and some modest positive

  9. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets). PMID:21563790

  10. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 after infarct initiation reduces mortality, infarct size and left ventricular remodeling: experimental evidence and proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Up-regulation of HO-1 by genetic manipulation or pharmacological pre-treatment has been reported to provide benefits in several animal models of myocardial infarction (MI). However, its efficacy following MI initiation (as in clinical reality) remains to be tested. Therefore, this study investigated whether HO-1 over-expression, by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) administered after LAD ligation, is still able to improve functional and structural changes in left ventricle (LV) in a rat model of 4-week MI. Methods A total of 144 adult male Wistar rats were subjected to either left anterior coronary artery ligation or sham-operation. The effect of CoPP treatment (5 mg/kg i.p. at the end of the surgical session and, then, once a week for 4 weeks) was evaluated on the basis of survival, electro- and echocardiography, plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), endothelin-1 and prostaglandin E2, coronary microvascular reactivity, MI size, LV wall thickness and vascularity. Besides, the expression of HO-1 and connexin-43 in different LV territories was assessed by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results CoPP induced an increased expression of HO-1 protein with >16 h delay. CoPP treatment significantly reduced mortality, MI size, BNP concentration, ECG alterations, LV dysfunction, microvascular constriction, capillary rarefaction and restored connexin-43 expression as compared to untreated MI. These functional and structural changes were paralleled by increased HO-1 expression in all LV territories. HO activity inhibition by tin-mesoporphyrin abolished the differences between CoPP-treated and untreated MI animals. Conclusions This is the first report demonstrating the putative role of pharmacological induction of HO-1 following coronary occlusion to benefit infarcted and remote territories, leading to better cardiac function in a 4-week MI outcome. PMID:24708733

  11. Impact of interseed attenuation and tissue composition for permanent prostate implants

    SciTech Connect

    Carrier, Jean-Francois; Beaulieu, Luc; Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Roy, Rene

    2006-03-15

    The purpose is to evaluate the impact of interseed attenuation and prostate composition for prostate treatment plans with {sup 125}I permanent seed implants using the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The effect of seed density (number of seeds per prostate unit volume) is specifically investigated. The study focuses on treatment plans that were generated for clinical cases. For each plan, four different dose calculation techniques are compared: TG-43 based calculation, superposition MC, full MC with water prostate, and full MC with realistic prostate tissue. The prostate tissue description is from the ICRP report 23 (W. S. Snyer, M. J. Cook, E. S. Nasset, L. R. Karkhausen, G. P. Howells, and I. H. Tipton, ''Report of the task group on reference man,'' Technical Report 23, International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1974). According to the comparisons, the seed density has an influence on interseed attenuation. A plan with a typical low seed density (42 0.6 mCi seeds in a 26 cm{sup 3} prostate) suffers a 1.2% drop in the CTV D{sub 90} value due to interseed attenuation. A drop of 3.0% is calculated for a higher seed density (75 0.3 mCi seeds, same prostate). The influence of the prostate composition is similar for all seed densities and prostate sizes. The difference between MC simulations in water and MC simulations in prostate tissue is between 4.4% and 4.8% for the D{sub 90} parameter. Overall, the effect on D{sub 90} is ranging from 5.8% to 12.8% when comparing clinically approved TG-43 and MC simulations in prostate tissue. The impact varies from one patient to the other and depends on the prostate size and the number of seeds. This effect can reach a significant level when reporting correlations between clinical effect and deposited dose.

  12. MRI of the Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD. The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. It is located in front of the rectum ...

  13. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of treatment The chance that treatment can cure your cancer or help you in other ways With stage ... III prostate cancer, the main goal is to cure the cancer by treating it and keeping it from coming ...

  14. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... into your prostate. They were inserted through your perineum (the area between the scrotum and the anus). ... feel the urge to urinate more often. Your perineum may be tender and bruised. You can use ...

  15. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Erection problems (impotence) No symptom improvement Passing semen back into your bladder instead of out through ... Whelan JP, Goeree L. Systematic review and meta-analysis of transurethral resection of the prostate versus minimally ...

  16. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the more likely he is to develop the disease. Physician: Come on back, first room. Narrator: Most ... cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on one end of the spectrum there ...

  17. Prostatic blue nevus.

    PubMed

    Anderco, Denisa; Lazăr, Elena; Tăban, Sorina; Miclea, Fl; Dema, Alis

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with no significant personal urological history. The clinical and ultrasound examination revealed a prostatic gland with increased volume and homogenous appearance. After transurethral resection, multiples gray-brown-blackish prostatic chips were obtained, which could be confused with a malignant melanoma. The histological routine examination in conjunction with the histochemical (Fontana-Masson) and immunohistochemical (S100, HMB45) reactions established the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus. The presence of melanin in prostatic tissue is an unusual aspect, being encountered three distinct lesions: blue nevus, melanosis and malignant melanoma. Recognition and correct classification of each of these three entities is fundamental, concerning the clinical and prognosis implications. PMID:20809037

  18. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Ilya; Thompson, R H; Dong, Haidong; Krco, Christopher; Kwon, Eugene D

    2015-06-01

    Immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant neoplasms has made significant progress over the last 20 years. Multiple molecular targets and clinical agents have been developed recently, particularly in the field of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Sipuleucel-T is currently the only FDA approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer. PSA-TRICOM (Prostvac) currently has a phase III randomized trial underway after a phase II trial showed an improvement in overall survival. Interestingly, both these agents showed improvement in overall survival with no measurable change in disease state, leading to significant controversy as the utility of these agents in prostate cancer. Ipilimumab revealed a benefit for a sub-cohort of men in a post-docetaxel group and is currently undergoing investigation in a pre-docetaxel group. There are a number of other targets such as PD-1 which have shown effectiveness in other neoplasms that will likely be investigated in the future for use in prostate cancer. PMID:25894495

  19. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... when cancer has spread to the bone. External beam radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays pointed ... radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer. Proton beams target the tumor precisely, so there is less ...

  20. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor. A prostate biopsy is done in your ... suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that ...

  1. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... abnormal and raises the index of suspicion that cancer may be present. Narrator: While the use of ... examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it ...

  2. Prostate cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment of prostate cancer varies depending on the stage of the cancer (i.e., spread) and may include surgical removal, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal manipulation or a combination of these treatments.

  3. Prostate radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... day. Avoid orange juice, grapefruit juice, and other citrus juices if they make the bowel or bladder ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prostate Cancer Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  4. Chronic prostatitis: management strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adam B; Macejko, Amanda; Taylor, Aisha; Nadler, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has redefined prostatitis into four distinct entities. Category I is acute bacterial prostatitis. It is an acute prostatic infection with a uropathogen, often with systemic symptoms of fever, chills and hypotension. The treatment hinges on antimicrobials and drainage of the bladder because the inflamed prostate may block urinary flow. Category II prostatitis is called chronic bacterial prostatitis. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of documented urinary tract infections with the same uropathogen and causes pelvic pain, urinary symptoms and ejaculatory pain. It is diagnosed by means of localization cultures that are 90% accurate in localizing the source of recurrent infections within the lower urinary tract. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis comprises NIH category IV. This entity is, by definition, asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally during the evaluation of infertility or prostate cancer. The clinical significance of category IV prostatitis is unknown and it is often left untreated. Category III prostatitis is called chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). It is characterized by pelvic pain for more than 3 of the previous 6 months, urinary symptoms and painful ejaculation, without documented urinary tract infections from uropathogens. The syndrome can be devastating, affecting 10-15% of the male population, and results in nearly 2 million outpatient visits each year. The aetiology of CP/CPPS is poorly understood, but may be the result of an infectious or inflammatory initiator that results in neurological injury and eventually results in pelvic floor dysfunction in the form of increased pelvic muscle tone. The diagnosis relies on separating this entity from chronic bacterial prostatitis. If there is no history of documented urinary tract infections with a urinary tract pathogen, then cultures should be taken when patients are symptomatic. Prostatic localization cultures, called the

  5. Prostate radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... later may include: Problems keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may ... radiation treatment is over. Problems with having an erection are often not seen right away. They may ...

