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Sample records for reduces augmentation index

  1. Long-term intervention with Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milk reduces augmentation index in hypertensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jauhiainen, T; Rönnback, M; Vapaatalo, H; Wuolle, K; Kautiainen, H; Groop, P-H; Korpela, R

    2010-01-01

    Background: The milk casein-derived biologically active tripeptides, isoleucyl-prolyl-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro) and valyl-prolyl-proline (Val-Pro-Pro), have documented antihypertensive effect probably related to reduced angiotensin formation. It has been suggested that these tripeptides may reduce arterial stiffness and improve endothelial function. Our aim was to evaluate whether the milk-based drink containing Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro influence arterial stiffness, measured as augmentation index (AIx), and endothelial function in man. Methods: In a double-blind parallel group intervention study, 89 hypertensive subjects received daily peptide milk containing a low dose of tripeptides (5 mg/day) for 12 weeks and a high dose (50 mg/day) for the following 12 weeks, or a placebo milk drink to titrate the dose–response effect. Arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse wave analysis at the beginning and end of each intervention period. Endothelial function was tested by examining pulse wave reflection response to sublingual nitroglycerin and salbutamol inhalation. Blood pressure was measured by using office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement. Results: At the end of the second intervention period, AIx decreased significantly in the peptide group compared with the placebo group (peptide group −1.53% (95% confidence interval (CI) −2.95 to −0.12), placebo group 1.20% (95% CI 0.09–2.32), P=0·013). No change in endothelial function index was observed (peptide group 0.02 (95% CI −0.06 to 0.08), placebo group 0.04 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.12), P=0.85). There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of the peptide and placebo treatment on office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusions: Long-term treatment with Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk containing bioactive peptides reduces arterial stiffness expressed as AIx in hypertensive subjects. PMID:20145666

  2. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  3. Aortic augmentation index in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Antoniazzi, Valeria; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Aortic augmentation index (AIx) is used to investigate arterial stiffness. The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) demonstrate a higher AIx and also evaluated several related factors. In 97 patients with PAD, identified by ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI ≤ 0.9), and 97 controls (ABPI ≥ 0.91< 1.4), AIx (%) was determined using tonometry of the radial artery. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in characteristics of age, sex, height, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, and heart rate. AIx was higher in patients with PAD (32 ± 9 vs 28 ± 9; P = .001). In multivariate regression analysis, AIx was independently associated with heart rate (β = -0.40, P = .0005). This study showed that AIx increased in patients with PAD and that heart rate is a determinant of AIx. Further studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological and clinical importance of AIx in patients with PAD. PMID:25228305

  4. Does visual augmented feedback reduce local dynamic stability while walking?

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Daniel; Hamacher, Dennis; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Augmented feedback is frequently used in gait training to efficiently correct specific gait patterns in patients with different disorders. The patients use this external augmented feedback to align actual movements in a way that predefined gait characteristics can be achieved. Voluntary changes of gait characteristics are reported to reduce local dynamic stability (LDS) which in turn is associated with increased risk of falling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the instantaneous effect of visual feedback, provided to help patients to correct frontal plane pelvis and trunk movements, on the LDS of pelvis and trunk. Kinematic gait data was captured in ten women with gait disorders. The effect of visual feedback on LDS, quantified with the largest Lyapunov exponent, of walking was examined. We found a significant decreased LDS (e.g. pelvis: p=.009) in our subjects when they were using visual augmented feedback. Our data suggest that the use of visual augmented feedback causes less stable gait patterns indicating a reduced ability to respond to small perturbations which might increase risk of falling. Therefore, researchers or clinicians who aim to correct gait patterns through real time based external augmented feedback should consider the potential negative effect on gait stability. It should be evaluated if the possible increased fall risk provoked by visual feedback exceeds possible increases in fall risk induced by conventional gait-retraining interventions. The external validity of the study is limited because of the low sample size and inhomogeneous group characteristics. Thus, further studies including homogeneous cohorts are required. PMID:26296676

  5. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-M.; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-15

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is n{sub s} > or approx. 1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to n{sub s}=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  6. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  7. Augmenting data rate performance for higher order modulation in triangular index profile multicore fiber interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Jitendra K.; Priye, Vishnu; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A triangular profile multicore fiber (MCF) optical interconnect (OI) is investigated to augment performance that typically degrades at high data rates for higher order modulation in a short reach transmission system. Firstly, probability density functions (PDFs) variation with inter-core crosstalk is calculated for 8-core MCF OI with different index profile in the core and it was observed that the triangular profile MCF OI is the most crosstalk tolerant. Next, symbol error probability (SEP) for higher order quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal due to inter-core crosstalk is analytically obtained and their dependence on typical characteristic parameters are examined. Further, numerical simulations are carried out to compare the error performance of QPSK for step index and triangular index MCF OI by generating eye diagram at 40 Gbps per channel. Finally, it is shown that MCF OI with triangular index profile supporting QPSK has double spectral efficiency with tolerable trade off in SEP as compared with those of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) at high data rates which is scalable up to 5 Tbps.

  8. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m2, had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab® device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens® algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for “24-hour”, “awake”, and “asleep” periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  9. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H.; Deveaux, Don D.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (−7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by −5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by −4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  10. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeanie; Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H; Deveaux, Don D; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (-7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by -5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by -4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  11. Wearable system for non-invasive and continuous monitoring central aortic pressure curve and augmentation index.

    PubMed

    Krivoshei, Andrei; Lamp, Jürgen; Min, Mart; Uuetoa, Tiina; Uuetoa, Hasso; Annus, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a non-invasive method and system for a long-term and continuous monitoring of the central aortic pressure (CAP) waveform and the augmentation index (AI). The CAP curve is estimated from the measured radial electrical bio-impedance (EBI) using spectral domain transfer functions (TF), which are established on the basis of data analysis during clinical experiments. Experiments were carried out on 3 volunteers by now. During the experiment, a 0.5 mg sublingual nitroglycerin tablet was administrated to each volunteer. Both, the reconstructed CAP curve and the AI have very good correlation with the results obtained by the SphygmoCor system. But, in opposite to the traditional tonometry based CAP curve and AI estimation methods, the proposed one is more convenient to use and allows continuous and long-term personalized monitoring of the CAP curve and of the AI. PMID:23739366

  12. Elevated Aortic Augmentation Index in Children Following Fontan Palliation: Evidence of Stiffer Arteries?

    PubMed

    Bhat, Deepti P; Gupta, Pooja; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2015-08-01

    Children born with a functional single ventricle who undergo Fontan palliation are prone to early pump failure. Whether they develop early arterial stiffness with resultant increase in afterload is not well known. We hypothesized that the aortic stiffness is higher in pediatric Fontan patients when compared to healthy controls. A prospective study was conducted at the Children's Hospital of Michigan. Twenty-two Fontan patients (aged 6-21 years) were compared with 22 healthy controls (aged 9-17 years) selected from children referred to our clinic who had normal cardiac anatomy and function on the echocardiogram. Aortic stiffness was assessed noninvasively by measuring the aortic augmentation index (AAI) using applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor, Atcor, IL). AAI was calculated as AP/PP where augmentation pressure (AP) is the increase in aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) and pulse pressure (PP) is the difference between aortic systolic and diastolic BP. Ten patients (45 %) had hypoplastic left ventricle, and 11 (50 %) had undergone aortic arch surgery. The median AAI was significantly higher in Fontan patients when compared to controls (12.5, IQR 4.8, 17.3 vs 0, IQR -6.3, 5.8; p = 0.0003). History of aortic arch surgery and single ventricle morphology did not have a significant impact on AAI. Pediatric patients who undergo Fontan palliation have significantly higher AAI, a marker of aortic stiffness and increased afterload, compared to healthy controls. Larger longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate the possible contribution of elevated AAI on pump failure in these patients. PMID:25832849

  13. Daily Liquorice Consumption for Two Weeks Increases Augmentation Index and Central Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Leskinen, Miia H.; Hautaniemi, Elina J.; Tahvanainen, Anna M.; Koskela, Jenni K.; Päällysaho, Marika; Tikkakoski, Antti J.; Kähönen, Mika; Kööbi, Tiit; Niemelä, Onni; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively. Methods Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290–370 mg) with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls. Results Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P<0.05), and increased extracellular volume by 0.5 litres (P<0.05 versus controls). Also augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 7% to 11%, 95% CI for change 0.3-7.5, P<0.05) and aortic pulse pressure (by 4 mmHg, 95% CI 1-7, P<0.05) were elevated indicating increased wave reflection from the periphery. In contrast, peripheral (−3/−0.3 mmHg) and central blood pressure (−2/−0.5 mmHg), aortic pulse pressure (−1 mmHg), and augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 9% to 7%) decreased numerically but not statistically significantly without changes in extracellular volume in the control group. Heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and pulse wave velocity did not differ between the groups. Conclusions Two weeks of daily liquorice consumption increased extracellular volume, amplified pressure wave reflection from the periphery, and elevated central systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2006-002065-39 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702 PMID:25153328

  14. How to reduce workload--augmented reality to ease the work of air traffic controllers.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; König, Christina; Bruder, Ralph; Bergner, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In the future the air traffic will rise--the workload of the controllers will do the same. In the BMWi research project, one of the tasks is, how to ensure safe air traffic, and a reasonable workload for the air traffic controllers. In this project it was the goal to find ways how to reduce the workload (and stress) for the controllers to allow safe air traffic, esp. at huge hub-airports by implementing augmented reality visualization and interaction. PMID:22316878

  15. Risk Stratification of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Using Aortic Augmentation Index

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Marianne; Husmann, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Central augmentation index (cAIx) is an indicator for vascular stiffness. Obstructive and aneurysmatic vascular disease can affect pulse wave propagation and reflection, causing changes in central aortic pressures. Aim To assess and compare cAIx in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and / or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods cAIx was assessed by radial applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) in a total of 184 patients at a tertiary referral centre. Patients were grouped as having PAD only, AAA only, or both AAA and PAD. Differences in cAIx measurements between the three patient groups were tested by non-parametric tests and stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis to investigate associations with obstructive or aneurysmatic patterns of vascular disease. Results In the study sample of 184 patients, 130 had PAD only, 20 had AAA only, and 34 patients had both AAA and PAD. Mean cAIx (%) was 30.5 ± 8.2 across all patients. It was significantly higher in females (35.2 ± 6.1, n = 55) than males (28.4 ± 8.2, n = 129), and significantly higher in patients over 80 years of age (34.4 ± 6.9, n = 22) than in those under 80 years (30.0 ± 8.2, n = 162). Intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference in cAIx between the three patient groups (AAA: 27.3 ± 9.5; PAD: 31.4 ± 7.8; AAA & PAD: 28.8 ± 8.5). cAIx was significantly lower in patients with AAA, higher in patients with both AAA and PAD, and highest in patients with PAD only (beta = 0.21, p = 0.006). Conclusion Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness in high-risk patients indicates that cAIx differs according to the pattern of vascular disease. Measurements revealed significantly higher cAIx values for patients with obstructive peripheral arterial disease than for patients with aneurysmatic disease. PMID:26452151

  16. Breast augmentation with reduced-height anatomic implants: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Spear, S L

    2001-07-01

    The reduced-height anatomic saline-filled implant has certain advantages. It has a distinct footprint and profile that allows the creation of a breast with relatively exaggerated width and abbreviated height. This creation suits certain anatomic situations and often is preferred by women seeking a more natural-looking augmentation, without excessive upper pole fullness. The use of any anatomic design implant requires some dimensional planning and more precise pocket dissection. Although the risk for rotational deformities could be expected to be increased, clinically significant rotational deformities have not been a major problem. PMID:11471961

  17. Sensation seeking, augmenting-reducing, and the perceived and preferred effects of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kohn, P M; Coulas, J T

    1985-01-01

    The following measures were administered to 78 undergraduates: the General and Disinhibition subscales of Zuckerman's (1971) Sensation-Seeking Scale; the Reducer-Augmenter Scale (RAS; Vando, 1970, 1974); self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis; the degree of attribution of stimulant, depressant, and neutral effects to these drugs; and desirability ratings of stimulant and depressant effects ascribed to various drugs. Major findings were as follows: (a) On the RAS, reducing correlated positively with both sensation-seeking measures. (b) Seven of the nine personality-versus-drug-use correlations were positive and significant. (c) Generally, the effects attributed to drugs did not differ by sex, personality, or use. (d) However, frequent drinkers attributed stimulant effects to alcohol more strongly than depressant effects, whereas infrequent drinkers did the opposite. (e) The mean desirability ratings of stimulant and depressant drug effects correlated positively. (f) High disinhibitors rated drug effects of both kinds more favorably than did lows. (g) A similar, more favorable evaluation by high than by low general sensation seekers was significant for male subjects only. (h) Score on the Reducer-Augmenter Scale was not significantly predictive of subjects' desirability ratings. PMID:3981395

  18. Glucocorticoid-Augmented Efferocytosis Inhibits Pulmonary Pneumococcal Clearance in Mice by Reducing Alveolar Macrophage Bactericidal Function.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Valerie R; McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Freeman, Christine M; Brown, Jeanette P; Crudgington, Sean W; Taitano, Sophina H; Saxton, Bridget L; Mancuso, Peter; Curtis, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) increase community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by unknown mechanisms. Apoptosis is increased in the lungs of COPD patients. Uptake of apoptotic cells (ACs) ("efferocytosis") by alveolar macrophages (AMøs) reduces their ability to combat microbes, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of CAP in COPD patients. Having shown that ICS significantly increase AMø efferocytosis, we hypothesized that this process, termed glucocorticoid-augmented efferocytosis, might explain the association of CAP with ICS therapy in COPD. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of fluticasone, AC, or both on AMøs of C57BL/6 mice in vitro and in an established model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Fluticasone plus AC significantly reduced TLR4-stimulated AMø IL-12 production, relative to either treatment alone, and decreased TNF-α, CCL3, CCL5, and keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant/CXCL1, relative to AC. Mice treated with fluticasone plus AC before infection with viable pneumococci developed significantly more lung CFUs at 48 h. However, none of the pretreatments altered inflammatory cell recruitment to the lungs at 48 h postinfection, and fluticasone plus AC less markedly reduced in vitro mediator production to heat-killed pneumococci. Fluticasone plus AC significantly reduced in vitro AMø killing of pneumococci, relative to other conditions, in part by delaying phagolysosome acidification without affecting production of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. These results support glucocorticoid-augmented efferocytosis as a potential explanation for the epidemiological association of ICS therapy of COPD patients with increased risk for CAP, and establish murine experimental models to dissect underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:25987742

  19. Augmented Feedback Supports Skill Transfer and Reduces High-Risk Injury Landing Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Stroube, Benjamin W.; DiCesare, Christopher A.; Brent, Jensen L.; Ford, Kevin R.; Heidt, Robert S.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a current need to produce a simple, yet effective method for screening and targeting possible deficiencies related to increased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. Hypothesis Frontal plane knee angle (FPKA) during a drop vertical jump will decrease upon implementing augmented feedback into a standardized sport training program. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Thirty-seven female participants (mean ± SD: age, 14.7 ±1.5 years; height, 160.9 ± 6.8 cm; weight, 54.5 ± 7.2 kg) were trained over 8 weeks. During each session, each participant received standardized training consisting of strength training, plyometrics, and conditioning. They were also videotaped running on a treadmill at a standardized speed and performing a repeated tuck jump for 10 seconds. Study participants were randomized into 2 groups and received augmented feedback on either their jumping (AF) or sprinting (CTRL) form. Average (mean of 3 trials) and most extreme (trial with greatest knee abduction) FPKA were calculated from 2-dimensional video captured during performance of the drop vertical jump. Results After testing, a main effect of time was noted, with the AF group reducing their FPKA average by 37.9% over the 3 trials while the CTRL group demonstrated a 26.7% reduction average across the 3 trials (P < .05). Conversely, in the most extreme drop vertical jump trial, a significant time-by-group interaction was noted (P < .05). The AF group reduced their most extreme FPKA by 6.9° (pretest, 18.4° ± 12.3°; posttest, 11.4° ± 10.1°) on their right leg and 6.5° (pretest, 16.3° ± 14.5°; posttest, 9.8° ± 10.7°) on their left leg, which represented a 37.7% and 40.1 % reduction in FPKA, respectively. In the CTRL group, no similar changes were noted in the right (pretest, 16.9° ± 14.3°; posttest, 14.0° ± 12.3°) or left leg (pretest, 9.8° ± 11.1°; posttest, 7.2° ± 9.2°) after training. Conclusion Providing athletes with augmented

  20. Transient Aortic Occlusion Augments Collateral Blood Flow and Reduces Mortality During Severe Ischemia due to Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gomathi; Dong, Bin; Todd, Kathryn G; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Winship, Ian R

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral collateral circulation provides alternative vascular routes for blood to reach ischemic tissues during stroke. Collateral therapeutics attempt to augment flow through these collateral channels to reduce ischemia and brain damage during acute ischemic stroke. Transient aortic occlusion (TAO) has pre-clinical data suggesting that it can augment collateral blood flow and clinical data suggesting a benefit for patients with moderate cortical strokes. By diverting blood from the periphery towards the cerebral circulation, TAO has the potential to augment primary collateral flow at the circle of Willis and thereby improve outcome even during large, hemispheric strokes. Using proximal middle and anterior cerebral artery occlusion in rats, we demonstrate that TAO reduces mortality and improves collateral blood flow in severely ischemic animals. As such, TAO may be an effective therapy to reduce early mortality during severe ischemia associated with proximal occlusions. PMID:26706246

  1. Polarization rotator based on augmented low-index-guiding waveguide on silicon nitride/silicon-on-insulator platform.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Alam, M Z; Aitchison, J S; Mojahedi, M

    2016-07-15

    Using a newly proposed augmented low-index-guiding scheme with silicon nitride/silicon dual-core waveguide, we have designed, fabricated, and characterized a transverse electric (TE) to transverse magnetic (TM) and TM-to-TE compact polarization rotator. The polarization rotation is realized in an asymmetric directional coupler. The measured peak conversion efficiencies for the TE-to-TM and TM-to-TE rotations are approximately 97%. The measured polarization extinction ratio for the TE-to-TM rotation is greater than 20 dB over 50-nm bandwidth, while for the TM-to-TE rotation it is greater than 15 dB over the C-band. PMID:27420502

  2. IL-10 reduces Th2 cytokine production and eosinophilia but augments airway reactivity in allergic mice.

    PubMed

    van Scott, M R; Justice, J P; Bradfield, J F; Enright, E; Sigounas, A; Sur, S

    2000-04-01

    We investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-10 administration on allergen-induced Th2 cytokine production, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway reactivity. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ragweed (RW) adsorbed to Alum and challenged by intratracheal instillation of the allergen. Sensitization and challenge with RW increased concentrations of IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from undetectable levels to 60 pg/ml over 72 h. Intratracheal instillation of 25 ng of recombinant murine IL-10 at the time of RW challenge further elevated BAL fluid IL-10 concentration to 440 pg/ml but decreased BAL fluid IL-4, IL-5, and interferon-gamma levels by 40-85% and eosinophil numbers by 70% (P < 0.0001). Unexpectedly, the same IL-10 treatment increased airway reactivity to methacholine in spontaneously breathing mice that had been sensitized and challenged with RW (P < 0.001). IL-10 treatment in naive animals or RW-sensitized mice challenged with PBS failed to increase airway reactivity, demonstrating that IL-10 induces an increase in airway reactivity only when it is administered in conjunction with allergic sensitization and challenge. The results demonstrate that IL-10 reduces Th2 cytokine levels and eosinophilic inflammation but augments airway hyperreactivity. Thus, despite its potent anti-inflammatory activity, IL-10 could contribute to the decline in pulmonary function observed in asthma. PMID:10749743

  3. Metamorphic manipulating mechanism design for MCCB using index reduced iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Zhen; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2013-03-01

    The present research on moulded case circuit breaker(MCCB) focuses on the enhancement of current-limiting interrupting performance during short circuit, overload, under voltage and phase failure, involving electrics, magnetic, mechanics, thermal, material, friction, arc extinguishing, impact vibration, skin effect, etc. The rigid-flexible coupling of the parts and components of the metamorphic manipulating mechanism in multi-fields leads to the non-rigid, high frequency, high damping, singularity of the Euler-Lagrange equations which represents the multi-body dynamics. The small step iteration which is used for obtaining the instantaneous and short time critical interrupting performance of metamorphic mechanism appears inaccuracy. It is difficult to realize top-down design by existing CAD systems. Therefore, a metamorphic manipulating mechanism design method for MCCB using index reduced iteration(IRI) is put forward. The metamorphic manipulating mechanism of MCCB is decomposed into three mechanisms: main switch connector mechanism, electromagnet-drawbar-jump buckle mechanism, and bimetallic strip-drawbar mechanism, which is respectively described by electro-dynamic force, electromagnet force, and bimetallic strip force. The dummy part(virtual rigid) without moment of inertia and mass is employed as intermediate to join the flexible body and rigid body. The model of rigid-flexible coupling metamorphic mechanism multi-body dynamics is built. The differential algebraic equations(DAEs) of the multibody dynamics model are converted to pure ordinary differential equations(ODEs) by coordinate partition. Order reduced integration with multi-step and variable step-size is preceded based on IRI. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved in each integration step by Newton-Rapson iteration. There is no ill-condition and singularity of Jacobian matrix when step size reduces to zero. The independent prototype design system using ACIS R13, HOOPS V11.0 and Visual C++.NET 2003

  4. The impact of exercise on derived measures of central pressure and augmentation index obtained from the SphygmoCor device.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Ellen A; Black, Mark A; Pybis, Jennifer; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether measures derived from the SphygmoCor device and its associated transfer function are influenced by exercise-induced alterations in vascular tone. Measurements were taken from either the exercised or the contralateral nonexercised limb during repeated and identical incremental hand-grip protocols. Eight male subjects performed three 3-min bouts of hand-grip exercise on two occasions. The exercise intensities were set at 3 kg, 5 kg, with a final 1.5-kg bout performed during cuff ischemia (1.5Isch). Blood pressure waveforms were recorded from the radial artery of either the exercised or nonexercised limb using applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor) during a 90-s rest period immediately after each exercise bout. Central blood pressures and augmentation indexes (AIx), an index of arterial stiffness, were derived using the peripheral waveform and the inbuilt SphygmoCor transfer function (TF). AIx was consistently approximately 10% higher in the exercised arm during all trials compared with the nonexercised limb. Similarly, there was a consistent and significant difference ( approximately 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) between exercised and nonexercised arms for the derived central systolic and mean arterial blood pressures. Despite identical bouts of exercise, AIx and central systolic and mean arterial blood pressures derived from applanation tonometry at the peripheral radial artery were statistically different when assessed at the exercising arm vs. the nonexercising arm. Changes in vascular tone with exercise may modify the intrinsic characteristics of the vessel wall and could compromise the assumptions underlying transfer functions used to derive central measures using applanation tonometry. PMID:19342433

  5. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved

    PubMed Central

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30–39 (men) and 40–49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations’ sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved. PMID:27230110

  6. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved.

    PubMed

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30-39 (men) and 40-49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations' sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved. PMID:27230110

  7. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  8. Height and sex is strongly associated with radial augmentation index in Korean patients with never-treated hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kye Taek; Park, Kwang-In; Kim, Mi Joo; Oh, Jin Kyung; Han, Ji Hye; Kwon, Hee Jin; Jin, Seon-Ah; Kim, Jun-Hyung; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Si Wan; Seong, In-Whan; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Central hemodynamics may better represent the load imposed on the coronary and cerebral arteries and thereby bear a stronger relationship to cardiovascular outcomes. Methods Patients who had confirmed hypertension as assessed by daytime 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (≥135/85 mmHg) were enrolled. Central blood pressure and radial augmentation index (AIx) corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (radial AIx 75) were measured for all patients. We evaluated the association of age, height, and sex with central hemodynamics in patients with never-treated hypertension. Results A total of 203 patients were enrolled, of whom men numbered 101 (49.7%). The median height of all patients was 162 cm, and mean age was 53.2 years. In the Pearson correlation analysis, regardless of sex difference (R=−0.627 for height, R=0.035 for age, P-value =0.005), a stronger relationship was observed between height and radial AIx 75 than between age and radial AIx 75. In the multiple regression analysis, the sex difference and height were strongly associated with elevated radial AIx 75 in all patients (adjusted R2=0.428, β=6.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] for women 1.480–10.995, P-value =0.011 and β=−0.632, 95% CI for height −0.929 to −0.335, P-value =0.009, respectively). Conclusion In patients with never-treated hypertension, female sex and shorter height are the important risk factors of elevated radial AIx 75. PMID:27114704

  9. Is the Resorption of Grafted Fat Reduced in Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer for Breast Augmentation?

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Luo, Xuan; Lu, Yi; Fan, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL) is a cotransplantation of adipose tissue and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) including adipose-derived stem cells. But although CAL can get satisfactory outcomes in breast augmentation, the resorption of the grafted fat is still unclear. A total of 12 patients received breast augmentation using CAL. All of them completed 6 months of follow-up. In 1 mini-CAL case, 500-mL liposuction fluid was used to harvest the SVF cells. In 11 full-CAL cases, 250-mL aspirated fat was needed apart from 500-mL liposuction fluid. The percentage of adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells was detected using flow cytometry and their multilineage potential ability was assessed with in vitro induction. The volumes of breasts and pectoral muscle were measured, and radiological image change was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging before the operation and 3 and 6 months after the operation. Additionally, the subjective evaluation on the cosmetic outcomes was determined by surgeons and patients. Adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells accounted for 40.27% and 3.34% in full-CAL cases and mini-CAL cases, respectively. Postoperative atrophy occurred within the first 3 months. At the 6 months postoperatively, breast volume is augmented, ranging from 60.71 to 197 mL, with a mean value of 125.35 (45.49) mL. The ultimate resorption of grafted fat at the 6 months postoperatively is 51.84% (16.74%). Newly formed cysts and nodules were detected in 2 cases. No calcification was found in all magnetic resonance images. Only 1 patient was unsatisfied with the cosmetic outcome. Our preliminary study displayed a satisfactory augmented volume with little complications using CAL for breast augmentation. But the resorption at the 6 months postoperatively [51.84% (16.74%)] showed no significant advantage over non-CAL technique (40%-60% reported), which suggested that SVF cells harvested from 250-mL aspirated fat and 500-mL liposuction fluid were insufficient to average 250

  10. Orthosis reduces breast pain and mechanical forces through natural and augmented breast tissue in women lying prone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast implant displacement or rupture can cause aesthetic problems and serious medical complications. Activities with prone positioning and loading of the anterior chest wall, such as massage, chiropractic or osteopathic therapies may increase the risk of implant failure and can also cause discomfort in women with natural breast tissue. Here we test the effectiveness of a newly developed orthosis on pain, mechanical pressure and displacement of breast tissue in women with cosmetic augmentation, post-mastectomy reconstruction, lactating or natural breast tissue. Methods Thirty-two females volunteers, aged 25–56 years with augmented, reconstructed, natural or lactating breast tissue and cup sizes B-F, participated in this open-label clinical trial. We measured pain perception, peak pressure, maximum force, and breast tissue displacement using different sizes of the orthosis compared to no orthosis. Different densities of the orthosis were also tested in a subgroup of women (n = 7). Pain perception was rated using a validated 11-point visual-analogue scale. Peak pressure and maximum force were assessed using a bilateral set of capacitance-pliance® sensor strips whilst participants were load bearing in a prone position, and breast displacement was measured by magnetic-resonance-imaging. Results The orthosis significantly reduced pain, breast displacement and mechanical pressures in women with natural and augmented breast tissue in prone position. Greater relief of pain and greater reduction in mechanical forces were found with increased size and density of the orthosis. Use of the orthosis improved overall comfort by 64-100%, lowered peak pressure by up to 85% and maximum force by up to 96%. Medio-lateral displacement of breast tissue was reduced by 16%, resulting in a 51% desirable increase of breast tissue height. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the newly developed orthosis significantly reduced pain, mechanical pressure and breast tissue

  11. Reduced breath holding index in patients with chronic migraine.

    PubMed

    Akgün, Hakan; Taşdemir, Serdar; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Alay, Semih; Çetiz, Ahmet; Yücel, Mehmet; Öz, Oğuzhan; Odabaşı, Zeki; Demirkaya, Şeref

    2015-09-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by autonomic nervous system dysfunction and severe headache attacks. Studies have shown that changes in the intracranial vessels during migraine have an important role in the pathophysiology. Many studies have been conducted on the increased risk of stroke in patients with migraine, but insufficient data are available on the mechanism underlying the increase. This study aimed to evaluate basal cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with chronic migraine. We evaluated 38 patients with chronic migraine. Three of them were excluded because they had auras and four of them were excluded because of their use of medication that can affect cerebral blood flow velocity and breath holding index (beta or calcium channel blockers). Our study population consisted of 31 patients with chronic migraine without aura and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals who were not taking any medication. The mean blood flow velocity and breath holding index were measured on both sides from the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, with temporal window insonation. The breath holding index for middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery was significantly lower in the migraine group compared to that of the control group (p < 0.05).The vasomotor reactivity indicates the dilatation potential of a vessel, and it is closely related to autoregulation. According to our results, the vasodilator response of cerebral arterioles to hypercapnia was lower in patients with chronic migraine. These findings showed the existence of impairments in the harmonic cerebral hemodynamic mechanisms in patients with chronic migraine. This finding also supports the existing idea of an increased risk of stroke in patients with chronic migraine due to impaired vasomotor reactivity. PMID:25308111

  12. Metacognition-augmented cognitive remediation training reduces jumping to conclusions and overconfidence but not neurocognitive deficits in psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Steffen; Thoering, Teresa; Kühn, Simone; Willenborg, Bastian; Westermann, Stefan; Nagel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with schizophrenia display neurocognitive deficits (e.g., memory impairment) as well as inflated cognitive biases (e.g., jumping to conclusions). Both cognitive domains are implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder and are known to compromise functional outcome. At present, there is a dearth of effective treatment options. A total of 90 patients with schizophrenia were recruited online (a diagnosis of schizophrenia had been confirmed in a large subgroup during a previous hospital admission). Subsequent to a baseline assessment encompassing psychopathology, self-reported cognition as well as objective memory and reasoning tests, patients were randomized to one of three conditions: standard cognitive remediation (mybraintraining), metacognition-augmented cognition remediation (CR) condition (variant of mybraintraining which encouraged patients to reduce speed of decision-making and attenuate response confidence when participants made high-confidence judgements and hasty incorrect decisions) and a waitlist control group. Patients were retested after 6 weeks and again 3 months after the second assessment. Groups did not differ on psychopathology and neurocognitive parameters at any timepoint. However, at follow-up the metacognitive-augmented CR group displayed a significant reduction on jumping to conclusions and overconfidence. Treatment adherence correlated with a reduction of depression; gains in the training exercises from the standard mybraintraining condition were correlated with improved objective memory performance. The study suggests that metacognition-augmented CR may ameliorate cognitive biases but not neurocognition. The study ties in well with prior research showing that neurocognitive dysfunctions are rather resistant to change; the failure to detect significant improvement of CR or metacognition-augmented CR on psychopathology and neurocognition over time may partly be attributed to a number of methodological limitations of

  13. Reduced Neural Differentiation Between Feedback Conditions After Bimanual Coordination Training with and without Augmented Visual Feedback.

    PubMed

    Beets, Iseult A M; Gooijers, Jolien; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Pauwels, Lisa; Coxon, James P; Wittenberg, George; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2015-07-01

    It has been established that bimanual coordination with augmented feedback (FB) versus no augmented feedback (NFB) is associated with activity in different brain regions. It is unclear however, whether this distinction remains after practice comprising both these conditions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in humans to compare visual FB versus NFB conditions for a bimanual tracking task, and their differential evolution across learning. Scanning occurred before (Pre) and after 2 weeks (Post) of mixed FB and NFB training using an event-related design, allowing differentiation between the planning and execution phase of the task. Activations at the whole-brain level initially differed for FB versus NFB movements but this differentiation diminished with training for the movement execution phase. Specifically, in right dorsal premotor cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation increased for NFB and decreased for FB trials to converge toward the end of practice. This suggests that learning led to a decreased need to adjust the ongoing movement on the basis of FB, whereas online monitoring became more pronounced in NFB trials as discrepancies between the required and the produced motor output were detected more accurately after training, due to a generic internal reference of correctness supporting movement control under varying conditions. PMID:24501382

  14. Meta-analysis of the comparative effects of different classes of antihypertensive agents on brachial and central systolic blood pressure, and augmentation index

    PubMed Central

    Manisty, Charlotte H; Hughes, Alun D

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Brachial systolic blood pressure (bSBP) exceeds aortic pressure by a variable amount, and estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) may be a better indicator of cardiovascular risk than bSBP. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of single and multiple antihypertensive agents on bSBP, cSBP and augmentation index (AIx). Methods A random effects meta-analysis was performed on 24 randomized controlled trials of antihypertensives with measurements of bSBP, cSBP and/or AIx. Separate analyses were performed for drug comparisons with or without placebo, and drug combinations. Results In the placebo vs. drug meta-analysis, antihypertensive therapy reduced bSBP more than cSBP and there was no statistically significant evidence of heterogeneity by drug class, although the number of individual studies was small. In placebo-adjusted drug vs. drug comparison, treatment with β-blockers, omapatrilat and thiazide diuretics lowered cSBP significantly less than bSBP (i.e. central to brachial amplification decreased), whereas other monotherapies lowered cSBP and bSBP to similar extents. Sample sizes were too small and effect estimates insufficiently precise to allow firm conclusions to be made regarding comparisons between individual drug classes. Antihypertensive combinations that included β-blockers decreased central to brachial amplification. β-Blockers increased AIx, whereas all other antihypertensive agents reduced AIx to similar extents. CONCLUSIONS A reduction in central to brachial amplification by some classes of antihypertensive drug will result in lesser reductions in cSBP despite achievement of target bSBP. This effect could contribute to differences in outcomes in randomized clinical trials when β-blocker- and/or diuretic-based antihypertensive therapy are compared with other regimens. PMID:22625662

  15. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation augments cutaneous vasodilatation and reduces mean arterial pressure in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Keen, Jeremy T; Levitt, Erica L; Hodges, Gary J; Wong, Brett J

    2015-03-01

    Nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) where nitrate can be reduced to nitrite and, subsequently, to NO through both nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent and -independent pathways. We tested the hypothesis that nitrate supplementation would augment the NO component of the cutaneous vasodilatation to local skin heating in young, healthy humans. Participants reported to the lab for pre- and post-supplement local heating protocols. Nitrate supplementation consisted of one shot (70 ml) of beetroot juice (0.45 g nitrate; 5mM) for three days. Six participants were equipped with two microdialysis fibers on the ventral forearm and randomly assigned to lactated Ringer's (control) or continuous infusion of 20mM l-NAME (NOS inhibitor). The control site was subsequently perfused with l-NAME once a plateau in skin blood flow was achieved to quantify NOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation. Skin blood flow via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured; cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/MAP and normalized to %CVCmax. Beetroot juice reduced MAP (Pre: 90 ± 1 mmHg vs. Post: 83 ± 1 mmHg) and DBP (Pre: 74 ± 2 mmHg vs. Post: 62 ± 3 mmHg) (P<0.05). The plateau phase of the local heating response at control sites was augmented post-beetroot juice (91 ± 5%CVCmax) compared to pre-beetroot juice (79 ± 2%CVCmax) (P<0.05). There was no difference in the %NOS-dependent vasodilatation from pre- to post-beetroot juice. These data suggest that nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice can reduce MAP and DBP as well as augment NOS-independent vasodilatation to local heating in the cutaneous vasculature of healthy humans. PMID:25554360

  16. Reducing Lissencephaly-1 levels augments mitochondrial transport and has a protective effect in adult Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Hoffmann, Patrick C.; Bullock, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defective transport of mitochondria in axons is implicated in the pathogenesis of several age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, the regulation and function of axonal mitochondrial motility during normal ageing is poorly understood. Here, we use novel imaging procedures to characterise axonal transport of these organelles in the adult Drosophila wing nerve. During early adult life there is a boost and progressive decline in the proportion of mitochondria that are motile, which is not due to general changes in cargo transport. Experimental inhibition of the mitochondrial transport machinery specifically in adulthood accelerates the appearance of focal protein accumulations in ageing axons, which is suggestive of defects in protein homeostasis. Unexpectedly, lowering levels of Lissencephaly-1 (Lis1), a dynein motor co-factor, augments axonal mitochondrial transport in ageing wing neurons. Lis1 mutations suppress focal protein accumulations in ageing neurons, including those caused by interfering with the mitochondrial transport machinery. Our data provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial motility in adult neurons in vivo, identify Lis1 as a negative regulator of transport of these organelles, and provide evidence of a link between mitochondrial movement and neuronal protein homeostasis. PMID:26598558

  17. Design and Validation of an Augmented Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index Comprising Pretransplant Ferritin, Albumin, and Platelet Count for Prediction of Outcomes after Allogeneic Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jennifer E; Storer, Barry E; Armand, Philippe; Raimondi, Roberto; Gibson, Christopher; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Ciceri, Fabio; Oneto, Rosi; Bruno, Benedetto; Martin, Paul J; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2015-08-01

    Pretransplant values of serum ferritin, albumin, and peripheral blood counts were previously suggested to provide prognostic information about hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes. Whether these "biomarkers" have prognostic value independent of each other and the HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) is unknown. We analyzed data from 3917 allogeneic HCT recipients at multiple sites in the United States and Italy using multivariate models including each biomarker and the HCT-CI. Data from all sites were then randomly divided into a training set (n = 2352) to develop weights for the relevant biomarkers to be added to the HCT-CI scores and a validation set (n = 1407) to validate an augmented HCT-CI compared with the original index. Multivariate analysis with data from one site showed that ferritin, albumin, and platelets-not neutrophils or hemoglobin-were independently associated with increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and decreased overall survival. Findings were validated in data from the other sites. Subsequently, in a training set from all sites, ferritin >2500 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR], 1.69); albumin 3 to 3.5 g/dL (HR, 1.61) and <3.0 g/dL (HR, 2.27); and platelets 50 to <100,000 (HR, 1.28), 20 to <50,000 (HR, 1.29), and <20,000 (HR, 1.55) were statistically significantly associated with NRM. Weights were assigned to these laboratory values following the same equation used to design the original index. In the validation set, the addition of the biomarkers to the original index to develop an augmented HCT-CI resulted in a statistically significant increase in a higher c-statistic estimate for prediction of NRM (P = .0007). Ferritin, albumin, and platelet counts are important prognostic markers that further refine the discriminative power of the HCT-CI for transplant outcomes. PMID:25862589

  18. Means and method for reducing differential pressure loading in an augmented gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.C.

    1991-12-10

    This patent describes a gas turbine engine having a fan, a core engine for generating combustion exhaust gases, a core outlet for discharging the exhaust gases, a bypass duct for channeling cooling bypass airflow from the fan and over the core engine, a duct outlet for discharging the bypass airflow, an augmentor including an annular combustion liner for receiving therein the exhaust gases and a first portion of the bypass airflow discharged from the duct outlet, and an annular plenum surrounding the liner and having an inlet spaced axially from the bypass duct outlet for receiving from the bypass duct outlet a second portion of the bypass airflow for cooling the augmentor liner. It comprises accelerating the bypass airflow discharged from the bypass duct outlet to a velocity greater than Mach 1 for providing accelerated bypass airflow to the augmentor; and decelerating the accelerated bypass airflow to a velocity less than Mach 1 at the plenum duct inlet for creating pressure losses due to shock waves to the bypass airflow second portion channeled to the plenum for reducing differential pressure acting across the liner.

  19. Multiple pollution biomarker application on tissues of Eobania vermiculata during two periods characterized by augmented and reduced snail activity.