  6. Critical review of lasers in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Gravas, Stavros; Bachmann, Alexander; Reich, Oliver; Roehrborn, Claus G; Gilling, Peter J; De La Rosette, Jean

    2011-04-01

    • Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia has challenged transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) due to advances in laser technology, better understanding of tissue-laser interactions and growing clinical experience. • Various lasers have been introduced including neodymium: yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG), holmium (Ho):YAG, potassium titanyl phosphate:YAG, thulium(Tm) and diode laser. Based on the different wave-length dependent laser-prostatic tissue interactions, the main techniques are coagulation, vaporization, resection and enucleation. • The present review aims to help urologists to distinguish and to critically evaluate the role of different laser methods in the treatment by using an evidence-based approach. It also details further evidence for use in specific patient groups (in retention, on anticoagulation) and addresses the issues of cost and learning curve. • Coagulation-based techniques have been abandoned; holmium ablation/resection of the prostate has been superseded by the enucleation technique Ho-laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). The short-term efficacy of the emerging laser treatments such as diode and Tm prostatectomy has been suggested by low quality studies. HoLEP and photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) represent valid clinical alternatives to TURP. HoLEP is the most rigorously analysed laser technique with durable efficacy for any prostate size and low early and late morbidity. PVP has grown in acceptance and popularity but long-term results from high quality studies are pending. PMID:21438974

  7. Rapid Surface Cooling by ThermoSuit System Dramatically Reduces Scar Size, Prevents Post-Infarction Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling, and Improves Cardiac Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wangde; Herring, Michael J; Hale, Sharon L; Kloner, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Background The long-term effects of transient hypothermia by the non-invasive ThermoSuit apparatus on myocardial infarct (MI) scar size, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and LV function were assessed in rat MI model. Methods and Results Rats were randomized to normothermic or hypothermic groups (n=14 in each group) and subjected to 30 minutes coronary artery occlusion and 6 weeks of reperfusion. For hypothermia therapy, rats were placed into the ThermoSuit apparatus at 2 minutes after the onset of coronary artery occlusion, were taken out of the apparatus when the core body temperature reached 32°C (in ≈8 minutes), and were then allowed to rewarm. After 6 weeks of recovery, rats treated with hypothermia demonstrated markedly reduced scar size (expressed as % of left ventricular area: hypothermia, 6.5±1.1%; normothermia, 19.4±1.7%; P=1.3×10−6); and thicker anterior LV wall (hypothermia, 1.57±0.09 mm; normothermia, 1.07±0.05 mm; P=3.4×10−5); decreased postmortem left ventricular volume (hypothermia, 0.45±0.04 mL; normothermia, 0.6±0.03 mL; P=0.028); and better LV fractional shortening by echocardiography (hypothermia, 37.2±2.8%; normothermia, 18.9±2.3%; P=0.0002) and LV ejection fraction by LV contrast ventriculography (hypothermia, 66.8±2.3%; normothermia, 56.0±2.0%; P=0.0014). Conclusions Rapid, transient non-invasive surface cooling with the ThermoSuit apparatus in the acute phase of MI decreased scar size by 66.5%, attenuated adverse post-infarct left ventricular dilation and remodeling, and improved cardiac function in the chronic phase of experimental MI. PMID:26116692

  8. Monopolar versus bipolar transurethral resection of prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia: Operative outcomes and surgeon preferences, a real-world scenario

    PubMed Central

    Madduri, Vijay Kumar Sarma; Bera, Malay Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Monopolar transurethral resection of prostate (M-TURP) is considered the gold standard for the management of bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Its newly introduced modification, bipolar TURP (B-TURP), promises to overcome its most prominent shortcomings, namely bleeding and dilutional hyponatremia. Literature is conflicting regarding merits of B-TURP over M-TURP. Aims: To find a difference, if any, in perioperative outcomes between M-TURP and B-TURP in a real-wold setting. Settings and Design: Prospective nonrandomized study. Subjects and Methods: Operative outcomes of patients undergoing M-TURP and B-TURP from February 2014 to October 2015 were compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Categorical data were compared by Fischer exact test and numerical data were compared by independent samples Mann–Whitney U-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean size of prostate operated by bipolar technology was significantly greater than those operated by monopolar technology (38.12 ± 9.59 cc vs. 66.49 ± 22.95 cc; P < 0.001). The mean fall in postoperative serum sodium concentration was 0.99 ± 0.76 mEq/L for the B-TURP group as compared to 3.60 ± 2.89 mEq/L for the M-TURP group (P < 0.001). The mean drop in postoperative hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.28) was statistically insignificant, even though larger glands were operated by B-TURP. There were three instances of the transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome in the M-TURP group whereas no TUR syndrome occurred in the B-TURP group. Conclusions: In spite of various contrary viewpoints in literature, surgeons prefer to operate on larger prostates using bipolar technology. B-TURP definitely reduces the incidence of bleeding and dilutional hyponatremia, making it a contender to replace M-TURP as the new gold standard. PMID:27453650

  9. Phycobilisome-Deficient Strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Have Reduced Size and Require Carbon-Limiting Conditions to Exhibit Enhanced Productivity1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Smith, David J.; Bombelli, Paolo; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing excessive light harvesting in photosynthetic organisms may increase biomass yields by limiting photoinhibition and increasing light penetration in dense cultures. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 harvests light via the phycobilisome, which consists of an allophycocyanin core and six radiating rods, each with three phycocyanin (PC) discs. Via targeted gene disruption and alterations to the promoter region, three mutants with two (pcpcT→C) and one (ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C) PC discs per rod or lacking PC (olive) were generated. Photoinhibition and chlorophyll levels decreased upon phycobilisome reduction, although greater penetration of white light was observed only in the PC-deficient mutant. In all strains cultured at high cell densities, most light was absorbed by the first 2 cm of the culture. Photosynthesis and respiration rates were also reduced in the ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C and olive mutants. Cell size was smaller in the pcpcT→C and olive strains. Growth and biomass accumulation were similar between the wild-type and pcpcT→C under a variety of conditions. Growth and biomass accumulation of the olive mutant were poorer in carbon-saturated cultures but improved in carbon-limited cultures at higher light intensities, as they did in the ΔCpcC1C2:pcpcT→C mutant. This study shows that one PC disc per rod is sufficient for maximal light harvesting and biomass accumulation, except under conditions of high light and carbon limitation, and two or more are sufficient for maximal oxygen evolution. To our knowledge, this study is the first to measure light penetration in bulk cultures of cyanobacteria and offers important insights into photobioreactor design. PMID:24760817

  10. Angiosarcoma of the Prostate Gland following Brachytherapy for Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arjun; Patnaik, Mrinal M.; Naina, Harris V.

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer in men, but only a handful of cases of prostatic angiosarcoma have been reported in the literature. Prior radiation therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for angiosarcoma. The increasing practice of prostate cancer screening and the use of radiation therapy for management of prostatic adenocarcinoma will likely lead to more cases of prostatic angiosarcoma. Diagnosis is made by tissue sampling. Optimal management of these aggressive tumors remains to be defined and outcomes are poor with a high 1-year mortality. Primary care physicians and urologists should be aware of this rare entity and refer these patients to specialist centers where they can be managed by a multidisciplinary team. We report a case of angiosarcoma of the prostate gland diagnosed in a male presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms 5 years after brachytherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma. PMID:26889128

  11. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Babaian, R.J.; Lamki, L.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The development of hybridoma technology has increased research efforts and clinical applications in the area of radioimmunodetection. Despite the many investigative antibodies directed against prostatic tissue or prostate cancer cell lines, only two have been tested in clinical trials. A 111In-labeled antibody directed against prostate-specific antigen, the best available serum tumor marker for prostate cancer, has shown poor sensitivity in limited clinical radioimmunoimaging trials. Monoclonal antibodies against prostatic acid phosphatase have shown better imaging results, particularly at higher antibody doses (greater than or equal to 40 mg). The limitations of this antibody include the poor results in detecting soft tissue lesions, including the primary lesion; the development of human antimouse antibodies in 50% of the patients at doses greater than or equal to 40 mg; the expense of the antibody; and the fact that better results are currently attainable by other less expensive imaging modalities. If and when a more suitable antibody or fragment is developed, the prospect of improved staging and new treatments using immunologic conjugates carrying therapeutic agents may become realities. Until such time, prostatic cancer will be staged with other currently available imaging modalities and conventional therapies with their limitations will remain state of the art. 56 references.

  12. Neural Cell Adhesion Protein CNTN1 Promotes the Metastatic Progression of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Judy; Ojo, Diane; Kapoor, Anil; Lin, Xiaozeng; Pinthus, Jehonathan H; Aziz, Tariq; Bismar, Tarek A; Wei, Fengxiang; Wong, Nicholas; De Melo, Jason; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Major, Pierre; Wood, Geoffrey; Peng, Hao; Tang, Damu

    2016-03-15

    Prostate cancer metastasis is the main cause of disease-related mortality. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying prostate cancer metastasis is critical for effective therapeutic intervention. In this study, we performed gene-expression profiling of prostate cancer stem-like cells (PCSC) derived from DU145 human prostate cancer cells to identify factors involved in metastatic progression. Our studies revealed contactin 1 (CNTN1), a neural cell adhesion protein, to be a prostate cancer-promoting factor. CNTN1 knockdown reduced PCSC-mediated tumor initiation, whereas CNTN1 overexpression enhanced prostate cancer cell invasion in vitro and promoted xenograft tumor formation and lung metastasis in vivo. In addition, CNTN1 overexpression in DU145 cells and corresponding xenograft tumors resulted in elevated AKT activation and reduced E-cadherin (CDH1) expression. CNTN1 expression was not readily detected in normal prostate glands, but was clearly evident on prostate cancer cells in primary tumors and lymph node and bone metastases. Tumors from 637 patients expressing CNTN1 were associated with prostate cancer progression and worse biochemical recurrence-free survival following radical prostatectomy (P < 0.05). Collectively, our findings demonstrate that CNTN1 promotes prostate cancer progression and metastasis, prompting further investigation into the mechanisms that enable neural proteins to become aberrantly expressed in non-neural malignancies. PMID:26795349

  13. A novel approach for evaluation of prostate deformation and associated dosimetric implications in IGRT of the prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Mayyas, Essa E-mail: ortonc@comcast.net; Kim, Jinkoo; Kumar, Sanath; Liu, Chang; Wen, Ning; Movsas, Benjamin; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Prostate deformation is assumed to be a secondary correction and is typically ignored in the planning target volume (PTV) margin calculations. This assumption needs to be tested, especially when planning margins are reduced with daily image-guidance. In this study, deformation characteristics of the prostate and seminal vesicles were determined, and the dosimetric impact on treatment plans with different PTV margins was investigated. Methods: Ten prostate cancer patients were retrospectively selected for the study, each with three fiducial markers implanted in the prostate. Two hundred CBCT images were registered to respective planning CT images using a B-spline-based deformable image registration (DIR) software. A manual bony anatomy-based match was first applied based on the alignment of the pelvic bones and fiducial landmarks. DIR was then performed. For each registration, deformation vector fields (DVFs) of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SVs) were quantified using deformation-volume histograms. In addition, prostate rotation was evaluated and compared with prostate deformation. For a patient demonstrating small and large prostate deformations, target coverage degradation was analyzed in each of three treatment plans with PTV margins of 10 mm (6 mm at the prostate/rectum interface), as well as 5, and 3 mm uniformly. Results: Deformation of the prostate was most significant in the anterior direction. Maximum prostate deformation of greater than 10, 5, and 3 mm occurred in 1%, 17%, and 76% of the cases, respectively. Based on DVF-histograms, DVF magnitudes greater than 5 and 3 mm occurred in 2% and 27% of the cases, respectively. Deformation of the SVs was most significant in the posterior direction, and it was greater than 5 and 3 mm in 7.5% and 44.9% of the cases, respectively. Prostate deformation was found to be poorly correlated with rotation. Fifty percent of the cases showed rotation with negligible deformation and 7% of the cases showed

  14. Prostate Contouring Variation: Can It Be Fixed?

    SciTech Connect

    Khoo, Eric L.H.; Schick, Karlissa; Plank, Ashley W.; Poulsen, Michael; Wong, Winnie W.G.; Middleton, Mark; Martin, Jarad M.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess whether an education program on CT and MRI prostate anatomy would reduce inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variation among experienced radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Three patient CT and MRI datasets were selected. Five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate for each patient on CT first, then MRI, and again between 2 and 4 weeks later. Three education sessions were then conducted. The same contouring process was then repeated with the same datasets and oncologists. The observer variation was assessed according to changes in the ratio of the encompassing volume to intersecting volume (volume ratio [VR]), across sets of target volumes. Results: For interobserver variation, there was a 15% reduction in mean VR with CT, from 2.74 to 2.33, and a 40% reduction in mean VR with MRI, from 2.38 to 1.41 after education. A similar trend was found for intraobserver variation, with a mean VR reduction for CT and MRI of 9% (from 1.51 to 1.38) and 16% (from 1.37 to 1.15), respectively. Conclusion: A well-structured education program has reduced both inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variations. The impact was greater on MRI than on CT. With the ongoing incorporation of new technologies into routine practice, education programs for target contouring should be incorporated as part of the continuing medical education of radiation oncologists.

  15. Influence of volumes of prostate, rectum, and bladder on treatment planning CT on interfraction prostate shifts during ultrasound image-guided IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Nandanuri M. S.; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Sartin, William; Maiorano, Samuel; Modena, Jennifer; Mazur, Andrej; Osian, Adrian; Sood, Brijmohan; Ravi, Akkamma; Sampath, Seshadri; Lange, Christopher S.