    PubMed

    Itziou, A; Dimitriadis, V K

    2012-12-01

    In the present study a package of biomarkers was applied on land snails E. vermiculata collected from polluted areas, as well as from an unpolluted reference one. Snail collection was performed during two different sampling periods characterized by reduced and augmented organism activity, October and May, respectively. The biomarkers applied were lysosomal membrane stability on digestive cells (LMS), neutral red lysosomal retention assay on haemocytes (NRR), morphometric changes of the lysosomal system (VDL, NDL), morphometric alterations of the neutral lipids (VDLP, NDLP), acetylcholinesterase activity on digestive gland and hemolymph (AChE), metallothionein content on digestive gland (MTs) and cyclic AMP content on digestive gland (cAMP). The results revealed significant differences in biomarker values between the two sampling periods. Significant differences were also detected among the sampling groups. The fluctuation of the parameters applied indicated that spring is a more suitable period for sampling conduction compared to autumn and that biomonitoring studies should be performed with special attention during the last mentioned period. PMID:23020987

  20. A research program to reduce the interior noise in general aviation aircraft, index and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L.; Jackson, K.; Roskam, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report is an index of the published works from NASA Grant NSG 1301, entitled A Research Program to Reduce the Interior Noise in General Aviation Aircraft. Included are a list of all published reports and papers, a compilation of test specimen characteristics, and summaries of each published work.

  1. Cardiomyocyte-Specific TGFβ Suppression Blocks Neutrophil Infiltration, Augments Multiple Cytoprotective Cascades, and Reduces Early Mortality after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Rainer, Peter P.; Hao, Scarlett; Vanhoutte, Davy; Lee, Dong Ik; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Kass, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Wound healing after myocardial infarction involves a highly regulated inflammatory response that is initiated by the appearance of neutrophils to clear out dead cells and matrix debris. Neutrophil infiltration is controlled by multiple secreted factors, including the master regulator transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Broad inhibition of TGFβ early post-infarction has worsened post-MI remodeling; however, this signaling displays potent cell-specificity and targeted suppression particularly in the myocyte could be beneficial. Objective To test the hypothesis that targeted suppression of myocyte TGFβ signaling suppresses post-infarct remodeling and inflammatory modulation, and identify mechanisms by which this may be achieved. Methods and Results Mice with TGFβ receptor-coupled signaling genetically suppressed only in cardiac myocytes (conditional TGFβ receptor 1 or 2 knockout) displayed marked declines in neutrophil recruitment and accompanying metalloproteinase-9 activation after infarction, and were protected against early onset mortality due to wall rupture. This was a cell-specific effect, as broader inhibition of TGFβ signaling led to 100% early mortality due to rupture. Rather than by altering fibrosis or reducing generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, myocyte-selective TGFβ-inhibition augmented synthesis of a constellation of highly protective cardiokines. These included thrombospondin 4 with associated endoplasmic reticulum stress responses, interleukin-33, follistatin-like 1, and growth and differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), which is an inhibitor of neutrophil integrin activation and tissue migration. Conclusions These data reveal a novel role of myocyte canonical TGFβ signaling as a potent regulator of protective cardiokine and neutrophil mediated infarct remodeling. PMID:24573206

  2. a Walking Disturbance Index Suggestions for Optimized Path Search for the People with Reduced Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, M.; Bang, Y.; Yu, K.; Kim, J.

    2015-10-01

    Recently, due to the increased penetration of smart devices and the development of geographic information system (GIS) technology, various route guidance services for pedestrians have been developed. However, until now, pedestrian navigation services for the people with reduced mobility (people who experience discomfort in transportation) including wheelchair users, the elderly, and pregnant women have not been provided. In this study, we present a walking disturbance index methodology for searching an optimized path for the people with reduced mobility by defining the factors that affect the walking of the people with reduced mobility and deriving the weights of these factors. In future research, we expect to be able to provide a navigation system that gives an optimized path for the people with reduced mobility using this method.

  3. Characteristics of a long-period fiber grating with reduced cladding for refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haiyun; Gu, Zhengtian

    2011-10-01

    The sensitivity to surrounding refractive index (SRI) of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) can be effectively improved by decreasing the cladding radius. When the cladding is reduced, a three-layer model is necessary to evaluate the effective refractive index (ERI) of the core mode. A variation of SRI can induce a greater resonant wavelength shift when the core mode is coupled to a higher-order cladding mode. However, as the cladding is reduced further, the highest-order cladding mode would be cut off, i.e. the number of cladding modes that a given fiber structure can support would be less; thus, the higher-order cladding modes that can be used for higher sensitivity are limited. Hence, the implementation of high sensitivity for SRI sensing with cladding-reduced LPFGs is dependent on the proper combination of cladding radius and cladding mode order. Based on the vector coupled-mode theory, the transmission spectrum and sensitivity are numerically analyzed with respect to the cladding radius, which shows that the SRI sensitivity of the HE12 mode with cladding radius a 2 = 20 µm is 32 times as high as that with a 2 = 62.5 µm and the SRI resolution is available to the order of 10-7.

  4. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro), central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse) and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis), pulse wave velocity (PWV) with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity), nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X), physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170), carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax), and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin). Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical exercise and diet

  5. Reduced bias and threshold choice in the extremal index estimation through resampling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Dora Prata; Neves, Manuela

    2013-10-01

    In Extreme Value Analysis there are a few parameters of particular interest among which we refer to the extremal index, a measure of extreme events clustering. It is of great interest for initial dependent samples, the common situation in many practical situations. Most semi-parametric estimators of this parameter show the same behavior: nice asymptotic properties but a high variance for small values of k, the number of upper order statistics used in the estimation and a high bias for large values of k. The Mean Square Error, a measure that encompasses bias and variance, usually shows a very sharp plot, needing an adequate choice of k. Using classical extremal index estimators considered in the literature, the emphasis is now given to derive reduced bias estimators with more stable paths, obtained through resampling techniques. An adaptive algorithm for estimating the level k for obtaining a reliable estimate of the extremal index is used. This algorithm has shown good results, but some improvements are still required. A simulation study will illustrate the properties of the estimators and the performance of the adaptive algorithm proposed.

  6. Genistein reduced insulin resistance index through modulating lipid metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joo Sun; Koh, In-Uk; Song, Jihyun

    2012-11-01

    Postmenopausal women are at higher risk for obesity and insulin resistance due to the decline of estrogen, but genistein, a phytoestrogen, may reduce the risks of these diet-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that supplemental genistein has beneficial effects on insulin resistance in an ovariectomized rat model by modulating lipid metabolism. Three weeks after a sham surgery (sham) or an ovariectomy (OVX), ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a diet containing 0 (OVX group) or 0.1% genistein for 4 weeks. The sham rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 0% genistein and served as the control group (sham group). The ovariectomized rats showed increases in body weight and insulin resistance index, but genistein reduced insulin resistance index and the activity of hepatic fatty acid synthetase. Genistein was also associated with increased activity of succinate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase and the rate of β-oxidation in the fat tissue of rats. The ovariectomized rats given genistein had smaller-sized adipocytes. Using gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of microarray data, we found that a number of gene sets of fatty acid metabolism, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress were differentially expressed by OVX and reversed by genistein. This systemic approach of GSEA enables the identification of such consensus between the gene expression changes and phenotypic changes caused by OVX and genistein supplementation. Genistein treatment could help reduce insulin resistance through the amelioration of OVX-induced metabolic dysfunction, and the GSEA approach may be useful in proposing putative targets related to insulin resistance. PMID:23176795

  7. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Didier, Ryne A.; Vajtai, Petra L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. Objective This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction versus a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). Materials and methods Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital’s established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDIvol. Reduced CTDIvol was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAseff) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDIvol, size specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Results Between groups A and B, mean CTDIvol was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Conclusion Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDIvol and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital’s traditional weight-based protocols. PMID:24996812

  8. A Novel Moisture Adjusted Vegetation Index (MAVI) to Reduce Background Reflectance and Topographical Effects on LAI Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J. M.; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  9. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  10. Vegetation index correction to reduce background effects in orchards with high spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beek, Jonathan; Tits, Laurent; Somers, Ben; Deckers, Tom; Janssens, Pieter; Coppin, Pol

    2014-10-01

    High spatial resolution satellite imagery provides an alternative for time consuming and labor intensive in situ measurements of biophysical variables, such as chlorophyll and water content. However, despite the high spatial resolution of current satellite sensors, mixtures of canopies and backgrounds will be present, hampering the estimation of biophysical variables. Traditional correction methodologies use spectral differences between canopies and backgrounds, but fail with spectrally similar canopies and backgrounds. In this study, the lack of a generic solution to reduce background effects is tackled. Through synthetic imagery, the mixture problem was demonstrated with regards to the estimation of biophysical variables. A correction method was proposed, rescaling vegetation indices based on the canopy cover fraction. Furthermore, the proposed method was compared to traditional background correction methodologies (i.e. soil-adjusted vegetation indices and signal unmixing) for different background scenarios. The results of a soil background scenario showed the inability of soil-adjusted vegetation indices to reduce background admixture effects, while signal unmixing and the proposed method removed background influences for chlorophyll (ΔR2 = ~0.3; ΔRMSE = ~1.6 μg/cm2) and water (ΔR2 = ~0.3; ΔRMSE = ~0.5 mg/cm2) related vegetation indices. For the weed background scenario, signal unmixing was unable to remove the background influences for chlorophyll content (ΔR2 = -0.1; ΔRMSE = -0.6 μg/cm 2 ), while the proposed correction method reduced background effects (ΔR2= 0.1; ΔRMSE = 0.4 μg/cm2). Overall, the proposed vegetation index correction method reduced the background influence irrespective of background type, making useful comparison between management blocks possible.

  11. Implementation of transformed lenses in bed of nails reducing refractive index maximum value and sub-unity regions.

    PubMed

    Prado, Daniel R; Osipov, Andrey V; Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar

    2015-03-15

    Transformation optics with quasi-conformal mapping is applied to design a Generalized Maxwell Fish-eye Lens (GMFEL) which can be used as a power splitter. The flattened focal line obtained as a result of the transformation allows the lens to adapt to planar antenna feeding systems. Moreover, sub-unity refraction index regions are reduced because of the space compression effect of the transformation, reducing the negative impact of removing those regions when implementing the lens. A technique to reduce the maximum value of the refractive index is presented to compensate for its increase because of the transformation. Finally, the lens is implemented with the bed of nails technology, employing a commercial dielectric slab to improve the range of the effective refractive index. The lens was simulated with a 3D full-wave simulator to validate the design, obtaining an original and feasible power splitter based on a dielectric lens. PMID:25768148

  12. Advanced gradient-index lens design tools to maximize system performance and reduce SWaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sawyer D.; Nagar, Jogender; Brocker, Donovan E.; Easum, John A.; Turpin, Jeremiah P.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-05-01

    GRadient-INdex (GRIN) lenses have long been of interest due to their potential for providing levels of performance unachievable with traditional homogeneous lenses. While historically limited by a lack of suitable materials, rapid advancements in manufacturing techniques, including 3D printing, have recently kindled a renewed interest in GRIN optics. Further increasing the desire for GRIN devices has been the advent of Transformation Optics (TO), which provides the mathematical framework for representing the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in a given geometry by "transforming" it to an alternative, usually more desirable, geometry through an appropriate mapping of the constituent material parameters. Using TO, aspherical lenses can be transformed to simpler spherical and flat geometries or even rotationally-asymmetric shapes which result in true 3D GRIN profiles. Meanwhile, there is a critical lack of suitable design tools which can effectively evaluate the optical wave propagation through 3D GRIN profiles produced by TO. Current modeling software packages for optical lens systems also lack advanced multi-objective global optimization capability which allows the user to explicitly view the trade-offs between all design objectives such as focus quality, FOV, ▵nand focal drift due to chromatic aberrations. When coupled with advanced design methodologies such as TO, wavefront matching (WFM), and analytical achromatic GRIN theory, these tools provide a powerful framework for maximizing SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) reduction in GRIN-enabled optical systems. We provide an overview of our advanced GRIN design tools and examples which minimize the presence of mono- and polychromatic aberrations in the context of reducing SWaP.

  13. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Background Sleep duration may be an important regulator of body weight and metabolism. An association between short habitual sleep time and increased body mass index (BMI) has been reported in large population samples. The potential role of metabolic hormones in this association is unknown. Methods and Findings Study participants were 1,024 volunteers from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, a population-based longitudinal study of sleep disorders. Participants underwent nocturnal polysomnography and reported on their sleep habits through questionnaires and sleep diaries. Following polysomnography, morning, fasted blood samples were evaluated for serum leptin and ghrelin (two key opposing hormones in appetite regulation), adiponectin, insulin, glucose, and lipid profile. Relationships among these measures, BMI, and sleep duration (habitual and immediately prior to blood sampling) were examined using multiple variable regressions with control for confounding factors. A U-shaped curvilinear association between sleep duration and BMI was observed. In persons sleeping less than 8 h (74.4% of the sample), increased BMI was proportional to decreased sleep. Short sleep was associated with low leptin (p for slope = 0.01), with a predicted 15.5% lower leptin for habitual sleep of 5 h versus 8 h, and high ghrelin (p for slope = 0.008), with a predicted 14.9% higher ghrelin for nocturnal (polysomnographic) sleep of 5 h versus 8 h, independent of BMI. Conclusion Participants with short sleep had reduced leptin and elevated ghrelin. These differences in leptin and ghrelin are likely to increase appetite, possibly explaining the increased BMI observed with short sleep duration. In Western societies, where chronic sleep restriction is common and food is widely available, changes in appetite regulatory hormones with sleep curtailment may contribute to obesity. PMID:15602591

  14. Oral Zinc Supplementation Reduces the Erythropoietin Responsiveness Index in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Abe, Masanori; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Tei, Ritsukou; Maruyama, Noriaki; Kikuchi, Fumito; Higuchi, Terumi; Soma, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: In hemodialysis (HD) patients, zinc depletion caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption, and removal by HD treatment leads to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness. This study investigated the effects of zinc supplementation in HD patients with zinc deficiency on changes in the erythropoietin responsiveness index (ERI). Methods: Patients on HD with low serum zinc levels (<65 μg/dL) were randomly assigned to two groups: The polaprezinc group (who received daily polaprezinc, containing 34 mg/day of zinc) (n = 35) and the control group (no supplementation) (n = 35) for 12 months. All the 70 patients had been taking epoetin alpha as treatment for renal anemia. ERI was measured with the following equation: Weekly ESA dose (units)/dry weight (kg)/hemoglobin (g/dL). Results: There were no significant changes in hemoglobin levels within groups or between the control and polaprezinc groups during the study period. Although reticulocyte counts were increased immediately after zinc supplementation, this change was transient. Serum zinc levels were significantly increased and serum copper levels were significantly decreased in the polaprezinc group after three months; this persisted throughout the study period. Although there was no significant change in the serum iron or transferrin saturation levels in the polaprezinc group during the study period, serum ferritin levels significantly decreased following polaprezinc treatment. Further, in the polaprezinc group, ESA dosage and ERI were significantly decreased at 10 months and nine months, respectively, as compared with the baseline value. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that the change in the serum zinc level was an independent predictor of lowered ERI. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation reduces ERI in patients undergoing HD and may be a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with renal anemia and low serum zinc levels. PMID:25988769

  15. Lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick J; Hilger, Peter A

    2004-02-01

    Lip augmentation has become increasingly popular in recent years as a reflection of cultural trends emphasizing youth and beauty. Techniques to enhance the appearance of the lips have evolved with advances in biotechnology. An understanding of lip anatomy and aesthetics forms the basis for successful results. We outline the pertinent anatomy and aesthetics of the preoperative evaluation. A summary of various filler materials available is provided. Augmentation options include both injectable and open surgical techniques. The procedures and materials currently favored by the authors are described in greater detail. PMID:15034811

  16. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Ag3PO4 Heterostructure: A Direct Z-Scheme Photocatalyst for Augmented Photoreactivity and Stability.

    PubMed

    Samal, Alaka; Das, D P; Nanda, K K; Mishra, B K; Das, J; Dash, A

    2016-02-18

    A visible light driven, direct Z-scheme reduced graphene oxide-Ag3PO4 (RGO-Ag3 PO4 ) heterostructure was synthesized by means of a simple one-pot photoreduction route by varying the amount of RGO under visible light illumination. The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and growth of Ag3PO4 took place simultaneously. The effect of the amount of RGO on the textural properties and photocatalytic activity of the heterostructure was investigated under visible light illumination. Furthermore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis confirmed 97.1 % mineralization of organic dyes over RGO-Ag3PO4 in just five minutes under visible-light illumination. The use of different quenchers in the photomineralization suggested the presence of hydroxyl radicals ((.)OH), superoxide radicals ((.)O2 (-)), and holes (h(+)), which play a significant role in the mineralization of organic dyes. In addition to that, clean hydrogen fuel generation was also observed with excellent reusability. The 4 RGO-Ag3PO4 heterostructure has a high H2 evolution rate of 3690 μmol h(-1)  g(-1), which is 6.15 times higher than that of RGO. PMID:26639552

  17. Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.

  18. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  19. Phase 1/2 trial of total marrow and lymph node irradiation to augment reduced-intensity transplantation for advanced hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jeffrey; Stein, Anthony; Qian, Dajun; Hitt, Debbie; Naeem, Hossameldin; Dagis, Andrew; Thomas, Sandra H.; Forman, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This phase 1/2 study assessed the augmentation of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with total marrow and lymph node irradiation (TMLI), for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, in patients with advanced hematologic disease. The regimen consisted of fludarabine 25 mg/m2 per day for 5 days, melphalan 140 mg/m2 for one day, and TMLI radiation at 150 cGy/fraction in 8 fractions over 4 days. Eligible patients were over 50 years old and/or had compromised organ function. Median age of the 33 evaluable patients was 55.2 years. Eighteen events of nonhematologic grade III or higher toxicities occurred in 9 patients. Day 30 and day 100 mortalities were 3% and 15%, respectively. Patients achieved myeloid and platelet engraftment at a median of 14 days after transplantation. Long-term toxicities occurred in 2 patients: hypokalemia and tremor, both grade III, on days 370 and 361 after transplantation. Fourteen patients died, 7 of relapse-related causes and 7 of non–relapse-related causes. With a median follow-up for living patients of 14.7 months, 1-year overall survival, event-free survival, and non–relapse-related mortality were 75%, 65%, and 19%, respectively. Addition of TMLI to RIC is feasible and safe and could be offered to patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who might not otherwise be candidates for RIC. PMID:20876852

  20. Augmenting computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  1. Chin augmentation.

    PubMed

    Choe, K S; Stucki-McCormick, S U

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of facial aesthetic surgery is to restore, enhance, and rejuvenate the aging face to a more youthful appearance, achieving balance and harmony. The mental area must be addressed in order to have a complete synthesis of the face. The concept of augmenting the mental area with implants has evolved so significantly that it now stands by itself as an important procedure. Various autogenous implants for chin augmentation have been in use for over 100 years but have complications. The advent of synthetic materials has given rise to various types of alloplastic implants: Gore-Tex, Medpor, Supramid, Silastic, and Mersilene. No one implant is perfect for every face. This article overviews several alloplastic implants--their advantages, disadvantages, and complications, in addition to the different techniques of preparing and delivering the implants. PMID:11802346

  2. Can Atypical Antipsychotic Augmentation Reduce Subsequent Treatment Failure More Effectively Among Depressed Patients with a Higher Degree of Treatment Resistance? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Ahn, Il Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation was demonstrated to be efficacious in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in previous meta-analyses. We investigate whether there are differences in the effect size of atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder according to the degree of treatment resistance. Methods: A comprehensive search of four databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials. The 11 trials, which included 3 341 participants, were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy showed superior efficacy compared to antidepressant monotherapy in TRD in terms of both response and remission rates (response, risk ratio [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 1.53; remission, RR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.42 to 1.85). In addition, regarding response rates in the TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation exhibited significantly different effect sizes according to the degree of treatment resistance (TRD 1: RR = 1.24; TRD 2: RR = 1.37; TRD 2–4: RR = 1.58). In non-TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation failed to show superior efficacy over antidepressant monotherapy in terms of remission rates (RR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.14). Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy exhibits greater effect size in patients with a higher degree of treatment resistance. Conclusions: This finding strengthens the rationale for considering atypical antipsychotic augmentation among depressed patients with multiple previous treatment failures in clinical practice. The efficacy of atypical antipsychotic augmentation for non-TRD seems to be different from that for TRD and, thus, further studies of non-TRD populations are needed. PMID:25770098

  3. Alpha and gamma band oscillations index differential processing of acoustically reduced and full forms.

    PubMed

    Drijvers, Linda; Mulder, Kimberley; Ernestus, Mirjam

    2016-02-01

    Reduced forms like yeshay for yesterday often occur in conversations. Previous behavioral research reported a processing advantage for full over reduced forms. The present study investigated whether this processing advantage is reflected in a modulation of alpha (8-12Hz) and gamma (30+Hz) band activity. In three electrophysiological experiments, participants listened to full and reduced forms in isolation (Experiment 1), sentence-final position (Experiment 2), or mid-sentence position (Experiment 3). Alpha power was larger in response to reduced forms than to full forms, but only in Experiments 1 and 2. We interpret these increases in alpha power as reflections of higher auditory cognitive load. In all experiments, gamma power only increased in response to full forms, which we interpret as showing that lexical activation spreads more quickly through the semantic network for full than for reduced forms. These results confirm a processing advantage for full forms, especially in non-medial sentence position. PMID:26878718

  4. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G.; Liu, Qing-song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R.; Grim, Travis W.; Merritt, Christina R.; Wise, Laura E.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Selley, Dana E.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition combined

  5. Reducing the Need for Accurate Stream Flow Forecasting for Water Supply Planning by Augmenting Reservoir Operations with Seawater Desalination and Wastewater Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate stream flow forecasts are critical for reservoir operations for water supply planning. As the world urban population increases, the demand for water in cities is also increasing, making accurate forecasts even more important. However, accurate forecasting of stream flows is difficult owing to short- and long-term weather variations. We propose to reduce this need for accurate stream flow forecasts by augmenting reservoir operations with seawater desalination and wastewater recycling. We develop a robust operating policy for the joint operation of the three sources. With the joint model, we tap into the unlimited reserve of seawater through desalination, and make use of local supplies of wastewater through recycling. However, both seawater desalination and recycling are energy intensive and relatively expensive. Reservoir water on the other hand, is generally cheaper but is limited and variable in its availability, increasing the risk of water shortage during extreme climate events. We operate the joint system by optimizing it using a genetic algorithm to maximize water supply reliability and resilience while minimizing vulnerability subject to a budget constraint and for a given stream flow forecast. To compute the total cost of the system, we take into account the pumping cost of transporting reservoir water to its final destination, and the capital and operating costs of desalinating seawater and recycling wastewater. We produce results for different hydro climatic regions based on artificial stream flows we generate using a simple hydrological model and an autoregressive time series model. The artificial flows are generated from precipitation and temperature data from the Canadian Regional Climate model for present and future scenarios. We observe that the joint operation is able to effectively minimize the negative effects of stream flow forecast uncertainty on system performance at an overall cost that is not significantly greater than the cost of a

  6. Use of drinking water treatment residuals as a potential best management practice to reduce phosphorus risk index scores.

    PubMed

    Dayton, E A; Basta, N T

    2005-01-01

    The P risk index system has been developed to identify agricultural fields vulnerable to P loss as a step toward protecting surface water. Because of their high Langmuir phosphorus adsorption maxima (P(max)), use of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) should be considered as a best management practice (BMP) to lower P risk index scores. This work discusses three WTR application methods that can be used to reduce P risk scores: (i) enhanced buffer strip, (ii) incorporation into a high soil test phosphorus (STP) soil, and (iii) co-blending with manure or biosolids. The relationship between WTR P(max) and reduction in P extractability and runoff P was investigated. In a simulated rainfall experiment, using a buffer strip enhanced with 20 Mg WTR ha(-1), runoff P was reduced by from 66.8 to 86.2% and reductions were related to the WTR P(max). When 25 g kg(-1) WTR was incorporated into a high STP soil of 315 mg kg(-1) determined using Mehlich-3 extraction, 0.01 M calcium chloride-extractable phosphorus (CaCl(2)-P) reductions ranged from 60.9 to 96.0% and were strongly (P < 0.01) related to WTR P(max). At a 100 g kg(-1) WTR addition, Mehlich 3-extractable P reductions ranged from 41.1 to 86.7% and were strongly (P < 0.01) related to WTR P(max). Co-blending WTR at 250 g kg(-1) to manure or biosolids reduced CaCl(2)-P by >75%. The WTR P(max) normalized across WTR application rates (P(max) x WTR application) was significantly related to reductions in CaCl(2)-P or STP. Using WTR as a P risk index modifying factor will promote effective use of WTR as a BMP to reduce P loss from agricultural land. PMID:16275711

  7. Reducing the spectral index in F-term hybrid inflation through a complementary modular inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarides, G.; Pallis, C.

    2007-07-01

    We consider two-stage inflationary models in which a superheavy scale F-term hybrid inflation is followed by an intermediate scale modular inflation. We confront these models with the restrictions on the power spectrum P of curvature perturbations and the spectral index n implied by the recent data within the power-law cosmological model with cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. We show that these restrictions can be met provided that the number of e-foldings N suffered by the pivot scale k=0.002/Mpc during hybrid inflation is appropriately restricted. The additional e-foldings required for solving the horizon and flatness problems can be naturally generated by the subsequent modular inflation. For central values of P and n, we find that, in the case of standard hybrid inflation, the values obtained for the grand unification scale are close to its supersymmetric value M=2.86×10 GeV, the relevant coupling constant is relatively large (≈0.005 0.14), and 10≲N≲21.7. In the case of shifted [smooth] hybrid inflation, the grand unification scale can be identified with M provided that N≃21 [N≃18].

  8. Augmented RIGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminskas, R. A.; Mcguire, D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of the Phase 2 Resonant Infrasonic Gauging System (RIGS) development program are presented. The program consisted of design, fabrication, and testing of an "augmented" RIGS concept. The RIGS is a gauging system capable of measuring propellant quantities in zero-g as well as under accelerated conditions. Except for hydrogen, it can be used to gauge virtually any propellant in liquid form, including cryogenics. The gage consists of a sensor unit which is attached to the propellant tank and an electronic control unit which may be positioned separately from the sensor. The control unit receives signals from the sensor as well as the propellant temperature measurement and the ullage gas pressure, and computes the propellant quantity in the tank.

  9. A Generalized Cosmological Reduced Void Probability Distribution Function and Levy Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Andrew, K.; Baxley, J.; Smailhodzic, A.; Bolen, B.; Gary, J.; Taylor, L.; Barnaby, D.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the DEEP2 survey and numerical runs of the Gadget II code to analyze the distribution of cosmological voids in the universe similar to the model proposed by Mekjian.1 The general form of the Void Probability Function focuses on a scaling model inspired from percolation theory that gives an analytical form for the distribution function. For large redshifts the early universe was smooth and the probability function has a simple mathematical form that mimics the two point correlation results leading to a Zipf's Law probability distribution indicating an ever decreasing probability of larger and larger voids, we determine the Zipf form of the scaling power law for void frequency. As various large scale galactic structures emerge in a given simulation a number of relatively empty regions are isolated and characterized as voids based upon number counts in the associated volume. The number density of these regions is such that the universe has a large scale "sponge-like” appearance with voids of all scales permeating the field of observation, hinting at the existence of an underlying scaling law. For these data sets we examine the range of critical void probability function parameters that give rise to the best fit to the numerical and observational data. The resulting void probability functions are then used to determine the Levy index and the Fisher critical exponent within the context of a grand canonical ensemble analysis viewed as a percolation effect. We wish to thank the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium for providing the NASA grant funding this research 1. Aram Z. Mekjian , Generalized statistical models of voids and hierarchical structure in cosmology, The Astrophysical Journal, 655: 1-10, 2007, arXiv:0712.1217

  10. Postreduction Breast Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Doft, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most breast reduction patients are highly satisfied after surgery. However, there is a subset of women who seek breast augmentation years later to restore lost volume chiefly associated with weight loss and postpartum changes. Breast shape and overall aesthetics are often revised at the same time. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 2 surgeons’ experiences with post-reduction breast augmentation. Twenty patients were identified between 2002 and 2014. An in-depth chart review was conducted to determine patient motivation and to examine the operative techniques employed. Implant variables, a reduction specimen weight to implant volume comparison (where available), and complications are reported. Results: The average age was 37.1 years and average body mass index was 21.8 kg/m2. Most patients waited over a decade to have their breasts revised. Weight loss was the motivating factor in 8 patients and pregnancy changes in 11. Nineteen patients wished to stay with the same bra size or 1 cup size larger. Although all patients elected to have an implant placed, 19 patients wished to have an improved breast shape, not specifically a larger volume. The average breast implant was 203.5 cm3 (range, 120–340 cm3). Complications from implant placement included a seroma treated by aspiration and a Baker class III capsular contracture that required surgical correction. Conclusions: A small subset of reduction mammaplasty patients seek breast augmentation many years later primarily to improve breast contour, not to restore their prereduction breast volumes. Conservative augmentation combined with revision of breast shape and areolar aesthetics yields good results with minimal complications. PMID:26579333

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates ERP-indexed inhibitory control and reduces food consumption.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Olivia Morgan; Sierve, Karina Di; de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Fregni, Felipe; Boggio, Paulo Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    Food craving can be defined as the "urge to eat a specific food". Previous findings suggest impairment of inhibitory control, specifically a regulatory deficit in the lateral prefrontal circuitry that is associated with a compulsion for food. As demonstrated by three previous studies, bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (anode right/cathode left) reduces food craving and caloric intake. We designed the present study to evaluate the neural mechanisms that underlie these effects. We replicated the design of one of these previous studies but included electroencephalographic assessments to register evoked potentials in a Go/No-go task that contained pictures of food and furniture (a control visual stimulus). We collected data from nine women (mean age = 23.4 ± 2 years) in a crossover experiment. We observed that active DLPFC tDCS (anode right/cathode left), compared with sham stimulation, reduced the frontal N2 component and enhanced the P3a component of responses to No-go stimuli, regardless of the stimulus condition (food or furniture). Active tDCS was also associated with a reduction in caloric intake. We discuss our findings in the context of cortico-subcortical processing of craving and tDCS effects on inhibitory control neural circuitry. PMID:25128836

  12. Avoiding the 4-index transformation in one-body reduced density matrix functional calculations for separable functionals.

    PubMed

    Giesbertz, Klaas J H

    2016-08-01

    One of the major computational bottlenecks in one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory is the evaluation of approximate 1RDM functionals and their derivatives. The reason is that more advanced approximate functionals are almost exclusively defined in the natural orbital basis, so a 4-index transformation of the two-electron integrals appears to be unavoidable. I will show that this is not the case and that so-called separable functionals can be evaluated much more efficiently, i.e. only at cubic cost in the basis size. Since most approximate functionals are actually separable, this new algorithm is an important development to make 1RDM functional theory calculations feasible for large electronic systems. PMID:26908059

  13. The reduced density matrix method for electronic structure calculations and the role of three-index representability conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhengji; Braams, Bastiaan J; Fukuda, Mituhiro; Overton, Michael L; Percus, Jerome K

    2004-02-01

    The variational approach for electronic structure based on the two-body reduced density matrix is studied, incorporating two representability conditions beyond the previously used P, Q, and G conditions. The additional conditions (called T1 and T2 here) are implicit in the work of Erdahl [Int. J. Quantum Chem. 13, 697 (1978)] and extend the well-known three-index diagonal conditions also known as the Weinhold-Wilson inequalities. The resulting optimization problem is a semidefinite program, a convex optimization problem for which computational methods have greatly advanced during the past decade. Formulating the reduced density matrix computation using the standard dual formulation of semidefinite programming, as opposed to the primal one, results in substantial computational savings and makes it possible to study larger systems than was done previously. Calculations of the ground state energy and the dipole moment are reported for 47 different systems, in each case using an STO-6G basis set and comparing with Hartree-Fock, singly and doubly substituted configuration interaction, Brueckner doubles (with triples), coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbational treatment of triples, and full configuration interaction calculations. It is found that the use of the T1 and T2 conditions gives a significant improvement over just the P, Q, and G conditions, and provides in all cases that we have studied more accurate results than the other mentioned approximations. PMID:15268347

  14. How to reduce day-to-day variation of leaf area index derived from digital cover photography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. R.; Ryu, Y.; Kimm, H.; Macfarlane, C.; Lang, M.; Sonnentag, O.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is essential for computing canopy level carbon and water fluxes. Nowadays, it is possible to automatically monitor daily LAI using low-cost sensors, such as digital cameras and LED-sensors. Recent studies have shown that RAW camera format images can improve the estimation of gap fractions and LAI compared to JPEG format. However, whether RAW-based methods can effectively reduce day-to-day variation of LAI time series has not been investigated. In this study, we used two methods to compute gap fraction. The first method separates sky and vegetation pixels using a single threshold in the blue band histogram. The second method interpolates the background sky image from pure sky pixels, and computes the transmittance from original and reconstructed images. In order to investigate which method is more accurate in reducing day-to-day variation of LAI, we first conducted a controlled experiment with punched panels which included different hole size and gap fractions on the rooftop. Then, we applied both methods to photos collected daily over a year at deciduous forest and evergreen forest in South Korea.

  15. Epidural ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine reduces propofol requirement based on bispectral index in patients undergoing lower extremity and abdominal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Renu; Pujari, Vinayak Seenappa; Chadalawada, Mohan V. R.; Cheruvathoor, Ajish Varghese; Bevinguddaiah, Yatish; Sheshagiri, Nirmal

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: To assess the amount of propofol required for induction based on bispectral index (BIS) after administering epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine alone and ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing lower extremities and abdominal surgeries. Subjects and Methods: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out in 60 patients over a period of 2 years in a tertiary care hospital. American Society of Anaesthesiologists I or II in age group 18–65 years were included in the study. Group R received epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine alone, and Group D received ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine. General anesthesia was induced with propofol under BIS monitoring after 15 min. Onset of sensory and motor block, time for loss of consciousness and total amount of propofol used during induction to achieve the BIS value < 55 were recorded. Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used to find the significance of study parameters. Results: Time of onset of sensory block (Group R 11.30 ± 1.64/Group D 8.27 ± 0.83 min), motor block (Group R 14.16 ± 1.33/Group D 12.63 ± 1.22 min), time for loss of consciousness (Group R 90.57 ± 11.05/Group D 73.67 ± 16.34 s), and total amount of propofol (Group R 129.83 ± 22.38/Group D 92.13 ± 12.93 s) were reduced in Group D which was statistically significant with P < 0.001. Conclusion: Epidural ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine significantly reduces the total propofol dose required for induction of anesthesia. Also, it decreases the onset time of sensory and motor block and provides good hemodynamic stability. PMID:26957689

  16. N-acetylcysteine infusion reduces the resistance index of renal artery in the early stage of systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Edoardo; Cianci, Rosario; Barbano, Biagio; Menghi, Ginevra; Gigante, Antonietta; Rossi, Carmelina; Zardi, Enrico M; Amoroso, Antonio; Pisarri, Simonetta; Salsano, Felice

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate resistance index (RI) changes in renal artery after N-acetylcysteine infusion in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods: In an open-label study 40 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) iv infusion over 5 consecutive hours, at a dose of 0.015 g·kg−1·h−1. Renal haemodynamic effects were evaluated by color Doppler examination before and after NAC infusion. Results: NAC infusion significantly reduced RI in a group of sclerodermic patients with early/active capillaroscopic pattern, modified Rodnan Total Skin Score (mRTSS) <14 and mild-moderate score to the vascular domain of Medsger Scleroderma Disease Severity Scale (DSS). RI increased after NAC infusion in patients with late capillaroscopic pattern, mTRSS>14 and severe-end stage score to the vascular domain of DSS. In patients with reduction of RI after NAC infusion, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide mean value was significantly higher than in those patients with an increase of RI. No significant differences in renal blood flow were found between patients with different subsets of SSc. Conclusion: In patients with low disease severity NAC ameliorates vascular renal function. PMID:19730428

  17. Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Bradford J

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty were developed to reduce pain and improve quality of life for patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, the use of vertebral augmentation has been debated and questioned since its inception. This article addresses some of these issues. PMID:26490134

  18. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Breast augmentation; Breast implants; Implants - breast; Mammaplasty ... Breast augmentation is done by placing implants behind breast tissue or under the chest muscle. An implant is a sac filled with either sterile salt water (saline) or a ...

  19. Augmented Reality in astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-09-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss possible future trends for Augmented Reality applications in astrophysics, and explore the current limitations associated with the technology. This Augmented Article, the first of its kind, is designed to allow the reader to directly experiment with this technology.

  20. Runx1 Phosphorylation by Src Increases Trans-activation via Augmented Stability, Reduced Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Binding, and Increased DNA Affinity, and Activated Runx1 Favors Granulopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wan Yee; Guo, Hong; Ma, Ou; Huang, Hui; Cantor, Alan B; Friedman, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Src phosphorylates Runx1 on one central and four C-terminal tyrosines. We find that activated Src synergizes with Runx1 to activate a Runx1 luciferase reporter. Mutation of the four Runx1 C-terminal tyrosines to aspartate or glutamate to mimic phosphorylation increases trans-activation of the reporter in 293T cells and allows induction of Cebpa or Pu.1 mRNAs in 32Dcl3 myeloid cells, whereas mutation of these residues to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation obviates these effects. Three mechanisms contribute to increased Runx1 activity upon tyrosine modification as follows: increased stability, reduced histone deacetylase (HDAC) interaction, and increased DNA binding. Mutation of the five modified Runx1 tyrosines to aspartate markedly reduced co-immunoprecipitation with HDAC1 and HDAC3, markedly increased stability in cycloheximide or in the presence of co-expressed Cdh1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase coactivator, with reduced ubiquitination, and allowed DNA-binding in gel shift assay similar to wild-type Runx1. In contrast, mutation of these residues to phenylalanine modestly increased HDAC interaction, modestly reduced stability, and markedly reduced DNA binding in gel shift assays and as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation with the -14-kb Pu.1 or +37-kb Cebpa enhancers after stable expression in 32Dcl3 cells. Affinity for CBFβ, the Runx1 DNA-binding partner, was not affected by these tyrosine modifications, and in vitro translated CBFβ markedly increased DNA affinity of both the translated phenylalanine and aspartate Runx1 variants. Finally, further supporting a positive role for Runx1 tyrosine phosphorylation during granulopoiesis, mutation of the five Src-modified residues to aspartate but not phenylalanine allows Runx1 to increase Cebpa and granulocyte colony formation by Runx1-deleted murine marrow. PMID:26598521

  1. Performance of a self-augmented railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.L.; Witherspoon, F.D.; Goldstein, S.A. )

    1991-10-01

    The accelerating force of a railgun 1/2{ital L}{prime}{ital I}{sup 2}{sub {ital a}} can be increased by augmenting the self-induced magnetic field created by the armature current. Augmentation fields can be produced by external current coils or, as is done here, by shorting the railgun muzzle, and using the gun rails as the augmentation coil. Experimental results are presented for a 3.6-m railgun operated in this self-augmented mode, and effective inductance gradients are achieved which are as much as 9.3 times that of the unaugmented gun. A circuit model is presented which explains features of the measured shunt current and voltage. It is concluded that self-augmentation is an effective way to reduce ohmic heating in the armature of a railgun.