    2009-12-15

    required for patients with distended or empty rectum on planning CT to reduce rectal toxicity in the case of empty rectum and to minimize geometric miss of prostate.

  16. Ejaculatory Function After Permanent {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huyghe, Eric Delannes, Martine; Wagner, Fabien M.; Delaunay, Boris; Nohra, Joe; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Shut-Yee, J. Yeung; Plante, Pierre; Soulie, Michel; Thonneau, Patrick; Bachaud, Jean Marc

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: Ejaculatory function is an underreported aspect of male sexuality in men treated for prostate cancer. We conducted the first detailed analysis of ejaculatory function in patients treated with permanent {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Of 270 sexually active men with localized prostate cancer treated with permanent {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy, 241 (89%), with a mean age of 65 years (range, 43-80), responded to a mailed questionnaire derived from the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire regarding ejaculatory function. Five aspects of ejaculatory function were examined: frequency, volume, dry ejaculation, pleasure, and pain. Results: Of the 241 sexually active men, 81.3% had conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy; however, the number of patients with rare/absent ejaculatory function was double the pretreatment number (p < .0001). The latter finding was correlated with age (p < .001) and the preimplant International Index of Erectile Function score (p < .001). However, 84.9% of patients with maintained ejaculatory function after implantation reported a reduced volume of ejaculate compared with 26.9% before (p < .001), with dry ejaculation accounting for 18.7% of these cases. After treatment, 30.3% of the patients experienced painful ejaculation compared with 12.9% before (p = .0001), and this was associated with a greater number of implanted needles (p = .021) and the existence of painful ejaculation before implantation (p < .0001). After implantation, 10% of patients who continued to be sexually active experienced no orgasm compared with only 1% before treatment. in addition, more patients experienced late/difficult or weak orgasms (p = .001). Conclusion: Most men treated with brachytherapy have conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy. However, most of these men experience a reduction in volume and a deterioration in orgasm.

  17. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  18. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Newly Diagnosed Staging the Disease Issues ... you care about has recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer, this section will help guide you through the ...

  19. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  20. Hyaluronan in aged collagen matrix increases prostate epithelial cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Vernon, Robert B.; Chan, Christina K.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Wight, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the prostate, which is comprised primarily of collagen, becomes increasingly disorganized with age, a property that may influence the development of hyperplasia and cancer. Collageous ECM extracted from the tails of aged mice exhibits many characteristics of collagen in aged tissues, including the prostate. When polymerized into a 3-dimensional (3D) gel, these collagen extracts can serve as models for the study of specific cell-ECM interactions. In the present study, we examined the behaviors of human prostatic epithelial cell lines representing normal prostate epithelial cells (PEC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-1), and adenocarcinoma (LNCaP) cultured in contact with 3D gels made from collagen extracts of young and aged mice. We found that proliferation of PEC, BPH-1, and LNCaP cells were all increased by culture on aged collagen gels relative to young collagen gels. In examining age-associated differences in the composition of the collagen extracts, we found that aged and young collagen had a similar amount of several collagen-associated ECM components, but aged collagen had a much greater content of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) than young collagen. The addition of HA (of similar size and concentration to that found in aged collagen extracts) to cells placed in young collagen elicited significantly increased proliferation in BPH-1 cells, but not in PEC or LNCaP cells, relative to controls not exposed to HA. Of note, histochemical analyses of human prostatic tissues showed significantly higher expression of HA in BPH and prostate cancer stroma relative to stroma of normal prostate. Collectively, these results suggest that changes in ECM involving increased levels of HA contribute to the growth of prostatic epithelium with aging. PMID:25124870

  1. Myths and fallacies in permanent prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S

    2003-09-30

    Because there are competing modalities to treat early-stage prostate cancer, the constraints or deficiencies of one modality may be erroneously applied to others. Some valid concerns arising from surgery and external beam therapy, which have been falsely transferred to brachytherapy, are constraints based on patient age, clinical and pathological parameters, patient weight, and size of prostate. Although the constraints have a valid basis in one modality, knowledge of the origin and mechanism of the constraint has provided a means to circumvent or overcome it in brachytherapy. Failures as measured by biochemical no-evidence of disease (bNED) survival may be attributed to extracapsular disease extension. Such extension often expresses itself in surrogate parameters such as a high percentage of positive biopsies, perineural invasion, or the dominant pattern in Gleason score histology. Failures due to such factors may be prevented by implanting with consistent extracapsular dosimetric margins. Some presumed limitations on prostate brachytherapy originated from data on patients implanted in the first few years the procedure was being developed. Most of the urinary morbidity and a significant part of the decrease in sexual function observed may be avoided by controlling the dosimetry along the prostatic and membranous urethra and at the penile bulb.

  2. Perineal interstital laser of the prostate (PILP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Thomas O.; Greschner, Martin; Luppold, Tilmann; Rassweiler, Jens; Alken, Peter

    1994-12-01

    The use of thermal energy in order to cause damage to obstructing prostate tissue is a recently introduced alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P). In order to assess the efficacy of perineal interstitial laser treatment, we report on 22 patients (operative high risk category), with a 6 month follow up, who have been treated with the Dornier ITT laser fiber. Treatment protocol designates the perineal approach for side lobe hypertrophy, transurethral approach for middle lobe hypertrophy, and the continuous application of decreasing increments of energy within specific time intervals. Results were evaluated by flow rate, residual urine, symptom score, reduction in prostate size, and cystomanometric studies. The overall success rate was 61%, flow rate improvement > 15 ml/sec in 50%, mean symptom score reduction from 26 to 7, residual urine decrease to < 50 ml within 12 weeks in 40%, and prostate volume decrease in 47%. Interstitial laser coagulation can be considered a safe alternative to TUR-P in a select number of patients, however a larger series of patients must be treated before the efficacy of the method is finally established.

  3. Strategies for prevention of ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy infections

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane D; Raman, Jay D

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male patients and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in males. To confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer, an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy is necessary to obtain prostate tissue sufficient for histologic analysis by pathologists. Ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy can be accomplished via a transperineal or transrectal approach. The latter biopsy technique involves placing an ultrasound probe into the rectum, visualizing the prostate located just anterior to it, and then obtaining 12–14 biopsies. Each biopsy core requires piercing of the rectal mucosa which can inherently contribute to infection. The increasing infectious risk of prostate needle biopsy requires refinement and re-evaluation of the process in which the technique is performed. Such processes include (but are not limited to) prebiopsy risk stratification, antibiotic prophylaxis, use of rectal preparations, and equipment processing. In the subsequent review, we highlight the current available information on different strategies to reduce the risk of infection following prostate needle biopsy. PMID:27468242

  4. Greater trunk muscle torque reduces postmenopausal bone loss at the spine independently of age, body size, and vitamin D receptor genotype in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Iki, M; Saito, Y; Dohi, Y; Kajita, E; Nishino, H; Yonemasu, K; Kusaka, Y