  2. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction. PMID:26208310

  3. Acute augmentation of epoxygenated fatty acid levels rapidly reduces pain-related behavior in a rat model of type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Inceoglu, Bora; Wagner, Karen M; Yang, Jun; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Schebb, Nils H; Hwang, Sung Hee; Morisseau, Christophe; Haj, Fawaz G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-07-10

    The nerve damage occurring as a consequence of glucose toxicity in diabetes leads to neuropathic pain, among other problems. This pain dramatically reduces the quality of life in afflicted patients. The progressive damage to the peripheral nervous system is irreversible although strict control of hyperglycemia may prevent further damage. Current treatments include tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids, depending on the severity of the pain state. However, available therapeutics have drawbacks, arguing for the need to better understand the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain and develop novel treatments. Here we demonstrate that stabilization of a class of bioactive lipids, epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs), greatly reduces allodynia in rats caused by streptozocin-induced type I diabetes. Inhibitors of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEHI) elevated and stabilized the levels of plasma and spinal EpFAs, respectively, and generated dose-dependent antiallodynic effects more potently and efficaciously than gabapentin. In acute experiments, positive modulation of EpFAs did not display differences in insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, or insulin secretion, indicating the efficacy of sEHIs are not related to the glycemic status. Quantitative metabolomic analysis of a panel of 26 bioactive lipids demonstrated that sEHI-mediated antiallodynic effects coincided with a selective elevation of the levels of EpFAs in the plasma, and a decrease in degradation products coincided with the dihydroxy fatty acids in the spinal cord. Overall, these results argue that further efforts in understanding the spectrum of effects of EpFAs will yield novel opportunities in treating neuropathic pain. PMID:22733772

  4. Experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation inside double pipe heat exchanger equipped with reduced width twisted tapes inserts using polymeric nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbehian, Mohammad; Maddah, Heydar; Mohammadiun, Hamid; Alizadeh, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a further enhancement in heat transfer coefficients of base fluid in combination with structural modifications of tape inserts. Polyvinyl Alcohol and TiO2 with mean diameter of 15 nm were chosen as base fluid and nano-particles, respectively. The experiments are carried out in plain tube with four longitudinal internal fins and reduced width twisted tape (RWTT) inserts of twist ratio varying form 2-5 and width of 12-16. Experiments are undertaken to determine heat transfer coefficients and friction factor of TiO2/PVA nanofluid up to 2.0 % volume concentration at an average temperature of 30 °C. The investigations are undertaken in the Reynolds number range of 800-30,000 for flow in tubes and with tapes of different width length ratios. The experiments was verified with well-known correlations. The average Nusselt number and friction factor in the tube fitted with the full-length twisted tapes at y/w = 3.0, and 5.0, are respectively 50-130, and 30-95 % higher than those in the plain tube; 90-220 and 100-270 % when the working fluid is nanofluid, respectively. For the reduced width twisted tapes, the heat transfer rate is decreased with decreasing tapes width. The average Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with the RWTT of 16, 14 and 12 are respectively, 210-390, 190-320 and 170-290 % of that in the plain tube. With the similar trend mentioned above, RWTT with higher width length yield higher thermal enhancement factor in comparison with smaller width. The use of RWTT led to the highest thermal performance factor up to 1.75. Maximum thermal performance factor which was obtained belonged to twists with twist ratio of 2 and width of 16 with φ = 0.5 % and Reynolds number range of 800-30,000.

  5. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  6. Equating of Augmented Subscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…

  7. Subfascial gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    Developing the concept of gluteal augmentation through the past 17 years has been an academic adventure. During these years my coworkers and I have progressively improved surgical technique and devised an anatomical system for gluteal augmentation that includes an ideal implant design and templates to assist in evaluating patients in the preoperative period and to identify the most appropriate implant size. PMID:16818097

  8. External Counterpulsation Reduces Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Variability When Augmenting Blood Pressure and Cerebral Blood Flow in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ge; Xiong, Li; Lin, Wenhua; Han, Jinghao; Chen, Xiangyan; Leung, Thomas Wai Hong; Soo, Yannie Oi Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose External counterpulsation (ECP) is a noninvasive method used to enhance cerebral perfusion by elevating the blood pressure in ischemic stroke. However, the response of the beat-to-beat blood pressure variability (BPV) in ischemic stroke patients during ECP remains unknown. Methods We enrolled recent ischemic stroke patients and healthy controls. Changes in the blood flow velocities in bilateral middle cerebral arteries and the continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure before, during, and after ECP were monitored. Power spectral analysis revealed that the BPV included oscillations at very low frequency (VLF; <0.04 Hz), low frequency (LF; 0.04–0.15 Hz), and high frequency (HF; 0.15–0.40 Hz), and the total power spectral density (TP; <0.40 Hz) and LF/HF ratio were calculated. Results We found that ECP significantly increased the systolic and diastolic blood pressures in both stroke patients and controls. ECP decreased markedly the systolic and diastolic BPVs at VLF and LF and the TP, and the diastolic BPV at HF when compared with baseline. The decreases in diastolic and systolic BPV reached 37.56% and 23.20%, respectively, at VLF, 21.15% and 12.19% at LF, 8.76% and 16.59% at HF, and 31.92% and 23.62% for the total TP in stroke patients, which did not differ from those in healthy controls. The change in flow velocity on the contralateral side was positively correlated with the total TP systolic BPV change induced by ECP (r=0.312, p=0.035). Conclusions ECP reduces the beat-to-beat BPV when increasing the blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity in ischemic stroke patients. ECP might be able to improve the clinical outcome by decreasing the beat-to-beat BPV in stroke patients, and this should be explored further in future studies. PMID:27095525

  9. A new bottom-up methodology to produce silicon layers with a closed porosity nanostructure and reduced refractive index.

    PubMed

    Godinho, V; Caballero-Hernández, J; Jamon, D; Rojas, T C; Schierholz, R; García-López, J; Ferrer, F J; Fernández, A

    2013-07-12

    A new approach is presented to produce amorphous porous silicon coatings (a-pSi) with closed porosity by magnetron sputtering of a silicon target. It is shown how the use of He as the process gas at moderated power (50-150 W RF) promotes the formation of closed nanometric pores during the growth of the silicon films. The use of oblique-angle deposition demonstrates the possibility of aligning and orientating the pores in one direction. The control of the deposition power allows the control of the pore size distribution. The films have been characterized by a variety of techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, showing the incorporation of He into the films (most probably inside the closed pores) and limited surface oxidation of the silicon coating. The ellipsometry measurements show a significant decrease in the refractive index of porous coatings (n(500 nm) = 3.75) in comparison to dense coatings (n(500 nm) = 4.75). The capability of the method to prepare coatings with a tailored refractive index is therefore demonstrated. The versatility of the methodology is shown in this paper by preparing intrinsic or doped silicon and also depositing (under DC or RF discharge) a-pSi films on a variety of substrates, including flexible materials, with good chemical and mechanical stability. The fabrication of multilayers of silicon films of controlled refractive index in a simple (one-target chamber) deposition methodology is also presented. PMID:23764615

  10. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. PMID:22559183

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  12. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shape of your breasts. Talk with a plastic surgeon if you are considering breast augmentation. Discuss ... mammograms or breast x-rays before surgery. The plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. Several ...

  13. RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Demeo, Martha E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: RMS active damping augmentation; potential space station assembly benefits to CSI; LaRC/JSC bridge program; control law design process; draper RMS simulator; MIMO acceleration control laws improve damping; potential load reduction benefit; DRS modified to model distributed accelerations; accelerometer location; Space Shuttle aft cockpit simulator; simulated shuttle video displays; SES test goals and objectives; and SES modifications to support RMS active damping augmentation.

  14. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V. . Physics Div.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 {minus} {phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system.

  15. A parametric evaluation of railgun augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, J. F.; Guderjahn, C. A.; Littman, F. D.

    1986-11-01

    A general dynamic system model of an augmented electromagnetic launch (EML) system was developed. This model was used to characterize the augmentation effect on EML system performance by a direct comparison to a nonaugmented or simple railgun system. The results of these calculations indicate that increasing rail augmentation increases both Joule heating losses and total EML system inductance. These losses and the larger system inductance were shown to decrease system efficiency despite the lower peak rail current required to induce the same Lorentz force on the projectile in the simple EML system. The Joule heating loss was shown to be reduced by decreasing the initial augmentor rail temperature or by increasing the augmentor rail area. This paper discusses the augmented EML system model and reports the results of the parametric calculations.

  16. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  17. Reduced Inhibitory Control Mediates the Relationship Between Cortical Thickness in the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Lavagnino, Luca; Mwangi, Benson; Bauer, Isabelle E; Cao, Bo; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Prossin, Alan; Soares, Jair C

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviors often develop in the setting of inadequate inhibitory control, a function broadly ascribed to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regulation of inhibitory control by the PFC and its anatomical components and their contribution to increasing body mass index (BMI) are poorly understood. To study the role of PFC in the regulation of inhibitory control and body weight, we examined measures of cortical thickness in PFC sub-regions, inhibitory control (color-word interference task (CWIT)), and BMI in 91 healthy volunteers. We tested the predictive effect of PFC sub-regional cortical thickness on BMI and mediation by inhibitory control measured with CWIT. Measures of depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-T) and trauma-related symptoms (TSC-40) were collected; the disinhibition scale of the three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess disinhibited eating. We then tested the relationship between BD-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, TFEQ, CWIT, and BMI with correlation analyses. Right superior frontal gyrus cortical thickness significantly predicted BMI (β=-0.91; t=-3.2; p=0.002). Mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of cortical thickness on BMI mediated by inhibitory control (95% CI=-6.1, -0.67). BMI was unrelated to BDI-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, or TFEQ scores. We found an inverse relationship between cortical thickness in the right-superior frontal gyrus and BMI, which was fully mediated by inhibitory control neurocognitive performance. Our results suggest possible targets for neuromodulation in obesity (ie superior frontal gyrus) and a quantifiable mediator of their effects (ie inhibitory control). PMID:26888057

  18. Reduced risk of Parkinson's disease associated with lower body mass index and heavy leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sääksjärvi, Katri; Knekt, Paul; Männistö, Satu; Lyytinen, Jukka; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Kanerva, Noora; Heliövaara, Markku

    2014-04-01

    The risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well established. We therefore examined the prediction of various lifestyle factors on the incidence of PD in a cohort drawn from the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, conducted in 1973-1976. The study population comprised 6,715 men and women aged 50-79 years and free of PD at the baseline. All of the subjects completed a baseline health examination (including height and weight measurements) and a questionnaire providing information on leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. During a 22-year follow-up, 101 incident cases of PD occurred. The statistical analyses were based on Cox's model including age, sex, education, community density, occupation, coffee consumption, body mass index (BMI), leisure-time physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption as independent variables. At first, BMI was not associated with PD risk, but after exclusion of the first 15 years of follow-up, an elevated risk appeared at higher BMI levels (P for trend 0.02). Furthermore, subjects with heavy leisure-time physical activity had a lower PD risk than those with no activity [relative risk (RR) 0.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.90]. In variance with findings for other chronic diseases, current smokers had a lower PD risk than those who had never smoked (RR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.08-0.67), and individuals with moderate alcohol intake (at the level of <5 g/day) had an elevated PD risk compared to non-drinkers. The results support the hypothesis that lifestyle factors predict the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, but more research is needed. PMID:24633681

  19. Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. PMID:24331549

  20. Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988-September 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  1. Ureteral bladder augmentation.

    PubMed

    Churchill, B M; Aliabadi, H; Landau, E H; McLorie, G A; Steckler, R E; McKenna, P H; Khoury, A E

    1993-08-01

    Virtually all segments of the gastrointestinal tract have been used successfully in augmentation cystoplasty. The complications inherent in enterocystoplasty are well described. Megaureters subtending effete kidneys (poorly or nonfunctioning) provide a novel and excellent source of augmentation material with urothelium and muscular backing, free of the electrolyte and acid base disturbances, and mucus production that plague enterocystoplasty. Augmentation cystoplasty using detubularized, reconfigured, otherwise disposable megaureter, with or without ipsilateral total or partial nephrectomy, was performed in 16 patients (mean age 8.8 years, range 1 to 25) with inadequate and dysfunctional bladders. Postoperative followup varied between 8 and 38 months (mean 22). The overall renal function and radiographic appearance of the remaining upper tracts have remained stable or improved in all patients. Of the 16 patients 15 require intermittent catheterization and 1 voids spontaneously. Ten patients are continent day and night, 5 have improved continence (4 damp at night and 1 stress incontinence) and 1 has failed to gain continence despite good capacity and compliance. Complete postoperative urodynamic evaluations in 12 of 13 patients show good capacity, low pressure bladders with no instability. Complications occurred in 5 patients, including transient urine extravasation in 2, contralateral ureterovesical obstruction in 2 and Mitrofanoff stomal stenosis in 1. Augmentation ureterocystoplasty combines the benefits common to all enterocystoplasties without adding any of the untoward complications or risks associated with nonurothelial augmentations. PMID:8326632

  2. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation is a well-known technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduce by the extra conductors required. It is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1-{phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system. Additions to the electrical system are required to establish the shunt current and to control its magnitude during projectile acceleration. The relationship between muzzle shunt augmentation and conventional series augmentation is developed and various techniques is developed and various techniques for establishing and controlling the shunt current are illustrated with a practical example. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  4. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  5. Repeated Training with Augmentative Vibrotactile Feedback Increases Object Manipulation Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Cara E.; An, Qi; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies. PMID:22384283

  6. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  7. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  8. Computer Augmented Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, W. A.; Matsen, F. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the use of a central computer linked to a CRT console, with display projected onto a large screen, to operate computer augmentation of lectures in large group instruction. Indicates that both introductory tutorial and computer modes are feasible in subject matter presentation. (CC)

  9. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  10. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    PubMed

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes. PMID:26357208

  11. The Effect of Augmented Feedback on Foot Pronation During Barre Exercise in Dance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the use of augmented auditory feedback to reduce foot pronation during barre exercise in dance. The results suggest that augmented feedback can effectively accelerate the correction of foot pronation in dance. (MT)

  12. Shuffle-exchanges on augmented meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A mesh connected array of size N = two to the Kth power, K an integer, can be augmented by adding at most one edge per node such that it can perform a shuffle-exchange of size N/2 in constant time. A shuffle-exchange of size N is performed on this augmented array in constant time. This is done by combining the available perfect shuffle of size N/2 with the existing nearest neighbor connections of the mesh. By carefully scheduling the different permutations that are composed in order to achieve the shuffle, the time required is reduced to 5 steps, which is optimal for this network.

  13. Batten augmented triangular beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Louis R.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The BAT (Batten-Augmented Triangular) BEAM is characterized by battens which are buckled in the deployed state, thus preloading the truss. The preload distribution is determined, and the effects of various external loading conditions are investigated. The conceptual design of a deployer is described and loads are predicted. The influence of joint imperfections on effective member stiffness is investigated. The beam is assessed structurally.

  14. Decreasing the load? Is a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review in older people an effective intervention to reduce a patient's Drug Burden Index? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Helene G; Wouters, Hans; van Hulten, Rolf; Pras, Niesko; Taxis, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Older people often use medications with anticholinergic or sedative side effects which increase the risk of falling and worsen cognitive impairment. The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a measure of the burden of anticholinergic and sedative medications. Medication reviews are typically done by a pharmacist in collaboration with a general practitioner to optimise the medication use and reduce these adverse drug events. We will evaluate whether a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review (3MR) is an effective intervention to reduce a patient's DBI. Methods A randomised controlled trial including 160 patients from 15 community pharmacies will be conducted. Per pharmacy, 1 pharmacist will perform a structured 3MR in close collaboration with the general practitioner, including the objective to reduce the DBI. Analysis Primary outcome—the difference in proportion of patients having a decrease in DBI≥0.5 in the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Secondary outcomes—anticholinergic and sedative side effects, falls, cognitive function, activities of daily living, quality of life, hospital admission, and mortality. Ethics and dissemination The burden of patients will be kept at a minimum. The 3MR can be considered as usual care by the pharmacist and general practitioner. Medical specialists will be consulted, if necessary. The intervention is specifically aimed at older community-dwelling patients in an attempt to optimise prescribing, in particular, to reduce medication with anticholinergic and sedative properties. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be distributed through information channels targeting professionals. Trial registration number NCT02317666; Pre-results. PMID:26700279

  15. Which Type of Sedentary Behavior Intervention is More Effective at Reducing Body Mass Index in Children? A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yue; Liao, Jingjing; Durand, Casey P.; Dunton, Genevieve F

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is emerging as an independent risk factor for pediatric obesity. Some evidence suggests that limiting sedentary behavior alone could be effective in reducing body mass index (BMI) in children. However, whether adding physical activity and diet-focused components to sedentary behavior reduction interventions could lead to an additive effect is unclear. This meta-analysis aims to assess the overall effect size of sedentary behavior interventions on BMI reduction, and to compare whether interventions that have multiple components (sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet) have a higher mean effect size than interventions with single (sedentary behavior) component. Included studies (N=25) were randomized controlled trails of children (<18 years) with intervention components aimed to reduce sedentary behavior and measured BMI at pre- and post-intervention. Effect size was calculated as the mean difference in BMI change between children in an intervention and a control group. Results indicated that sedentary behavior interventions had a significant effect on BMI reduction. The pooled effect sizes of multi-components interventions (g=−.060~−.089) did not differ from the single-component interventions (g=−.154), and neither of them had a significant effect size on its own. Future pediatric obesity interventions may consider focusing on developing strategies to decrease multiple screen-related sedentary behaviors. PMID:24588966

  16. Neurally augmented sexual function.

    PubMed

    Meloy, S

    2007-01-01

    Neurally Augmented Sexual Function (NASF) is a technique utilizing epidural electrodes to restore and improve sexual function. Orgasmic dysfunction is common in adult women, affecting roughly one quarter of populations studied. Many male patients suffering from erectile dysfunction are not candidates for phosphdiesterase therapy due to concomitant nitrate therapy. Positioning the electrodes at roughly the level of the cauda equina allows for stimulation of somatic efferents and afferents as well as modifying sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Our series of women treated by NASF is described. Our experience shows that the evaluation of potential candidates for both correctable causes and psychological screening are important considerations. PMID:17691397

  17. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  18. History of gluteal augmentation.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T

    2006-07-01

    The concept of female beauty has changed throughout time, but the form and size of the breasts and gluteal region have remained constant as symbols of maximum femininity. Sculptures and prints show us feminine figures that are voluminous and reflect human history's interest in fertility. The early years of gluteal augmentation saw few published reports that described the procedure technique, follow-up, or possible complications. But developments continued as surgeons began experimenting with different anatomical planes for implant placement. The most important goal in plastic surgery is meeting a patient's expectations. It is important for the surgeon to thoroughly explain to patients what can realistically be achieved with a procedure. PMID:16818090

  19. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe₂O₃/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS-fFe2O3-ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0×10(-6)M to 1.0×10(-4)M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5×10(-7)M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. PMID:26354265

  20. The effectiveness of sedentary behaviour interventions for reducing body mass index in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Liane B; Ling, Jonathan; Soos, Istvan; Robalino, Shannon; Ells, Louisa

    2016-07-01

    Intervention studies have been undertaken to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) and thereby potentially ameliorate unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We synthesised evidence and quantified the effects of SB interventions (single or multiple components) on body mass index (BMI) or BMI z-score in this population. Publications up to March 2015 were located through electronic searches. Inclusion criteria were interventions targeting SB in children that had a control group and objective measures of weight and height. Mean change in BMI or BMI z-score from baseline to post-intervention were quantified for intervention and control groups and meta-analyzed using a random effects model. The pooled mean reduction in BMI and BMI z-score was significant but very small (standardized mean difference = -0.060, 95% confidence interval: -0.098 to -0.022). However, the pooled estimate was substantially greater for an overweight or obese population (standardized mean difference = -0.255, 95% confidence interval: -0.400 to -0.109). Multicomponent interventions (SB and other behaviours) delivered to children from 5 to 12 years old in a non-educational setting appear to favour BMI reduction. In summary, SB interventions are associated with very small improvement in BMI in mixed-weight populations. However, SB interventions should be part of multicomponent interventions for treating obese children. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27098454

  1. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions. PMID:26780802

  2. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  3. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-09-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  4. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  5. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  6. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  7. Augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  9. An Integrated Risk Reduction Intervention can reduce body mass index in individuals being treated for bipolar I disorder: results from a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Ellen; Wallace, Meredith L; Hall, Martica; Hasler, Brant; Levenson, Jessica C; Janney, Carol A; Soreca, Isabella; Fleming, Matthew C; Buttenfield, Joan; Ritchey, Fiona C; Kupfer, David J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a randomized, controlled trial comparing the efficacy of an Integrated Risk Reduction Intervention (IRRI) to a control condition with the objective of improving mood stability and psychosocial functioning by reducing cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese patients with bipolar I disorder. Methods A total of 122 patients were recruited from our outpatient services and randomly allocated to IRRI (n = 61) or psychiatric care with medical monitoring (n = 61). Individuals allocated to IRRI received psychiatric treatment and assessment, medical monitoring by a nurse, and a healthy lifestyle program from a lifestyle coach. Those allocated to the control condition received psychiatric treatment and assessment and referral, if indicated, for medical problems. A mixed-effects model was used to examine the impact of the interventions on body mass index (BMI). Exploratory moderator analyses were used to characterize those individuals likely to benefit from each treatment approach. Results Analyses were conducted on the IRRI (n = 58) and control (n = 56) participants with ≥ 1 study visit. IRRI was associated with significantly greater rate of decrease in BMI (d = −0.51, 95% confidence interval: −0.91 to −0.14). Three variables (C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, and instability of total sleep time) contributed to a combined moderator of faster decrease in BMI with IRRI treatment. Conclusions Overweight/obese patients with bipolar disorder can make modest improvements in BMI, even when taking medications with known potential for weight gain. Our finding that a combination of three baseline variables provides a profile of patients likely to benefit from IRRI will need to be tested further to evaluate its utility in clinical practice. PMID:25495748

  10. Augmented reality in surgical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, E.; Schmalstieg, D.; Vander Sloten, J.; Freudenthal, A.; Declerck, J.; Casciaro, S.; Rideng, Ø.; Gersak, B.

    2008-02-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is one of the most important trends in modern medicine. It includes a wide range of therapies in videoscopic surgery and interventional radiology and is performed through small incisions. It reduces hospital stay-time by allowing faster recovery and offers substantially improved cost-effectiveness for the hospital and the society. However, the introduction of MIT has also led to new problems. The manipulation of structures within the body through small incisions reduces dexterity and tactile feedback. It requires a different approach than conventional surgical procedures, since eye-hand co-ordination is not based on direct vision, but more predominantly on image guidance via endoscopes or radiological imaging modalities. ARIS*ER is a multidisciplinary consortium developing a new generation of decision support tools for MIT by augmenting visual and sensorial feedback. We will present tools based on novel concepts in visualization, robotics and haptics providing tailored solutions for a range of clinical applications. Examples from radio-frequency ablation of liver-tumors, laparoscopic liver surgery and minimally invasive cardiac surgery will be presented. Demonstrators were developed with the aim to provide a seamless workflow for the clinical user conducting image-guided therapy.

  11. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  12. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  13. Perceptually Augmented Simulator Design.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, T; Pai, D K

    2012-01-01

    Training simulators have proven their worth in a variety of fields, from piloting to air-traffic control to nuclear power station monitoring. Designing surgical simulators, however, poses the challenge of creating trainers that effectively instill not only high-level understanding of the steps to be taken in a given situation, but also the low-level "muscle-memory" needed to perform delicate surgical procedures. It is often impossible to build an ideal simulator that perfectly mimics the haptic experience of a surgical procedure, but by focussing on the aspects of the experience that are perceptually salient we can build simulators that effectively instill learning. We propose a general method for the design of surgical simulators that augment the perceptually salient aspects of an interaction. Using this method, we can increase skill-transfer rates without requiring expensive improvements in the capability of the rendering hardware or the computational complexity of the simulation. In this paper, we present our decomposition-based method for surgical simulator design, and describe a user-study comparing the training effectiveness of a haptic-search-task simulator designed using our method versus an unaugmented simulator. The results show that perception-based task decomposition can be used to improve the design of surgical simulators that effectively impart skill by targeting perceptually significant aspects of the interaction. PMID:26963831

  14. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W. . Applied Mechanics Div. III)

    1989-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  15. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two-dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  16. Detonation wave augmentation of gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study that examined the effects of using detonation waves to augment the performance of gas turbines are reported. The central ideas were to reduce compressor requirements and to maintain high performance in jet engines. Gasdynamic equations were used to model the flows associated with shock waves generated by the detonation of fuel in detonator tubes. Shock wave attenuation to the level of Mach waves was found possible, thus eliminating interference with the compressor and the necessity of valves and seals. A preliminary parametric study of the performance of a compressor working at a 4:1 ratio in a conceptual design of a detonation wave augmented jet engine in subsonic flight indicated a clear superiority over conventional designs in terms of fuel efficiency and thrust.

  17. Postauricular fascia in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aldo Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Ten rhinoplasty operations performed using postauricular fascia for the purpose of augmenting the radix and dorsum of the nose were analyzed retrospectively. All the operations were performed over a 1-year period, between 2005 and 2006. The fascia of the postauricular area has been used as a source of pliable soft-tissue grafts in primary and revision rhinoplasty. It may be easily accessed using a single sulcus incision that also enables harvesting of ear cartilage grafts. Deficiency in the radix is an overlooked abnormality seen in many patients undergoing primary as well as revision rhinoplasty after aggressive hump removal. Recent trends in rhinoplasty have been to avoid the overly reduced nasal skeleton and to create a more balanced nasal surgery result. This article presents the use of the postauricular fascia as a radix graft that has been found to be simple to carry out, reliable, and long lasting. In addition, the fascia graft is useful in the camouflage of various nasal deformities in the dorsum and sidewalls. The average patient follow-up for the study was 24 months. PMID:24932819

  18. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  19. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  20. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-01-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our "effective augmentation" algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. "Effective augmentation" is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120

  1. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant. PMID:15959688

  2. FastQuery: A Parallel Indexing System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,

    2011-07-29

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the- art index and query technologies such as FastBit can significantly improve accesses to these datasets by augmenting the user data with indexes and other secondary information. However, a challenge is that the indexes assume the relational data model but the scientific data generally follows the array data model. To match the two data models, we design a generic mapping mechanism and implement an efficient input and output interface for reading and writing the data and their corresponding indexes. To take advantage of the emerging many-core architectures, we also develop a parallel strategy for indexing using threading technology. This approach complements our on-going MPI-based parallelization efforts. We demonstrate the flexibility of our software by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using data from a particle accelerator model and a global climate model. We also conducted a detailed performance study using these scientific datasets. The results show that FastQuery speeds up the query time by a factor of 2.5x to 50x, and it reduces the indexing time by a factor of 16 on 24 cores.

  3. Prospective Single-Site Experience with Radiofrequency-Targeted Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Franklin G.; Maya, Marcel M.; Blaszkiewicz, Laura; Scicli, Andrea; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral augmentation procedures are widely used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). We report our initial experience with radiofrequency-targeted vertebral augmentation (RF-TVA) in 20 patients aged 50 to 90 years with single-level, symptomatic osteoporotic VCF between T10 and L5, back pain severity > 4 on a 0 to 10 scale, Oswestry Disability Index ≥ 21%, 20% to 90% vertebral height loss compared to adjacent vertebral body, and fracture age < 6 months. After treatment, patients were followed through hospital discharge and returned for visits after 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Back pain severity improved 66% (P < 0.001), from 7.9 (95% CI: 7.1 to 8.6) at pretreatment to 2.7 (95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0) at 3 months. Back function improved 46% (P < 0.001), from 74 (95% CI: 69% to 79%) at pretreatment to 40 (95% CI: 33% to 47%) at 3 months. The percentage of patients regularly consuming pain medication was 70% at pretreatment and only 21% at 3 months. No adverse events related to the device or procedure were reported. RF-TVA reduces back pain severity, improves back function, and reduces pain medication requirements with no observed complications in patients with osteoporotic VCF. PMID:24228187

  4. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  5. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  6. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  7. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  8. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Çetinel, Bülent; Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  9. Augmentation mentoplasty using Mersilene mesh.

    PubMed

    McCollough, E G; Hom, D B; Weigel, M T; Anderson, J R

    1990-10-01

    Many different materials are available for augmentation mentoplasty. However, the optimal implant material for chin implantation has yet to be found. During the past several years, a number of experienced surgeons have turned to the use of Mersilene mesh. Mersilene mesh is a non-absorbable Dacron polyester fiber that can be conformed easily into layers to achieve tailored dimensions and shape. At the McCollough Plastic Surgery Clinic PA, Birmingham, Ala, 277 patients over a 10-year period underwent chin augmentation with Mersilene mesh implants. The material provides excellent tensile strength, durability, and surgical adaptability. The overall complication rate was 3.2% (nine patients); infection rate, 2.5% (seven patients); and removal secondary to infection, 1.7% (five patients). Based on this 10-year experience, Mersilene mesh remains our material of choice for chin augmentation. PMID:2206500

  10. Augmentation-related brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  11. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  12. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  13. Gluteal augmentation with cryopreserved fat.

    PubMed

    Moscatiello, Fabrizio; Aznar-Benitah, Salvador; Grella, Roberto; Jover, Javier Herrero

    2010-03-01

    Gluteal augmentation with autologous fat is becoming a standard ancillary procedure for sculpting the buttock area. The high rate of resorption due to aggressive harvesting techniques or inadequate injection procedures often leads to repeated treatments. Currently, several techniques for storing fat by controlled freezing and thawing procedures can guarantee a high rate of cell viability, similar to that obtained with fresh tissue. This allows surgeons to compile fat tissue available for future repeat injections, decreasing additional costs and morbidity for patients. The authors describe a case of gluteal augmentation with cryopreserved fat in a 42-year-old man. PMID:20442098

  14. Computer Augmented Learning; A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindred, J.

    The report contains a description and summary of computer augmented learning devices and systems. The devices are of two general types programed instruction systems based on the teaching machines pioneered by Pressey and developed by Skinner, and the so-called "docile" systems that permit greater user-direction with the computer under student…

  15. Augmenting a Classical Electrochemical Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yochum, Susan M.; Luoma, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an augmentation of a classical electrochemical demonstration that addresses the learning styles of the students and teaches electrochemistry in a concrete manner. Enables each student to see each event clearly, repeatedly, or in stop-action mode and enables students to improve their own mental models by providing them with a visually…

  16. Gluteus augmentation with fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Perén, P A; Gómez, J B; Guerrerosantos, J; Salazar, C A

    2000-01-01

    This study presents the authors' experience with gluteus augmentation with autologus fat grafts and liposuction methods, having recorded the evolution of gluteus reshaping with autologus intramuscular fat graft injections for the past 5 years. Preoperative shape is discussed and patient evaluations, operative techniques, postoperative management, and longterm results are emphasized. PMID:11246428

  17. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    PubMed

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high-saturated fat/high-GI (HSAT: 43 % fat/24 % saturated fat/GI>70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (P< 0.05), while the HSAT diet had no effect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P< 0.05). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model of insulin resistance did not change significantly on either diet, but the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity improved on the LSAT diet (P< 0.05). Assignment to the LSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  18. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    PubMed Central

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high-saturated fat/high-GI (HSAT: 43% fat/24% saturated fat/GI > 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69·3 (sem 1·6) years, BMI 26·9 (sem 0·8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68·6 (sem 1·8) years, BMI 28·1 (sem 0·9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2·2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3·1) to 1·7 (IQR 1·8) %, P=0·002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1·2 (IQR 4·1) to 1·6 (IQR 3·9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (P<0·05), while the HSAT diet had no effect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P<0·05). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model of insulin resistance did not change significantly on either diet, but the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity improved on the LSAT diet (P<0·05). Assignment to the LSAT ν. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  19. Augmented Reality in Education--Cases, Places and Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Howe, Cathie; McCredie, Nerida; Robinson, Austin; Grover, David

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality is poised to profoundly transform Education as we know it. The capacity to overlay rich media onto the real world for viewing through web-enabled devices such as phones and tablet devices means that information can be made available to students at the exact time and place of need. This has the potential to reduce cognitive…

  20. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  1. Detecting Syntactic Ambiguity: Three Augmented Transition Network Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, L. Russell, Jr.

    When a grammar is expressed in augmented transition network (ATN) form, the problem of detecting syntactic ambuguity reduces to finding all possible paths through the ATNs. Each successfully terminating path through the ATN generates an acceptable parsing of the input string. Two ATN forms, minimal-node and pseudo-tree, are described along with…

  2. Reduced Bacterial Colony Count of Anaerobic Bacteria Is Associated with a Worsening in Lung Clearance Index and Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Judy M.; Johnston, Elinor; McGrath, Stephanie; McIlreavey, Leanne; Rowan, Stephen; Reid, Alastair; Bradbury, Ian; Einarsson, Gisli

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have been identified in abundance in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. The impact their presence and abundance has on lung function and inflammation is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the colony count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lung clearance index (LCI), spirometry and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with CF. Sputum and blood were collected from CF patients at a single cross-sectional visit when clinically stable. Community composition and bacterial colony counts were analysed using extended aerobic and anaerobic culture. Patients completed spirometry and a multiple breath washout (MBW) test to obtain LCI. An inverse correlation between colony count of aerobic bacteria (n = 41, r = -0.35; p = 0.02), anaerobic bacteria (n = 41, r = -0.44, p = 0.004) and LCI was observed. There was an inverse correlation between colony count of anaerobic bacteria and CRP (n = 25, r = -0.44, p = 0.03) only. The results of this study demonstrate that a lower colony count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria correlated with a worse LCI. A lower colony count of anaerobic bacteria also correlated with higher CRP levels. These results indicate that lower abundance of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria may reflect microbiota disruption and disease progression in the CF lung. PMID:25992575

  3. Nucleus accumbens response to food cues predicts subsequent snack consumption in women and increased body mass index in those with reduced self-control.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalia S; Hinton, Elanor C; Parkinson, John A; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2012-10-15

    Individuals have difficulty controlling their food consumption, which is due in part to the ubiquity of tempting food cues in the environment. Individual differences in the propensity to attribute incentive (motivational) salience to and act on these cues may explain why some individuals eat more than others. Using fMRI in healthy women, we found that food cue related activity in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region for food motivation and reward, was related to subsequent snack food consumption. However, both nucleus accumbens activation and snack food consumption were unrelated to self-reported hunger, or explicit wanting and liking for the snack. In contrast, food cue reactivity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was associated with subjective hunger/appetite, but not with consumption. Whilst the food cue reactivity in the nucleus accumbens that predicted snack consumption was not directly related to body mass index (BMI), it was associated with increased BMI in individuals reporting low self-control. Our findings reveal a neural substrate underpinning automatic environmental influences on consumption in humans and demonstrate how self-control interacts with this response to predict BMI. Our data provide support for theoretical models that advocate a 'dual hit' of increased incentive salience attribution to food cues and poor self-control in determining vulnerability to overeating and overweight. PMID:22776461

  4. A Novel Augmented Reality Navigation System for Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Yang, Jian; Chu, Yakui; Wu, Wenbo; Xue, Jin; Liang, Ping; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify the reliability and clinical feasibility of a self-developed navigation system based on an augmented reality technique for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Materials and Methods In this study we performed a head phantom and cadaver experiment to determine the display effect and accuracy of our navigational system. We compared cadaver head-based simulated operations, the target registration error, operation time, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores of our navigation system to conventional navigation systems. Results The navigation system developed in this study has a novel display mode capable of fusing endoscopic images to three-dimensional (3-D) virtual images. In the cadaver head experiment, the target registration error was 1.28 ± 0.45 mm, which met the accepted standards of a navigation system used for nasal endoscopic surgery. Compared with conventional navigation systems, the new system was more effective in terms of operation time and the mental workload of surgeons, which is especially important for less experienced surgeons. Conclusion The self-developed augmented reality navigation system for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery appears to have advantages that outweigh those of conventional navigation systems. We conclude that this navigational system will provide rhinologists with more intuitive and more detailed imaging information, thus reducing the judgment time and mental workload of surgeons when performing complex sinus and skull base surgeries. Ultimately, this new navigational system has potential to increase the quality of surgeries. In addition, the augmented reality navigational system could be of interest to junior doctors being trained in endoscopic techniques because it could speed up their learning. However, it should be noted that the navigation system serves as an adjunct to a surgeon’s skills and knowledge, not as a substitute. PMID:26757365

  5. Custom Titanium Ridge Augmentation Matrix (CTRAM): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Connors, Christopher A; Liacouras, Peter C; Grant, Gerald T

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a custom titanium ridge augmentation matrix (CTRAM). Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a custom titanium space-maintaining device was developed. Alveolar ridges were virtually augmented, a matrix was virtually designed, and the CTRAM was additively manufactured with titanium (Ti6Al4V). Two cases are presented that resulted in sufficient increased horizontal bone volume with successful dental implant placement. The CTRAM design allows for preoperative planning for increasing alveolar ridge dimensions to support dental implants, reduces surgical time, and prevents the need for a second surgical site to gain sufficient alveolar ridge bone volume for dental implant therapy. PMID:27560675

  6. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  7. The use of augmentation techniques in osteoporotic fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, Christian; Neuerburg, Carl; Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Schmoelz, Werner; Miclau, Theodore; Larsson, Sune

    2016-06-01

    There are an increasing number of fragility fractures, which present a surgical challenge given the reduced bone quality of underlying osteoporosis. Particularly in aged patients, there is a need for early weight bearing and mobilization to avoid further complications such as loss of function or autonomy. As an attempt to improve fracture stability and ultimate healing, the use of biomaterials for augmentation of osseous voids and fracture fixation is a promising treatment option. Augmentation techniques can be applied in various locations, and fractures of the metaphyseal regions such as proximal humerus, femur, tibia and the distal radius remain the most common areas for its use. The current review, based on the available mechanical and biological data, provides an overview of the relevant treatment options and different composites used for augmentation of osteoporotic fractures. PMID:27338226

  8. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinsin, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance results from a test house equipped with a parallel solar augmented heat pump system with off-peak storage and a utility interconnection back-up, are presented. The collector array consisted of 12 air heating flat plates with a 9 l/sec flow. Thermal storage was consigned to a 260 cu ft crushed limestone pebble bed, with an 8.8 kW heat pump used to draw heat from storage during off-peak hours and a 15 kW electrical resistance heater used to charge the pebble bed. Monitoring and data recording were carried out on all energy inputs and outputs of the systems, and a modified TRNSYS program was employed to model the system performance. The data indicate that although the system offered the possibility of reducing the utility capacity, the addition of the solar system did not significantly augment the performance of the heat-pump system, at least in terms of the cost of supplementary electricity.

  9. HDF Augmentation: Interoperability in the Last Mile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plutchak, J.; Folk, M. J.; Habermann, T.; Knox, L.

    2014-12-01

    Science data files are generally written to serve well-defined purposes for a small science teams. In many cases, the organization of the data and the metadata are designed for custom tools developed and maintained by and for the team. Using these data outside of this context many times involves restructuring, re-documenting, or reformatting the data. This expensive and time-consuming process usually prevents data reuse and thus decreases the total life-cycle value of the data considerably. If the data are unique or critically important to solving a particular problem, they can be modified into a more generally usable form or metadata can be added in order to enable reuse. This augmentation process can be done to enhance data for the intended purpose or for a new purpose, to make the data available to new tools and applications, to make the data more conventional or standard, or to simplify preservation of the data. The HDF Group has addressed augmentation needs in many ways: by adding extra information, by renaming objects or moving them around in the file, by reducing complexity of the organization, and sometimes by hiding data objects that are not understood by specific applications. In some cases these approaches require re-writing the data into new files and in some cases it can be done externally, without affecting the original file. We will describe and compare several examples of each approach.

  10. Mobility and low contrast trip hazard avoidance using augmented depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Chris; Walker, Janine G.; Lieby, Paulette; Scott, Adele; Barnes, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Objective. We evaluated a novel visual representation for current and near-term prosthetic vision. Augmented depth emphasizes ground obstacles and floor-wall boundaries in a depth-based visual representation. This is achieved by artificially increasing contrast between obstacles and the ground surface via a novel ground plane extraction algorithm specifically designed to preserve low-contrast ground-surface boundaries. Approach. The effectiveness of augmented depth was examined in human mobility trials compared against standard intensity-based (Intensity), depth-based (Depth) and random (Random) visual representations. Eight participants with normal vision used simulated prosthetic vision with 20 phosphenes and eight perceivable brightness levels to traverse a course with randomly placed small and low-contrast obstacles on the ground. Main results. The number of collisions was significantly reduced using augmented depth, compared with intensity, depth and random representations (48%, 44% and 72% less collisions, respectively). Significance. These results indicate that augmented depth may enable safe mobility in the presence of low-contrast obstacles with current and near-term implants. This is the first demonstration that an augmentation of the scene ensuring key objects are visible may provide better outcomes for prosthetic vision.

  11. Augmented reality building operations tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  12. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-05-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.