    2002-10-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is affected by muscle strength. Recently, vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype was reported to affect muscle strength as well as BMD in Caucasian women. The aim of this study was to evaluate independent effects of muscle strength of the trunk on BMD at the spine and its change over time in Japanese women. We followed 119 healthy postmenopausal women for 4 years and determined the change in BMD at the spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isometric peak torque and isokinetic concentric and eccentric peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were measured. The VDR genotype was determined by the PCR-RFLP method based on Apa I and Taq I endonuclease digestions defining the absence/existence of the restriction sites as A/a and T/t, respectively. The subjects were 60.1 +/- 6.6 years old, had 0.808 +/- 0.159 g/cm2 of BMD at baseline. The mean annual change in BMD (delta BMD) was -5.6 +/- 10.4 mg/cm2 during the follow-up period. The VDR genotype, defined by Taq I enzyme, significantly related to BMD at baseline and delta BMD showing that the subjects with genotype TT had the lowest BMD at baseline and lost bone most rapidly. However, its effect on muscle strength was not significant. All the trunk muscle strength indices showed significant positive effects on delta BMD, that is, the effects in increasing the gain and reducing the loss of BMD, after controlling for the effects of age, body size and the VDR genotype. The eccentric trunk extensor torque had a significant positive effect on delta BMD in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of this torque was the greatest among all the muscle indices. The net effect of the trunk extensor torque on delta BMD was greater than that of the VDR genotype. The trunk muscle strength was suggested to affect BMD change independently of age, body size, and the VDR genotype. Exercise programs to increase the strength of the trunk muscles would be beneficial for the prevention of osteoporosis regardless of

  5. Effect of noise reducing components on nose landing gear stability for a mid-size aircraft coupled with vortex shedding and freeplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eret, Petr; Kennedy, John; Bennett, Gareth J.

    2015-10-01

    In the pursuit of quieter aircraft, significant effort has been dedicated to airframe noise identification and reduction. The landing gear is one of the main sources of airframe noise on approach. The addition of noise abatement technologies such as fairings or wheel hub caps is usually considered to be the simplest solution to reduce this noise. After touchdown, noise abatement components can potentially affect the inherently nonlinear and dynamically complex behaviour (shimmy) of landing gear. Moreover, fairings can influence the aerodynamic load on the system and interact with the mechanical freeplay in the torque link. This paper presents a numerical study of nose landing gear stability for a mid-size aircraft with low noise solutions, which are modelled by an increase of the relevant model structural parameters to address a hypothetical effect of additional fairings and wheel hub caps. The study shows that the wheel hub caps are not a threat to stability. A fairing has a destabilising effect due to the increased moment of inertia of the strut and a stabilising effect due to the increased torsional stiffness of the strut. As the torsional stiffness is dependent on the method of attachment, in situations where the fairing increases the torsional inertia with little increase to the torsional stiffness, a net destabilising effect can result. Alternatively, it is possible that for the case that if the fairing were to increase equally both the torsional stiffness and the moment of inertia of the strut, then their effects could be mutually negated. However, it has been found here that for small and simple fairings, typical of current landing gear noise abatement design, their implementation will not affect the dynamics and stability of the system in an operational range (Fz ≤ 50 000 N, V ≤ 100 m/s). This generalisation is strictly dependent on size and installation methods. The aerodynamic load, which would be influenced by the presence of fairings, was modelled

  6. α-Spinasterol from Melandrium firmum attenuates benign prostatic hyperplasia in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Kyoung, Hwangbo; Seo, Chang-Seob; Son, Jong-Keun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2014-06-01

    Spinasterol, a biologically active compound, exhibits a number of pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antiulcerogenic and anticarcinogenic activity, and originates from the aerial parts of Aster scaber Thunb (Asteraceae). The present study investigated whether α-spinasterol isolated from Melandrium firmum Rohrbach could prevent benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight rats following castration. A negative control group received subcutaneous injections of corn oil. Treatments were administered orally 1 h prior to TP injection. All the rats were sacrificed at the scheduled termination time and their prostates were removed, cleaned and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Additional histopathological examinations were conducted, and the levels of TP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and prostate were measured. TP significantly increased the prostate size ratio (P<0.01), and DHT and testosterone levels in the serum and prostate. The TP-induced increase was significantly inhibited in α-spinasterol-treated rats when compared with the negative controls (P<0.05). In addition, histopathological examination demonstrated that α-spinasterol treatment suppressed TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. It is concluded that α-spinasterol can prevent TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia and may be beneficial in the management of BPH. PMID:24682042

  7. MYC and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cheryl M.; Bieberich, Charles J.; Dang, Chi V.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer, the majority of which is adenocarcinoma, is the most common epithelial cancer affecting a majority of elderly men in Western nations. Its manifestation, however, varies from clinically asymptomatic insidious neoplasms that progress slowly and do not threaten life to one that is highly aggressive with a propensity for metastatic spread and lethality if not treated in time. A number of somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations occur in prostate cancer cells. Some of these changes, such as loss of the tumor suppressors PTEN and p53, are linked to disease progression. Others, such as ETS gene fusions, appear to be linked more with early phases of the disease, such as invasion. Alterations in chromosome 8q24 in the region of MYC have also been linked to disease aggressiveness for many years. However, a number of recent studies in human tissues have indicated that MYC appears to be activated at the earliest phases of prostate cancer (e.g., in tumor-initiating cells) in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a key precursor lesion to invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. The initiation and early progression of prostate cancer can be recapitulated in genetically engineered mouse models, permitting a richer understanding of the cause and effects of loss of tumor suppressors and activation of MYC. The combination of studies using human tissues and mouse models paints an emerging molecular picture of prostate cancer development and early progression. This picture reveals that MYC contributes to disease initiation and progression by stimulating an embryonic stem cell–like signature characterized by an enrichment of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and by repressing differentiation. These insights pave the way to potential novel therapeutic concepts based on MYC biology. PMID:21779461

  8. Beetroot juice reduces infarct size and improves cardiac function following ischemia-reperfusion injury: Possible involvement of endogenous H2S.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Fadi N; Sturz, Gregory R; Yin, Chang; Rehman, Shabina; Hoke, Nicholas N; Kukreja, Rakesh C; Xi, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Ingestion of high dietary nitrate in the form of beetroot juice (BRJ) has been shown to exert antihypertensive effects in humans through increasing cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. Since enhanced cGMP protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury through upregulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), we tested the hypothesis that BRJ protects against I/R injury via H2S. Adult male CD-1 mice received either regular drinking water or those dissolved with BRJ powder (10 g/L, containing ∼ 0.7 mM nitrate). Seven days later, the hearts were explanted for molecular analyses. Subsets of mice were subjected to I/R injury by occlusion of the left coronary artery for 30 min and reperfusion for 24 h. A specific inhibitor of H2S producing enzyme--cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), DL-propargylglycine (PAG, 50 mg/kg) was given i.p. 30 min before ischemia. Myocardial infarct size was significantly reduced in BRJ-fed mice (15.8 ± 3.2%) versus controls (46.5 ± 3.5%, mean ± standard error [SE], n = 6/group, P < .05). PAG completely blocked the infarct-limiting effect of BRJ. Moreover, BRJ significantly preserved ventricular function following I/R. Myocardial levels of H2S and its putative protein target--vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were significantly increased by BRJ intake, whereas CSE mRNA and protein content did not change. Interestingly, the BRJ-induced cardioprotection was not associated with elevated blood nitrate-nitrite levels following I/R nor induction of cardiac peroxiredoxin 5, a mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme previously linked to nitrate-induced cardioprotection. We conclude that BRJ ingestion protects against post-I/R myocardial infarction and ventricular dysfunction possibly through CSE-mediated endogenous H2S generation. BRJ could be a promising natural and inexpensive nutraceutical supplement to reduce cardiac I/R injury in patients. PMID:25361774