  13. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-01-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120

  14. TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  15. Aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong Tai

    2015-01-01

    Cranioplasty for only aesthetic reasons has not been commonly performed to date. However, recently there has been a new focus by the public on a more aesthetically pleasing head shape with frequent patient requests for purely aesthetic contouring of the occiput, an important definer of cosmetic head shape. For example, in Asia, where the normal cranial shape is mesocephalic or brachycephalic and often with a planar occiput, requests for its aesthetic correction are increasingly common. Accordingly, the author developed a minimally invasive occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate. In this study, the indications for aesthetic occiput contouring were planar occiput, left-right asymmetric occiput, and grooved occiput. Under local anesthesia, soft methylmethacrylate is subperiosteally inserted through a small incision (about 5-cm length), manually and precisely contoured in situ through the scalp to the desired occipital shape. All is performed as an outpatient procedure, and a quick recovery is the case. Between March 2007 and October 2013, 959 patients received such aesthetic occiput augmentation. The mean follow-up period was 49 months (range, 3-84 months). Nearly all patients were satisfied with the outcome, and complications were very rare. Only 5 patients (0.5%) needed additional corrective procedures. The author has concluded that aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate yields consistent, predictable, and satisfactory results. Additional long-term follow-up is required for a final conclusion, however. PMID:25569386

  16. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  17. Augmented Fish Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1989-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. This project provides a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its second year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1988. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1988 and will compare sampling results from 1987 and 1988. The analysis will be divided in two sections: adult analysis and juvenile analysis. The adult analysis will include results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on index stocks. Additionally, highlights from monthly monitoring exams will identify any significant and unusual findings from the routine exams completed in 1988. 6 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  19. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  20. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  1. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Andriolo, Luca; Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Venieri, Giulia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  2. Striae distensae after subfascial breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Evangelos; Rodopoulou, Stavroula

    2008-03-01

    Striae distensae or stretch marks after breast augmentation are a rare complication. To date, 10 cases have been published. In seven of these cases, the implant was placed in a subglandular position and in the other three cases, placement was submuscular. Two cases of stretch marks in two young nulliparous women who underwent subfacial breast augmentation are presented. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of striae distensae after subfascial breast augmentation. PMID:18043962

  3. H2OTSTUF: Appropriate Operating Regimes for Magnetohydrodynamic Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    A trade study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmented propulsion reveals a unique operating regime at lower thrust levels. Substantial mass savings are realized over conventional chemical, solar, and electrical propulsion concepts when MHD augmentation is used to obtain optimal I(sub sp). However, trip times for the most conservative estimates of power plant specific impulse and accelerator efficiency may be prohibitively long. Quasi-one-dimensional calculations show that a solar or nuclear thermal system augmented by MHD can provide competitive performance while utilizing a diverse range of propellants including water, which is available from the Space Shuttle, the Moon, asteroids, and various moons and planets within our solar system. The use of in-situ propellants will reduce costs of space operations as well as enable human exploration of our Solar System. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the mission trade study: (1) There exists a maximum thrust or mass flow rate above which MHD augmentation increases the initial mass in low earth orbit (LEO); (2) Mass saving of over 50% can be realized for unique combination of solar/MHD systems; (3) Trip times for systems utilizing current power supply technology may be prohibitively long. Theoretical predictions of MHD performance for in space propulsion systems show that improved efficiencies can reduce trip times to acceptable levels; (4) Long trip times indicative of low thrust systems can be shortened by an increase in the MHD accelerator efficiency or a decrease in the specific mass of the power supply and power processing unit; and (5) As for all propulsion concepts, missions with larger (Delta)v's benefit more from the increased specific impulse resulting from MHD augmentation. Using a quasi-one-dimensional analysis, the required operating conditions for a MHD accelerator to reach acceptable efficiencies are outlined. This analysis shows that substantial non-equilibrium ionization is

  4. Finite element assessment of block-augmented total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Frehill, B; Crocombe, A D; Agarwal, Y; Bradley, W N

    2015-01-01

    Loosening and migration of tibial prostheses have been identified as causes of early total knee replacement (TKR) failure. The problem is made more complex when defects occur in the proximal tibia compromising fixation and alignment. Clinical studies using metal augments have shown these to be an alternative to other means of defect treatment. Finite element (FE) analysis can be used to identify regions that may be prone to loosening and migration. In the current work, 3D FE models of TKR uncontained type-2 defects treated with block augments have been constructed and analysed. It has been shown that a metal augment is the most suitable. The use of bone cement (PMMA) to fill proximal defects is not considered suitable as stresses carried by the cement block exceed those of the fatigue limit of bone cement. It has been shown that the stresses in the proximal cancellous bone of block-augmented models are significantly below levels likely to cause damage due to overloading. Furthermore, the use of stem extensions has been shown to reduce the cancellous bone stresses in the proximal region thus increasing the likelihood of bone resorption. Given this, it is recommended that stem extensions are not required unless necessary to mitigate some other problem. PMID:25204616

  5. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  6. Folate augmentation of antidepressant response.

    PubMed

    Owen, R T

    2013-12-01

    The use of two antidepressants from the initiation of treatment in major depressive disorder has been investigated in several recent studies and forms a paradigm shift in the pharmacotherapy of the condition. Several, but not all, trials have claimed improved response and remission rates with the combinations as opposed to monotherapy. The use of folate preparations (folic and folinic acid and l-meth-ylfolate) have shown effective augmentation of antidepressant response in a variety of controlled and open-label settings in patients with normo- and hypofolatemic status. Several recent trials using L-methylfolate, the active and more bioavailable form of folic acid, have shown promising adjunctive use with a well-tolerated adverse event profile. PMID:24524097

  7. Augmented Reality and Mobile Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwilt, Ian

    The combined notions of augmented-reality (AR) and mobile art are based on the amalgamation of a number of enabling technologies including computer imaging, emergent display and tracking systems and the increased computing-power in hand-held devices such as Tablet PCs, smart phones, or personal digital assistants (PDAs) which have been utilized in the making of works of art. There is much published research on the technical aspects of AR and the ongoing work being undertaken in the development of faster more efficient AR systems [1] [2]. In this text I intend to concentrate on how AR and its associated typologies can be applied in the context of new media art practices, with particular reference to its application on hand-held or mobile devices.

  8. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  9. Impact of the augmentation time ratio on direct measurement of central aortic pressure in the presence of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Nishizaki, Yuji; Yamazoe, Masahiro; Komatsu, Ikki; Asano, Taku; Mitsuhashi, Hirotsugu; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    The augmentation index measured by using the central artery pressure is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, no study has examined the role of the time duration of the central artery pressure on CAD. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the central blood pressure time duration and the presence of CAD. All patients without a history of revascularization or prior myocardial infarction who underwent an elective coronary angiography at one of the two hospitals from January to September 2013 were analyzed. CAD was defined as a significant stenosis in one of the main coronary branches. The augmentation time ratio was defined as the ratio of the reflection to peak systolic time T2T1 duration divided by the peak systolic time to aortic notch T3T2 duration. We analyzed the relationship between the central pressure waveform (not only augmentation pressure) and the presence of CAD. A total of 146 (57.3%) out of 255 patients had a significant CAD. T2T1 duration was longer in the CAD group than the no CAD group, and the T3T2 duration was shorter in the CAD group than the no CAD group. The augmentation time ratio (T2T1/T3T2) was significantly larger in the CAD group than in the no CAD group. The augmentation index and augmentation pressure were lower in the no CAD group, but this difference was not statistically significant. The augmentation time ratio was an independent factor related to no CAD, especially in patients with a high augmentation index (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.63). The augmentation time ratio was an independent factor related to the presence of CAD. PMID:25854988

  10. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  11. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  12. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  13. Status report of RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Mike; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A status report of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation is presented. Topics covered include: active damping augmentation; benefits of RMS ADA; simulated payload definition; sensor and actuator definition; ADA control law design; Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) real-time simulation; and astronaut evaluation.

  14. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  15. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 10; Air Augmented Rocket Afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhangi, Shahram; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A study was directed towards assessing viability and effectiveness of an air augmented ejector/rocket. Successful thrust augmentation could potentially reduce a multi-stage vehicle to a single stage-to-orbit vehicle (SSTO) and, thereby, eliminate the associated ground support facility infrastructure and ground processing required by the eliminated stage. The results of this preliminary study indicate that an air augmented ejector/rocket propulsion system is viable. However, uncertainties resulting from simplified approach and assumptions must be resolved by further investigations.

  16. The Process of Breast Augmentation with Special Focus on Patient Education, Patient Selection and Implant Selection.

    PubMed

    Adams, William P; Small, Kevin H

    2015-10-01

    Breast augmentation remains one of the most commonly performed plastic surgical procedures worldwide; however, Food and Drug Administration clinical trials have suggested that this procedure has a reoperation rate of 14% to 24% after 3 years. Recent literature has proposed that breast augmentation should not only be a surgical procedure but ultimately a surgical process to reduce postoperative complications and enhance patient satisfaction. The process of breast augmentation has been documented to optimize postsurgical outcomes and includes the following 4 steps: patient education, tissue-based planning, refined surgical techniques, and defined postoperative management. PMID:26408433

  17. Irradiated homologous costal cartilage for augmentation rhinoplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Lefkovits, G. )

    1990-10-01

    Although the ideal reconstructive material for augmentation rhinoplasty continues to challenge plastic surgeons, there exists no report in the literature that confines the use of irradiated homologous costal cartilage, first reported by Dingman and Grabb in 1961, to dorsal nasal augmentation. The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis of the author's experience using irradiated homologous costal cartilage in augmentation rhinoplasty. Twenty-seven dorsal nasal augmentations were performed in 24 patients between 16 and 49 years of age with a follow-up ranging from 1 to 27 months. Good-to-excellent results were achieved in 83.3% (20 of 24). Poor results requiring revision were found in 16.7% (4 of 24). Complication rates included 7.4% infection (2 of 27) and 14.8% warping (4 of 27). The resorption rate was zero. These results compare favorably with other forms of nasal augmentation. Advantages and disadvantages of irradiated homologous costal cartilage are discussed.

  18. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  19. Role of physical countermaneuvers in the management of orthostatic hypotension: efficacy and biofeedback augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvette, C. M.; McPhee, B. R.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Low, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of various physical countermaneuvers in reducing orthostatic hypotension and its associated symptoms and to assess the efficacy of biofeedback training in enhancing the effectiveness of physical countermaneuvers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In nine study subjects with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, four training sessions on physical countermaneuvers were performed after tilt-up, three with visual feedback on the effect of physical countermaneuvers on blood pressure and other cardiovascular variables. Blood pressure change and orthostatic symptoms during tilt-up were determined, as were the changes in total peripheral resistance, stroke index, and heart rate. RESULTS: The five female and four male patients had a mean age of 53 years and a mean duration of symptoms of 4.2 years. On an orthostatic symptom scale of 0 to 10, these patients had a mean symptom score of 7.3. The increment in systolic blood pressure was better for some maneuvers (such as leg crossing and a combination) than others (such as neck flexion and abdominal contraction). Three patterns of responses to biofeedback were found. Simple maneuvers such as squatting did not improve with training; visual feedback was needed for maneuvers such as thigh contraction, and performance declined without biofeedback; the third pattern, seen in maneuvers such as leg crossing, showed continued improvement with training, even without biofeedback. A survey at 3 to 4 months after training revealed continued use of physical maneuvers (3.8 +/- 3.1 per day), increased standing time with each episode of presyncopal symptoms (8.3 +/- 5.8 minutes), and continued global symptomatic improvement. Total peripheral resistance, but not heart rate or stroke index, showed significant regression with blood pressure improvement. CONCLUSION: Physical countermaneuvers are efficacious in reducing orthostatic hypotension, can be augmented by use of biofeedback, and may significantly improve the

  20. Metal block augmentation for bone defects of the medial tibia during primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stable and well-aligned placement of tibial components during primary total knee arthroplasty is challenging in patients with bone defects. Although rectangular block-shaped augmentations are widely used to reduce the shearing force between the tibial tray and bone compared with wedge-shaped augmentations, the clinical result remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of primary total knee arthroplasty with metal block augmentation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the 3- to 6-year follow-up results of 33 knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty with metal block augmentation (metal-augmented group) for bone defects of the medial tibia and 132 varus knees without bone defects as the control group. All surgeries were performed using posterior-stabilized cemented prostheses in both groups. Cemented stems were routinely augmented when the metal block was used. Results There were no differences in implant survival rates (100% in metal-augmented and 99.2% in control) or knee function scores (82 points in metal-augmented and 84 points in control) between the two groups at the final follow-up examination (P = 0.60 and P = 0.09, respectively). No subsidence or loosening of the tibial tray was observed. Of 33 metal-augmented total knee arthroplasties, a nonprogressive radiolucent line beneath the metal was detected in 10 knees (30.3%), and rounding of the medial edge of the tibia was observed in 17 knees (51.5%). Conclusions The clinical results of total knee arthroplasty with metal augmentation were not inferior to those in patients without bone defects. However, radiolucent lines were observed in 30.3%. PMID:24139483

  1. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  2. The effect of the augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine on EEG indices of visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-03-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention but the exact role remains unclear. In visuospatial attention, bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of sensory cortex, while disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention making reorienting possible. In the current study we investigated the effect of facilitating cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine (Nicorette Freshmint 2mg, polacrilex chewing gum) on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of bias and disengagement. Sixteen non-smoking participants performed in a Visual Spatial Cueing (VSC) task while EEG was recorded. A randomized, single-blind, crossover design was implemented. Based on the scarce literature, it was expected that nicotine would specifically augment disengagement related processing, especially manifest as an increase of the modulation of the Late Positive Deflection (LPD) by validity of cueing. No effect was expected on bias related components (cue-locked: EDAN, LDAP; target-locked: P1 and N1 modulations). Results show weak indications for a reduction of the reaction time validity effect by nicotine, but only for half of the sample in which the validity effect on the pretest was largest. Nicotine reduced the result of bias as indexed by a reduced P1 modulation by validity, especially in subjects with strong peripheral responses to nicotine. Nicotine did not affect ERP manifestations of the directing of bias (EDAN, LDAP) or disengagement (LPD). PMID:24316088

  3. Tuftsin Augments Antitumor Efficacy of Liposomized Etoposide against Fibrosarcoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif; Khan, Aijaz A; Dwivedi, Varun; Ahmad, Manzoor G; Hakeem, Seema; Owais, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Anticancer drugs are generally plagued by toxic manifestations at doses necessary for control of various forms of cancer. Incorporating such drugs into liposomes not only reduces toxicity but also enhances the therapeutic index. Some antioxidants and potent immunomodulators have also been shown to impart significant antitumor activity presumably by nonspecific activation of the host immune system. In the present study, we evaluated augmentation of the antitumor activity of etoposide (ETP) by the immunomodulator tuftsin in Swiss albino mice with fibrosarcoma. The efficacies of the free form of ETP, liposomized ETP (Lip-ETP), and tuftsin-bearing liposomized ETP (Tuft-Lip-ETP) formulations were evaluated on the basis of tumor regression, effect on expression level of p53wt and p53mut, and survival of the treated animals. Tuft-Lip-ETP, when administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for five days, significantly reduced tumor volume, delayed tumor growth, and also up-regulated the expression of p53wt. In contrast, although Lip-ETP delayed tumor growth, it did not decrease tumor size. The results of the present study suggest that tuftsin incorporation in drug-loaded liposomes is a promising treatment strategy for various forms of cancers, including fibrosarcoma. PMID:17622310

  4. The tree BVOC index.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  5. Augmented reality: past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inzerillo, Laura

    2013-03-01

    A great opportunity has permitted to carry out a cultural, historical, architectural and social research with great impact factor on the international cultural interest. We are talking about the realization of a museum whose the main theme is the visit and the discovery of a monument of great prestige: the monumental building the "Steri" in Palermo. The museum is divided into sub themes including the one above all, that has aroused the international interest so much that it has been presented the instance to include the museum in the cultural heritage of UNESCO. It is the realization of a museum path that regards the cells of the Inquisition, which are located just inside of some buildings of the monumental building. The project, as a whole, is faced, in a total view, between the various competences implicated: historic, chemic, architectonic, topographic, drawing, representation, virtual communication, informatics. The birth of the museum will be a sum of the results of all these disciplines involved. Methodology, implementation, fruition, virtual museum, goals, 2D graphic restitution, effects on the cultural heritage and landscape environmental, augmented reality, Surveying 2D and 3D, hi-touch screen, Photogrammetric survey, Photographic survey, representation, drawing 3D and more than this has been dealt with this research.

  6. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  7. Augmented reality for wafer prober

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilgenkrantz, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    The link between wafer manufacturing and wafer test is often weak: without common information system, Test engineers have to read locations of test structures from reference documents and search them on the wafer prober screen. Mask Data Preparation team is ideally placed to fill this gap, given its relationship with both design and manufacturing sides. With appropriate design extraction scripts and design conventions, mask engineers can provide exact wafer locations of all embedded test structures to avoid a painful camera search. Going a step further, it would be a great help to provide to wafer probers a "map" of what was build on wafers. With this idea in mind, mask design database can simply be provided to Test engineers; but the real added value would come from a true integration of real-wafer camera views and design database used for wafer manufacturing. As proven by several augmented reality applications, like Google Maps' mixed Satellite/Map view, mixing a real-world view with its theoretical model is very useful to understand the reality. The creation of such interface can only be made by a wafer prober manufacturer, given the high integration of these machines with their control panel. But many existing software libraries could be used to plot the design view matching the camera view. Standard formats for mask design are usually GDSII and OASIS (SEMI P39 standard); multiple free software and commercial viewers/editors/libraries for these formats are available.

  8. Registration correction in hybrid tracking for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyu; Chen, Dongyi

    2007-12-01

    One of the most important problems faced when building Augmented Reality (AR) systems is registration error. In mobile and outdoor AR systems, dynamic errors are the largest source of registration errors. Hybrid tracking is a key technique in combating the effects of dynamic errors. In this paper we present a multi-stage close-loop correction algorithm for reducing dynamic registration errors in AR system. The control law in this algorithm is based on 2D visual servoing or image-based camera control that allows control of a virtual camera to reduce registration error. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  9. Thrust Augmentation with Mixer/Ejector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.

  10. Thermal Augmentation of Vancomycin Against Staphylococcal Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Rachael A; Sharma, Prannda; Pavlovsky, Leonid; Stewart, Elizabeth J; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G

    2015-08-01

    Given the increasing evidence of safe application of elevated temperature in other clinical contexts, we consider the potential for supplemental hyperthermia to augment the effects of vancomycin against staphylococci, a major source of postoperative and posttraumatic sepsis. Laboratory reference strains and libraries of clinical blood isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, both as planktonic cells and as established biofilms, were assessed for thermosensitivity and increased susceptibility to vancomycin in the setting of thermal treatment. In addition to viability measures, patterns of stress gene expression were assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and structural changes were measured using quantitative transmission electron microscopy. Laboratory strains of both species had reduced growth and biofilm viability at 45°C, a temperature commonly used in other domains such as adjuvant treatments of malignancy. Blood isolates of S. epidermidis were consistent in this regard as well, but significant between-isolate variability in thermosensitivity was seen in blood isolates of S. aureus. Expression profiling and ultrastructural measurements confirmed that elevated temperature was a substantial stressor with or without vancomycin treatment. Our findings suggest that temperature elevations shown to be tolerated in humans in other settings hold the potential to be used as an adjuvant to antibiotic therapy against staphylococcal biofilms. PMID:25784524

  11. Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

    2005-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job. PMID:16253942

  12. Vascular Compromise from Soft Tissue Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Shannon; Carruthers, Jean D.A.; Carruthers, Alastair

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of soft tissue fillers is, in part, due to their favorable side-effect profile. However, serious complications can occur. The authors describe their extensive clinical experience with soft-tissue augmentation and the rare complication of vascular compromise, which can lead to necrosis and scarring. Over a 10-year period between January 2003 and January 2013, the authors observed a total of 12 cases of vascular compromise. Eight patients in their clinical practice showed evidence of vascular compromise out of a total of 14,355 filler injections (0.05%). In addition, four patients treated with an experimental particulate filler had vascular complications. All cases were examined for filler type, location of complication, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes. Although treatment plans differed for each patient in their series, all cases of vascular compromise resolved fully. The authors believe that an office-based protocol for both immediate and ongoing care—including a thorough individualized assessment and treatment plan for each patient—is critical to timely and effective resolution of side effects. They propose key recommendations for the prevention and management of vascular compromise to improve patient outcomes and reduce the risk of permanent complications. PMID:25276276

  13. [Complications of breast augmentation - a case report].

    PubMed

    Zedníková, I; Třešková, I; Schmiedhuber, P; Hes, O

    2012-08-01

    As with any surgery, breast augmentation does have certain risks and complications. The aim of this article is to point out a rare complication of breast augmentation - axillary silicone lymphadenopathy (defined as the presence of silicone in the lymph nodes). The authors present a case report of silicone lymphadenopathy in a young woman after the rupture of a silicone breast implant. As the number of women with breast implants is increasing, it is necessary to bear this rare complication of breast augmentation in mind in differential diagnosis of axillary lymphadenopathy. PMID:23153428

  14. Augmented railgun using a permanent magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.; Eguchi, N.; Sueda, T.; Soejima, M.; Maeda, S.; Sato, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    The use of a permanent magnet instead of an electromagnet has been proposed for the augmentation of the magnetic field of a railgun driven by a current of approximately 20 kA. A permanent magnet has the following advantages in comparison with conventional augmentations using additional turns: (1) simple configuration of the system, (2) temporally and spatially constant magnetic fields, and (3) high efficiency. Here, the operation of a conventional railgun and that of an augmented railgun using a permanent magnet are compared experimentally, and the usefulness of the permanent magnet is described. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to improve the management of nitrogen inputs to agricultural systems because they increase the potential for losses of reactive nitrogen to the environment, resulting in negative impacts to water and air resources. There is a need to reduce nitrate leaching, emissions of N2O from agr...

  16. Improvement of trout streams in Wisconsin by augmenting low flows with ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1973-01-01

    Approximately 2 cubic feet per second of ground water were introduced into the Little Plover River in 1968 when natural streamflow ranged from 3 to 4 cubic feet per second. These augmentation flows were retained undiminished through the 2-mile reach of stream monitored. Maximum stream temperatures were reduced as much as 5?F (3?C) at the augmentation site during the test period, although changes became insignificant more than 1 mile downstream. Maximum temperatures might be reduced as much as 10?F (6?C) during critical periods, based on estimates using a stream temperature model developed as part of the study. During critical periods significant temperature improvement may extend 2 miles or more downstream. Changes in minimum DO (dissolved oxygen) levels were slight, primarily because of the high natural DO levels occurring during the test period. Criteria for considering other streams for flow augmentation are developed on the basis of the observed hydrologic responses in the Little Plover River. Augmentation flows of nearly 2? cubic feet per second of ground water were introduced into the headwater reach of Black Earth Creek from the end of June through mid-October 1969. Streamflow ranged from 1 to 2 cubic feet per second at the augmentation site, and the average flow at the gaging station at Black Earth, approximately 8 miles downstream, ranged from 25 to 50 cubic feet per second. Augmentation flows were retained through the 8-mile reach of stream. Temperature of the augmentation flow as it entered the stream ranged from 60? to 70?F (about 16? to 21?C) during the test period, and minimum stream temperatures were raised 5?F (3?C) or more at the augmentation site, with changes extending from 2 to 3 miles downstream. Augmentation during critical periods could maintain stream temperatures between 40? and 70?F (4? and 21?C) through most of the study reach. DO levels were increased by as much as 2 milligrams per liter or more below the augmentation site, although the

  17. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  18. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  19. The ELF-I augmented electromagnetic launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikse, D. A.; Wu, J. L.; Thio, Y. C.

    1984-03-01

    Augmenting an electromagnetic launcher barrel with one or more turns can theoretically increase the launcher system performance more than twice that of a simple EML. This is accomplished by increasing the amount of magnetic flux in the bore and thus increasing the electromagnetic accelerating force. The potential for augmented barrels had yet to be evaluated, therefore a one meter long test barrel was designed and constructed. This barrel was tested in the ELF-I electromagnetic test facility and the results compared with the theoretically predicted performance of a simple barrel design. This comparison shows an increase in muzzle velocity of 83 percent for the augmented case over the simple launcher case. It was also found that the augmented barrel could be fabricated in a simple manner within the physical limitations of a conventional barrel size, and that its solid armatures provided an excellent method of achieving longer rail life, averaging 20 shots per rail set.

  20. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  1. Improving Robotic Operator Performance Using Augmented Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles K.; Pace, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) is a two-armed robot that functions as an extension to the end effector of the Space Station Robotics Manipulator System (SSRMS), currently in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Crew training for the SPDM is accomplished using a robotic hardware simulator, which performs most of SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. Both the simulator and SPDM are controlled from a standard robotic workstation using a laptop for the user interface and three monitors for camera views. Most operations anticipated for the SPDM involve the manipulation, insertion, and removal of any of several types of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU), modules which control various ISS functions. Alignment tolerances for insertion of the ORU into its receptacle are 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree from nominal values. The pre-insertion alignment task must be performed within these tolerances by using available video camera views of the intrinsic features of the ORU and receptacle, without special registration markings. Since optimum camera views may not be available, and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit periods of viewing, a successful ORU insertion operation may require an extended period of time. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on one of the workstation monitors to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment. Twelve skilled subjects performed eight ORU insertion tasks using the simulator with and without the AR symbols in a repeated measures experimental design. Results indicated that using the AR symbols reduced pre-insertion alignment error for all subjects and reduced the time to complete pre-insertion alignment for most subjects.

  2. Breast augmentation with an unknown substance

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Lamya; Morrison, David; Kop, Alan; Taylor, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Before the widespread use of silicone implants various foreign substances were injected directly into the breasts. The nature of these materials sometimes remains unknown and can cause various complications requiring surgical intervention. Preoperative diagnostic imaging can help characterise the type and distribution of the injected material, thereby assisting in making decisions regarding treatment. We report a case of breast augmentation with an unknown substance, aiming to highlight some imaging characteristics of different breast augmentation substances. PMID:24957586

  3. Hydroxyapatite composite resin cement augmentation of pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alexander W L; Gillies, R Mark; Svehla, Martin J; Saito, Masanobu; Walsh, William R

    2003-01-01

    Pedicle screw stability is poor in osteopenic vertebrae attributable, in part, to low screw-bone interface strength. The current authors examined cement augmentation using a low curing temperature hydroxyapatite and bis-phenol-A glycidol methacrylate-based composite resin. This cement may stiffen the screw-bone interface and reduce the harmful effects associated with polymethylmethacrylate regarding temperature and toxic monomer. Thirty-five lumbar vertebrae from human cadavers were instrumented with pedicle screws, with one pedicle previously injected with cement and the other as the control. Caudocephalad toggling of +/- 1 mm for 1600 cycles was applied to the pedicle screws, and the resulting forces supported by the implant-bone interface were captured by a load cell. A curve was constructed from the peak caudal load for each cycle and three mechanical measures parameterized this curve: (1) initial load; (2) rate of load decay during the first 400 cycles; and (3) final load. The initial load increased by 16% as a result of cement augmentation, the final load increased by 65%, and the rate of load decay decreased by 59%. Cement augmentation of pedicle screws increased the stiffness and stability of the screw-bone interface. PMID:12579026

  4. Nanostructures: a platform for brain repair and augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Vidu, Ruxandra; Rahman, Masoud; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Enachescu, Marius; Poteca, Teodor D.; Opris, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale structures have been at the core of research efforts dealing with integration of nanotechnology into novel electronic devices for the last decade. Because the size of nanomaterials is of the same order of magnitude as biomolecules, these materials are valuable tools for nanoscale manipulation in a broad range of neurobiological systems. For instance, the unique electrical and optical properties of nanowires, nanotubes, and nanocables with vertical orientation, assembled in nanoscale arrays, have been used in many device applications such as sensors that hold the potential to augment brain functions. However, the challenge in creating nanowires/nanotubes or nanocables array-based sensors lies in making individual electrical connections fitting both the features of the brain and of the nanostructures. This review discusses two of the most important applications of nanostructures in neuroscience. First, the current approaches to create nanowires and nanocable structures are reviewed to critically evaluate their potential for developing unique nanostructure based sensors to improve recording and device performance to reduce noise and the detrimental effect of the interface on the tissue. Second, the implementation of nanomaterials in neurobiological and medical applications will be considered from the brain augmentation perspective. Novel applications for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis, stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and autism will be considered. Because the blood brain barrier (BBB) has a defensive mechanism in preventing nanomaterials arrival to the brain, various strategies to help them to pass through the BBB will be discussed. Finally, the implementation of nanomaterials in neurobiological applications is addressed from the brain repair/augmentation perspective. These nanostructures at the interface between nanotechnology and neuroscience will play a pivotal role not only in

  5. Frontopolar activity and connectivity support dynamic conscious augmentation of creative state.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Cohen, Michael S; Raab, Hillary A; Yedibalian, Christopher G; Gray, Jeremy R

    2015-03-01

    No ability is more valued in the modern innovation-fueled economy than thinking creatively on demand, and the "thinking cap" capacity to augment state creativity (i.e., to try and succeed at thinking more creatively) is of broad importance for education and a rich mental life. Although brain-based creativity research has focused on static individual differences in trait creativity, less is known about changes in creative state within an individual. How does the brain augment state creativity when creative thinking is required? Can augmented creative state be consciously engaged and disengaged dynamically across time? Using a novel "thin slice" creativity paradigm in 55 fMRI participants performing verb-generation, we successfully cued large, conscious, short-duration increases in state creativity, indexed quantitatively by a measure of semantic distance derived via latent semantic analysis. A region of left frontopolar cortex, previously associated with creative integration of semantic information, exhibited increased activity and functional connectivity to anterior cingulate gyrus and right frontopolar cortex during cued augmentation of state creativity. Individual differences in the extent of increased activity in this region predicted individual differences in the extent to which participants were able to successfully augment state creative performance after accounting for trait creativity and intelligence. PMID:25394198

  6. Evaluation of Controlled Vocabularies by Inter-Indexer Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, Concha Soler; Gil-Leiva, Isidoro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Several controlled vocabularies are used for indexing three journal articles to check if better or equal consistency rates are achieved with a list of descriptors than with a standard thesaurus and augmented thesaurus. Method: A terminology set for library and information Science was used to build a list of descriptors with…

  7. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  8. Augmented Reality for the Improvement of Remote Laboratories: An Augmented Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andujar, J. M.; Mejias, A.; Marquez, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) provides huge opportunities for online teaching in science and engineering, as these disciplines place emphasis on practical training and unsuited to completely nonclassroom training. This paper proposes a new concept in virtual and remote laboratories: the augmented remote laboratory (ARL). ARL is being tested in the first…

  9. Context-aware Augmented Reality in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Katić, Darko; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Görtler, Jochen; Spengler, Patrick; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Röhl, Sebastian; Suwelack, Stefan; Kenngott, Hannes Götz; Wagner, Martin; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    Augmented Reality is a promising paradigm for intraoperative assistance. Yet, apart from technical issues, a major obstacle to its clinical application is the man-machine interaction. Visualization of unnecessary, obsolete or redundant information may cause confusion and distraction, reducing usefulness and acceptance of the assistance system. We propose a system capable of automatically filtering available information based on recognized phases in the operating room. Our system offers a specific selection of available visualizations which suit the surgeon's needs best. The system was implemented for use in laparoscopic liver and gallbladder surgery and evaluated in phantom experiments in conjunction with expert interviews. PMID:23541864

  10. Savonius rotor using swinging blades as an augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldos, T. K.

    The power output from a Savonius rotor can be improved by reducing the drag force on the up-wind blades. A new method of doing this is experimentally investigated in the present work. The method depends on allowing the rotor blades to swing back when they are on the upwind stroke. A high and real power augmentation may be achieved by the new system at an optimum angle of swing. The system is independent of wind direction, is simple to construct, and requires no additional accessories.

  11. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  12. The transareolar incision for breast augmentation revisited.

    PubMed

    Kompatscher, Peter; Schuler, Christine; Beer, Gertrude M

    2004-01-01

    Of the various possible incisions for breast augmentation, the transareolar access has gained only limited popularity. The potential side effects of this incision are said to be altered nipple sensation, impaired lactation, an increased rate of infections with capsular fibrosis, well visible scar formation with hypopigmentation, and the need for an additional access in case a breast ptosis correction should prove necessary at a later date. The purpose of this retrospective study was to judge advantages and limitations of transareolar breast augmentation, and to verify whether the reluctant attitude toward this surgical approach is justified. A sample of 18 patients with a transareolar, retropectoral breast augmentation was selected for a retrospective evaluation. The suitability of the technique in general was examined together with early postoperative complications, sensory changes, and late complications on the basis of an evaluation system for cosmetic surgical results. The study showed that only women with an areolar diameter of 3.5 cm or more without pronounced breast ptosis were suitable for the transareolar access. No early infections were noted. The rate of capsular fibrosis was 11%. Two years after breast augmentation, 16 women (89%) judged their breast sensation to be normal, but objective assessment showed that mean pressure and vibration sensation were moderately compromised in all parts of the breast. The scars were of good quality, with very little hypopigmentation. With appropriate patient selection, respecting the advantages and limitations, the transareolar incision has its definite place among the different incisions for breast augmentation. PMID:15164231

  13. AB027. Penile augmentation: informed text briefing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The men’s desire to have larger and longer penis have created endless medical demands throughout human history. Until up to date, various medical skills for penile augmentation have developed in aspect of experimental and clinical outcome. Recently with throwing away socially unacceptable ideas, the need for penile augmentation is considered as equivalent level with mammoplasty for breast augmentation in women for cosmetic and psychological reason. Concurrently advanced technologies in medical material and tissue engineering provide a variety of options to features functional plastic surgery as well as defected tissue compensation procedures. This creative description works accordingly presents state of art knowledge on the penile augmentation with more than 100 full-colored helpful illustrations clarifying penile surgical anatomy, operative procedures by experienced surgeon from the traditional fat transfer to the penile disassembly technique, the newest tissue engineering techniques by researchers with valuable data of world top level, auxiliary medical devices, and how to reconstruct for damaged penis by a quack or accident. Obviously this text book will be a great guidebook in clinical practice for all who are involved or interested in the penile augmentation procedure.

  14. Key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun; Wu, Xueling

    2008-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a growing research area in virtual reality and generates a composite view for the user. It is combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. About 80 percent information in the real world is related with spatial location. The combination of Geographical information system (GIS) and AR technologies would promote the development of outdoor AR systems, and also would explore a new research direction for GIS. The key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS, including basic tracking methods, display devices, typical applications and registration processes, are discussed. In indoor augmented reality's closed environments the tracking of position and head orientation as well as the presentation of information is much more unproblematic than the same task in an outdoor environment. The main application task of outdoor augmented reality GIS is the presentation of information to a user while moving through an unknown region. The system helps to detect automatically objects in sight of a person who need its information. It compares the conventional solutions of 3D registration with, while it discusses their algorithm procedure to basic parameters to give out their advantages and disadvantages at different condition. While affine transformation approach uses the idea of computer graphics and vision technology for reference. Its accuracy is mainly based on the precision and speed of scene feature point extracted from natural or artificial feature.

  15. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  16. Orthobiologics in the augmentation of osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Watson, J Tracy; Nicolaou, Daemeon A

    2015-02-01

    Many orthobiologic adjuvants are available and widely utilized for general skeletal restoration. Their use for the specific task of osteoporotic fracture augmentation is less well recognized. Common conductive materials are reviewed for their value in this patient population including the large group of allograft adjuvants categorically known as the demineralized bone matrices (DBMs). Another large group of alloplastic materials is also examined-the calcium phosphate and sulfate ceramics. Both of these materials, when used for the proper indications, demonstrate efficacy for these patients. The inductive properties of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and platelet concentrates show no clear advantages for this group of patients. Systemic agents including bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) inhibitors, and parathyroid hormone augmentation all demonstrate positive effects with this fracture cohort. Newer modalities, such as trace ion bioceramic augmentation, are also reviewed for their positive effects on osteoporotic fracture healing. PMID:25431160

  17. Pulmonary blood volume indexed to lung volume is reduced in newly diagnosed systemic sclerosis compared to normals – a prospective clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance study addressing pulmonary vascular changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary involvement, manifested as pulmonary arterial hypertension or pulmonary fibrosis, is the most common cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We aimed to explore the feasibility of detecting early pulmonary involvement in SSc using recently developed non-invasive quantitative measures of pulmonary physiology using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Twenty-seven SSc patients (9 men, 57 ± 13 years) and 10 healthy controls (3 men, 54 ± 9 years) underwent CMR to determine the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and the PBV variation (PBVV) throughout the cardiac cycle. Patients underwent Doppler echocardiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and pulmonary function testing by spirometry. Comparisons were performed using the unpaired t-test and linear regression analysis was performed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r). Results Compared to healthy controls, the PBV indexed to lung volume (PBVI) was lower in patients (16 ± 4 vs 20 ± 5%, p < 0.05). There was no difference in PBV (466 ± 87 vs 471 ± 122 mL, p = 0.91) or PBVV/stroke volume (45 ± 10 vs 40 ± 6%, p = 0.09). There were no significant correlations between PBVI and pulmonary artery pressure estimated by Doppler (p = 0.08) the lung’s diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (p = 0.09), vital capacity (p = 0.45), or pulmonary fibrosis by HRCT (p = 0.74). Conclusions This study is the first to measure the PBV in humans using CMR. Compared to healthy controls, newly diagnosed SSc patients have a reduced amount of blood in the pulmonary vasculature (PBVI) but unchanged pulmonary vascular distensibility (PBVV/stroke volume). PBVI is unrelated to DLCO, pulmonary artery pressure, vital capacity, and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. PBVI may be a novel parameter reflecting vascular lung involvement in early-stage SSc, and these findings may be consistent with pathophysiological changes of

  18. Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney; Brannon, David P.; Underwood, Lauren; Russell, Kristen J.

    2007-01-01

    In polar regions of the Moon, some areas within craters are permanently shadowed from solar illumination and can reach temperatures of 100 K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50 K in many cases. Observed temperatures suggest that these regions could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high-vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. Besides ice stores, the unique conditions at the lunar poles harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight, and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few manmade augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding within shaded craters could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of both naturally shaded and thermally augmented craters could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low-temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high-speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were used to facilitate the operation of near

  19. Subject Description of BOOKS: A Manual of Procedures for Augmenting Subject Descriptions in Library Catalogs. Research Study No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settel, Barbara, Ed.

    Term selection methodology used in the Subject Access Project is outlined in this manual. This project was designed to demonstrate how a card catalog in machine-readable form can be augmented to allow greater subject access to the information content of a library collection. Rules and regulations for selecting words from indexes and contents pages…

  20. Atypical Antipsychotics as Augmentation Therapy in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Marzola, Enrica; Desedime, Nadia; Giovannone, Cristina; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening and difficult to treat mental illness with the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. We aimed to garner preliminary data on the real-world use of olanzapine and aripiprazole as augmentation agents of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult inpatients affected by AN. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of patients who were hospitalized between 2012 and 2014. Patients were evaluated upon admission and discharge. We investigated eating symptomatology, and both general and eating psychopathology using: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale. The charts of 75 patients were included in this study. The sample resulted equally distributed among those receiving SSRIs and either aripiprazole or olanzapine in addition to SSRIs. Notwithstanding a few baseline clinical differences, upon discharge all groups were significantly improved on all measures. Interestingly, aripiprazole showed the greatest effectiveness in reducing eating-related preoccupations and rituals with a large effect size. The body of evidence on medication management in AN is in dismal condition. Augmentation therapy is a well-established approach to a variety of mental disorders and it is often used in every-day clinical practice with patients affected by AN as well. Nevertheless, to date very little data is available on this topic. Results from our sample yielded promising results on the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation in reducing eating-related obsessions and compulsions. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these encouraging findings. PMID:25922939

  1. Atypical antipsychotics as augmentation therapy in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Marzola, Enrica; Desedime, Nadia; Giovannone, Cristina; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening and difficult to treat mental illness with the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. We aimed to garner preliminary data on the real-world use of olanzapine and aripiprazole as augmentation agents of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult inpatients affected by AN. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical charts of patients who were hospitalized between 2012 and 2014. Patients were evaluated upon admission and discharge. We investigated eating symptomatology, and both general and eating psychopathology using: Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale. The charts of 75 patients were included in this study. The sample resulted equally distributed among those receiving SSRIs and either aripiprazole or olanzapine in addition to SSRIs. Notwithstanding a few baseline clinical differences, upon discharge all groups were significantly improved on all measures. Interestingly, aripiprazole showed the greatest effectiveness in reducing eating-related preoccupations and rituals with a large effect size. The body of evidence on medication management in AN is in dismal condition. Augmentation therapy is a well-established approach to a variety of mental disorders and it is often used in every-day clinical practice with patients affected by AN as well. Nevertheless, to date very little data is available on this topic. Results from our sample yielded promising results on the effectiveness of aripiprazole augmentation in reducing eating-related obsessions and compulsions. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these encouraging findings. PMID:25922939

  2. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function

    PubMed Central

    Pigarev, Ivan N.; Pigareva, Marina L.