  9. Salinomycin inhibits prostate cancer growth and migration via induction of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Ketola, K; Hilvo, M; Hyötyläinen, T; Vuoristo, A; Ruskeepää, A-L; Orešič, M; Kallioniemi, O; Iljin, K

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have shown that a sodium ionophore monensin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth. A structurally related compound to monensin, salinomycin, was recently identified as a putative cancer stem cell inhibitor. Methods: The growth inhibitory potential of salinomycin was studied in a panel of prostate cells. To get insights into the mechanism of action, a variety of assays such as gene expression and steroid profiling were performed in salinomycin-exposed prostate cancer cells. Results: Salinomycin inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but did not affect non-malignant prostate epithelial cells. Salinomycin impacted on prostate cancer stem cell functions as evidenced by reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and the fraction of CD44+ cells. Moreover, salinomycin reduced the expression of MYC, AR and ERG, induced oxidative stress as well as inhibited nuclear factor-κB activity and cell migration. Furthermore, profiling steroid metabolites revealed increased levels of oxidative stress-inducing steroids 7-ketocholesterol and aldosterone and decreased levels of antioxidative steroids progesterone and pregnenolone in salinomycin-exposed prostate cancer cells. Conclusion: Our results indicate that salinomycin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and migration by reducing the expression of key prostate cancer oncogenes, inducing oxidative stress, decreasing the antioxidative capacity and cancer stem cell fraction. PMID:22215106

  10. Steroid hormone receptors in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalid, B A; Nurshireen, A; Rashidah, M; Zainal, B Y; Roslan, B A; Mahamooth, Z

    1990-06-01

    One hundred and six prostatic tissue samples obtained from transurethral resection were analysed for androgen and estrogen receptors. In 62 of these, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were also assayed. Steroid receptors were assayed using single saturation dose 3H-labelled ligand assays. Ninety percent of the 97 prostatic hyperplasia tissues and six of the nine prostatic carcinoma tissues were positive for androgen receptors. Estrogen receptors were only present in 19% and 33% respectively. Progesterone receptors were present in 70% of the tissues, but glucocorticoid receptors were present in only 16% of prostatic hyperplasia and none in prostatic carcinoma. PMID:1725553

  11. The diet as a cause of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William G; Demarzo, Angelo M; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Asymptomatic prostate inflammation and prostate cancer have reached epidemic proportions among men in the developed world. Animal model studies implicate dietary carcinogens, such as the heterocyclic amines from over-cooked meats and sex steroid hormones, particularly estrogens, as candidate etiologies for prostate cancer. Each acts by causing epithelial cell damage, triggering an inflammatory response that can evolve into a chronic or recurrent condition. This milieu appears to spawn proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) lesions, a type of focal atrophy that represents the earliest of prostate cancer precursor lesions. Rare PIA lesions contain cells which exhibit high c-Myc expression, shortened telomere segments, and epigenetic silencing of genes such as GSTP1, encoding the π-class glutathione S-transferase, all characteristic of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer. Subsequent genetic changes, such as the gene translocations/deletions that generate fusion transcripts between androgen-regulated genes (such as TMPRSS2) and genes encoding ETS family transcription factors (such as ERG1), arise in PIN lesions and may promote invasiveness characteristic of prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Lethal prostate cancers contain markedly corrupted genomes and epigenomes. Epigenetic silencing, which seems to arise in response to the inflamed microenvironment generated by dietary carcinogens and/or estrogens as part of an epigenetic "catastrophe" affecting hundreds of genes, persists to drive clonal evolution through metastatic dissemination. The cause of the initial epigenetic "catastrophe" has not been determined but likely involves defective chromatin structure maintenance by over-exuberant DNA methylation or histone modification. With dietary carcinogens and estrogens driving pro-carcinogenic inflammation in the developed world, it is tempting to speculate that dietary components associated with decreased prostate cancer risk, such as intake of

  12. Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Suzanne; Garrett, Bernie; Bottorff, Joan L.; McKenzie, Michael; Han, Christina S.; Ogrodniczuk, John S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand prostate cancer (PCa) specialists’ views about prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs), a volunteer sample of Canada-based PCa specialists (n = 150), including urologists (n = 100), radiation oncologists (n = 40), and medical oncologists (n = 10) were surveyed. The 56-item questionnaire used in this study included six sets of attitudinal items to measure prostate cancer specialists’ beliefs about positive and negative influences of PCSGs, reasons for attending PCSGs, the attributes of effective PCSGs, and the value of face-to-face and web-based PCSGs. In addition, an open-ended question was included to invite additional input from participants. Results showed that PCSGs were positively valued, particularly for information sharing, education and psychosocial support. Inclusivity, privacy, and accessibility were identified as potential barriers, and recommendations were made for better marketing PCSGs to increase engagement. Findings suggest prostate cancer specialists highly valued the role and potential benefits of face-to-face PCSGs. Information provision and an educational role were perceived as key benefits. Some concerns were expressed about the ability of web-based PCSGs to effectively engage and educate men who experience prostate cancer. PMID:25061087

  13. Hi-tech of the prostate: interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hypertrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschter, Rolf; Hofstetter, Alfons G.; Hessel, Stefan F. F.; Keiditsch, Ernst; Rothenberger, Karl-Heinz; Schneede, Peter; Frank, Klaus H.

    1992-06-01

    We report on the new technique of interstitial laser coagulation of the prostate (ILCP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Basic experiments by use of a Nd:YAG laser in combination with a newly designed fiber tip homogeneously distributing the laser irradiation have been performed in potato, muscle, liver, and surgically removed human BPH-tissue to determine the volume of coagulation. The coagulation zone surrounding the probe was well defined and homogeneous. The size was dependent on laser power and irradiation time. Carbonization was never present except in darker tissues irradiated with high energy. Volume and time resolved measurements correlated well with the size of coagulation. 10 W and 5 minutes, for example, resulted in a coagulation zone of 17 X 15 mm. Comparable results have been seen in in-vivo experiments in surgically exposed canine prostates. Specimen for macroscopic and microscopic examination were taken immediately after treatment and after 5 and 35 days. The well demarked coagulation necrosis of the early stage resulted in cystic degeneration and fibrosis in the later stages. This was combined with shrinkage and reduction in volume. The urothelium of the urethra, the external sphincter and the rectum showed no damage. Until now, 15 patients suffering from obstructive symptoms due to BPH have been treated with interstitial laser coagulation. The probes were inserted from the perineum into the center of each lateral lobe of the prostate by transrectal ultrasound guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic control. Dependent on the size of the prostate irradiation, time was 5 to 10 minutes per lobe at a power setting of 5 to 10 W.

  14. Fatty acid activated PPARγ promotes tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells by up regulating VEGF via PPAR responsive elements of the promoter

    PubMed Central

    Forootan, Farzad S.; Forootan, Shiva S.; Gou, Xiaojun; Yang, Jin; Liu, Bichong; Chen, Danqing; Fayi, Majed Saad Al; Al-Jameel, Waseem; Rudland, Philip S.; Hussain, Syed A.; Ke, Youqiang

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, it is suggested that the excessive amount of fatty acids transported by FABP5 may facilitate the malignant progression of prostate cancer cells through a FABP5-PPARγ-VEGF signal transduction axis to increase angiogenesis. To further functionally characterise the FABP5-PPARγ-VEGF signal transduction pathway, we have, in this work, investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in its tumorigenicity promoting role in prostate cancer. Suppression of PPARγ in highly malignant prostate cancer cells produced a significant reduction (up to 53%) in their proliferation rate, invasiveness (up to 89%) and anchorage-independent growth (up to 94%) in vitro. Knockdown of PPARγ gene in PC3-M cells by siRNA significantly reduced the average size of tumours formed in nude mice by 99% and tumour incidence by 90%, and significantly prolonged the latent period by 3.5 fold. Results in this study combined with some previous results suggested that FABP5 promoted VEGF expression and angiogenesis through PPARγ which was activated by fatty acids transported by FABP5. Further investigations showed that PPARγ up-regulated VEGF expression through acting with the PPAR-responsive elements in the promoter region of VEGF gene in prostate cancer cells. Although androgen can modulate VEGF expression through Sp1/Sp3 binding site on VEGF promoter in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, this route, disappeared as the cells gradually lost their androgen dependency; was replaced by the FABP5-PPARγ-VEGF signalling pathway. These results suggested that the FABP5-PPARγ-VEGF signal transduction axis, rather than androgen modulated route, may be a more important novel therapeutic target for angiogenesis-suppression treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer. PMID:26814431

  15. A Double Blind, Randomized, Neoadjuvant Study of the Tissue effects of POMx Pills in Men with Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Carducci, Michael; Kroeger, Nils; Partin, Alan; Rao, Jian-yu; Jin, Yusheng; Kerkoutian, Susan; Wu, Hong; Li, Yunfeng; Creel, Patricia; Mundy, Kelly; Gurganus, Robin; Fedor, Helen; King, Serina A.; Zhang, Yanjun; Heber, David; Pantuck, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranates slow prostate cancer xenograft growth and prolong PSA doubling times in single-arm human studies. Pomegranates’ effects on human prostate tissue are understudied. We hypothesized orally administered pomegranate extract (POMx; PomWonderful, Los Angeles, CA) would lower tissue 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress biomarker. 70 men were randomized to 2 tablets POMx or placebo daily up to 4 weeks prior to radical prostatectomy. Tissue was analyzed for intra-prostatic Urolithin A, a pomegranate metabolite, benign and malignant 8-OHdG, and cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, and Ki67. Primary end-point was differences in 8-OHdG powered to detect 30% reduction. POMx was associated with 16% lower benign tissue 8-OHdG (p=0.095), which was not statistically significant. POMx was well-tolerated with no treatment-related withdrawals. There were no differences in baseline clinicopathological features between arms. Urolithin A was detected in 21/33 patient in the POMx group vs. 12/35 in the placebo group (p=0.031). Cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, Ki67, and serum PSA changes were similar between arms. POMx prior to surgery results in pomegranate metabolite accumulation in prostate tissues. Our primary end-point in this modest-sized short-term trial was negative. Future larger longer studies are needed to more definitely test whether POMx reduces prostate oxidative stress as well as further animal testing to better understand the multiple mechanisms through which POMx may alter prostate cancer biology. PMID:23985577

  16. Dietary pterostilbene is a novel MTA1-targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic agent in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangfen; Rimando, Agnes M.; Lage, Janice M.; Lewin, Jack R.; Atfi, Azeddine; Zhang, Xu; Levenson, Anait S.

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of the epigenetic modifier metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) is associated with aggressive human prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine MTA1- targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of pterostilbene, a natural potent analog of resveratrol, in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer. Here, we show that high levels of MTA1 expression in Pten-loss prostate cooperate with key oncogenes, including c-Myc and Akt among others, to promote prostate cancer progression. Loss-of-function studies using human prostate cancer cells indicated direct involvement of MTA1 in inducing inflammation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of MTA1 by pterostilbene resulted in decreased proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. This restrained prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) formation in prostate-specific Pten heterozygous mice and reduced tumor development and progression in prostate-specific Pten-null mice. Our findings highlight MTA1 as a key upstream regulator of prostate tumorigenesis and cancer progression. More significantly, it offers pre-clinical proof for pterostilbene as a promising lead natural agent for MTA1-targeted chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy to curb prostate cancer. PMID:26943043

  17. Evaluation of holmium laser for transurethral deroofing of severe and multiloculated prostatic abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan Ho; Ku, Ja Yoon; Park, Young Joo; Lee, Jeong Zoo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to evaluate the use of a holmium laser for transurethral deroofing of a prostatic abscess in patients with severe and multiloculated prostatic abscesses. Materials and Methods From January 2011 to April 2014, eight patients who were diagnosed with prostatic abscesses and who underwent transurethral holmium laser deroofing at Pusan National University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Results Multiloculated or multifocal abscess cavities were found on the preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan in all eight patients. All patients who underwent transurethral holmium laser deroofing of a prostatic abscess had successful outcomes, without the need for secondary surgery. Of the eight patients, seven underwent holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for the removal of residual adenoma. Markedly reduced multiloculated abscess cavities were found in the follow-up CT in all patients. No prostatic abscess recurrence was found. Transient stress urinary incontinence was observed in three patients. The stress urinary incontinence subsided within 3 weeks in two patients and improved with conservative management within 2 months in the remaining patient. Conclusions Transurethral holmium laser deroofing of prostatic abscesses ensures successful drainage of the entire abscess cavity. Because we resolved the predisposing conditions of prostatic abscess, such as bladder outlet obstruction and prostatic calcification, by simultaneously conducting HoLEP, there was no recurrence of the prostatic abscesses after surgery. We recommend our method in patients requiring transurethral drainage. PMID:25685303

  18. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  19. Changing trends of prostate cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Pu, Y S; Chiang, H S; Lin, C C; Huang, C Y; Huang, K H; Chen, J

    2004-06-01

    Although Asian people have the lowest incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in the world, these rates have risen rapidly in the past two decades in most Asian countries. Prostate cancer has become one of the leading male cancers in some Asian countries. In 2000, the age-adjusted incidence was over 10 per 100000 men in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines and Israel. Although some of the increases may result from enhanced detection, much of the increased incidence may be associated with westernization of the lifestyle, with increasing obesity and increased consumption of fat. The differences in incidences between native Americans and Asian immigrants are getting smaller, reflecting a possible improvement of diagnostic efforts and changes of environmental risk factors in Asian immigrants. Nevertheless, the huge variations in incidences among ethnic groups imply that there are important genetic risk factors. The stage distributions of prostate cancer in Asian populations are still unfavorable compared to those of Western developed countries. However, a trend towards diagnosing cancer with more favorable prognosis is seen in most Asian countries. Both genetic and environmental risk factors responsible for elevated risks in Asian people are being identified, which may help to reduce prostate cancer incidence in a chemopreventive setting. PMID:15672937