    2014-01-01

    Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all “computational power” of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the “intellectual power” and the restorative function of sleep for visceral organs. PMID

  3. The augmentation algorithm and molecular phylogenetic trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    Moore's (1977) augmentation procedure is discussed, and it is concluded that the procedure is valid for obtaining estimates of the total number of fixed nucleotide substitutions both theoretically and in practice, for both simulated and real data, and in agreement, for experimentally dense data sets, with stochastic estimates of the divergence, provided the restrictions on codon mutability resulting from natural selection are explicitly allowed for. Tateno and Nei's (1978) critique that the augmentation procedure has a systematic bias toward overestimation of the total number of nucleotide replacements is disputed, and a data analysis suggests that ancestral sequences inferred by the method of parsimony contain a large number of incorrectly assigned nucleotides.

  4. Minimal inframammary incision for breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Nabil; Tawilé, Caroline; Brousseau, Valérie J

    2008-01-01

    The inframammary approach in breast augmentation, still the most popular technique among plastic surgeons, has always been hampered by the undesirable appearance of its scar. The present paper describes a modified approach to inframammary augmentation with saline-filled prostheses. This approach uses a very short incision, thus resulting in a much less noticeable scar. The surgical technique is easy to learn, simple to execute, does not necessitate any special equipment and gives consistent results. Decreasing the scar length to an absolute minimum ensures higher patient and surgeon satisfaction. PMID:19554159

  5. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  6. Data augmentation for machine learning redshifts applied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Ben; Rau, Markus Michael; Bonnett, Christopher; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    We present analyses of data augmentation for machine learning redshift estimation. Data augmentation makes a training sample more closely resemble a test sample, if the two base samples differ, in order to improve measured statistics of the test sample. We perform two sets of analyses by selecting 800 000 (1.7 million) Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 (Data Release 10) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We construct a base training set by imposing an artificial r-band apparent magnitude cut to select only bright galaxies and then augment this base training set by using simulations and by applying the K-CORRECT package to artificially place training set galaxies at a higher redshift. We obtain redshift estimates for the remaining faint galaxy sample, which are not used during training. We find that data augmentation reduces the error on the recovered redshifts by 40 per cent in both sets of analyses, when compared to the difference in error between the ideal case and the non-augmented case. The outlier fraction is also reduced by at least 10 per cent and up to 80 per cent using data augmentation. We finally quantify how the recovered redshifts degrade as one probes to deeper magnitudes past the artificial magnitude limit of the bright training sample. We find that at all apparent magnitudes explored, the use of data augmentation with tree-based methods provide an estimate of the galaxy redshift with a low value of bias, although the error on the recovered redshifts increases as we probe to deeper magnitudes. These results have applications for surveys which have a spectroscopic training set which forms a biased sample of all photometric galaxies, for example if the spectroscopic detection magnitude limit is shallower than the photometric limit.

  7. Intraoperative monitoring of torsion to prevent vertical deviations during augmented vertical rectus transposition surgery

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Total transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscle laterally, with augmentation sutures, may be complicated by induction of an undesirable vertical deviation. Induced vertical misalignment may be associated with changes in torsion. We have developed a simple method to monitor intraoperative torsion that may reduce the incidence of vertical deviations. Methods We reviewed consecutive cases of total abducens palsy or esotropic Duane syndrome treated with augmented lateral transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, where the 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock intraoperative positions were initially marked with a dot at the limbus using a surgical pen. The location of the marks was monitored during tying of the augmentation sutures; changes in torsion were monitored intraoperatively. Results Records of 9 cases of augmented vertical rectus transposition were reviewed. Based on intraoperative assessment of torsion by observing the position of the preplaced limbal dots, the inferior rectus augmentation suture was tied less tightly than the superior rectus suture, leaving a gap of 1–3 mm between the inferior and lateral rectus muscles in 8 of 9 cases. The augmentation suture was totally removed in 1 case. Following these intraoperative adjustments, there was no induced intraoperative torsion, whereas further tightening of the inferior suture induced extorsion. Six weeks postoperatively, 8 of 9 patients did not experience a symptomatic vertical deviation. Conclusions When performing augmented transposition procedures, intraoperative monitoring of torsion may reduce the incidence of inadvertent vertical deviations and torsion. This technique may also be useful in other cases where correction or avoidance of torsion is needed. PMID:22525168

  8. Human-in-the-loop evaluation of RMS Active Damping Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demeo, Martha E.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Lepanto, Janet A.; Bains, Elizabeth M.; Jensen, Mary C.

    1993-01-01

    Active Damping Augmentation is the insertion of Controls-Structures Integration Technology to benefit the on-orbit performance of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The goal is to reduce the vibration decay time of the Remote Manipulator System following normal payload maneuvers and operations. Simulation of Active Damping Augmentation was conducted in the realtime human-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The objective of this study was to obtain a qualitative measure of operational performance improvement from astronaut operators and to obtain supporting quantitative performance data. Sensing of vibratory motions was simulated using a three-axis accelerometer mounted at the end of the lower boom of the Remote Manipulator System. The sensed motions were used in a feedback control law to generate commands to the joint servo mechanisms which reduced the unwanted oscillations. Active damping of the Remote Manipulator System with an attached 3990 lb. payload was successfully demonstrated. Six astronaut operators examined the performance of an Active Damping Augmentation control law following single-joint and coordinated six-joint translational and rotational maneuvers. Active Damping Augmentation disturbance rejection of Orbiter thruster firings was also evaluated. Significant reductions in the dynamic response of the 3990 lb. payload were observed. Astronaut operators recommended investigation of Active Damping Augmentation benefits to heavier payloads where oscillations are a bigger problem (e.g. Space Station Freedom assembly operators).

  9. Augmentative Communication: Assessment, System Selection, and Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRuyter, Frank; Becker, Mary R.

    1988-01-01

    Augmentative communication systems for the nonspeaking brain-injured should be carefully selected to serve a variety of functions. These include the utilization of systems for communication purposes, assessment of cognitive-linguistic deficits, integration and participation by the individual in the rehabilitation program, and improvement in an…

  10. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. PMID:26646315

  11. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  12. APITRON ELECTROSTATICALLY AUGMENTED FABRIC FILTER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of fractional and overall mass efficiency tests of two Apitron electrostatically augmented fabric filter dust collectors. The tests were performed on a mobile pilot-scale system collecting flyash produced by a pulverized-coal-fired industrial boiler and o...

  13. A Universal Logging Format for Augmentative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Rinkus, Gerard; Higginbotham, D. Jeffery

    This report discusses how technical and technological advances in alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) have outstripped the ability to assess their impact on actual communication and argues that this is due in part to the lack of a consistent and reliable method to measure long-term communicative efficacy. The report proposes a…

  14. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  15. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  16. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  17. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  18. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  19. Introduction to augmented and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudell, Thomas P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper introduces the field of augmented reality as a prolog to the body of papers in the remainder of this session. I describe the use of head-mounted display technologies to improve the efficiency and quality of human workers in their performance of engineering design, manufacturing, construction, testing, and maintenance activities. This technology is used to `augment' the visual field of the wearer with information necessary in the performance of the current task. The enabling technology is head-up (see-through) display head sets (HUDsets) combined with head position sensing, real world registration systems, and database access software. A primary difference between virtual reality (VR) and `augmented reality' (AR) is in the complexity of the perceived graphical objects. In AR systems, only simple wire frames, template outlines, designators, and text is displayed. An immediate result of this difference is that augmented reality systems can be driven by standard and inexpensive microprocessors. Many research issues must be addressed before this technology can be widely used, including tracking and registration, human 3D perception and reasoning, and human task performance issues.

  20. E-Learning: Between Augmentation and Disruption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilesen, Simon B.; Josephsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Based on a framework for analysis combining diffusion theory, content layer analysis and sense making, this paper discusses the theme of "e-learning as augmentation or disruption" from the point of view of technological innovation. Two cases of on-campus blended learning at Roskilde University, Denmark, are introduced to illustrate the discussion.…

  1. An Asynchronous Augmentation to Traditional Course Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Marvin L.; Wolverton, Mimi

    Asynchronous augmentation facilitates distributed learning, which relies heavily on technology and self-learning. This paper reports the results of delivering a real estate principles course using an asynchronous course delivery format. It highlights one of many ways to enhance learning using technology, and it provides information concerning how…

  2. Toward natural fiducials for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchin, Paul; Martinez, Kirk

    2005-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) requires a mapping between the camera(s) and the world, so that virtual objects can be correctly registered. Current AR applications either use pre-prepared fiducial markers or specialist equipment or impose significant constraints on lighting and background. Each of these approaches has significant drawbacks. Fiducial markers are susceptible to loss or damage, can be awkward to work with and may require significant effort to prepare an area for Augmented interaction. Use of such markers may also present an imposition to non-augmented observers, especially in environments such as museums or historical landmarks. Specialist equipment is expensive and not universally available. Lighting and background constraints are often impractical for real-world applications. This paper presents initial results in using the palm of the hand as a pseudo-fiducial marker in a natural real-world environment, through colour, feature and edge analysis. The eventual aim of this research is to enable fiducial marker cards to be dispensed with entirely in some situations in order to allow more natural interaction in Augmented environments. Examples of this would be allowing users to "hold" virtual 3D objects in the palm of their hand or use gestures to interact with virtual objects.

  3. Audiologic changes after pinna augmentation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Hone, Robert; Kanegaonkar, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    No studies to date have objectively assessed whether pinna morphology affects sound intensity detected within the external auditory canal (EAC). Commonly performed procedures on the EAC are carried out for acquired and congenital pathology, together with correction of ear deformities. Our aim was to use an experimental model to identify whether a relationship exists between pinna shape and its subsequent effect on the hearing subject. An anatomically accurate and life-size model made of rubber composite was used for this study. Serial sections (small wedge, defect open; small wedge, defect closed; large wedge, defect open; large wedge, defect closed [equivalent to a protruding ear]; and pinnectomy) were undertaken, and the sound intensity changes assessed at the junction between the EAC and middle ear (tympanic membrane position) using an AURICAL Plus (Otometrics; Taastrup, Denmark) sound processor. A statistically significant loss was demonstrated for wedge-excised models, which was greatest at 180° azimuth. This loss was significantly reduced when the wedge defects were closed. A statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the protruding ("bat") ear model compared with the normal ear at 0° azimuth. In this model, gain in sound intensity is adversely affected by pinna wedge resection. Because this change may be increased in those with protruding ears, this factor is important to consider for all cosmetic and noncosmetic operations to the pinna, and it supports the notion that the pinna is not a simple funnel. PMID:27551847

  4. 3D photography in the objective analysis of volume augmentation including fat augmentation and dermal fillers.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jason D; Glasgold, Robert A; Glasgold, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    The authors present quantitative and objective 3D data from their studies showing long-term results with facial volume augmentation. The first study analyzes fat grafting of the midface and the second study presents augmentation of the tear trough with hyaluronic filler. Surgeons using 3D quantitative analysis can learn the duration of results and the optimal amount to inject, as well as showing patients results that are not demonstrable with standard, 2D photography. PMID:22004863

  5. Development and flight evaluation of active controls in the L-1011. [including wing load alleviation and stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.; Urie, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Active controls in the Lockheed L-1011 for increased energy efficiency are discussed. Active wing load alleviation for extended span, increased aspect ratio, and active stability augmentation with a smaller tail for reduced drag and weight are among the topics considered. Flight tests of active wing load alleviation on the baseline aircraft and moving-base piloted simulation developing criteria for stability augmentation are described.

  6. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  7. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  8. KSC Construction Cost Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

  9. FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-10-31

    The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1

  10. Atomic clock augmentation for receivers using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Paul Andrew

    For receivers using the Global Positioning System (GPS), it is standard procedure to treat the receiver clock bias from GPS time as an unknown. This requires four range measurements to the satellites in order to solve for three dimensional position and clock offset. If the receiver clock could be synchronized with GPS time, the extra range measurement would not be necessary. To achieve this synchronization, a stable frequency reference must be incorporated into the GPS user set. This concept is known as clock aiding or clock augmentation of GPS receivers. Clock augmentation increases the availability of the navigation function because only three GPS satellites are required. Also, it is shown that clock augmentation improves vertical accuracy by reducing the vertical dilution of precision (VDOP), which is a unitless multiplier that translates range measurement error into vertical position error. This improvement in vertical accuracy is particularly beneficial for applications involving final approach and landing of aircraft using GPS, because GPS typically provides better horizontal accuracy than vertical accuracy. The benefits of atomic clock augmentation are limited by factors that cause a loss of synchronization either between the receiver and GPS time, or between ground station and airborne receivers processing GPS data in differential mode (DGPS). Among the error sources that cause a clock offset are antenna rotation, hardware drifts due to temperature variations, and relativistic effects for GPS receivers on moving platforms. Antenna rotation and temperature effects are addressed and supported by experimental data. It is shown that two particular relativity terms thought to be missing from GPS receiver algorithms are not evident in data collected during a flight test experiment. Upon addressing the error sources, the dissertation concludes with analysis of DGPS data collected during a flight test at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Tech Center in

  11. Blonanserin Augmentation for Treatment-Resistant Somatic Symptom Disorder: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Yasuhide; Tominaga, Toshiyuki; Fukui, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with antipsychotics that have a high dopamine-receptor-D2 affinity may be effective in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder and somatic symptom disorder, which is similar to illness anxiety disorder. Blonanserin, a novel antipsychotic developed in Japan, has a high affinity for the D2 receptor and weak or very little affinity for other receptors. This article presents two case studies that demonstrate the efficacy of blonanserin augmentation for treatment-resistant somatic symptom disorder. Two patients with treatment-resistant somatic symptom disorder were prescribed concomitant use of blonanserin. Augmentation with blonanserin resulted in the remarkable amelioration of all symptoms. Sedative adverse drug reactions produced by aripiprazole were improved after replacing it with blonanserin. Blonanserin is effective in treatment-resistant somatic symptom disorder. Furthermore, compared with aripiprazole, blonanserin is more likely to result in medication adherence in patients with somatic symptom disorder because it reduced adverse drug reactions. PMID:26818044

  12. Erosive Augmentation of Solid Propellant Burning Rate: Motor Size Scaling Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Cohen, Norman S.

    1990-01-01

    Two different independent variable forms, a difference form and a ratio form, were investigated for correlating the normalized magnitude of the measured erosive burning rate augmentation above the threshold in terms of the amount that the driving parameter (mass flux or Reynolds number) exceeds the threshold value for erosive augmentation at the test condition. The latter was calculated from the previously determined threshold correlation. Either variable form provided a correlation for each of the two motor size data bases individually. However, the data showed a motor size effect, supporting the general observation that the magnitude of erosive burning rate augmentation is reduced for larger rocket motors. For both independent variable forms, the required motor size scaling was attained by including the motor port radius raised to a power in the independent parameter. A boundary layer theory analysis confirmed the experimental finding, but showed that the magnitude of the scale effect is itself dependent upon scale, tending to diminish with increasing motor size.

  13. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept with a small tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Parasite drag reduction evaluation is composed of wind tunnel tests with a standard L-1011 tail and two reduced area tail configurations. Trim drag reduction is evaluated by rebalancing the airplane for relaxed static stability. This is accomplished by pumping water to tanks in the forward and aft of the airplane to acheive desired center of gravity location. Also, the L-1011 is modified to incorporate term and advanced augmented systems. By using advanced wings and aircraft relaxed static stability significant fuel savings can be realized. An airplane's dynamic stability becomes more sensitive for decreased tail size, relaxed static stability, and advanced wing configurations. Active control pitch augmentation will be used to acheive the required handling qualities. Flight tests will be performed to evaluate the pitch augmentation systems. The effect of elevator downrig on stabilizer/elevator hinge moments will be measured. For control system analysis, the normal acceleration feedback and pitch rate feedback are analyzed.

  14. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  15. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  16. Pilots Rate Augmented Generalized Predictive Control for Reconfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soloway, Don; Haley, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the results from the research being conducted in reconfigurable fight controls at NASA Ames. A study was conducted with three NASA Dryden test pilots to evaluate two approaches of reconfiguring an aircraft's control system when failures occur in the control surfaces and engine. NASA Ames is investigating both a Neural Generalized Predictive Control scheme and a Neural Network based Dynamic Inverse controller. This paper highlights the Predictive Control scheme where a simple augmentation to reduce zero steady-state error led to the neural network predictor model becoming redundant for the task. Instead of using a neural network predictor model, a nominal single point linear model was used and then augmented with an error corrector. This paper shows that the Generalized Predictive Controller and the Dynamic Inverse Neural Network controller perform equally well at reconfiguration, but with less rate requirements from the actuators. Also presented are the pilot ratings for each controller for various failure scenarios and two samples of the required control actuation during reconfiguration. Finally, the paper concludes by stepping through the Generalized Predictive Control's reconfiguration process for an elevator failure.

  17. Biologically based strategies to augment rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Schaer, M.; Schober, M.; Berger, S.; Boileau, P.; Zumstein, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are among the most frequent tendon injuries. In spite of the developments in both open and arthroscopic surgery, RC repair still very often fails. In order to reduce the failure rate after surgery, several experimental in vitro and in vivo therapy methods have been developed for biological improvement of the reinsertion. This article provides an overview of the current evidence for augmentation of RC reconstruction with growth factors. Furthermore, potential future therapeutic approaches are discussed. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed database using various combinations of the keywords “tendon,” “rotator cuff,” “augmentation,” “growth factor,” “platelet-rich fibrin,” and “platelet-rich plasma” for publications up to 2011. Given the linguistic capabilities of the research team, we considered publications in English, German, French, and Spanish. We excluded literature reviews, case reports, and letters to the editor. PMID:22787334

  18. Abdomen and spinal cord segmentation with augmented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhoubing; Conrad, Benjamin N; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Smith, Seth A; Poulose, Benjamin K; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-07-01

    Active shape models (ASMs) have been widely used for extracting human anatomies in medical images given their capability for shape regularization of topology preservation. However, sensitivity to model initialization and local correspondence search often undermines their performances, especially around highly variable contexts in computed-tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. In this study, we propose an augmented ASM (AASM) by integrating the multiatlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques into the traditional ASM framework. Using AASM, landmark updates are optimized globally via a region-based LS evolution applied on the probability map generated from MALF. This augmentation effectively extends the searching range of correspondent landmarks while reducing sensitivity to the image contexts and improves the segmentation robustness. We propose the AASM framework as a two-dimensional segmentation technique targeting structures with one axis of regularity. We apply AASM approach to abdomen CT and spinal cord (SC) MR segmentation challenges. On 20 CT scans, the AASM segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous/visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. On 28 3T MR scans, AASM yields better performances than other state-of-the-art approaches in segmenting white/gray matter in SC. PMID:27610400

  19. Augmented reality image guidance for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Hawkes, David; Casula, Roberto; Hu, Mingxing; Pedro, Ose; Zhang, Dong Ping; Penney, Graeme; Bello, Fernando; Edwards, Philip

    2008-03-01

    We propose a novel system for image guidance in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB). A key requirement is the availability of 2D-3D registration techniques that can deal with non-rigid motion and deformation. Image guidance for TECAB is mainly required before the mechanical stabilization of the heart, thus the most dominant source of non-rigid deformation is the motion of the beating heart. To augment the images in the endoscope of the da Vinci robot, we have to find the transformation from the coordinate system of the preoperative imaging modality to the system of the endoscopic cameras. In a first step we build a 4D motion model of the beating heart. Intraoperatively we can use the ECG or video processing to determine the phase of the cardiac cycle. We can then take the heart surface from the motion model and register it to the stereo-endoscopic images of the da Vinci robot using 2D-3D registration methods. We are investigating robust feature tracking and intensity-based methods for this purpose. Images of the vessels available in the preoperative coordinate system can then be transformed to the camera system and projected into the calibrated endoscope view using two video mixers with chroma keying. It is hoped that the augmented view can improve the efficiency of TECAB surgery and reduce the conversion rate to more conventional procedures.

  20. Sensory Substitution and Augmentation Using 3-Degree-of-Freedom Skin Deformation Feedback.

    PubMed

    Quek, Zhan Fan; Schorr, Samuel B; Nisky, Ilana; Provancher, William R; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-01-01

    During tool-mediated interaction with everyday objects, we experience kinesthetic forces and tactile sensations in the form of vibration and skin deformation at the fingerpad. Fingerpad skin deformation is caused by forces applied tangentially and normally to the fingerpad skin, resulting in tangential and normal skin displacement. We designed a device to convey 3-degree-of-freedom (DoF) force information to the user via skin deformation, and conducted two experiments to determine the devices effectiveness for force-feedback substitution and augmentation. For sensory substitution, participants used 1-DoF and 3-DoF skin deformation feedback to locate a feature in a 3-DoF virtual environment. Participants showed improved precision and shorter completion time when using 3-DoF compared to 1-DoF skin deformation feedback. For sensory augmentation, participants traced a path in space from an initial to a target location, while under guidance from force and/or skin deformation feedback. When force feedback was augmented with skin deformation, participants reduced their path-following error over the cases when force or skin deformation feedback are used separately. We conclude that 3-DoF skin deformation feedback is effective in substituting or augmenting force feedback. Such substitution or augmentation could be used when force feedback is unattainable or attenuated due to device limitations or system instability. PMID:25647582

  1. Methodology, Methods, and Metrics for Testing and Evaluating Augmented Cognition Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2008-09-15

    The augmented cognition research community seeks cognitive neuroscience-based solutions to improve warfighter performance by applying and managing mitigation strategies to reduce workload and improve the throughput and quality of decisions. The focus of augmented cognition mitigation research is to define, demonstrate, and exploit neuroscience and behavioral measures that support inferences about the warfighter’s cognitive state that prescribe the nature and timing of mitigation. A research challenge is to develop valid evaluation methodologies, metrics and measures to assess the impact of augmented cognition mitigations. Two considerations are external validity, which is the extent to which the results apply to operational contexts; and internal validity, which reflects the reliability of performance measures and the conclusions based on analysis of results. The scientific rigor of the research methodology employed in conducting empirical investigations largely affects the validity of the findings. External validity requirements also compel us to demonstrate operational significance of mitigations. Thus it is important to demonstrate effectiveness of mitigations under specific conditions. This chapter reviews some cognitive science and methodological considerations in designing augmented cognition research studies and associated human performance metrics and analysis methods to assess the impact of augmented cognition mitigations.

  2. The Delay Fill Technique: A Safer Approach to Combination Augmentation Mastopexy

    PubMed Central

    Patronella, Christopher K.; Mentz, Henry A.; Johnson-Alviza, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Combining breast augmentation with mastopexy is a challenging procedure that has a relatively high revision rate in the literature. Some surgeons prefer a two-stage procedure to avoid the potential for skin flap or nipple–areolar complex necrosis that can occur with a one-stage procedure. The authors compared 101 patients who had subpectoral breast augmentation with immediate implant fill and mastopexy with 203 patients who had subpectoral breast augmentation with delayed (10–14 days) implant fill and mastopexy. They found the revision rate for immediate implant fill was 24%; in the delayed implant fill group, the revision rate was 10.3%. Patients had soft tissue-related complications in 16% of the immediate fill group and in 2% of the delayed fill group. Delaying implant fill in combined breast augmentation mastopexy significantly reduces the risk of soft tissue-related complications and revision procedures; the delay flap phenomenon is responsible for fewer wound-healing complications when implant fill is delayed during a combined augmentation mastopexy procedure. PMID:26528084

  3. An Augmentation of G-Guidance Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M. III; Acikmese, Behcet

    2011-01-01

    The original G-Guidance algorithm provided an autonomous guidance and control policy for small-body proximity operations that took into account uncertainty and dynamics disturbances. However, there was a lack of robustness in regards to object proximity while in autonomous mode. The modified GGuidance algorithm was augmented with a second operational mode that allows switching into a safety hover mode. This will cause a spacecraft to hover in place until a mission-planning algorithm can compute a safe new trajectory. No state or control constraints are violated. When a new, feasible state trajectory is calculated, the spacecraft will return to standard mode and maneuver toward the target. The main goal of this augmentation is to protect the spacecraft in the event that a landing surface or obstacle is closer or further than anticipated. The algorithm can be used for the mitigation of any unexpected trajectory or state changes that occur during standard mode operations

  4. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder

    2011-11-01

    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  5. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Sebaaly, Amer; Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  6. Tests on Thrust Augmenters for Jet Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Shoemaker, James M

    1932-01-01

    This series of tests was undertaken to determine how much the reaction thrust of a jet could be increased by the use of thrust augmenters and thus to give some indication as to the feasibility of jet propulsion for airplanes. The tests were made during the first part of 1927 at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. A compressed air jet was used in connection with a series of annular guides surrounding the jet to act as thrust augmenters. The results show that, although it is possible to increase the thrust of a jet, the increase is not large enough to affect greatly the status of the problem of the application of jet propulsion to airplanes.

  7. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  8. A laboratory investigation to assess the influence of cement augmentation of screw and plate fixation in a simulation of distal femoral fracture of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic bone.

    PubMed

    Wähnert, D; Lange, J H; Schulze, M; Gehweiler, D; Kösters, C; Raschke, M J

    2013-10-01

    The augmentation of fixation with bone cement is increasingly being used in the treatment of severe osteoporotic fractures. We investigated the influence of bone quality on the mechanics of augmentation of plate fixation in a distal femoral fracture model (AO 33 A3 type). Eight osteoporotic and eight non-osteoporotic femoral models were randomly assigned to either an augmented or a non-augmented group. Fixation was performed using a locking compression plate. In the augmented group additionally 1 ml of bone cement was injected into the screw hole before insertion of the screw. Biomechanical testing was performed in axial sinusoidal loading. Augmentation significantly reduced the cut-out distance in the osteoporotic models by about 67% (non-augmented mean 0.30 mm (sd 0.08) vs augmented 0.13 mm (sd 0.06); p = 0.017). There was no statistical reduction in this distance following augmentation in the non-osteoporotic models (non-augmented mean 0.15 mm (sd 0.02) vs augmented 0.15 mm (sd 0.07); p = 0.915). In the osteoporotic models, augmentation significantly increased stability (p = 0.017). PMID:24078541

  9. Single stage and thrust augmented reusable launch vehicle stability and performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanck, Pamela A.; Steadman, Kimberly B.

    1998-01-01

    The requirement for routine, reliable, inexpensive launch service drives the interest in the development of a fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV). In theory, single-stage vehicle operations would resemble aircraft operations where high initial development costs are offset by relatively low recurring costs. However, the large size of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle and the advanced engine and structural technology requirements could overshadow advantages gained through streamlined operations. This analysis explores the feasibility of using thrust augmentation on a fully reusable core vehicle in order to lessen the disadvantages of a fully single-stage vehicle. Advanced technology systems and two 86,000 kg solid strapon motors are incorporated into a vehicle designed to deliver an Atlas-class payload. This study shows that thrust augmentation significantly decreases vehicle size, decreases development risk and improves longitudinal stability characteristics. The thrust augmentation reduces vehicle insertion mass by 40% and reduces the vehicle's sensitivity to the increases in dry mass growth often experienced during development, thus reducing development risk. Thrust augmentation also moves the center of gravity location forward, thus improving longitudinal stability characteristics and maximizing the vehicle's reentry cross range capability.

  10. Ligament reconstruction tendon interposition with mersilene augmentation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Andrew J; Schofield, Jennifer L; Marsh, Mike; Paulo, Jerry

    2011-03-01

    Many surgical procedures have been described for the treatment of thumb basilar joint osteoarthritis. Augmentation of the standard ligament reconstruction tendon interposition procedure with the use of a Mersilene suture tape suspension-plasty, to recreate the stability provided by the anterior oblique ligament and increase pinch strength, will be described. Satisfaction with this procedure was evaluated through surveys completed by patients. In addition, independent physical assessments were performed to demonstrate stability, range of motion, and strength. PMID:21358518

  11. Asian Breast Augmentation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zelken, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Economic, cultural, and regulatory phenomena may explain recent popularization of implant-based augmentation in Asia; but the collective Eastern experience remains limited. Asian surgeons and their patients rely on evidence-based medicine that originates elsewhere and may not be entirely relevant. Distinct anatomic and cultural features of Asian women warrant a tailored approach to breast augmentation. We explore the Asian experience with a thorough exploration of the recent literature. Methods: A literature search was performed for articles written after 2000, of Asian women who underwent augmentation mammoplasty using MEDLINE, Embase, and Pubmed Databases. Technique and outcomes data were summarized. Results: Twelve articles reported outcomes of 2089 women. Korea contributed most series (English language, 7), followed by China (3), Taiwan (1), and Japan (1). Silicone implants were used in 82.1% of women studied, and almost exclusively after 2009. More round (68.9%) than anatomic implants (31.1%) were placed. Non-inframammary (axillary, areolar, and umbilical) incisions were used in 96.9% of cases. Nearly all implants were positioned below the muscle or fascia; subglandular placement accounted for 1.1% of cases. Implant/nipple malposition (1.3%), capsular contracture (1.9%), hematoma (0.6%), and infection (0.2%) rates were reported in most series. Undesirable scarring was the most frequent complication (7.3%), but was reported only in 4 of 12 series. Conclusions: Studies of Asian women undergoing augmentation mammoplasty are limited, often with ill-defined outcomes and inadequate follow-up. As experience accumulates, an expanding literature relevant to Asian women will provide evidence-based guidelines that improve outcomes and patient satisfaction, and foster innovation. PMID:26893980

  12. Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Saboeiro, Alesia P

    2015-07-01

    The controversy over fat grafting to the breasts has now been settled. In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force stated that "Fat grafting may be considered for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries; however, results are dependent on technique and surgeon expertise." This article discusses the history, indications, planning, complications, and present technique of fat grafting to the breast using the Coleman technique. PMID:26116935

  13. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed. PMID:23094237

  14. Augmented reality visualization for thoracoscopic spine surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Frank; Vogt, Sebastian; Khamene, Ali; Heining, Sandro; Euler, Ekkehard; Schneberger, Marc; Zuerl, Konrad; Mutschler, Wolf

    2006-03-01

    We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The centerpiece of the system is a head-mounted display custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. Medical graphics is overlaid onto the video view and appears firmly anchored in the scene, without perceivable time lag or jitter. We have been testing the system for different clinical applications. In this paper we discuss minimally invasive thoracoscopic spine surgery as a promising new orthopedic application. In the standard approach, the thoracoscope - a rigid endoscope - provides visual feedback for the minimally invasive procedure of removing a damaged disc and fusing the two neighboring vertebrae. The navigation challenges are twofold. From a global perspective, the correct vertebrae on the spine have to be located with the inserted instruments. From a local perspective, the actual spine procedure has to be performed precisely. Visual feedback from the thoracoscope provides only limited support for both of these tasks. In the augmented reality approach, we give the surgeon additional anatomical context for the navigation. Before the surgery, we derive a model of the patient's anatomy from a CT scan, and during surgery we track the location of the surgical instruments in relation to patient and model. With this information, we can help the surgeon in both the global and local navigation, providing a global map and 3D information beyond the local 2D view of the thoracoscope. Augmented reality visualization is a particularly intuitive method of displaying this information to the surgeon. To adapt our augmented reality system to this application, we had to add an external optical tracking system, which works now in combination with our head-mounted tracking camera. The surgeon's feedback to the initial phantom experiments is very positive.

  15. Ceramic augmentation of the lower jaw.

    PubMed

    Bunte, M; Strunz, V

    1977-11-01

    Atrophy of the lower jaw is essentially a manifestation of vertical bone resorption and must be treated in a compensatory manner. Animal experiments have shown the value of the bioactive glass ceramic Ceravital as a bone replacement material. After box-shaped or step-shaped osteotomies, we perform interpositional plastic operations with glass ceramic in order to augment the atrophied human lower jaw. Results, advantages and dangers of the method are shown in 12 patients. PMID:271190

  16. Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

  17. Silicone-induced Granuloma After Buttock Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Solomon, Isaac H.; Calderwood, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Liquid silicone is inexpensive, minimally antigenic, and likely noncarcinogenic. Its simplicity of use has made it popular as a soft-tissue filler in some parts of the world for patients seeking rapid soft-tissue augmentation of the face, breast, and buttocks. However, multiple reports describe the complications of silicone injections such as cellulitis, abscess, ulceration, and foreign body migration. We present an unusual complication of granulomatous reaction secondary to silicone injection for buttock augmentation, with a literature review of this entity and treatment options. Our patient was a 54-year-old woman who underwent bilateral buttock augmentation in the Dominican Republic using percutaneous injection of liquid silicone. She presented to our facility 1 year after this procedure with pain and inflammation of both buttocks. She was diagnosed with multiple silicone granulomas. Her symptoms completely resolved with a 3-week course of minocycline. Granulomatous reactions to silicone may occur months to years after the silicone injection. The incidence of such complications may be increased when nonmedical-grade silicone is used, and hence, when these procedures are performed in developing countries. Tetracycline antibiotics, especially minocycline, may be used to achieve sustained remission. PMID:27014553

  18. Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2004-02-03

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  19. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-01-11

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  20. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-07-26

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  1. Ridge augmentation in an organ transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Dalla Torre, D; Burtscher, D

    2016-05-01

    With the continuing progress in medicine, the number of successful organ transplantations has continued to increase, a fact that also concerns dentists and implantologists. Implantology after organ transplantation remains controversial due to the patient's immunocompromised situation and the corresponding risk of infection. Only a few studies on this topic have been reported, with all of them showing the dental implant success rates in transplant patients to be similar to those in healthy subjects. However, immunosuppression has been identified as a contraindication to bone augmentation. Consequently, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding pre-implantology bone grafting procedures. The following case report describes the use of ridge augmentation and extended bilateral sinus lift procedures in a liver transplant patient. The patient was treated with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis in the upper jaw and was followed up for a total of 28 months after implant insertion. According to the findings presented, pre-implantology augmentation procedures may be performed successfully in immunosuppressed organ transplant patients. Stable peri-implant conditions were shown over a period of more than 2 years. Nevertheless, further investigations are needed to define a safe treatment protocol for these high-risk patients. PMID:26711250

  2. Service connectivity architecture for mobile augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Tuukka; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roening, Juha

    2001-06-01

    Mobile augmented reality can be utilized in a number of different services, and it provides a lot of added value compared to the interfaces used in mobile multimedia today. Intelligent service connectivity architecture is needed for the emerging commercial mobile augmented reality services, to guarantee mobility and interoperability on a global scale. Some of the key responsibilities of this architecture are to find suitable service providers, to manage the connection with and utilization of such providers, and to allow smooth switching between them whenever the user moves out of the service area of the service provider she is currently connected to. We have studied the potential support technologies for such architectures and propose a way to create an intelligent service connectivity architecture based on current and upcoming wireless networks, an Internet backbone, and mechanisms to manage service connectivity in the upper layers of the protocol stack. In this paper, we explain the key issues of service connectivity, describe the properties of our architecture, and analyze the functionality of an example system. Based on these, we consider our proposition a good solution to the quest for global interoperability in mobile augmented reality services.

  3. Silicone-induced Granuloma After Buttock Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mansher; Solomon, Isaac H; Calderwood, Michael S; Talbot, Simon G

    2016-02-01

    Liquid silicone is inexpensive, minimally antigenic, and likely noncarcinogenic. Its simplicity of use has made it popular as a soft-tissue filler in some parts of the world for patients seeking rapid soft-tissue augmentation of the face, breast, and buttocks. However, multiple reports describe the complications of silicone injections such as cellulitis, abscess, ulceration, and foreign body migration. We present an unusual complication of granulomatous reaction secondary to silicone injection for buttock augmentation, with a literature review of this entity and treatment options. Our patient was a 54-year-old woman who underwent bilateral buttock augmentation in the Dominican Republic using percutaneous injection of liquid silicone. She presented to our facility 1 year after this procedure with pain and inflammation of both buttocks. She was diagnosed with multiple silicone granulomas. Her symptoms completely resolved with a 3-week course of minocycline. Granulomatous reactions to silicone may occur months to years after the silicone injection. The incidence of such complications may be increased when nonmedical-grade silicone is used, and hence, when these procedures are performed in developing countries. Tetracycline antibiotics, especially minocycline, may be used to achieve sustained remission. PMID:27014553

  4. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  5. CMG-Augmented Control of a Hovering VTOL Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) can be used for stability augmentation to a thrust vectoring system for a generic Vertical Take-Off and Landing platform. The response characteristics of the platform which uses only thrust vectoring and a second configuration which includes a single-gimbal CMG array are simulated and compared for hovering flight while subject to severe air turbulence. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of a CMG array in its ability to significantly reduce the agility requirement on the thrust vectoring system. Albeit simplifying physical assumptions on a generic CMG configuration, the numerical results also suggest that reasonably sized CMGs will likely be sufficient for a small hovering vehicle.

  6. Improving training for sensory augmentation using the science of expertise.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Craig; Stafford, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Sensory substitution and augmentation devices (SSADs) allow users to perceive information about their environment that is usually beyond their sensory capabilities. Despite an extensive history, SSADs are arguably not used to their fullest, both as assistive technology for people with sensory impairment or as research tools in the psychology and neuroscience of sensory perception. Studies of the non-use of other assistive technologies suggest one factor is the balance of benefits gained against the costs incurred. We argue that improving the learning experience would improve this balance, suggest three ways in which it can be improved by leveraging existing cognitive science findings on expertise and skill development, and acknowledge limitations and relevant concerns. We encourage the systematic evaluation of learning programs, and suggest that a more effective learning process for SSADs could reduce the barrier to uptake and allow users to reach higher levels of overall capacity. PMID:27264831

  7. Efficient Verification of Holograms Using Mobile Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Andreas Daniel; Arth, Clemens; Grubert, Jens; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    Paper documents such as passports, visas and banknotes are frequently checked by inspection of security elements. In particular, optically variable devices such as holograms are important, but difficult to inspect. Augmented Reality can provide all relevant information on standard mobile devices. However, hologram verification on mobiles still takes long and provides lower accuracy than inspection by human individuals using appropriate reference information. We aim to address these drawbacks by automatic matching combined with a special parametrization of an efficient goal-oriented user interface which supports constrained navigation. We first evaluate a series of similarity measures for matching hologram patches to provide a sound basis for automatic decisions. Then a re-parametrized user interface is proposed based on observations of typical user behavior during document capture. These measures help to reduce capture time to approximately 15 s with better decisions regarding the evaluated samples than what can be achieved by untrained users. PMID:26561461

  8. Ultrafast bandgap technique: light-induced semiconductor augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, I. K.; Rafailov, M. K.

    2014-06-01

    Bleaching by ultra-short pulses is discussed as an opportunity for semiconductor optical augmentation. The ability of ultra-short laser pulse to excite and remove electrons in-bulk from valence band may be used to prevent generation of thermal electrons for extended period of time. That time is correlated with recombination time. Diminishing the number of electrons that are available for thermal excitation leads to thermal noise reduction in the same way as semiconductor cooling. Technology based on the effect may be used as effective alternative to thermal cooling, and may allow some semiconductors effectively be exploited at ambient temperatures. Specifically, high sensitive and fast detectors as well as semiconductor lasers covering long and very long-wavelengths may actually work without extra cooling., needed to reduce thermal noise. In this paper, we will consider the effects caused by relatively low pulse energy ultra-short pulse lasers.

  9. Routine Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes: The INTERPRET Study

    PubMed Central

    Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bratina, Natasa; Lalić, Nebojsa M.; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslaw; Kocsis, Győző; Jasinskiene, Edita; De Block, Christophe; Carrette, Odile; Castañeda, Javier; Cohen, Ohad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. Subjects and Methods A 12-month observational study in patients with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), upon the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), was conducted in 15 countries (in Europe and in Israel) to document the real-life use of SAP and assess which variables are associated with improvement in type 1 diabetes management. Results Data from 263 patients (38% male; mean age, 28.0±15.7 years [range, 1–69 years]; body mass index, 23.3±4.9 kg/m2; diabetes duration, 13.9±10.7 years; CSII duration, 2.6±3 years) were collected. Baseline mean glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 8.1±1.4%; 82% had suboptimal HbA1c (≥7%). The average sensor use for 12 months was 30% (range, 0–94%), and sensor use decreased with time (first 3 months, 37%; last 3 months, 27%). Factors associated with improvement in HbA1c after 12 months in patients with baseline HbA1c ≥7% were high baseline HbA1c (P<0.001), older age group (P<0.001), and more frequent sensor use (P=0.047). Significantly less hospitalization, increased treatment satisfaction, and reduced fear of hypoglycemia were reported after 12 months of SAP. Conclusions This is the largest and longest multicenter prospective observational study providing real-life data on SAP. These results are consistent with those of controlled trials showing the effectiveness of CGM in pump users. PMID:23438304

  10. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  11. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  12. California Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California N Index User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N Index runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N Index to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...