  20. The natural history of benign prostatic hyperplasia: what have we learned in the last decade?

    PubMed

    Kirby, R S

    2000-11-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) frequently has a significant detrimental impact on a patient's quality of life. If the disease is left untreated, it may progress in severity, leading to recurrent bladder infections, bladder calculi, and acute urinary retention (AUR), necessitating surgical treatment. The Forth Valley, Scotland, study reported that 14% of men aged 40 to 50 years have BPH. This increases to 43% of men >60 years old. BPH has been shown to be nearly as prevalent as hypertension and diabetes among patients seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction. The effects of BPH on quality of life include lack of sleep, anxiety, reduced mobility, interference with leisure activities and usual daily activities, and a compromised sense of well-being. Three symptoms are associated with an increased risk of AUR in men with BPH: a reduction in the force of the urinary stream, a sensation of incomplete bladder emptying, and an enlarged prostate gland on digital rectal examination. Age is a strong independent risk factor for the development of AUR. Transurethral resection of the prostate was more effective than watchful waiting in preventing AUR, as shown in the Veteran's Affairs Cooperative Study. Data from the Olmsted County study revealed that urinary flow decreases and prostate size increases with advanced age. This study also showed that lower urinary tract symptoms have a negative impact on parameters of physical and mental aspects of health. More recently, studies have shown that medical treatment with 5alpha-reductase inhibitors and possibly also alpha-blockers may alter the natural history and progression of BPH. PMID:11074195

  1. Prostatic abscess: Objective assessment of the treatment approach in the absence of guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Elshal, Ahmed M.; Abdelhalim, Ahmed; Barakat, Tamer S.; Shaaban, Atallah A.; Nabeeh, Adel; Ibrahiem, El-Housseiny

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the outcome of the drainage procedure used for treating a prostatic abscess, and to propose a treatment algorithm to reduce the morbidity and the need for re-treatment. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who were admitted and received an interventional treatment for a prostatic abscess. All baseline relevant variables were reviewed. Details of the intervention, laboratory data, duration of hospital stay, follow-up data and re-admissions were recorded. Results A prostatic abscess was diagnosed in 42 patients; 30 were treated by transurethral deroofing and 12 by transrectal needle aspiration. The median (range) size of the abscess was 4.5 (2–23) mL and 2.7 (1.5–7.1) mL in the deroofing and aspiration groups, respectively (P = 0.2). In half of the cases multiple abscesses were evident on imaging before the intervention. The median (range) hospital stay after deroofing and aspiration was 2 (1–11) and 1 (1–19) days, respectively (P = 0.04). Perioperative complications occurred only in the deroofing group, in which two patients developed septic shock requiring intensive care (Clavien 4) and one developed epididymo-orchitis (Clavien 2). There were two late complications in the deroofing group, in which one patient developed a urethral stricture that required endoscopic urethrotomy (Clavien 3a) and one developed a urethral diverticulum and urinary incontinence that required diverticulectomy and a bulbo-urethral sling procedure (Clavien 3b). A urethro-rectal fistula developed after aspiration in one patient. Re-treatment for the abscess was indicated in two (7%) patients in the deroofing group, which was treated by aspiration. Conclusion Transrectal needle aspiration for a prostatic abscess, when done for properly selected cases, could minimise the morbidity of the drainage procedure. PMID:26019960

  2. ICRAC controls the rapid androgen response in human primary prostate epithelial cells and is altered in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Holzmann, Christian; Kilch, Tatiana; Kappel, Sven; Armbrüster, Andrea; Jung, Volker; Stöckle, Michael; Bogeski, Ivan; Schwarz, Eva C.; Peinelt, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Labelled 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding experiments have shown that expression levels of (yet unidentified) membrane androgen receptors (mAR) are elevated in prostate cancer and correlate with a negative prognosis. However, activation of these receptors which mediate a rapid androgen response can counteract several cancer hallmark functions such as unlimited proliferation, enhanced migration, adhesion and invasion and the inability to induce apoptosis. Here, we investigate the downstream signaling pathways of mAR and identify rapid DHT induced activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in primary cultures of human prostate epithelial cells (hPEC) from non-tumorous tissue. Consequently, down-regulation of Orai1, the main molecular component of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels results in an almost complete loss of DHT induced SOCE. We demonstrate that this DHT induced Ca2+ influx via Orai1 is important for rapid androgen triggered prostate specific antigen (PSA) release. We furthermore identified alterations of the molecular components of CRAC channels in prostate cancer. Three lines of evidence indicate that prostate cancer cells down-regulate expression of the Orai1 homolog Orai3: First, Orai3 mRNA expression levels are significantly reduced in tumorous tissue when compared to non-tumorous tissue from prostate cancer patients. Second, mRNA expression levels of Orai3 are decreased in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145 when compared to hPEC from healthy tissue. Third, the pharmacological profile of CRAC channels in prostate cancer cell lines and hPEC differ and siRNA based knock-down experiments indicate changed Orai3 levels are underlying the altered pharmacological profile. The cancer-specific composition and pharmacology of CRAC channels identifies CRAC channels as putative targets in prostate cancer therapy. PMID:24240085

  3. Prostate PDT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We provide a review of the current state of dosimetry in prostate photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT of the human prostate has been performed with a number of different photosensitizers and with a variety of dosimetry schemes. The simplest clinical light dose prescription is to quantify the total light energy emitted per length (J/cm) of cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) for patients treated with a defined photosensitizer injection per body weight. However, this approach does not take into account the light scattering by tissue and usually underestimates the local light fluence rate, and consequently the fluence. Techniques have been developed to characterize tissue optical properties and light fluence rates in vivo using interstitial measurements during prostate PDT. Optical methods have been developed to characterize tissue absorption and scattering spectra, which in turn provide information about tissue oxygenation and drug concentration. Fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify drug concentrations and photobleaching rates of photosensitizers. PMID:25046988

  4. Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis of the Prostate: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Amparo; Johnstone, Ryan; Siddiqi, Fawaz

    2016-07-01

    Prostate cancer is associated with vertebral metastasis in up to 10% of patients; however, intradural spinal cord metastases (ISCM) are much less frequent. We present the clinical and histopathological findings of a patient with ISCM arising from prostate. A PubMed literature search for ISCM from the prostate yielded a total of nine additional cases. ISCM of the prostate occurs at a late stage of systemic disease and the prognosis is generally poor. Decompressive surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy may help reduce intractable pain and stabilize neurological symptoms, thereby improving quality of life. PMID:27160485

  5. Development of the men's prostate awareness church training: church-based workshops for African American men.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Darlene R; Holt, Cheryl L; Whitehead, Tony L; Atkinson, Nancy L; Le, Daisy; Wang, Min Qi; Slade, Jimmie L; Muwwakkil, Bettye; Williams, Ralph; Schulz, Emily; Naslund, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of a spiritually based intervention to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening through African American churches. The intervention used spiritually themed health messages, incorporated women as supportive health partners, and included a health information technology component. The Men's Prostate Awareness Church Training Project followed a community-based participatory research process to develop educational materials, and training for 40 community health advisors to implement the 4-part prostate health workshop series that will be implemented in 20 churches. Implications are discussed for designing culturally relevant interventions to reduce prostate cancer disparities impacting African American men. PMID:23718958

  6. The use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for the prevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eun-mi; El-Ayass, Walid; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2010-07-01

    The use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors has been studied not only in benign prostatic hyperplasia, but as a chemopreventive strategy in prostate cancer. Both finasteride and dutasteride