  13. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  14. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  15. Heat transfer augmentation in nanofluids via nanofins.

    PubMed

    Vadasz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical results derived in this article are combined with experimental data to conclude that, while there is no improvement in the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids beyond the Maxwell's effective medium theory (J.C. Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 1891), there is substantial heat transfer augmentation via nanofins. The latter are formed as attachments on the hot wire surface by yet an unknown mechanism, which could be related to electrophoresis, but there is no conclusive evidence yet to prove this proposed mechanism. PMID:21711695

  16. Flow Augmentation in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yadollahikhales, Golnaz; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Edgell, Randall; Cruz-Flores, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for additional therapeutic options for acute ischemic stroke considering the major pitfalls of the options available. Herein, we briefly review the role of cerebral blood flow, collaterals, vasoreactivity, and reperfusion injury in acute ischemic stroke. Then, we reviewed pharmacological and interventional measures such as volume expansion and induced hypertension, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, partial aortic occlusion, extracranial-intracranial carotid bypass surgery, sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, and transcranial laser therapy with regard to their effects on flow augmentation and neuroprotection. PMID:25475112

  17. Heat transfer augmentation in nanofluids via nanofins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical results derived in this article are combined with experimental data to conclude that, while there is no improvement in the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids beyond the Maxwell's effective medium theory (J.C. Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 1891), there is substantial heat transfer augmentation via nanofins. The latter are formed as attachments on the hot wire surface by yet an unknown mechanism, which could be related to electrophoresis, but there is no conclusive evidence yet to prove this proposed mechanism. PMID:21711695

  18. Simple bone augmentation for alveolar ridge defects.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Christopher J; Vogel, Christopher T; Fisher, G Rawleigh

    2015-05-01

    Dental implant procedures, both surgical placement and preimplant bone augmentation, have become an integral aspect of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon's practice. The number of dental implants placed each year continues to increase as a result of increasing patient exposure and awareness of dental implants, the increased functional and esthetic dental demands of general practitioners and patients, the overall increase in age of the US patient population, and expanded insurance coverage of dental implant-related procedures. This article outlines relevant surgical procedures aimed toward reconstructing alveolar ridge defects to restore intra-arch alveolar discrepancies before restoration-driven dental implant placement. PMID:25951957

  19. Dose audit failures and dose augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, C.

    1999-01-01

    Standards EN 552 and ISO 11137, covering radiation sterilization, are technically equivalent in their requirements for the selection of the sterilization dose. Dose Setting Methods 1 and 2 described in Annex B of ISO 11137 can be used to meet these requirements for the selection of the sterilization dose. Both dose setting methods require a dose audit every 3 months to determine the continued validity of the sterilization dose. This paper addresses the subject of dose audit failures and investigations into their cause. It also presents a method to augment the sterilization dose when the number of audit positives exceeds the limits imposed by ISO 11137.

  20. Wind energy converter utilizing vortex augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, S. S.

    1985-05-14

    A wind energy conversion apparatus is disclosed herein for converting the linear momentum of wind energy into a pair of concentrated, counter-rotating and side-by-side regions of high angular momentum which includes a wing having variable angle of attack positionable forward of the entrance to an elongated duct having a bell mouth including an upper, inner reflex angular surface leading into a bifurcated duct section terminating in a diffuser augmenter at the aft facing area of the duct and which includes propellors operable to extract energy from the angular momentum in the established regions for driving electric generators or generator therefrom.

  1. B-52 stability augmentation system reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowling, T. C.; Key, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    The B-52 SAS (Stability Augmentation System) was developed and retrofitted to nearly 300 aircraft. It actively controls B-52 structural bending, provides improved yaw and pitch damping through sensors and electronic control channels, and puts complete reliance on hydraulic control power for rudder and elevators. The system has experienced over 300,000 flight hours and has exhibited service reliability comparable to the results of the reliability test program. Development experience points out numerous lessons with potential application in the mechanization and development of advanced technology control systems of high reliability.

  2. Lean stability augmentation for premixing, prevaporizing combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate techniques for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. Augmented flameholders employing recessed perforated plates, catalyzed tube bundles, and configurations in which pilot fuel was injected into the wakes of V-gutters or perforated plates were designed and tested. Stable operation of the piloted designs was achieved at equivalence ratios as low as 0.25; NOx emissions of less than 1.0 g/kg at simulated turbine engine cruise conditions were obtained. A piloted perforated plate employing four percent pilot fuel flow produced the best performance while meeting severe NOx constraints.

  3. Augmented virtuality for arthroscopic knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, John M; Bardana, Davide D; Stewart, A James

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a computer system to visualize the location and alignment of an arthroscope using augmented virtuality. A 3D computer model of the patient's joint (from CT) is shown, along with a model of the tracked arthroscopic probe and the projection of the camera image onto the virtual joint. A user study, using plastic bones instead of live patients, was made to determine the effectiveness of this navigated display; the study showed that the navigated display improves target localization in novice residents. PMID:22003616

  4. Entrainment and mixing in thrust augmenting ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, L.; Sarohia, V.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector flows has been conducted. Measurements of the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean velocity, turbulent intensities and Reynolds stresses were made in two shroud geometries at various primary nozzle pressure ratios. The effects of shroud geometry and primary nozzle pressure ratio on the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean flow field and turbulent field were determined. From these measurements the evolution of mixing within the shroud of the primary flow and entrained fluid was obtained. The relationship between the mean flow field, the turbulent field and the shroud surface pressure distribution is discussed.

  5. Lean stability augmentation study. [on gas turbine combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical conceptual design study and an experimental test program were conducted to investigate techniques and develop technology for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. The use of hot gas pilots, catalyzed flameholder elements, and heat recirculation to augment lean stability limits was considered in the conceptual design study. Tests of flameholders embodying selected concepts were conducted at a pressure of 10 arm and over a range of entrance temperatures simulating conditions to be encountered during stratospheric cruise. The tests were performed using an axisymmetric flametube test rig having a nominal diameter of 10.2 cm. A total of sixteen test configurations were examined in which lean blowout limits, pollutant emission characteristics, and combustor performance were evaluated. The use of a piloted perforated plate flameholder employing a pilot fuel flow rate equivalent to 4 percent of the total fuel flow at a simulated cruise condition resulted in a lean blowout equivalence ratio of less than 0.25 with a design point (T sub zero = 600k, Phi = 0.6) NOx emission index of less than 1.0 g/kg.

  6. Augmenting Your Own Reality: Student Authoring of Science-Based Augmented Reality Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent…

  7. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method using cotton towel as a platform for concentration fat tissue and separating them from fluids, oil, and debris. A 14-gauge, 1-hole blunt cannula was used to place the fat through 3-mm incision on inframammary fold. The fat was infiltrated into the breast from deep to superficial subcutaneous plane. Results Between July 2002 and August 2010, 105 patients have undergone this procedure. The age distribution of the patients ranged from 18 to 45 years, with a mean of 31.3 years. Grafted fat volume has ranged from 120 to 250 mL (average, 205 mL) per breast per session. All women had a significant improvement in their breast size and shape postoperatively, and the breasts were soft and natural in appearance. Conclusions Liposuction and autologous fat transplantation is a suitable approach for augmentation mammaplasty. PMID:25003461

  8. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  9. Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution, and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically “implanted” novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function. PMID:26635547

  10. Augmenting system reliability analyses with observation priors

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Earl; Anderson-cook, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Occasionally, a system may fail a test without an obvious component being at fault. Instead, experts may know that at least one of a set of components has failed, but there is uncertainty about which members in the set were the actual failures. When no further information is available, this missing data may be imputed using standard data augmentation (DA). This process is already used in the current implementation of the JMP complex-system reliability modeling codes. In some cases when this situation arises, there may be some supplemental information about the nature of the failure that suggests which subset of components are more likely to have failed. the behavior of the system during the failure may make certain components more likely candidates, and lead the engineering experts to have certain prior beliefs about what occurred. In this case, it is still known that at least one of a set of components failed, but the experts have some idea that certain failure scenarios are more likely than others. This white paper addresses this situation by modifying the imputation process of data augmentation through the use of an observation prior. This prior is specific to particular observations, and a given outcome which is repeated several times could potentially have different observation priors associated with each occurrence.

  11. Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Haas, M W

    1995-05-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility. PMID:7647184

  12. NASA's Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agan, Martin; Voisinet, Leeann; Devereaux, Ann

    1998-01-01

    The objective of Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) effort is to develop and integrate advanced technologies for real-time personal display of information relevant to the health and safety of space station/shuttle personnel. The WARP effort will develop and demonstrate technologies that will ultimately be incorporated into operational Space Station systems and that have potential earth applications such as aircraft pilot alertness monitoring and in various medical and consumer environments where augmented reality is required. To this end a two phase effort will be undertaken to rapidly develop a prototype (Phase I) and an advanced prototype (Phase II) to demonstrate the following key technology features that could be applied to astronaut internal vehicle activity (IVA) and potentially external vehicle activity (EVA) as well: 1) mobile visualization, and 2) distributed information system access. Specifically, Phase I will integrate a low power, miniature wireless communication link and a commercial biosensor with a head mounted display. The Phase I design will emphasize the development of a relatively small, lightweight, and unobtrusive body worn prototype system. Phase II will put increased effort on miniaturization, power consumption reduction, increased throughput, higher resolution, and ``wire removal'' of the subsystems developed in Phase I.

  13. Experiments in augmented teleoperation for mobile robots: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witus, Gary; Hunt, Shawn; Ellis, R. Darrin

    2007-04-01

    Teleoperated mobile robots are beginning to be used for a variety of tasks that require movement in close quarters in the vicinity of moving and parked vehicles, buildings and other man-made structures, and the target object for inspection or manipulation. The robots must be close enough to deploy short-range sensors and manipulators, and must be able to maneuver without potentially damaging collisions. Teleoperation is fatiguing and stressful even without the requirement for close positioning. In cooperation with the TARDEC Robotic Mobility Laboratory (TRML), we are investigating approaches to reduce workload and improve performance through augmented teleoperation. Human-robot interfaces for teleoperation commonly provide two degrees-of-freedom (DoF) motion control with visual feedback from an on-board egocentric camera and no supplemental distance or orientation cueing. This paper reports on the results of preliminary experiments to assess the effects on man-machine task performance of several options for augmented teleoperation: (a) 3 DoF motion control (rotation and omni-directional translation) versus 2 DoF control (rotation and forward/reverse motion), (b) on-board egocentric camera versus fixed-position overwatch camera versus dual egocentric-and-overwatch cameras, and (c) presence or absence of distance and orientation visual cueing. We examined three dimensions of performance: completion time, spatial accuracy, and workspace area. We investigated effects on the expected completion time and on the variance in completion time. Spatial accuracy had three components: orientation, aimpoint, and distance. We collected performance under different task conditions: (a) three position-and-orientation tolerance or accuracy objectives, and (b) four travel distances between successive inspection points. We collected data from three subjects. We analyzed the main effects and conditional interaction effects among the teleoperation options and task conditions. We were

  14. Interoperability of satellite-based augmentation systems for aircraft navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Donghai

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is pioneering a transformation of the national airspace system from its present ground based navigation and landing systems to a satellite based system using the Global Positioning System (GPS). To meet the critical safety-of-life aviation positioning requirements, a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS), the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), is being implemented to support navigation for all phases of flight, including Category I precision approach. The system is designed to be used as a primary means of navigation, capable of meeting the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and therefore must satisfy the accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability requirements. In recent years there has been international acceptance of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), spurring widespread growth in the independent development of SBASs. Besides the FAA's WAAS, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service System (EGNOS) and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau's MTSAT-Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) are also being actively developed. Although all of these SBASs can operate as stand-alone, regional systems, there is increasing interest in linking these SBASs together to reduce costs while improving service coverage. This research investigated the coverage and availability improvements due to cooperative efforts among regional SBAS networks. The primary goal was to identify the optimal interoperation strategies in terms of performance, complexity and practicality. The core algorithms associated with the most promising concepts were developed and demonstrated. Experimental verification of the most promising concepts was conducted using data collected from a joint international test between the National Satellite Test Bed (NSTB) and the EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB). This research clearly shows that a simple switch between SBASs made by the airborne equipment is the most effective choice for achieving the

  15. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  16. Penile Epidermal Cyst in a Patient With Augmentation Penoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung; Eom, Minseob; Arkoncel, Francis Raymond P.; Sung, Yun Hsien; Kim, Won; Byun, Hyun Keun; Joo, Jung Min; Kim, Kwang Jin

    2013-01-01

    A 44-year-old male patient who had undergone augmentation penoplasty 20 years previously presented with a slowly growing penoscrotal mass. The penile mass was excised totally and the pathologic diagnosis was an epidermal cyst. Epidermal cysts are benign disorders that can occur in any part of the body. However, an epidermal cyst as a late complication of augmentation penoplasty is extremely rare. We report this case of a penile epidermal cyst that developed after augmentation penoplasty. PMID:23524950

  17. A preliminary look at control augmented dynamic response of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Jewell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The augmentation of structural characteristics, mass, damping, and stiffness through the use of control theory in lieu of structural redesign or augmentation was reported. The standard single-degree-of-freedom system was followed by a treatment of the same system using control augmentation. The system was extended to elastic structures using single and multisensor approaches and concludes with a brief discussion of potential application to large orbiting space structures.

  18. Combined micro computed tomography and histology study of bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgenstein, Bernd; Deyhle, Hans; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Stalder, Anja; Stübinger, Stefan; Jundt, Gernot; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert; Hieber, Simone E.

    2012-10-01

    Bone augmentation is a vital part of surgical interventions of the oral and maxillofacial area including dental implantology. Prior to implant placement, sufficient bone volume is needed to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis. While augmentation using harvested autologous bone is still considered as gold standard, many surgeons prefer bone substitutes to reduce operation time and to avoid donor site morbidity. To assess the osteogenic efficacy of commercially available augmentation materials we analyzed drill cores extracted before implant insertion. In younger patients, distraction osteogenesis is successfully applied to correct craniofacial deformities through targeted bone formation. To study the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis, human mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the distraction gap of nude rat mandibles immediately after osteotomy. The distraction was performed over eleven days to reach a distraction gap of 6 mm. Both the rat mandibles and the drill cores were scanned using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography. The three-dimensional data were manually registered and compared with corresponding two-dimensional histological sections to assess bone regeneration and its morphology. The analysis of the rat mandibles indicates that bone formation is enhanced by mesenchymal stem cells injected before distraction. The bone substitutes yielded a wide range of bone volume and degree of resorption. The volume fraction of the newly formed bone was determined to 34.4% in the computed tomography dataset for the augmentation material Geistlich Bio-Oss®. The combination of computed tomography and histology allowed a complementary assessment for both bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis.

  19. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise.

    PubMed

    Casey, Darren P; Madery, Brandon D; Pike, Tasha L; Eisenach, John H; Dietz, Niki M; Joyner, Michael J; Wilkins, Brad W

    2009-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml x min(-1).100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (DeltaFVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 +/- 29 and 314 +/- 34 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect DeltaFVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 +/- 29 ml x min(-1)x100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.4) or 20% (287 +/- 48 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.3). In protocol 2, DeltaFVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 +/- 30 and 453 +/- 41 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1) (10% and 20% respectively). DeltaFVC was similar at 10% (352 +/- 39 ml min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.8) and 20% (528 +/- 45 ml x min(-1) x 100 mmHg(-1), P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, DeltaFVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans. PMID:19661449

  20. Complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) injection in facial augmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, H L; Cheung, W Y

    2010-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used as an injectable filler for soft tissue augmentation for more than a decade. In recent years, PAAG has been advocated as a safe soft tissue filler for facial augmentation. However, the complications associated with PAAG injection in facial augmentation have not been widely covered in the literature. We present two cases of severe complications associated with PAAG injection in facial augmentation, including bony erosion and facial ulcer. Further studies are required to support the safety of PAAG in facial injection. PMID:19540824

  1. Tadalafil augments tumor specific immunity in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Joseph A; Khan, Zubair; Noonan, Kimberly A.; Rudraraju, Lakshmi; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Hao; Goodman, Steven; Gourin, Christine G.; Ha, Patrick K.; Fakhry, Carole; Saunders, John; Levine, Marshall; Tang, Mei; Neuner, Geoffrey; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Blanco, Ray; Agrawal, Nishant; Koch, Wayne M.; Marur, Shanthi; Weed, Donald T.; Serafini, Paolo; Borrello, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors can augment immune function in head and neck cancer patients through inhibition of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Experimental Design We performed a randomized, prospective, double blinded, placebo controlled, phase II clinical trial to determine the in vivo effects of systemic PDE5 inhibition on immune function in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Results Tadalafil augmented immune response, increasing ex vivo T cell expansion to a mean 2.4 fold increase compared to 1.1 fold in control patients (P= 0.01), reducing peripheral MDSC numbers to mean 0.81 fold change compared to a 1.26 fold change in control patients (P=0.001), and increasing general immunity as measured by delayed type hypersensitivity response (P=0.002). Tumor specific immunity in response to HNSCC tumor lysate was augmented in tadalafil treated patients (P=0.04). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that tadalafil augments general and tumor-specific immunity in HNSCC patients and has therapeutic potential in HNSCC. Evasion of immune surveillance and suppression of systemic and tumor specific immunity is a significant feature of head and neck cancer development. This study demonstrates that a PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, can reverse tumor specific immune suppression in head and neck cancer patients, with potential for therapeutic application. PMID:25564570

  2. Improved secondary caries resistance via augmented pressure displacement of antibacterial adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-na; Huang, Li; Fang, Ming; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-juan; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

    2016-01-01

    The present in vitro study evaluated the secondary caries resistance potential of acid-etched human coronal dentin bonded using augmented pressure adhesive displacement in conjunction with an experimental antibacterial adhesive. One hundred and twenty class I cavities were restored with a commercial non-antibacterial etch-and-rinse adhesive (N) or an experimental antibacterial adhesive (A) which was displaced by gentle air-blow (G) or augmented pressure air-blow (H). After bonding and restoration with resin composite, the resulted 4 groups (N-G, N-H, A-G and A-H) were exposed to Streptococcus mutans biofilm for 4, 8, 15, 20 or 25 days. The development of secondary caries in the bonding interface was then examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data acquired from 15, 20 and 25 days of artificial caries induction were analyzed with three-way ANOVA at α = 0.05. The depth of the artificial carious lesions was significantly affected by “adhesive type” (Single Bond 2 vs experimental antibacterial adhesive p = 0.003), “intensity of adhesive displacement” (gentle vs augmented-pressure adhesive displacement; p < 0.001), as well as “artificial caries induction time” (p < 0.001). The combined use of augmented pressure adhesive displacement and experimental antibacterial adhesive reduces the progression of secondary caries. PMID:26928742

  3. Acceleration of solid hydrogen pellet using augmented railgun for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Kim, K.; King, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    A 1.2-m long electromagnetic railgun with separate augmentation was designed, fabricated, and tested for the purpose of injecting hypervelocity hydrogen pellets into magnetic fusion devices for refueling. A compact configuration of two pairs of coaxial rails insulated by thin Kapton film was employed. Two pulse-forming networks were used to separately control the duration, amplitude, and overlap of the current pulses. Copper sulfate resistors were employed as impedance-matching resistors and bank short resistors. The magnetic field inside the gun bore was boosted by the high current on the augmentation rails, which in turn increased the J x B force without increasing the armature current, resulting in less ablation of the gun bore and pellet. Higher acceleration was achieved due to reduced inertial and viscous frag. Using a 1.2-m augmented railgun, hydrogen pellet velocities in excess of 2.5 km/s were achieved. Hydrogen pellet accelerations as high as 4.4 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s{sup 2} were achieved at a railgun current of 13.5 kA while the acceleration obtained on a conventional railgun was 2.2 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s{sup 2} at 14.1 kA. Computer simulations have been performed using the finite element code MSC/EMAS to analyze the current density, magnetic field, Lorentz force, and inductance gradient of the conventional and augmented railguns.

  4. Augmented kludge waveforms and Gaussian process regression for EMRI data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.

    2016-05-01

    Extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) will be an important type of astrophysical source for future space-based gravitational-wave detectors. There is a trade-off between accuracy and computational speed for the EMRI waveform templates required in the analysis of data from these detectors. We discuss how the systematic error incurred by using faster templates may be reduced with improved models such as augmented kludge waveforms, and marginalised over with statistical techniques such as Gaussian process regression.

  5. Prevalence of sinus augmentation associated with maxillary posterior implants.

    PubMed

    Seong, Wook-Jin; Barczak, Michael; Jung, Jae; Basu, Saonli; Olin, Paul S; Conrad, Heather J

    2013-12-01

    Pneumatization of the maxillary sinus limits the quantity of alveolar bone available for implant placement and may result in a lack of primary stability and difficulty in achieving osseointegration. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze a group of patients who had implants placed in the posterior maxilla, calculate the prevalence of sinus augmentation, and identify factors related to sinus augmentation. With institutional review board approval, dental records from a population of patients who had implants placed in the maxillary posterior region between January 2000 and December 2004 were used to create a database. Independent variables were classified as continuous (age of the patient at stage 1 implant surgery [S1], time between extraction and S1, time between extraction and sinus augmentation, and time between sinus augmentation and S1) and categorical (gender, implant failure, American Society of Anesthesiologists system classification, smoking, osteoporosis, residual crestal bone height, implant position, implant proximity, prostheses type, and implant diameter and length). The dependent variable was the incidence of a sinus augmentation procedure. Simple logistic regression was used to assess the influence of each factor on the presence of sinus augmentation (P < .05). The final database included 502 maxillary posterior implants with an overall survival rate of 93.2% over a mean follow-up period of 35.7 months. Of 502 implants, 272 (54.2%) were associated with a sinus augmentation procedure. Among variables, residual crestal bone height (P < .001), implant position (P < .001), implant proximity (P < .001), prosthesis type (P < .001), implant failure (P < .01), and implant diameter (P < .01), were statistically associated with sinus augmentation. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, the results suggest that more than half (54.2%) of the maxillary posterior implants were involved with a sinus augmentation procedure. The

  6. Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzqern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Kalkofen, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment. Results show that presenting annotations in object space or image space leads to a significant difference in task performance. Furthermore, there is a significant interaction between rendering space and update frequency of annotations. Participants improve significantly in locating annotations, when annotations are presented in object space, and view management update rate is limited. In a follow-up experiment, participants appear to be more satisfied with limited update rate in comparison to a continuous update rate of the view management system. PMID:26780810

  7. Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrooghy, Majid; Anantharaj, Valentine G; Younan, Nicolas H.; Petersen, Walter A.; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Behrangi, Ali; Aanstoos, James

    2013-01-01

    We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

  8. Augmentative rhinoplasty with an "auricular gibbus".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Camps, S

    1998-01-01

    The philosophy of this work is to revise an interesting way to compensate a lack of nasal volume. Autologous auricular cartilage is used to augment a hollow dorsum. In this way, we treat depressed, asymmetrical, and irregular dorsa. We have 10 years' experience with this technique, in a total of nearly 350 cases. Among these cases are traumatic, secondary, and congenital noses. Prior to using this technique, we employed nasal septum, iliac crest bone or calotte, rib, dermis, fascia, etc. But actually, the "neogibbus" provided by the upper fossette of the concha of the auricle is enough, except for cases of exceptional volume needs. The ear does not suffer any damage when it is treated appropriately, and a uni- or bilateral graft can be taken, if necessary, to create a strong gibbus in the manner of a "sarcophagus" or of "Russian dolls." PMID:9618186

  9. Image-processing with augmented reality (AR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Hossein R.; Mohurutshe, Pagiel L.; Habibi Lashkari, Arash

    2013-03-01

    In this project, the aim is to discuss and articulate the intent to create an image-based Android Application. The basis of this study is on real-time image detection and processing. It's a new convenient measure that allows users to gain information on imagery right on the spot. Past studies have revealed attempts to create image based applications but have only gone up to crating image finders that only work with images that are already stored within some form of database. Android platform is rapidly spreading around the world and provides by far the most interactive and technical platform for smart-phones. This is why it was important to base the study and research on it. Augmented Reality is this allows the user to maipulate the data and can add enhanced features (video, GPS tags) to the image taken.

  10. Reconfigurable hardware for an augmented reality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Moreo, F. Javier; Martinez Alvarez, J. Javier; Garrigos Guerrero, F. Javier; Ferrandez Vicente, J. Manuel

    2005-06-01

    An FPGA-based approach is proposed to build an augmented reality system in order to aid people affected by a visual disorder known as tunnel vision. The aim is to increase the user's knowledge of his environment by superimposing on his own view useful information obtained with image processing. Two different alternatives have been explored to perform the required image processing: a specific purpose algorithm to extract edge detection information, and a cellular neural network with the suitable template. Their implementations in reconfigurable hardware pursue to take advantage of the performance and flexibility that show modern FPGAs. This paper describes the hardware implementation of both the Canny algorithm and the cellular neural network, and the overall system architecture. Results of the implementations and examples of the system functionality are presented.

  11. Augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ganasen, K A; Ipser, J C; Stein, D J

    2010-09-01

    There has long been interest in combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). More recently, basic research on fear extinction has led to interest in augmentation of CBT with the N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) for anxiety disorders. In this article, the literature on clinical trials that have combined pharmacotherapy and CBT is briefly reviewed, focusing particularly on the anxiety disorders. The literature on CBT and DCS is then systematically reviewed. A series of randomized placebo-controlled trials on panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia suggest that low dose DCS before therapy sessions may be more effective compared with CBT alone in certain anxiety disorders. The strong translational foundation of this work is compelling, and the positive preliminary data gathered so far encourage further work. Issues for future research include delineating optimal dosing, and demonstrating effectiveness in real-world settings. PMID:20599140

  12. Augmented Shock Wave Severance of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for severing or weakening a variety of materials. The technique employs embedding explosive cords into parallel grooves that are cut into a surface of a material. The cords are initiated simultaneously to produce shock waves that progress toward the centerline between the cords and the lower surface of the material. Intersecting incident and reflected waves augment at the centerline to fail or weaken the material in tension. No harmful debris is produced on the opposite side of the material from the explosive cords. The primary focus of the effort described in this paper was to fracture the F-16 aircraft trilaminate canopy. Also, complete severance was achieved in 2024-T4 aluminum plate stock. Possible applications are through canopy egress and crew module severance from military aircraft and separation of rocket vehicle stages and payloads. This approach offers important advantages over explosive methods currently in use.

  13. Bilinear modeling via augmented Lagrange multipliers (BALM).

    PubMed

    Del Bue, Alessio; Xavier, João; Agapito, Lourdes; Paladini, Marco

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a unified approach to solve different bilinear factorization problems in computer vision in the presence of missing data in the measurements. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization where one of the factors must lie on a specific manifold. To achieve this, we introduce an equivalent reformulation of the bilinear factorization problem that decouples the core bilinear aspect from the manifold specificity. We then tackle the resulting constrained optimization problem via Augmented Lagrange Multipliers. The strength and the novelty of our approach is that this framework can seamlessly handle different computer vision problems. The algorithm is such that only a projector onto the manifold constraint is needed. We present experiments and results for some popular factorization problems in computer vision such as rigid, non-rigid, and articulated Structure from Motion, photometric stereo, and 2D-3D non-rigid registration. PMID:22156102

  14. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  15. Extended overview techniques for outdoor augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Veas, Eduardo; Grasset, Raphaël; Kruijff, Ernst; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we explore techniques that aim to improve site understanding for outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) applications. While the first person perspective in AR is a direct way of filtering and zooming on a portion of the data set, it severely narrows overview of the situation, particularly over large areas. We present two interactive techniques to overcome this problem: multi-view AR and variable perspective view. We describe in details the conceptual, visualization and interaction aspects of these techniques and their evaluation through a comparative user study. The results we have obtained strengthen the validity of our approach and the applicability of our methods to a large range of application domains. PMID:22402683

  16. Development of the augmented musculature device.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Pankretz, Ty

    2004-12-01

    We developed an Augmented Musculature Device (AMD) that assists the movements of its wearer. It has direct application to aiding military and law enforcement personnel, the neurologically impaired, or those requiring any type of cybernetic assistance. The AMD consists of a collection of artificial muscles, each individually actuated, strategically placed along the surface of the human body. The actuators employed by the AMD are known as 'air muscles' and operate pneumatically. They are commercially available from several vendors and are relatively inexpensive. They have a remarkably high force-to-weight ratio--as high as 400:1 (as compared with 16:1 typical of DC motors). They are flexible and elastic, even when powered, making them ideal for interaction with humans.

  17. Augmenting Usability: Cultural Elicitation in HCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, Souleymane Boundaouda; Oyugi, Cecilia; Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Smith, Andy

    This paper offers context and culture elicitation in an inter-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting of ICT design. Localised usability evaluation (LUE) is augmented with a socio-technical evaluation tool (STEM) as a methodological approach to expose and address issues in a collaborative ICT design within the Village e-Science for Life (VeSeL) project in rural Kenya. The paper argues that designers need to locally identify context and culture in situ and further explicate their implications through the design process and at the global level. Stakeholders' context, culture, decisions, agendas, expectations, disciplines and requirements need to be locally identified and globally evaluated to ensure a fit for purpose solution.

  18. Status of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Lineberry, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems, The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1,5-MW, multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MW, MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable beat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  19. Analytical augmentation of 3D simulation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, Julia J.; Stahl, Marchelle M.

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for augmenting three- dimensional (3D) virtual environments (VEs) with analytic information and multimedia annotations to enhance training and education applications. Analytic or symbolic information in VEs is presented as bar charts, text, graphical overlays, or with the use of color. Analytic results can be computed and displayed in the VE at run-time or, more likely, while replaying a simulation. These annotations would typically include computations of pre-defined Measures of Performance (MOPs) or Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) associated with the training or educational goals of the simulation. Multimedia annotations are inserted into the VE by the user and may include: a drawing or whiteboarding capability, enabling participants to insert written text and/or graphics into the two-dimensional (2D) or 3D world; audio comments, and/or video recordings. These annotations can clarify a point, capture teacher feedback, or elaborate on the student's perspective or understanding of the experience. The annotations are captured in the VE either synchronously or asynchronously from the users (students and instructors), during simulation execution or afterward during a replay. When replaying or reviewing the simulation, the embedded annotations can be reviewed by a single user or by multiple users through the use of collaboration technologies. By augmenting 3D virtual environments with analytic and multimedia annotations, the education and training experience may be enhanced. The annotations can offer more effective feedback, enhance understanding, and increase participation. They may also support distance learning by promoting student/teacher interaction without co-location.

  20. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  1. Augmentation of metastasis formation by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, E; Wiltrout, R H; Brunda, M J; Holden, H T; Herberman, R B

    1982-05-15

    Inoculation of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) into C57BL/6 mice reduced the rate of lung clearance of several intravenously (i.v.) injected murine tumor cells, and increased by up to 100-fold the number of artificially-induced metastatic lung nodules produced by the i.v. injection of B16 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) tumor cells. Maximum effects were observed when PEC were injected either before, or shortly after, tumor cells. Modulation of lung clearance or metastasis formation was observed only with PEC and not with a variety of other cells, such as splenocytes, thymocytes P815 mastocytoma cells, or several macrophage-like cell lines (PU5-1.8 and IC-21). Lysates of PEC were as efficient in reducing lung clearance and augmenting metastasis formation as were intact viable PEC. Lysates of other cell types, including P815 and the macrophage-like cell lines, were unable to produce these effects. PEC populations, enriched for macrophages by adherence to plastic or by percoll density gradient sedimentation, also increased the number of B16-induced artificial metastasis, implicating the macrophage as the cell responsible for these observations. PMID:7095902

  2. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of collective index insurance.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Santos, Francisco C; Levin, Simon A

    2016-03-01

    Index-based insurances offer promising opportunities for climate-risk investments in developing countries. Indeed, contracts conditional on, e.g., weather or livestock indexes can be cheaper to set up than conventional indemnity-based insurances, while offering a safety net to vulnerable households, allowing them to eventually escape poverty traps. Moreover, transaction costs by insurance companies may be additionally reduced if contracts, instead of arranged with single households, are endorsed by collectives of households that bear the responsibility of managing the division of the insurance coverage by its members whenever the index is surpassed, allowing for additional flexibility in what concerns risk-sharing and also allowing insurance companies to avoid the costs associated with moral hazard. Here we resort to a population dynamics framework to investigate under which conditions household collectives may find collective index insurances attractive, when compared with individual index insurances. We assume risk sharing among the participants of each collective, and model collective action in terms of an N-person threshold game. Compared to less affordable individual index insurances, we show how collective index insurances lead to a coordination problem in which the adoption of index insurances may become the optimal decision, spreading index insurance coverage to the entire population. We further investigate the role of risk-averse and risk-prone behaviors, as well as the role of partial correlation between insurance coverage and actual loss of crops, and in which way these affect the original coordination thresholds. PMID:26486802

  4. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  5. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  6. HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  7. HUMAN USE INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  8. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  9. Drought Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Valdes, J. B.

    2003-04-01

    Droughts are related with prolonged time periods during moisture is significantly below normal situation. Drought indexes try to scale the main drought features based on similar definitions. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is a well-known index, which for a given aggregation-time measures the deviation from the normality of the precipitation. One of the SPI weak points in the representation of drought phenomenon is that drought duration should be analyzed by using different aggregation-times. In this work, a new index is presented, which simultaneously characterize droughts based on the deviation from the normal precipitation regime and the drought persistence, both from the statistical point of view. The new index does not require aggregation at different time-lengths. Instead droughts are treated as multivariate events, whose dimensionality depends on the duration. Probabilistic events with different dimensionalities are compared on a common dimension of interest. In this case the dimension chosen is the mean frequency of recurrence. The derived index, named Drought Frequency Index (DFI) may be used to characterize historical droughts or current situation. It can be apply not only over precipitation but also over flows or other hydroclimatic variables. The new index was applied to several places in USA and Spain both for precipitation and flow historical sequences, and compared with SPI. The DFI allows the representation of the main drought characteristics in a single value, based on the stochastic feature of the phenomenon, and scaled on the mean frequency of recurrence.

  10. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  11. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  12. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  13. Jet Propulsion with Special Reference to Thrust Augmenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubauer, G B

    1933-01-01

    An investigation of the possibility of using thrust augmented jets as prime movers was carried out. The augmentation was to be effected by allowing the jet to mix with the surrounding air in the presence of bodies which deflect the air set in motion by the jet.

  14. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  15. Acceleration-Augmented LQG Control of an Active Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    A linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) regulator controller design for an acceleration-augmented active magnetic bearing (AMB) is outlined. Acceleration augmentation is a key feature in providing improved dynamic performance of the controller. The optimal control formulation provides a convenient method of trading-off fast transient response and force attenuation as control objectives.

  16. Treatment options for augmentation of the posterior maxilla.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    2000-01-01

    The uses of conventional sinus augmentation procedures, trephines and osteotomes, with and without concomitant buccal-lingual ridge augmentation are discussed. Indications and contraindications for the application of each therapeutic modality, material selection, and the appropriate timing of implant placement are detailed. PMID:11307416

  17. The Local Games Lab ABQ: Homegrown Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the use of augmented reality games formerly required extensive material resources and expertise to implement above and beyond what might be possible within the usual educational contexts. Currently, the more common availability of hardware in these contexts and the existence of easy-to-use, general purpose augmented reality design…

  18. Augmented Reality, the Future of Contextual Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungkur, Roopesh Kevin; Panchoo, Akshay; Bhoyroo, Nitisha Kirtee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to show the relevance of augmented reality (AR) in mobile learning for the 21st century. With AR, any real-world environment can be augmented by providing users with accurate digital overlays. AR is a promising technology that has the potential to encourage learners to explore learning materials from a totally new…

  19. Augmenting a Child's Reality: Using Educational Tablet Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Patricia; Karas, Carly; Schofield, Damian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the classroom integration of an innovative technology, augmented reality. Although the process of adding new technologies into a classroom setting can be daunting, the concept of augmented reality has demonstrated the ability to educate students and to assist with their comprehension of a procedural task. One half of the…

  20. On Location Learning: Authentic Applied Science with Networked Augmented Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Eric; Klopfer, Eric; Perry, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The learning of science can be made more like the practice of science through authentic simulated experiences. We have created a networked handheld Augmented Reality environment that combines the authentic role-playing of Augmented Realities and the underlying models of Participatory Simulations. This game, known as Outbreak @ The Institute, is…

  1. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  2. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressa, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A percussive augmenter is being developed and it is designed to add ultrasonic hammering to a conventional commercial rotary drill through an adapter using a piezoelectric actuator. The combination of ultrasonic hammering and rotation creates a drill that requires low power and low axial load while providing faster penetration than conventional rotary-only drills. These characteristics make percussive augmentation of rotary drills ideal for not only planetary exploration but commercial applications as well. The purpose of this internship was to produce, test, and optimize an augmenter that drives a 2 inch diameter bit. This task was part of the percussive augmenter's phase II of an ongoing contract and it involved increasing the capability of the .25 inch version of the augmenter prototype that was developed in phase I. Due to fabrication delays of the augmenter, an extensive part of the test effort was conducted using previous rotary and hammer drill prototypes. These tests focused on drilling deep over long periods of time to provide for effective stress test of the drill. Modifications were made to the drill, its components, and the testing procedure to achieve desired borehole depths. These results were used to start initial testing on the 2 inch augmenter and provide preliminary data on the augmenter's ability to significantly improve penetration rate over conventional rotary-only drills.

  3. 14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Thrust or power augmentation system. 25.945 Section 25.945 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.945 Thrust or power augmentation system. (a) General....

  4. Combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts for augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Fan, Fei; You, Jianjun; Wang, Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Silicone implants are widely used in Asia for nasal dorsal augmentation. Meanwhile, autologous cartilage grafts are the most preferred materials for tip surgery. In order to minimize the drawbacks of silicone implants, combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts were introduced for augmentation rhinoplasty. In this work, augmentation rhinoplasty technique using combined silicone implant and cartilage grafts are reported. Forty-six patients underwent dorsal and tip augmentation using this technique. The outcomes were satisfactory in 45 patients. Bilateral marginal incisions were used without transcolumellar incision. By suturing the silicone nasal implant with a shield cartilage graft, a new complex was achieved. Assisted with a columellar strut either sutured to the complex or not, the new complex could provide improved dorsal height and tip projection with low complication rate in augmentation rhinoplasty. PMID:23524723

  5. Augmentation of orbital debris shielding for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee; Horn, Jennifer R.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation concepts for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are described in detail and advantages and disadvantages of various proposals are evaluated. It is pointed out that early augmentation of SSF debris shielding, which would take place 6-9 years after the First Element Launch, could provide the greatest advantages to the program in terms of weight, cost, and safety benefits. Potential augmentation concepts include an attached, rigid aluminum second bumper; the multi-shock shield concept; a mesh double bumper concept; a debris shield augmentation element; a multi-shock airbag protection concept for 2-10 cm debris; and a debris sweeper. Requirements for and operation and deployment of these concepts are described in detail and an example of the augmentation effect on cumulative SSF probability of no-failure from debris and meteoroid impacts is given. An estimate of predicted encounter rates between debris and a 100 m radius sphere around SSF is presented.

  6. Creating Tangible Interfaces by Augmenting Physical Objects with Multimodal Language

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David R. ); Cohen, Philip R.

    2001-01-01

    Rasa is a tangible augmented reality environment that digitally enhances the existing paper-based command and control capability in a military command post. By observing and understanding the users' speech, pen, and touch-based multimodal language, Rasa computationally augments the physical objects on a command post map, linking these items to digital representations of the same; for example, linking a paper map to the world and Post-it notes to military units. Herein, we give a thorough account of Rasa's underlying multiagent framework, and its recognition, understanding, and multimodal integration components. Moreover, we examine five properties of language: generativity, comprehensibility, compositionality, referentiality, and, at times, persistence--that render it suitable as an augmentation approach, contrasting these properties to those of other augmentation methods. It is these properties of language that allow users of Rasa to augment physical objects, transforming them into tangible interfaces.

  7. Considerations in breast augmentation in the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Sumanas W; Corcoran, Julia

    2013-02-01

    Nearly 320,000 breast augmentations were performed in 2011, with adolescents under 18 years of age accounting for 4,830 procedures (1.5%). Breast development typically starts at 11 years (range, 8-13 years) and is complete at 15 years (range, 11-18 years). This wide age range for physical maturity matches the equally wide range of emotional maturity in this patient population. Developmental, psychological, and regulatory aspects unique to adolescent breast augmentation are reviewed. Self-image and societal influences must be considered, including both internal and external motivations for seeking breast augmentation. Preoperative assessment and counseling of these patients are discussed. Both parental consent and adolescent assent must be considered. Ideal conditions for adolescent assent are described. Breast augmentation for purely aesthetic purposes should be undertaken with extreme caution as ideal conditions for complete assent are rare. Augmentation as a technique for breast balancing in cases of significant asymmetry can be helpful. PMID:24872743

  8. Employing Augmented-Reality-Embedded Instruction to Disperse the Imparities of Individual Differences in Earth Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-ping; Wang, Chang-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Studies have proven that merging hands-on and online learning can result in an enhanced experience in learning science. In contrast to traditional online learning, multiple in-classroom activities may be involved in an augmented-reality (AR)-embedded e-learning process and thus could reduce the effects of individual differences. Using a…

  9. Ionospheric Challenges for GNSS Based Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, P.; Valladares, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic physical phenomenon that presents a variable source of error for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS based operational systems. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was designed to enhance the GNSS standard positioning service by providing additional accuracy, availability and integrity that is sufficient for use in commercial aviation. It is the first of a number of planned regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). Other systems in development include the European EGNOS system, the MSAS system in Japan and the GAGAN system in India. In addition, the South American countries are investigating the feasibility of operating an SBAS system in this region. Much of the WAAS ionospheric research and development focused on defining and mitigating ionospheric challenges characteristic of the mid-latitude regions, where the ionosphere is well studied and relatively quiescent. The EGNOS and MSAS systems will primarily operate under a similarly quiescent mid-latitude ionosphere. SBAS system development in South America, India and other low-latitude regions, however, will have to contend with much more extreme conditions. These conditions include strong spatial and temporal gradients, plasma depletions and scintillation. All of these conditions have a potential to limit SBAS performance in the low latitude regions. This presentation will review the effects that the ionosphere has on the mid-latitude WAAS system. It will present the techniques that are used to mitigate ionospheric disturbances induced on the system during severe geomagnetic activity and it will quantify the effect that this activity has on system performance. The presentation will then present data from the South American Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) that can be used to infer the ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in the most challenging low-latitude ionospheric environment

  10. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  11. The use of augmented auditory feedback to improve arm reaching in stroke: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Purpose After practice, augmented feedback is the most important factor that facilitates motor learning. We assess the potential effectiveness of two types of augmented auditory feedback on the re-learning of arm reaching in individuals with stroke: (a) real-time knowledge of performance (KP) feedback and (b) rhythmic cueing in the form of knowledge of results (KR) feedback. Method Five participants with stroke underwent short-term practice, reaching with their affected arm with KP, KR and no feedback, on separate days. We assessed range of motion of the upper extremity (shoulder, elbow) and trunk, mean error and variability of the performed trajectory, and movement time, before and after training. Results All participants benefitted from practice with feedback, though the effects varied across participants and feedback type. In three participants, KP feedback increased elbow extension and reduced compensatory trunk flexion. In four participants, KR feedback reduced movement time taken to perform the reach. Of note, one participant benefitted mostly from KP feedback, which increased shoulder flexion and elbow extension, and decreased compensatory trunk flexion and mean error. Conclusions Within day practice with augmented auditory feedback improves reaching in individuals with stroke. This warrants further investigation with longer practice periods in a larger sample size. PMID:26314746

  12. Augmented force output in skeletal muscle fibres of Xenopus following a preceding bout of activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bruton, J D; Westerblad, H; Katz, A; Lännergren, J

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of a brief period of activity on subsequent isometric tetanic force production was investigated in single muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis. 2. Following a train of ten tetani separated by 4 s intervals, tetanic force was significantly augmented by about 10%. The tetanic force augmentation persisted for at least 15 min and then slowly subsided. A similar potentiation was seen following trains of five and twenty tetani. 3. During the period of tetanic force potentiation, tetanic calcium was reduced by more than 30%, and intracellular pH was reduced from 7.15 +/- 0.07 to 7.03 +/- 0.11 (n = 4). 4. Fibre swelling was greatest at 1 min and then subsided over 15-20 min and possibly accounted for a small part of the observed force potentiation. 5. A reduction in the inorganic phosphate (P1) concentration of more than 40% was found in fibres frozen in liquid nitrogen at the peak of force potentiation compared with resting fibres. 6. It is concluded that the augmentation of tetanic force found after a brief preceding bout of activity is due to a reduction in inorganic phosphate. This mechanism may underlie the improved performance observed in athletes after warm-up. Images Figure 2 PMID:8735706

  13. Local troposphere augmentation for real-time precise point positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junbo; Xu, Chaoqian; Guo, Jiming; Gao, Yang

    2014-12-01

    The IGS real-time service (RTS) enables real-time precise point positioning (PPP) at a global scale. A long convergence time however is still a challenging factor. In order to reduce the convergence time, external troposphere corrections could be introduced to remove the troposphere effects on the coordinate solution. This paper proposes the use of a local troposphere model to augment real-time PPP. First, undifferenced observations from a network of multiple stations are processed to estimate the station-based troposphere zenith wet delay (ZWD). A set of local troposphere fitting coefficients are then derived using a proposed optimal fitting model. Finally, the determined troposphere fitting coefficients are broadcast to users to reduce the convergence time in the user solution. A continuous operating reference station (CORS) network is utilized to assess the performance of the proposed approach under quiet and active troposphere conditions. The numerical results show that the overall fitting precisions of the local troposphere model can reach 1.42 and 1.05 cm under the two troposphere conditions. The convergence time of the positioning solutions, especially the height solution, can be greatly reduced using the local troposphere model. The horizontal accuracy of 9.2 cm and the vertical accuracy of 10.1 cm are obtainable under the quiet troposphere condition after 20 min of initialization time, compared to the 14.7 cm horizontal and 21.5 cm vertical accuracies in the conventional troposphere estimation approach. Moreover, the horizontal accuracies of 13.0 cm and the vertical accuracies of 12.4 cm have also been obtained after 20 min under the active troposphere condition.

  14. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  15. Relaxed core projector-augmented-wave method.

    PubMed

    Marsman, M; Kresse, G

    2006-09-14

    We extend the full-potential projector-augmented-wave method beyond the frozen core approximation, i.e., include the self-consistent optimization of the core charge density, in such a manner that the valence wave functions remain orthogonal to the core. The method consists of an on-the-fly repseudization of the all-electron problem, solving for the self-consistent core charge density within a spherical approximation. The key ideas in our procedure are to keep the projector functions fixed throughout the electronic minimization and to derive the new pseudopartial waves from these original projector functions, at each step of the electronic minimization procedure. Results of relaxed core calculations for atomic interconfigurational energies, structural energy differences between bulk phases of Fe, atomization energies of a subset of Pople's G2-1 set, and the Rh 3d surface core level shifts for the (log3 x log3)-Rh(111) surface at 1/3 CO coverage are presented. PMID:16999509

  16. Relaxed core projector-augmented-wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsman, M.; Kresse, G.

    2006-09-01

    We extend the full-potential projector-augmented-wave method beyond the frozen core approximation, i.e., include the self-consistent optimization of the core charge density, in such a manner that the valence wave functions remain orthogonal to the core. The method consists of an on-the-fly repseudization of the all-electron problem, solving for the self-consistent core charge density within a spherical approximation. The key ideas in our procedure are to keep the projector functions fixed throughout the electronic minimization and to derive the new pseudopartial waves from these original projector functions, at each step of the electronic minimization procedure. Results of relaxed core calculations for atomic interconfigurational energies, structural energy differences between bulk phases of Fe, atomization energies of a subset of Pople's G2-1 set, and the Rh 3d surface core level shifts for the (√3 ×√3 )-Rh(111) surface at 1/3 CO coverage are presented.

  17. Wave Augmented Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.

  18. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1989-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Opportunistic tangible user interfaces for augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Steven; Feiner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic Controls are a class of user interaction techniques that we have developed for augmented reality (AR) applications to support gesturing on, and receiving feedback from, otherwise unused affordances already present in the domain environment. By leveraging characteristics of these affordances to provide passive haptics that ease gesture input, Opportunistic Controls simplify gesture recognition, and provide tangible feedback to the user. In this approach, 3D widgets are tightly coupled with affordances to provide visual feedback and hints about the functionality of the control. For example, a set of buttons can be mapped to existing tactile features on domain objects. We describe examples of Opportunistic Controls that we have designed and implemented using optical marker tracking, combined with appearance-based gesture recognition. We present the results of two user studies. In the first, participants performed a simulated maintenance inspection of an aircraft engine using a set of virtual buttons implemented both as Opportunistic Controls and using simpler passive haptics. Opportunistic Controls allowed participants to complete their tasks significantly faster and were preferred over the baseline technique. In the second, participants proposed and demonstrated user interfaces incorporating Opportunistic Controls for two domains, allowing us to gain additional insights into how user interfaces featuring Opportunistic Controls might be designed. PMID:19910657

  20. LCD masks for spatial augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.; Reetz, Daniel; Smoot, Lanny

    2014-03-01

    One aim of Spatial Augmented Reality is to visually integrate synthetic objects into real-world spaces amongst physical objects, viewable by many observers without 3D glasses, head-mounted displays or mobile screens. In common implementations, using beam-combiners, scrim projection, or transparent self-emissive displays, the synthetic object's and real-world scene's light combine additively. As a result, synthetic objects appear low-contrast and semitransparent against well-lit backgrounds, and do not cast shadows. These limitations prevent synthetic objects from appearing solid and visually integrated into the real-world space. We use a transparent LCD panel as a programmable dynamic mask. The LCD panel displaying the synthetic object's silhouette mask is colocated with the object's color image, both staying aligned for all points-of-view. The mask blocks the background providing occlusion, presents a black level for high-contrast images, blocks scene illumination thus casting true shadows, and prevents blow-by in projection scrim arrangements. We have several implementations of SAR with LCD masks: 1) beam-combiner with an LCD mask, 2) scrim projection with an LCD mask, and 3) transparent OLED display with an LCD mask. Large format (80" diagonal) and dual layer volumetric variations are also implemented.

  1. Directing driver attention with augmented reality cues

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Gavin, Patrick; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Vecera, Shaun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This simulator study evaluated the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to direct the attention of experienced drivers to roadside hazards. Twenty-seven healthy middle-aged licensed drivers with a range of attention capacity participated in a 54 mile (1.5 hour) drive in an interactive fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant received AR cues to potential roadside hazards in six simulated straight (9 mile long) rural roadway segments. Drivers were evaluated on response time for detecting a potentially hazardous event, detection accuracy for target (hazard) and non-target objects, and headway with respect to the hazards. Results showed no negative outcomes associated with interference. AR cues did not impair perception of non-target objects, including for drivers with lower attentional capacity. Results showed near significant response time benefits for AR cued hazards. AR cueing increased response rate for detecting pedestrians and warning signs but not vehicles. AR system false alarms and misses did not impair driver responses to potential hazards. PMID:24436635

  2. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  3. Augmented standard model and the simplest scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan

    2015-11-01

    The experimental discovery of the Higgs particle in 2012 by the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN ushers in a new era of particle physics. On the basis of these data, scalar quarks and scalar leptons are added to each generation of quarks and leptons. The resulting augmented standard model has fermion-boson symmetry for each of three generations, but only one Higgs doublet giving masses to all the elementary particles. A specific special case, the simplest scenario, is studied in detail. In this case, there are twenty six quadratic divergences, and all these divergences are cancelled provided that one single relation between the masses is satisfied. This mass relation contains a great deal of information, and in particular determines the masses of all the right-handed scalar quarks and scalar leptons, while gives relations for the masses of the left-handed ones. An alternative procedure is also given with a different starting point and less reliance on the experimental data. The result is of course the same.

  4. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1990-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Augmented Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lumb, R.F.; Messinger, M.; Tingey, F.H.

    1983-07-01

    This paper describes an extension of the AMASS methodology which was previously presented at the 1981 INMM annual meeting. The main thrust of the current effort is to develop procedures and a computer program for estimating the variance of an Inventory Difference when many sources of variability, other than measurement error, are admitted in the model. Procedures also are included for the estimation of the variances associated with measurement error estimates and their effect on the estimated limit of error of the inventory difference (LEID). The algorithm for the LEID measurement component uncertainty involves the propagated component measurement variance estimates as well as their associated degrees of freedom. The methodology and supporting computer software is referred to as the augmented Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS). Specifically, AMASS accommodates five source effects. These are: (1) measurement errors (2) known but unmeasured effects (3) measurement adjustment effects (4) unmeasured process hold-up effects (5) residual process variation A major result of this effort is a procedure for determining the effect of bias correction on LEID, properly taking into account all the covariances that exist. This paper briefly describes the basic models that are assumed; some of the estimation procedures consistent with the model; data requirements, emphasizing availability and other practical considerations; discusses implications for bias corrections; and concludes by briefly describing the supporting computer program.

  6. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Augmenting Transition Probabilities for Neutral Atomic Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrazas-Salines, Imelda; Park, Chul; Strawa, Anthony W.; Hartman, G. Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The transition probability values for a number of neutral atomic nitrogen (NI) lines in the visible wavelength range are determined in order to augment those given in the National Bureau of Standards Tables. These values are determined from experimentation as well as by using the published results of other investigators. The experimental determination of the lines in the 410 to 430 nm range was made from the observation of the emission from the arc column of an arc-heated wind tunnel. The transition probability values of these NI lines are determined to an accuracy of +/- 30% by comparison of their measured intensities with those of the atomic oxygen (OI) multiplet at around 615 nm. The temperature of the emitting medium is determined both using a multiple-layer model, based on a theoretical model of the flow in the arc column, and an empirical single-layer model. The results show that the two models lead to the same values of transition probabilities for the NI lines.

  8. Diffuser augmented wind turbine analysis code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Jonathan

    Wind Energy is becoming a significant source of energy throughout the world. This ever increasing field will potentially reach the limit of availability and practicality with the wind farm sites and size of the turbine itself. Therefore, it is necessary to develop innovative wind capturing devices that can produce energy in the locations where large conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are too impractical to install and operate. A diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) is one such innovation. DAWTs increase the power output of the rotor by increasing the wind speed into the rotor using a duct. Currently, developing these turbines is an involved process using time consuming Computational Fluid Dynamics codes. A simple and quick design tool is necessary for designers to develop efficient energy capturing devices. This work lays out the theory for a quick analysis tool for DAWTs using an axisymmetric surface vorticity method. This method allows for quick analysis of duct, hubs and rotors giving designers a general idea of the power output of the proposed hub, blade and duct geometry. The method would be similar to the way blade element momentum theory is used to design conventional HAWTs. It is determined that the presented method is viable for preliminary design of DAWTs.

  9. Enhancing robotic gait training via augmented feedback.

    PubMed

    Patritti, Benjamin; Sicari, Monica; Deming, Lynn; Romaguera, Fernanda; Pelliccio, Marlena; Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Nimec, Donna; Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has examined the feasibility of robotic-assisted gait training in pediatric patients, including children with cerebral palsy (CP). Herein we present a case series describing clinical outcomes in four children with CP who underwent gait training using a robotic driven gait orthosis (DGO) (Pediatric Lokomat©). Children had a diagnosis of spastic diplegia due to CP. They were paired based on functional abilities and observed gait characteristics. Two children had a GMFCS of III and showed excessive ankle plantarflexion during stance. The other two children had a GMFCS of II and displayed a crouch gait pattern. Each subject participated in a 6-week intervention of robotic-assisted gait training that involved three 30-minute sessions per week. Pre-and post-training evaluations were performed including clinical tests of standing and walking function, walking speed, and walking endurance. Clinical gait analysis was also performed using a motion capture system to assess changes in gait mechanics. All subjects showed an improvement in locomotor function. For lower functioning children, this may be mediated by improved trunk control. The use of augmented feedback was associated with larger. However, these results have to be considered with caution because of the limited sample size of the study. PMID:21097013

  10. Augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Wolf, Megan R; Ochi, Mitsuo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Doral, M Nedim; Lubowitz, James H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-03-19

    Tendon-to-bone healing is vital to the ultimate success of the various surgical procedures performed to repair injured tendons. Achieving tendon-to-bone healing that is functionally and biologically similar to native anatomy can be challenging because of the limited regeneration capacity of the tendon-bone interface. Orthopaedic basic-science research strategies aiming to augment tendon-to-bone healing include the use of osteoinductive growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, gene therapy, enveloping the grafts with periosteum, osteoconductive materials, cell-based therapies, biodegradable scaffolds, and biomimetic patches. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave treatment may affect tendon-to-bone healing by means of mechanical forces that stimulate biological cascades at the insertion site. Application of various loading methods and immobilization times influence the stress forces acting on the recently repaired tendon-to-bone attachment, which eventually may change the biological dynamics of the interface. Other approaches, such as the use of coated sutures and interference screws, aim to deliver biological factors while achieving mechanical stability by means of various fixators. Controlled Level-I human trials are required to confirm the promising results from in vitro or animal research studies elucidating the mechanisms underlying tendon-to-bone healing and to translate these results into clinical practice. PMID:24647509

  11. Videometric head tracker for augmented reality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, Adam L.; Zikan, Karel; Mizell, David; Banner, Mike; Sowizral, Henry A.

    1995-12-01

    For the past three years, we have been developing augmented reality technology for application to a variety of touch labor tasks in aircraft manufacturing and assembly. The system would be worn by factory workers to provide them with better-quality information for performing their tasks than was previously available. Using a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) whose optics are set at a focal length of about 18 in., the display and its associated head tracking system can be used to superimpose and stabilize graphics on the surface of a work piece. This technology would obviate many expensive marking systems now used in aerospace manufacturing. The most challenging technical issue with respect to factory applications of AR is head position and orientation tracking. It requires high accuracy, long- range tracking in a high-noise environment. The approach we have chosen uses a head- mounted miniature video camera. The user's wearable computer system utilizes the camera to find fiducial markings that have been placed on known coordinates on or near the work piece. The system then computes the user's position and orientation relative to the fiducial marks. It is referred to as a `videometric' head tracker. In this paper, we describe the steps we took and the results we obtained in the process of prototyping our videometric head tracker, beginning with analytical and simulation results, and continuing through the working prototypes.

  12. Predictive Design Morphologies for Gravel Augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2004-12-01

    Spawning habitat rehabilitation (SHR) is an interdisciplinary practice merging hydrology, geomorphology, aquatic ecology, and civil engineering to improve existing aquatic habitat and restoring fluvial complexity. Although SHR is widespread, it needs a science-based design process. The Spawning Habitat Integrated Rehabilitation Approach (SHIRA) is a scientifically peer-reviewed framework for doing SHR on regulated rivers. Although SHIRA has shown success with gravel augmentation on the Mokulmne River using hypothesis driven designs, the goal of this study was to evaluate several more natural processes for their potential in SHR, and to do so at the geomorphic-unit scale for the first time. Multiple design hypotheses were included in 6 SHR scenarios for rehabilitating the Lewiston Dam reach of the Trinity River, CA. Morphologies tested for their process mechanics included central bars, transverse-oblique bars, riffles, point bars, and bench-constricted pools. Varying longitudinal and lateral approach slopes for each feature were evaluated as well as feature sequencing. For each design scenario, a 2D model predicted local depth, velocity, shields stress, depth of scour, and habitat suitability for life stages of chinook and steelhead salmon at 300 and 6000 cfs. Data were analyzed to determine if conceptually expected geomorphic and ecological outcomes were in fact predicted by the 2D model. One design will be selected for actual construction in 2005 to evaluate 2D model predictions.

  13. Breast Augmentation after Conservation Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, James; Hsieh, Frank; Boyages, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of data regarding outcomes for patients undergoing breast augmentation with implants after breast conservation surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy. This retrospective study examined outcomes for patients with breast implant-only augmentation after BCS and radiotherapy. Methods: Between June 1998 and December 2010, 671 women underwent prosthetic breast reconstruction. Nineteen patients (2.8%) underwent an augmentation after BCS and radiotherapy. The mean age was 55.8 years (range, 40–69 years). Sixteen of these patients underwent one-stage implant-only breast augmentation, whereas 3 patients underwent two-stage expander and then implant augmentation. Results: All surgeries were successful. The average size of breast implant used was 258.7 g. Seven patients also received contralateral augmentation with an average implant size of 232.2 g. One patient received oral antibiotics for minor wound infection. Patients were judged to have an excellent (14/19; 73.7%), good (3/19; 15.8%), or fair (2/19; 10.5%) cosmetic result. Conclusion: The breasts of selected patients with breast cancer after BCS and radiotherapy. with asymmetry can be adequately augmented with breast implants alone. PMID:27536475

  14. An analysis of a candidate control algorithm for a ride quality augmentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of a candidate algorithm for a ride quality augmentation system. The algorithm consists of a full-state feedback control law based on optimal control output weighting, estimators for angle of attack and sideslip, and a maneuvering algorithm. The control law is shown to perform well by both frequency and time domain analysis. The rms vertical acceleration is reduced by about 40 percent over the whole mission flight envelope. The estimators for the angle of attack and sideslip avoid the often inaccurate or costly direct measurement of those angles. The maneuvering algorithm will allow the augmented airplane to respond to pilot inputs. The design characteristics and performance are documented by the closed-loop eigenvalues; rms levels of vertical, lateral, and longitudinal acceleration; and representative time histories and frequency response.

  15. Augmenting real data with synthetic data: an application in assessing radio-isotope identification algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L; Hamada, Michael; Graves, Todd; Myers, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The performance of Radio-Isotope Identification (RIID) algorithms using gamma spectroscopy is increasingly important. For example, sensors at locations that screen for illicit nuclear material rely on isotope identification to resolve innocent nuisance alarms arising from naturally occurring radioactive material. Recent data collections for RIID testing consist of repeat measurements for each of several scenarios to test RIID algorithms. Efficient allocation of measurement resources requires an appropriate number of repeats for each scenario. To help allocate measurement resources in such data collections for RIID algorithm testing, we consider using only a few real repeats per scenario. In order to reduce uncertainty in the estimated RIID algorithm performance for each scenario, the potential merit of augmenting these real repeats with realistic synthetic repeats is also considered. Our results suggest that for the scenarios and algorithms considered, approximately 10 real repeats augmented with simulated repeats will result in an estimate having comparable uncertainty to the estimate based on using 60 real repeats.

  16. [Head and Neck Tumor Segmentation Based on Augmented Gradient Level Set Method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiongmin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Mintang; He, Ling; Men, Yi; Wei, Jun; Haung, Hua

    2015-08-01

    To realize the accurate positioning and quantitative volume measurement of tumor in head and neck tumor CT images, we proposed a level set method based on augmented gradient. With the introduction of gradient information in the edge indicator function, our proposed level set model is adaptive to different intensity variation, and achieves accurate tumor segmentation. The segmentation result has been used to calculate tumor volume. In large volume tumor segmentation, the proposed level set method can reduce manual intervention and enhance the segmentation accuracy. Tumor volume calculation results are close to the gold standard. From the experiment results, the augmented gradient based level set method has achieved accurate head and neck tumor segmentation. It can provide useful information to computer aided diagnosis. PMID:26710464

  17. Curcumin augments the cytostatic and anti-invasive effects of mitoxantrone on carcinosarcoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Luty, Marcin; Kwiecień, Edyta; Firlej, Magdalena; Łabędź-Masłowska, Anna; Paw, Milena; Madeja, Zbigniew; Czyż, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Numerous adverse effects limit the applicability of mitoxantrone for the treatment of drug-resistant tumors, including carcinosarcoma. Here, we estimated the additive effects of mitoxantrone and curcumin, a plant-derived biomolecule isolated from Curcuma longa, on the neoplastic and invasive potential of carcinosarcoma cells in vitro. Curcumin augmented the cytostatic, cytotoxic and anti-invasive effects of mitoxantrone on the Walker-256 cells. It also strengthened the inhibitory effects of mitoxantrone on the motility of drug-resistant Walker-256 cells that had retained viability after a long-term mitoxantrone/curcumin treatment. Thus, curcumin reduces the effective doses of mitoxantrone and augments its interference with the invasive potential of drug-resistant carcinosarcoma cells. PMID:27390785

  18. Avoiding Focus Shifts in Surgical Telementoring Using an Augmented Reality Transparent Display.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Daniel; Popescu, Voicu; Cabrera, Maria Eugenia; Shanghavi, Aditya; Gomez, Gerardo; Marley, Sherri; Mullis, Brian; Wachs, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Conventional surgical telementoring systems require the trainee to shift focus away from the operating field to a nearby monitor to receive mentor guidance. This paper presents the next generation of telementoring systems. Our system, STAR (System for Telementoring with Augmented Reality) avoids focus shifts by placing mentor annotations directly into the trainee's field of view using augmented reality transparent display technology. This prototype was tested with pre-medical and medical students. Experiments were conducted where participants were asked to identify precise operating field locations communicated to them using either STAR or a conventional telementoring system. STAR was shown to improve accuracy and to reduce focus shifts. The initial STAR prototype only provides an approximate transparent display effect, without visual continuity between the display and the surrounding area. The current version of our transparent display provides visual continuity by showing the geometry and color of the operating field from the trainee's viewpoint. PMID:27046545

  19. Angulated Implants: An Alternative to Bone Augmentation and Sinus Lift Procedure: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bulbule, Nilesh; Kakade, Dilip; Shah, Riddhi

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of completely edentulous patients with implant becomes challenging due to reduced amount of bone available and pneumatisation of maxillary sinus or both. To successfully treat such patients, prior to implant placement, patient has to undergo invasive procedures like sinus lift and/or bone augmentation which is not possible many time due to many reasons. This article focuses on an alternative treatment procedure in which two posterior implants are placed at an angle and two anterior implants are placed axially thereby eliminating the need for sinus lift or bone augmentation procedures. This article broadly discusses this “All on Four” concept in all aspects, its effects on bone, prosthesis survival, forces acting etc along with various related studies. PMID:25954718

  20. An experimental study of a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce Lowell

    1989-01-01

    Flow field measurements were obtained in a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. The primary nozzle, segmented into twelve slots of aspect ratio 3.0, was tested at a pressure ratio of 1.15. Results are presented on the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress progressions in the mixing chamber of the constant area ejector. The segmented nozzle was found to produce streamwise vortices that may increase the mixing efficiency of the ejector flow field. Compared to free jet results, the jet development is reduced by the presence of the ejector walls. The resulting thrust augmentation ratio of this ejector was also calculated to be 1.34.

  1. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  2. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  3. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  4. Use of intraoral welding to stabilize dental implants in augmented sites for immediate provisionalization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Avvanzo, Pierluigi; Fabrocini, Lelio A; Ciavarella, Domenico; Avvanzo, Andrea; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; De Maio, Raffaele A

    2012-02-01

    Immediate implant rehabilitation of edentulous arches may be somewhat problematic because of anatomic situations involving insufficient bone thickness or height and tooth position. The aim of this report was to present a retrospective case series of dental implants placed into augmented sites (split crest or sinus augmentation) that were stabilized with an intraorally welded framework at the time of immediate provisionalization. An intraoral welding unit was used to join and stabilize implants as an orthopedic splint to break down forces applied on provisional restorations during healing and osseointegration. This approach allows for the immediate provisionalization of implants in bone-defective areas where multiple implant systems have been enacted. Forty-eight implants in 16 patients were inserted, welded together to a titanium framework, and immediately provisionalized during the same surgery in which split-crest or sinus augmentation procedures were performed. After removing the welded frameworks, 1 of 48 implants failed; the failed implant was associated with a sinus augmentation procedure. Intraoral welding stabilization may be a predictable procedure to allow immediate loading in augmented areas during healing time and to stabilize implants against nonaxial forces, thereby reducing the number of surgical and prosthetic sessions and making patients comfortable and accustomed to immediate fixed provisional and definitive restorations. PMID:20932150

  5. Using Laser Scanners to Augment the Systematic Error Pointing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    The antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) rely on precise pointing algorithms to communicate with spacecraft that are billions of miles away. Although the existing systematic error pointing model is effective at reducing blind pointing errors due to static misalignments, several of its terms have a strong dependence on seasonal and even daily thermal variation and are thus not easily modeled. Changes in the thermal state of the structure create a separation from the model and introduce a varying pointing offset. Compensating for this varying offset is possible by augmenting the pointing model with laser scanners. In this approach, laser scanners mounted to the alidade measure structural displacements while a series of transformations generate correction angles. Two sets of experiments were conducted in August 2015 using commercially available laser scanners. When compared with historical monopulse corrections under similar conditions, the computed corrections are within 3 mdeg of the mean. However, although the results show promise, several key challenges relating to the sensitivity of the optical equipment to sunlight render an implementation of this approach impractical. Other measurement devices such as inclinometers may be implementable at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Training for planning tumour resection: augmented reality and human factors.

    PubMed

    Abhari, Kamyar; Baxter, John S H; Chen, Elvis C S; Khan, Ali R; Peters, Terry M; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2015-06-01

    Planning surgical interventions is a complex task, demanding a high degree of perceptual, cognitive, and sensorimotor skills to reduce intra- and post-operative complications. This process requires spatial reasoning to coordinate between the preoperatively acquired medical images and patient reference frames. In the case of neurosurgical interventions, traditional approaches to planning tend to focus on providing a means for visualizing medical images, but rarely support transformation between different spatial reference frames. Thus, surgeons often rely on their previous experience and intuition as their sole guide is to perform mental transformation. In case of junior residents, this may lead to longer operation times or increased chance of error under additional cognitive demands. In this paper, we introduce a mixed augmented-/virtual-reality system to facilitate training for planning a common neurosurgical procedure, brain tumour resection. The proposed system is designed and evaluated with human factors explicitly in mind, alleviating the difficulty of mental transformation. Our results indicate that, compared to conventional planning environments, the proposed system greatly improves the nonclinicians' performance, independent of the sensorimotor tasks performed ( ). Furthermore, the use of the proposed system by clinicians resulted in a significant reduction in time to perform clinically relevant tasks ( ). These results demonstrate the role of mixed-reality systems in assisting residents to develop necessary spatial reasoning skills needed for planning brain tumour resection, improving patient outcomes. PMID:25546854

  7. Objective Clinical Assessment of Posture Patterns after Implant Breast Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Mandrini, Silvia; Finotti, Valentina; Dall’Angelo, Anna; Malovini, Alberto; Chierico, Simona; Faga, Angela; Dalla Toffola, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background: An increased weight of the breasts causes several spinal postural alterations that reduce the ability to perform dynamic tasks requiring a stable balance. The effects of the increased weight of the breasts on static posture after implant breast augmentation have not been investigated yet. Methods: Forty volunteer healthy women were asked to wear different sized breast implants (800, 400, and 300 g) inside a dedicated sports bra for 6½ consecutive hours during their everyday life activities, 1 day for every implant size. Posture changes were assessed with the association of a physiatric clinical examination with a static force platform analysis. Results: A significant increase in cervical lordosis after the use of 400-g breast implants and upward was demonstrated. This alteration was stable between the 400-g and 800-g breast implants. The 400-g (per breast) implant might therefore be the load threshold that breaks the cervical postural physiologic balance. A significant increase in lumbar lordosis was demonstrated only after the use of the 800-g breast implants. The static force platform assessment demonstrated a worsening of the balance independent from the visual control with the use of 400-g and 800-g implants. Conclusions: Heavy breast implants proved to induce reversible alterations in the spinal curve, and 400 g is the cutoff for functional physiologic compensation in the short term. Such a weight might be considered the safety limit for the use of breast implants for cosmetic purposes. PMID:26218390

  8. Morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.; Lowry, P.; Nguyen, M.; Pollack, M.

    1986-12-01

    Cholescintigraphy is a sensitive procedure for diagnosing or excluding acute cholecystitis. However, when rapid diagnosis is critical, the requirement for delayed images (4 hr or more after injection) to minimize the false-positive rate diminishes its utility. We prospectively evaluated 40 cholescintigraphic examinations that did not visualize the gallbladder 1 hr after injection of 99mTc diisopropyliminodiacetic acid. These examinations were then augmented by administration of IV morphine, followed by an additional 30 min of imaging. After the morphine, 18 of these examinations demonstrated visualization of the gallbladder; none subsequently required surgical exploration. Of the remaining 22, who demonstrated persistent nonvisualization of the gallbladder post-morphine, 11 were explored surgically and found to be abnormal. The 11 others were treated medically. Low-dose morphine administered when the gallbladder fails to visualize after 1 hr is a useful adjunct to conventional cholescintigraphy because it reduces the time required to obtain a diagnostic result and decreases the number of false-positive results.

  9. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    ALAM, BADRUL; MAJUMDER, RAJIB; AKTER, SHAHINA; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (P<0.05). Hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in the extract-treated mice compared with the EAC control mice. MPBL and EPBL treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation (P<0.05) and restored GSH, SOD and CAT levels towards normal compared with the EAC control. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that Piper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential. PMID:25624910

  10. Augmented stability of hydrogen clathrate hydrates by weakly polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takato; Koga, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hideki

    2009-12-01

    Thermodynamic stability of hydrogen clathrate hydrates has been examined in a wide range of pressure based solely on the intermolecular interactions involved. We show that the stability is indeed augmented by a second guest species (here acetone) called a promoter, a consequence of which is notable reduction in the dissociation pressure of the hydrates encaging hydrogen alone. This evaluation is made by extension of the van der Waals-Platteeuw theory combined with semi-grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations where the number of hydrogen molecules is allowed to vary while those of host water and promoter acetone molecules are fixed. The GCMC simulations then provide various types of cage occupancies of hydrogen from single to quadruple, from which the chemical potential of water in the clathrate hydrate is obtained as a function of the cage occupancy by acetone and the pressure. These occupancies are used to calculate the chemical potential of water in the clathrate hydrate. The stability is estimated by comparison of the chemical potential of water in the clathrate hydrate with that in hexagonal ice. We show the extent to which the dissociation pressure is reduced with increasing the occupancy of the larger cages by acetone. PMID:19968350

  11. Augmented stability of hydrogen clathrate hydrates by weakly polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Takato; Koga, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hideki

    2009-12-01

    Thermodynamic stability of hydrogen clathrate hydrates has been examined in a wide range of pressure based solely on the intermolecular interactions involved. We show that the stability is indeed augmented by a second guest species (here acetone) called a promoter, a consequence of which is notable reduction in the dissociation pressure of the hydrates encaging hydrogen alone. This evaluation is made by extension of the van der Waals-Platteeuw theory combined with semi-grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations where the number of hydrogen molecules is allowed to vary while those of host water and promoter acetone molecules are fixed. The GCMC simulations then provide various types of cage occupancies of hydrogen from single to quadruple, from which the chemical potential of water in the clathrate hydrate is obtained as a function of the cage occupancy by acetone and the pressure. These occupancies are used to calculate the chemical potential of water in the clathrate hydrate. The stability is estimated by comparison of the chemical potential of water in the clathrate hydrate with that in hexagonal ice. We show the extent to which the dissociation pressure is reduced with increasing the occupancy of the larger cages by acetone.

  12. Verification of Image Based Augmented Reality for Urban Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, T.; Nishikawa, S.; Fukunishi, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Recently, visualization of urban scenes with various information attracts attention. For the transmission of urban scenes, virtual reality has been widely used. Since the virtual reality requires comprehensive and detailed three dimensional models, the manual dependent modelling takes a lot of time and effort. On the other hand, it has been tackled that various data is superimposed on the scene which the users see at the time instead of comprehensive modelling, which is well known as augmented reality (AR). Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has been attempted using simple video cameras for the AR. This method estimates exterior orientation factors of the camera, and three dimensional reconstructions of feature points simultaneously. The method, however, has been applied to only small indoor space. This paper investigates the applicability of the popular method of SALM to wide outdoor space, and improves the stability of the method. Through the application, the tracked feature points successfully are greatly reduced compared with application in indoor environment. According to the experimental result, simple markers or GPS are introduced as auxiliary information. The markers gives the stability of optimization, and GPS gives real scale to AR spaces. Additionally, feature points tracking method is modified by assigning amplitude of displacement and depth. The effect of the markers and GPS are confirmed. On the other hand, some limitations of the method are understood. As a result, more impressive visualization will be accomplished.

  13. Socket augmentation using a commercial collagen-based product--an animal study in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kunert-Keil, Christiane; Gredes, Tomasz; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Dominiak, Marzena; Botzenhart, Ute; Gedrange, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify properties of pure collagen for augmentation techniques and compare to a proved xenogenic material and natural bone regeneration. For that the osteogenesis of extraction alveoli after augmentation with a collagen cone covered with an absorbable collagen membrane in a single product (PARASORB Sombrero®, Resorba) was evaluated in a pig model. Extraction alveoli were treated with the collagen cone and the collagen membrane in a single product (test group; n=7) or demineralized bovine bone mineral and a collagen membrane (two separate products; positive control; n=7). Untreated alveoli were used (n=6) as negative controls.(1) Bone specimens were extracted 1 and 3 months after teeth extraction. Serial longitudinal sections were stained with Masson Goldner trichrome. Furthermore, bone specimens were examined using X-ray analyses. Significant differences of bone atrophy were detected 12 weeks after material insertion using X-ray analyses. The bone atrophy was reduced by approximately 32% after insertion of the positive control (P=0.046). Bone atrophy reached 37.6% of those from untreated alveoli (P=0.002) using the test group. After 4 weeks, bone formation was noticeable in most sites, whereas after 12 weeks of healing, specimens of all groups exhibited nearly complete osseous organization of the former defected area. The mandibulary bone texture showed typical spongious bone structures. Histomorphometric analyses revealed after 4 and 12 weeks significant higher levels of bone marrow in test and negative control than in positive control. Quantification of bone tissue and osteoid does not show any significant difference. The present study confirms reduced bone resorption following socket augmentation with an absorbable collagen membrane with collagen cone while the resulting bone structure is similar to natural bone regeneration. Pure collagen can be used for bone augmentation, and shows over other xenogenic materials, a clear

  14. Breast cancer following augmentation mammaplasty with polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) injection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ning-Xin; Liu, Li-Gang; Hui, Li; Chen, Yuan-Liang; Xu, Shi-Liang

    2009-07-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) as an implanted material for augmentation mammaplasty has been used for years in China. Many kinds of complications associated with PAAG use have been reported in the clinical literature. This report presents two cases of breast cancer occurring after injection of PAAG in augmented breasts. The delayed diagnosis and more aggressive disease due to PAAG injection should be cause for concern. It is very important to detect breast cancer early when it is covered by the induration of the injected gel and inflammation reaction after PAAG injection. PAAG injection for augmentation mammaplasty may affect the outcome of breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:19156460

  15. Space-based augmentation for global navigation satellite systems.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Mohinder S

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes space-based augmentation for global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). Space-based augmentations increase the accuracy and integrity of the GNSS, thereby enhancing users' safety. The corrections for ephemeris, ionospheric delay, and clocks are calculated from reference station measurements of GNSS data in wide-area master stations and broadcast via geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites. This paper discusses the clock models, satellite orbit determination, ionospheric delay estimation, multipath mitigation, and GEO uplink subsystem (GUS) as used in the Wide Area Augmentation System developed by the FAA. PMID:22481784

  16. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  17. Pyriform Aperture Augmentation as An Adjunct to Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Yaremchuk, Michael J; Vibhakar, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal deficiency in the central midface impacts nasal aesthetics. This lack of lower face projection can be corrected by alloplastic augmentation of the pyriform aperture. Creating convexity in the deficient midface will make the nose seem less prominent. Augmentation of the pyriform aperture is, therefore, often a useful adjunct during the rhinoplasty procedure. Augmenting the skeleton in this area can alter the projection of the nasal base, the nasolabial angle, and the vertical plane of the lip. The implant design and surgical techniques described here are extensions of others' previous efforts to improve paranasal aesthetics. PMID:26616706

  18. Experimental comparison of conventional and trans-augmented railguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.; Crawford, R.; Keefer, D.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments comparing the performance of conventional armature and transaugmented plasma armature railguns have been conducted with a 2.4 m-long, 1 cm round-bore railgun with a single augmenting turn. The conventional operation experiments were conducted over a range of currents in order to characterize base performance and furnish data for the development of ablation drag and thermal propulsive models. Experiments were then conducted for a range of separately powered augmentation currents, but with railgun currents equal to those employed in the conventional operation experiments. Augmented performance was lower than predicted by theory despite operation without secondary armature formation.

  19. Oxytocin and the augmentation of labor : Human and medical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Curtis, P

    1993-12-01

    At least a third of the women giving birth in the United States receive intravenous oxytocin for the induction and augmentation of labor. The problem of inactive or ineffective labor remains a major challenge for birth attendants, midwives, and physicians who practice obstetrics. Before the discovery of oxytocin, traditional approaches to augmentation ranged from magical and folk interventions to extensive bloodletting. Despite its wide use the effectiveness of oxytocin augmentation has not been well studied, and current research raises new questions about its effect on the brain. PMID:24214403

  20. Long-term complications following bladder augmentations in patients with spina bifida: bladder calculi, perforation of the augmented bladder and upper tract deterioration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background We desire to review our experience with bladder augmentation in spina bifida patients followed in a transitional and adult urologic practice. This paper will specifically focus on three major complications: bladder calculi, the most frequent complication found following bladder augmentation, perforation of the augmentation, its most lethal complication and finally we will address loss of renal function as a direct result of our surgical reconstructive procedures. Methods We reviewed a prospective data base maintained on patients with spina bifida followed in our transitional and adult urology clinic from 1986 to date. Specific attention was given to patients who had developed bladder calculi, sustained a spontaneous perforation of the augmented bladder or had developed new onset of renal scarring or renal insufficiency (≥ stage 3 renal failure) during prolonged follow-up. Results The development of renal stones (P<0.05) and symptomatic urinary tract infections (P<0.0001) were found to be significantly reduced by the use of high volume (≥240 mL) daily bladder wash outs. Individuals who still developed bladder calculi recalcitrant to high volume wash outs were not benefited by the correction of underlying metabolic abnormalities or mucolytic agents. Spontaneous bladder perforations in the adult patient population with spina bifida were found to be directly correlated to substance abuse and noncompliance with intermittent catheterization, P<0.005. Deterioration of the upper tracts as defined by the new onset of renal scars occurred in 40% (32/80) of the patients managed by a ileocystoplasty and simultaneous bladder neck outlet procedure during a median follow-up interval 14 years (range, 8–45 years). Development of ≥ stage 3 chronic renal failure occurred within 38% (12/32) of the patients with scarring i.e., 15% (12/80) of the total patient population. Prior to the development of the renal scarring, 69% (22/32) of the patients had been noncompliant

  1. Aggregated Indexing of Biomedical Time Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Mortazavi, Bobak; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Bui, Alex A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Remote and wearable medical sensing has the potential to create very large and high dimensional datasets. Medical time series databases must be able to efficiently store, index, and mine these datasets to enable medical professionals to effectively analyze data collected from their patients. Conventional high dimensional indexing methods are a two stage process. First, a superset of the true matches is efficiently extracted from the database. Second, supersets are pruned by comparing each of their objects to the query object and rejecting any objects falling outside a predetermined radius. This pruning stage heavily dominates the computational complexity of most conventional search algorithms. Therefore, indexing algorithms can be significantly improved by reducing the amount of pruning. This paper presents an online algorithm to aggregate biomedical times series data to significantly reduce the search space (index size) without compromising the quality of search results. This algorithm is built on the observation that biomedical time series signals are composed of cyclical and often similar patterns. This algorithm takes in a stream of segments and groups them to highly concentrated collections. Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is used to reduce the overall complexity of the algorithm, allowing it to run online. The output of this aggregation is used to populate an index. The proposed algorithm yields logarithmic growth of the index (with respect to the total number of objects) while keeping sensitivity and specificity simultaneously above 98%. Both memory and runtime complexities of time series search are improved when using aggregated indexes. In addition, data mining tasks, such as clustering, exhibit runtimes that are orders of magnitudes faster when run on aggregated indexes.

  2. Electromyographic response is altered during robotic surgical training with augmented feedback.

    PubMed

    Judkins, Timothy N; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Stergiou, Nick

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing prevalence of robotic systems for surgical laparoscopy. We previously developed quantitative measures to assess robotic surgical proficiency, and used augmented feedback to enhance training to reduce applied grip force and increase speed. However, there is also a need to understand the physiological demands of the surgeon during robotic surgery, and if training can reduce these demands. Therefore, the goal of this study was to use clinical biomechanical techniques via electromyography (EMG) to investigate the effects of real-time augmented visual feedback during short-term training on muscular activation and fatigue. Twenty novices were trained in three inanimate surgical tasks with the da Vinci Surgical System. Subjects were divided into five feedback groups (speed, relative phase, grip force, video, and control). Time- and frequency-domain EMG measures were obtained before and after training. Surgical training decreased muscle work as found from mean EMG and EMG envelopes. Grip force feedback further reduced average and total muscle work, while speed feedback increased average muscle work and decreased total muscle work. Training also increased the median frequency response as a result of increased speed and/or reduced fatigue during each task. More diverse motor units were recruited as revealed by increases in the frequency bandwidth post-training. We demonstrated that clinical biomechanics using EMG analysis can help to better understand the effects of training for robotic surgery. Real-time augmented feedback during training can further reduce physiological demands. Future studies will investigate other means of feedback such as biofeedback of EMG during robotic surgery training. PMID:19041972

  3. Soft Tissue Augmentation with Silk Composite Graft

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Tae; Kweon, Hae Yong; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) and antibody as that affects the performance of a silk-4HR combination graft for soft tissue augmentation in an animal model. Methods: The silk graft materials consisted of four types: silk+10% tricalcium phosphate (TCP) (ST0), silk+10% TCP+1% 4HR (ST1), silk+10% TCP+3% 4HR (ST3), and silk+10% TCP+6% 4-HR (ST6). The antibody binding assay tested the 4HR effect and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) exam was done for silk grafts. The animal experiment used a subcutaneous pocket mouse model. The graft – SH0 or SH1 or SH3 or SH6 – was placed in a subcutaneous pocket. The animals were killed at one, two, and four weeks, postoperatively. The specimens were subjected to histological analysis and lysozyme assay. Results: Groups with 4HR applied showed lower antibody binding affinity to antigen compared to groups without 4HR. In the SEM examination, there was no significant difference among groups. Histological examinations revealed many foreign body giant cells in ST0 and ST1 group at four weeks postoperatively. Both ST3 and ST6 groups developed significantly lower levels of giant cell values compared to ST0 and ST1 groups (P <0.001) at four weeks postoperatively. In the lysozyme assay, the ST1 and ST3 groups showed denser signals than the other groups. Conclusion: 4HR combined silk implants resulted in high levels of vascular and connective tissue regeneration. PMID:27489833

  4. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  5. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    PubMed

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. PMID:26224206

  6. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  7. Estimation of mean glandular dose for mammography of augmented breasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, J. R.; Kotre, C. J.

    2000-11-01

    The standard quantity used to relate breast surface exposure to radiation risk is the mean dose received by the radiation sensitive tissue contained within the female breast, the mean glandular dose (MGD). At present, little is known about the MGD received by women with breast implants as there is no technique available to facilitate its calculation. The present work has involved modification of the conventional method for MGD estimation to make it applicable to women with augmented breasts. The technique was used to calculate MGDs for a cohort of 80 women with breast implants, which were compared with similar data calculated for a total of 1258 non-augmented women. Little difference was found in median MGD at low compressed breast thickness. At high breast thickness, however, the MGDs received by women with augmented breasts were found to be considerably lower than those relating to their non-augmented counterparts.

  8. Augmented reality aiding collimator exchange at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Héctor; Fabry, Thomas; Laukkanen, Seppo; Mattila, Jouni; Tabourot, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Novel Augmented Reality techniques have the potential to have a large positive impact on the way remote maintenance operations are carried out in hazardous areas, e.g. areas where radiation doses that imply careful planning and optimization of maintenance operations are present. This paper describes an Augmented Reality strategy, system and implementation for aiding the remote collimator exchange in the LHC, currently the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. The proposed system relies on marker detection and multi-modal augmentation in real-time. A database system has been used to ensure flexibility. The system has been tested in a mock-up facility, showing real time performance and great potential for future use in the LHC. The technical-scientific difficulties identified during the development of the system and the proposed solutions described in this paper may help the development of future Augmented Reality systems for remote handling in scientific facilities.

  9. Augmented Reality a Review on Technology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruse, Radu Emanuil; Bondrea, Ioan

    2014-11-01

    We present in this paper an overview of the concepts and potential industrial Augmented Reality applications that can be very efficient. We also present the basic technological requirements for an AR system

  10. Augmented Reality System for E-maintenance Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.; Malek, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present in this paper an Augmented Reality platform for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. With this platform we identify all possible scenarios which allow the technician to intervene on a machine breakdown using distant expert if necessary. Each scenario depends on the machine parameters and the technician competences. To implement a configuration of Augmented Reality system, we chose a case study of maintenance scenario for machine breakdown. Then we represent this scenario by an interaction model which allows establishing Augmented Reality configuration.

  11. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives. PMID:27514827

  12. Capsular Contracture after Breast Augmentation: An Update for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Headon, Hannah; Kasem, Adbul

    2015-01-01

    Capsular contracture is the most common complication following implant based breast surgery and is one of the most common reasons for reoperation. Therefore, it is important to try and understand why this happens, and what can be done to reduce its incidence. A literature search using the MEDLINE database was conducted including search terms 'capsular contracture breast augmentation', 'capsular contracture pathogenesis', 'capsular contracture incidence', and 'capsular contracture management', which yielded 82 results which met inclusion criteria. Capsular contracture is caused by an excessive fibrotic reaction to a foreign body (the implant) and has an overall incidence of 10.6%. Risk factors that were identified included the use of smooth (vs. textured) implants, a subglandular (vs. submuscular) placement, use of a silicone (vs. saline) filled implant and previous radiotherapy to the breast. The standard management of capsular contracture is surgical via a capsulectomy or capsulotomy. Medical treatment using the off-label leukotriene receptor antagonist Zafirlukast has been reported to reduce severity and help prevent capsular contracture from forming, as has the use of acellular dermal matrices, botox and neopocket formation. However, nearly all therapeutic approaches are associated with a significant rate of recurrence. Capsular contracture is a multifactorial fibrotic process the precise cause of which is still unknown. The incidence of contracture developing is lower with the use of textured implants, submuscular placement and the use of polyurethane coated implants. Symptomatic capsular contracture is usually managed surgically, however recent research has focussed on preventing capsular contracture from occurring, or treating it with autologous fat transfer. PMID:26430623

  13. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  14. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  15. Striae distensae of augmented breasts after oral contraceptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Har-Shai, Y; Barak, A; Taran, A; Weissman, A

    1999-02-01

    A case of striae distensae (SD) of bilateral augmented breasts following oral contraceptive therapy is presented. Striae maturation and the prevention of additional skin marks was achieved with immediate cessation of oral contraceptive pill therapy and long-term daily topical application of tretinoin cream. It is suggested that patients who are candidates for breast augmentation surgery should be informed of the possible risk of developing SD if they are taking or planning to take the contraceptive pill. PMID:10029486

  16. Plasma armature studies in augmented and muzzle fed railguns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Crawford, Roger; Taylor, Jaime

    1993-07-01

    Series of experiments conducted on the railgun operated in the conventional, augmented, and muzzle fed configurations are summarized. A performance model that accounts for all the known fluid mechanical drag effects and electrothermal acceleration is used to estimate the performance losses. Results show that the enhanced performance due to augmentation is significantly less than predicted by theory. The muzzle fed railgun exhibited very poor performance. Most acceleration is due to electrothermal forces during fusing.

  17. Achieving nitritation and phosphorus removal in a continuous-flow anaerobic/oxic reactor through bio-augmentation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Wang, Shuying; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Xiyao; Bao, Peng; Peng, Yongzhen

    2013-07-01

    The feasibility of achieving nitritation and phosphorus removal using bio-augmentation was investigated in a continuous-flow anaerobic/oxic (A/O) reactor treating sewage. The results indicated that nitritation could be quickly start-up, and reconstructed with an increase in the nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) from 1% to 89% within 15 days by using bio-augmentation and controlling DO at 0.96 mg/L. Biological phosphorus removal could be achieved with the average phosphorus removal efficiency of 96.43% when the NAR was maintained above 78.60%. Meanwhile, sludge settleablity was good with a sludge volume index (SVI) of between 62 and 102 mL/g even under high NAR. After nitritation and biological phosphorus removal were achieved, this A/O reactor has the potential to supply appropriate influent for the anammox UASB reactor. PMID:23659761

  18. Sustainability index for Taipei

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-J. . E-mail: yungjaanlee@pchome.com.tw; Huang Chingming . E-mail: michael@everwin.com.tw

    2007-08-15

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years.

  19. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  20. Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.

  1. Reduced-Order Kalman Filtering for Processing Relative Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    2008-01-01

    A study in Kalman-filter theory has led to a method of processing relative measurements to estimate the current state of a physical system, using less computation than has previously been thought necessary. As used here, relative measurements signifies measurements that yield information on the relationship between a later and an earlier state of the system. An important example of relative measurements arises in computer vision: Information on relative motion is extracted by comparing images taken at two different times. Relative measurements do not directly fit into standard Kalman filter theory, in which measurements are restricted to those indicative of only the current state of the system. One approach heretofore followed in utilizing relative measurements in Kalman filtering, denoted state augmentation, involves augmenting the state of the system at the earlier of two time instants and then propagating the state to the later time instant.While state augmentation is conceptually simple, it can also be computationally prohibitive because it doubles the number of states in the Kalman filter. When processing a relative measurement, if one were to follow the state-augmentation approach as practiced heretofore, one would find it necessary to propagate the full augmented state Kalman filter from the earlier time to the later time and then select out the reduced-order components. The main result of the study reported here is proof of a property called reduced-order equivalence (ROE). The main consequence of ROE is that it is not necessary to augment with the full state, but, rather, only the portion of the state that is explicitly used in the partial relative measurement. In other words, it suffices to select the reduced-order components first and then propagate the partial augmented state Kalman filter from the earlier time to the later time; the amount of computation needed to do this can be substantially less than that needed for propagating the full augmented

  2. Index of endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, Satya

    1957-01-01

    The author discusses the difficulties involved in defining the term “endemicity”, and suggests a new approach to the problem—namely, the establishment of indices of endemicity, based on such data as are usually collected by national health administrations (mortality and morbidity rates, spleen-rates, case incidence in seaports, etc.). Examples are given of the calculation of the endemicity index for a number of diseases from different types of data obtained from various countries. An important advantage of the endemicity index is that it provides an easy means of studying the geographical pattern of endemic foci of disease. PMID:13479767

  3. Effects of normal acceleration on transient burning rate augmentation of an aluminized solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Instantaneous burning rate data for a polybutadiene acrylic acid propellant, containing 16 weight percent aluminum, were calculated from the pressure histories of a test motor with 96.77 sq cm of burning area and a 5.08-cm-thick propellant web. Additional acceleration tests were conducted with reduced propellant web thicknesses of 3.81, 2.54, and 1.27 cm. The metallic residue collected from the various web thickness tests was characterized by weight and shape and correlated with the instantaneous burning rate measurements. Rapid depressurization extinction tests were conducted in order that surface pitting characteristics due to localized increased burning rate could be correlated with the residue analysis and the instantaneous burning rate data. The acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation was strongly dependent on propellant distance burned, or burning time, and thus was transient in nature. The results from the extinction tests and the residue analyses indicate that the transient rate augmentation was highly dependent on local enhancement of the combustion zone heat feedback to the surface by the growth of molten residue particles on or just above the burning surface. The size, shape, and number density of molten residue particles, rather than the total residue weight, determined the acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation.

  4. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  5. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1992-08-01

    The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project (Project) had its origin, in the mid-1980's, in perceived differences or inconsistencies in fish disease detection, diagnosis and control capabilities between the five conservation agencies rearing and releasing anadromous salmonids for fishery resource management and mitigation purposes in the Columbia River basin. Agency fish health programs varied greatly. Some agencies had personnel, equipment and funding to frequently monitor the health status of both juvenile production fish and adult salmon or steelhead trout at the time of spawning. Other agencies had much smaller programs and limited resources. These differences became better understood when the Pacific Northwest Fish Health Protection Committee developed its Model Fish Health Protection Program including recommendations for standard fish disease detection procedures. Even though some agencies could not immediately attain the goals set by the Model Program it was unanimously adopted as a desirable objective. Shortly thereafter, a multi-party planning group was assembled to help the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) find ways to improve agency fish health programs and implement measures under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The planning group assessed existing agency fish health monitoring capabilities, agreed upon satisfactory levels of capability to detect and identify important fish pathogens, and designed a five-year project establishing comparable fish health monitoring capability in each agency. It was strongly believed that such a project would improve the health and quality of the millions of hatchery fish released annually in the Columbia River basin and improve interagency communications and disease control coordination. During 1986 and 1987 BPA individually negotiated five separate contracts with the fishery agencies to standardize fish health monitoring, develop a common data collection and reporting format

  6. Cement leakage in pedicle screw augmentation: a prospective analysis of 98 patients and 474 augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jan U; Baldauf, Joerg; Marx, Sascha; Kirsch, Michael; Schroeder, Henry W S; Pillich, Dirk T

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Loosening and pullout of pedicle screws are well-known problems in pedicle screw fixation surgery. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, first described as early as 1975, increases the pedicle-screw interface and pullout force in osteoporotic vertebrae. The aim of the present study was to identify cement leakage and pulmonary embolism rates in a large prospective single-center series of pedicle screw augmentations. METHODS All patients who underwent cement-augmented pedicle screw placement between May 2006 and October 2010 at the authors' institution were included in this prospective cohort study. Perivertebral cement leakage and pulmonary cement embolism were evaluated with a CT scan of the area of operation and with a radiograph of the chest, respectively. RESULTS A total of 98 patients underwent placement of cement-augmented pedicle screws; 474 augmented screws were inserted in 237 vertebrae. No symptomatic perivertebral cement leakage or symptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was observed, but asymptomatic perivertebral cement leakage was seen in 88 patients (93.6%) and in 165 augmented vertebrae (73.3%). Cement leakage most often occurred in the perivertebral venous system. Clinically asymptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was found in 4 patients (4.1%). CONCLUSIONS Perivertebral cement leakage often occurs in pedicle screw augmentation, but in most cases, it is clinically asymptomatic. Cement augmentation should be performed under continuous fluoroscopy to avoid high-volume leakage. Alternative strategies, such as use of expandable screws, should be examined in more detail for patients at high risk of screw loosening. PMID:26943258

  7. Investigation of nasal mobility in Asians and its change after alloplastic augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Rui; Li, Dong; Yuan, Jie; Xu, Liang; Wu, Jieneng; Wei, Min

    2015-05-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty is one of the most popular cosmetic surgeries in Asia, and both dorsal augmentation and mobile nose modifications are emphasized for the characters of the Asian nose and for Asians who are fond of the Western nasal shape. The goal in rhinoplasty is to create a balanced and natural appearance. Therefore, the cosmetic aspects, postoperative complications, and functional aspects should be regarded as a whole. In fact, the first 2 aspects had been widely reported in a large number of literatures. However, the functional aspects about mobility have been ignored by most surgeons. A sample method was used in this article to investigate the range of mobility of normal nasal tip in Asians and analyze the correlations of the nasal mobility and alloplastic materials. A total of 170 healthy adult subjects aged from 18 to 35 were included and were classified into 3 groups standing for normal nose and rhinoplasty with L-shaped silicon implants with e-PTFE implants. A 3D raster surface scanner was used to capture the images of the subjects accurately and rapidly in this detailed anatomical study. The range of nasal mobility (to right or left) in Asian normal women was 35.53 ± 4.84 degrees, and the length of mobile part was 16.62 ± 1.94  mm, which accounts for 40% ± 5% of nasal length. The L-shaped alloplastic implants would reduce the nasal mobility, and there had been differences among the changes caused by different implants, which might cause unsatisfactory outcomes in patients. Results of the study indicated that augmentation rhinoplasty should be performed as well as augmented mammaplasty which attaches importance not only to the static and dynamic appearance of the nasal tip but also to the feeling when it is touched. PMID:25974828

  8. Bone Cement-Augmented Percutaneous Short Segment Fixation: An Effective Treatment for Kummell's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon Joo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Lee, Seok Ki

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation for treating Kummell's disease accompanied by severe osteoporosis. Methods From 2009 to 2013, ten patients with single-level Kummell's disease accompanied by severe osteoporosis were enrolled in this study. After postural reduction for 1-2 days, bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation was performed at one level above, one level below, and at the collapsed vertebra. Clinical results, radiological parameters, and related complications were assessed preoperatively and at 1 month and 12 months after surgery. Results Prior to surgery, the mean pain score on the visual analogue scale was 8.5±1.5. One month after the procedure, this score improved to 2.2±2.0 and the improvement was maintained at 12 months after surgery. The mean preoperative vertebral height loss was 48.2±10.5%, and the surgical procedure reduced this loss to 22.5±12.4%. In spite of some recurrent height loss, significant improvement was achieved at 12 months after surgery compared to preoperative values. The kyphotic angle improved significantly from 22.4±4.9° before the procedure to 10.1±3.8° after surgery and the improved angle was maintained at 12 months after surgery despite a slight correction loss. No patient sustained adjacent fractures after bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation during the follow-up period. Asymptomatic cement leakage into the paravertebral area was observed in one patient, but no major complications were seen. Conclusion Bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation can be an effective and safe procedure for Kummell's disease. PMID:26279814

  9. AUGMENTATION OF LIMB PERFUSION AND REVERSAL OF TISSUE ISCHEMIA PRODUCED BY ULTRASOUND-MEDIATED MICROBUBBLE CAVITATION

    PubMed Central

    Belcik, J. Todd; Mott, Brian H.; Xie, Aris; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Lindner, Nathan J.; Ammi, Azzdine; Linden, Joel M.; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasound can increase tissue blood flow in part through the intravascular shear produced by oscillatory pressure fluctuations. We hypothesized that ultrasound-mediated increases in perfusion can be augmented by microbubble contrast agents that undergo ultrasound-mediated cavitation, and sought to characterize the biologic mediators. Methods and Results Contrast ultrasound perfusion imaging of hindlimb skeletal muscle and femoral artery diameter measurement were performed in non-ischemic mice after unilateral 10 min exposure to intermittent ultrasound alone (mechanical index [MI] 0.6 or 1.3) or ultrasound with lipid microbubbles (2×108 I.V.). Studies were also performed after inhibiting shear- or pressure-dependent vasodilator pathways, and in mice with hindlimb ischemia. Ultrasound alone produced a 2-fold increase (p<0.05) in muscle perfusion regardless of ultrasound power. Ultrasound-mediated augmentation in flow was greater with microbubbles (3-fold and 10-fold higher than control for MI 0.6 and 1.3, respectively; p<0.05), as was femoral artery dilation. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) attenuated flow augmentation produced by ultrasound and microbubbles by 70% (p<0.01), whereas inhibition of adenosine-A2a receptors and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids had minimal effect. Limb nitric oxide (NO) production and muscle phospho-eNOS increased in a stepwise fashion by ultrasound and ultrasound with microbubbles. In mice with unilateral hindlimb ischemia (40–50% reduction in flow), ultrasound (MI 1.3) with microbubbles increased perfusion by 2-fold to a degree that was greater than the control non-ischemic limb. Conclusions Increases in muscle blood flow during high-power ultrasound are markedly amplified by the intravascular presence of microbubbles and can reverse tissue ischemia. These effects are most likely mediated by cavitation-related increases in shear and activation of eNOS. PMID:25834183

  10. Augmented feedback influences upper limb reaching movement times but does not explain violations of Fitts' Law

    PubMed Central

    de Grosbois, John; Heath, Matthew; Tremblay, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fitts' (1954) classic theorem asserts that the movement time (MT) of voluntary reaches is determined by amplitude and width requirements (i.e., index of difficulty: ID). Actions associated with equivalent IDs should elicit equivalent MTs regardless of the amplitude and/ or width requirements. However, contemporary research has reported that amplitude-based contributions to IDs yield larger increases in MTs than width-based contributions. This discrepancy may relate to the presence of augmented terminal feedback in Fitts' original research, which has not been provided in more recent investigations (e.g., Heath et al., 2011). To address this issue, participants performed reaching movements during two sessions wherein feedback regarding terminal accuracy was either provided or withheld. It was hypothesized that the absence of augmented terminal feedback would result in a stereotyped performance across target widths and explain the violation of Fitts' theorem. Yet, the results revealed distinct influences of amplitude- and width-based manipulations on MT, which also persisted across feedback conditions. This finding supports the assertion that the unitary nature of Fitts' theorem does not account for a continuous range of movement amplitudes and target widths. A secondary analysis was competed in an attempt to further investigate the violation of Fitts' Law. Based on error rates, participants were segregated into accuracy- and speed-prone groups. Additionally, target's IDs were recalculated based on each participant's performance using the effective target width (i.e., IDWe) instead of the nominal target width. When using MT data from the accuracy-prone group with this IDWe, the aforementioned violation was alleviated. Overall, augmented terminal feedback did not explain the violation of Fitts' theorem, although one should consider using the effective target width and participant's strategy in future investigations. PMID:26136703

  11. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  12. Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

  13. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  14. The Misery Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  15. Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  16. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1989-04-01

    Washington Department of Fisheries has divided the sampling and data collection into three major groups: adult analysis, juvenile analysis and database development. The adult analysis done at spawning includes screening for viral pathogens and Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD). Pre-spawning mortalities are sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens and parasites to determine causes of pre-spawning loss. Juvenile analysis involves monthly monitoring; pre-release examinations for viral pathogens, BKD and, where appropriate, whirling disease (M. cerebralis); completion of the Organosomatic analysis on four index stocks, and midterm exams on yearling groups for BKD and M. cerebralis. Database development required constructing fish health monitoring forms and a computer based data entry and retrieval system. We have completed a full year of sampling and data collection, January, 1987 to January, 1988. This report will present and analyze this information.

  17. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  18. Transforming Polar Research with Google Glass Augmented Reality (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; McEniry, M.; Maskey, M.

    2011-12-01

    Augmented reality is a new technology with the potential to accelerate the advancement of science, particularly in geophysical research. Augmented reality is defined as a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. When paired with advanced computing techniques on cloud resources, augmented reality has the potential to improve data collection techniques, visualizations, as well as in-situ analysis for many areas of research. Google is currently a pioneer of augmented reality technology and has released beta versions of their wearable computing device, Google Glass, to a select number of developers and beta testers. This community of 'Glass Explorers' is the vehicle from which Google shapes the future of their augmented reality device. Example applications of Google Glass in geophysical research range from use as a data gathering interface in harsh climates to an on-site visualization and analysis tool. Early participation in the shaping of the Google Glass device is an opportunity for researchers to tailor this new technology to their specific needs. The purpose of this presentation is to provide geophysical researchers with a hands-on first look at Google Glass and its potential as a scientific tool. Attendees will be given an overview of the technical specifications as well as a live demonstration of the device. Potential applications to geophysical research in polar regions will be the primary focus. The presentation will conclude with an open call to participate, during which attendees may indicate interest in developing projects that integrate Google Glass into their research. Application Mockup: Penguin Counter Google Glass Augmented Reality Device

  19. Transforming Polar Research with Google Glass Augmented Reality (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2013-12-01

    Augmented reality is a new technology with the potential to accelerate the advancement of science, particularly in geophysical research. Augmented reality is defined as a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. When paired with advanced computing techniques on cloud resources, augmented reality has the potential to improve data collection techniques, visualizations, as well as in-situ analysis for many areas of research. Google is currently a pioneer of augmented reality technology and has released beta versions of their wearable computing device, Google Glass, to a select number of developers and beta testers. This community of 'Glass Explorers' is the vehicle from which Google shapes the future of their augmented reality device. Example applications of Google Glass in geophysical research range from use as a data gathering interface in harsh climates to an on-site visualization and analysis tool. Early participation in the shaping of the Google Glass device is an opportunity for researchers to tailor this new technology to their specific needs. The purpose of this presentation is to provide geophysical researchers with a hands-on first look at Google Glass and its potential as a scientific tool. Attendees will be given an overview of the technical specifications as well as a live demonstration of the device. Potential applications to geophysical research in polar regions will be the primary focus. The presentation will conclude with an open call to participate, during which attendees may indicate interest in developing projects that integrate Google Glass into their research. Application Mockup: Penguin Counter Google Glass Augmented Reality Device

  20. Image-guided transorbital procedures with endoscopic video augmentation

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Michael P.; Mawn, Louise A.; Galloway, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical interventions to the orbital space behind the eyeball are limited to highly invasive procedures due to the confined nature of the region along with the presence of several intricate soft tissue structures. A minimally invasive approach to orbital surgery would enable several therapeutic options, particularly new treatment protocols for optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. The authors have developed an image-guided system for the purpose of navigating a thin flexible endoscope to a specified target region behind the eyeball. Navigation within the orbit is particularly challenging despite its small volume, as the presence of fat tissue occludes the endoscopic visual field while the surgeon must constantly be aware of optic nerve position. This research investigates the impact of endoscopic video augmentation to targeted image-guided navigation in a series of anthropomorphic phantom experiments. Methods: A group of 16 surgeons performed a target identification task within the orbits of four skull phantoms. The task consisted of identifying the correct target, indicated by the augmented video and the preoperative imaging frames, out of four possibilities. For each skull, one orbital intervention was performed with video augmentation, while the other was done with the standard image guidance technique, in random order. Results: The authors measured a target identification accuracy of 95.3% and 85.9% for the augmented and standard cases, respectively, with statistically significant improvement in procedure time (Z = −2.044, p = 0.041) and intraoperator mean procedure time (Z = 2.456, p = 0.014) when augmentation was used. Conclusions: Improvements in both target identification accuracy and interventional procedure time suggest that endoscopic video augmentation provides valuable additional orientation and trajectory information in an image-guided procedure. Utilization of video augmentation in transorbital interventions could further minimize

  1. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  2. Gradual Height Decrease of Augmented Vertebrae after Vertebroplasty at the Thoracolumbar Junction

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Han San; Kim, Hyun Gon; Park, Kwan Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vertebroplasty is an effective treatment for vertebral compression fracture, but may progress gradual vertebral height decrease in spite of vertebroplasty. Gradual vertebral height decrease also may induce aggravation of kyphotic change without severe pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease in the absence of recurrent severe back pain. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 44 patients who were diagnosed with a first osteoporotic compression fracture at a single level at the thoracolumbar junction. All patients were taken vertebroplasty. Possible risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease, such as sex, age, bone mineral density, body mass index, level of compression fracture, volume of injected cement, cement leakage into disc space, and air clefts within fractured vertebrae, were analyzed. Results Gradual vertebral height decrease of augmented vertebrae occurred commonly when more than 4 cc of injected cement was used, and when air clefts within fractured vertebrae were seen on admission. In addition, the sagittal Cobb angle more commonly increased during the follow-up period in such cases. Conclusion Injection of more than 4 cc of cement during vertebroplasty and air cleft within fractured vertebrae on admission induced gradual vertebral height decrease in augmented vertebrae. Thus, longer follow-up will be needed in such cases, even when patients do not complain of recurrent severe back pain. PMID:27182497

  3. An Efficient Augmented Lagrangian Method for Statistical X-Ray CT Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaojiao; Niu, Shanzhou; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Feng, Qianjin; Yu, Gaohang; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) under the penalized weighted least-squares criteria can yield significant gains over conventional analytical reconstruction from the noisy measurement. However, due to the nonlinear expression of the objective function, most exiting algorithms related to the SIR unavoidably suffer from heavy computation load and slow convergence rate, especially when an edge-preserving or sparsity-based penalty or regularization is incorporated. In this work, to address abovementioned issues of the general algorithms related to the SIR, we propose an adaptive nonmonotone alternating direction algorithm in the framework of augmented Lagrangian multiplier method, which is termed as “ALM-ANAD”. The algorithm effectively combines an alternating direction technique with an adaptive nonmonotone line search to minimize the augmented Lagrangian function at each iteration. To evaluate the present ALM-ANAD algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted by using digital and physical phantoms. Experimental results show that the present ALM-ANAD algorithm can achieve noticeable gains over the classical nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm and state-of-the-art split Bregman algorithm in terms of noise reduction, contrast-to-noise ratio, convergence rate, and universal quality index metrics. PMID:26495975

  4. Incidence and Risk Factors of Striae Distensae Following Breast Augmentation Surgery: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Denis Souto; Zanella, Rafaela Koehler; Doncatto, Leo Francisco; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    2014-01-01

    Background The significant increase in the popularity of breast augmentation surgeries has led to an increase in the number and types of complications; among these is the postoperative occurrence of Striae Distensae (SD). The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of SD and describing its occurrence in association with age, breast implant volume, history of SD, history of pregnancies and breastfeeding, body mass index (BMI), changes in postoperative weight, smoking habits, and use of oral contraceptives. Methods A cohort study was conducted and the patient data from a specific social group that underwent augmentation mammaplasty with silicone breast implants in a private clinic was analyzed. Results 563 patients entered the cohort, while 538 completed the study. The SD incidence was 7.06%. The risk was almost the double at 22–28 years of age and triple in women of 21 years of age or less. The women who did not use oral contraceptives were 2.59 times more likely of developing SD. A higher incidence of SD was observed among those with normal or low BMI values, smokers, and in those who had implants larger than 300 ml. Conclusions Young age, larger implant volumes, smoking, and normal or low BMI values were the risk factors responsible for the development of SD; while using oral contraceptives was found to be a protective factor. PMID:24844230

  5. Precise determination of the refractive index of suspended particles: light transmission as a function of refractive index mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClymer, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Many fluids appear white because refractive index differences lead to multiple scattering. In this paper, we use safe, low-cost commercial index matching fluids to quantitatively study light transmission as a function of index mismatch, reduce multiple scattering to allow single scattering probes, and to precisely determine the index of refraction of suspended material. The transmission profile is compared with Rayleigh-Gans and Mie theory predictions. The procedure is accessible as a student laboratory project, while providing advantages over other standard methods of measuring the refractive index of an unknown nanoparticle, making it valuable to researchers.

  6. Incidence of Augmentation in Primary Restless Legs Syndrome Patients May Not Be That High: Evidence From A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guang Jian; Wu, Lang; Wang, Song Lin; Ding, Li; Xu, Li Li; Wang, Yun Fu; Chang, Li Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Augmentation is a common complication of primary restless legs syndrome (RLS) during treatment; however, its incidence rate remains unclear. The aim of this study is investigate the rate of augmentation during RLS treatment. We searched 6 databases, including PubMed, OVID, Embase, Wiley citations, Web of Science research platform (including SciELO Citation Index, Medline, KCI Korean Journal Database, the Web of Science™ Core Collection), and the Cochrane library, and screened the reference lists of the included trials and recently published reviews. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that reported augmentation events during RLS treatment. Primary RLS patients older than 18 years. No restrictions regarding intervention types were applied. Three investigators independently extracted and pooled the data to analyze the augmentation rate of the total sample and of patient subgroups with different interventions, treatment durations and drug regimens and different geographic origins. Fixed-effects or random-effects model was used for pooled analysis. A total of 60 studies involving 11,543 participants suggested an overall augmentation rate of 5.6% (95% confidence intervals (CI), 4.0–7.7). The augmentation incidence was 6.1% (95% CI, 4.1–9.1) for long-term treatment and 3.3% (95% CI, 1.4–7.3) for short-term treatment. In addition, 27.1% (95% CI, 12.3–49.5) of the levodopa-treated patients, 6.0% (95% CI, 4.1–8.8) of the patients treated with dopamine agonists, and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2–3.3) of the patients taking pregabalin or gabapentin developed augmentation. Augmentation occurred in 7.2% (95% CI, 5.0–10.3) of the patients taking immediate-release drugs and in 1.7% (95% CI, 0.6–5.0) of the patients taking transdermal application. The main limitations are that the augmentation rates were not evaluated according to drug dosage, gender, and age and symptom severity. Approximately 5 to 6 in 100 RLS patients developed augmentation

  7. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice.

    PubMed

    Miville-Godbout, Edith; Bourque, Mélanie; Morissette, Marc; Al-Sweidi, Sara; Smith, Tara; Mochizuki, Asuka; Senanayake, Vijitha; Jayasinghe, Dushmanthi; Wang, Li; Goodenowe, Dayan; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg). On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg). MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg) prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD. PMID:26959819

  8. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miville-Godbout, Edith; Bourque, Mélanie; Morissette, Marc; Al-Sweidi, Sara; Smith, Tara; Mochizuki, Asuka; Senanayake, Vijitha; Jayasinghe, Dushmanthi; Wang, Li; Goodenowe, Dayan; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg). On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg). MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg) prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD. PMID:26959819

  9. Augmented reality application utility for aviation maintenance work instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourcho, John Bryan

    Current aviation maintenance work instructions do not display information effectively enough to prevent costly errors and safety concerns. Aircraft are complex assemblies of highly interrelated components that confound troubleshooting and can make the maintenance procedure difficult (Drury & Gramopadhye, 2001). The sophisticated nature of aircraft maintenance necessitates a revolutionized training intervention for aviation maintenance technicians (United States General Accounting Office, 2003). Quite simply, the paper based job task cards fall short of offering rapid access to technical data and the system or component visualization necessary for working on complex integrated aircraft systems. Possible solutions to this problem include upgraded standards for paper based task cards and the use of integrated 3D product definition used on various mobile platforms (Ropp, Thomas, Lee, Broyles, Lewin, Andreychek, & Nicol, 2013). Previous studies have shown that incorporation of 3D graphics in work instructions allow the user to more efficiently and accurately interpret maintenance information (Jackson & Batstone, 2008). For aircraft maintenance workers, the use of mobile 3D model-based task cards could make current paper task card standards obsolete with their ability to deliver relevant, synchronized information to and from the hangar. Unlike previous versions of 3D model-based definition task cards and paper task cards, which are currently used in the maintenance industry, 3D model based definition task cards have the potential to be more mobile and accessible. Utilizing augmented reality applications on mobile devices to seamlessly deliver 3D product definition on mobile devices could increase the efficiency, accuracy, and reduce the mental workload for technicians when performing maintenance tasks (Macchiarella, 2004). This proposal will serve as a literary review of the aviation maintenance industry, the spatial ability of maintenance technicians, and benefits of

  10. Polyacrylamide gel breast augmentation: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Nathaniel E; Bassiri-Tehrani, Brian; Chhor, Chloe; Singer, Cory; Hernandez, Osvaldo; Moy, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) injection remains an uncommon method of breast augmentation. Providers must recognize the clinical and radiological manifestations to optimize management. The clinical and radiological findings of PAAG injection may mimic malignancy and silicone breast augmentation. We described two patients with prior PAAG breast augmentation with physical exam and imaging findings concerning for malignancy. We reviewed the literature on PAAG breast augmentation and compare PAAG to silicone breast augmentation. The management of such patients is discussed. PMID:25670236

  11. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  12. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted. PMID:27046620

  13. Thrust Augmentation Measurements for a Pulse Detonation Engine Driven Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Santoro, Robert J.; Shehadeh, R.; Saretto, S.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Thrust augmentation results of an ongoing study of pulse detonation engine driven ejectors are presented and discussed. The experiments were conducted using a pulse detonation engine (PDE) setup with various ejector configurations. The PDE used in these experiments utilizes ethylene (C2H4) as the fuel, and an equi-molar mixture of oxygen and nitrogen as the oxidizer at an equivalence ratio of one. High fidelity thrust measurements were made using an integrated spring damper system. The baseline thrust of the PDE engine was first measured and agrees with experimental and modeling results found in the literature. Thrust augmentation measurements were then made for constant diameter ejectors. The parameter space for the study included ejector length, PDE tube exit to ejector tube inlet overlap distance, and straight versus rounded ejector inlets. The relationship between the thrust augmentation results and various physical phenomena is described. To further understand the flow dynamics, shadow graph images of the exiting shock wave front from the PDE were also made. For the studied parameter space, the results showed a maximum augmentation of 40%. Further increase in augmentation is possible if the geometry of the ejector is tailored, a topic currently studied by numerous groups in the field.

  14. Vertical bone augmentation procedures: basics and techniques in dental implantology.

    PubMed

    Draenert, F G; Huetzen, D; Neff, A; Mueller, W E G

    2014-05-01

    An appropriate bony situation is essential for dental implant placement and bony support of soft tissues (pink esthetic). Loss of teeth often results in complex horizontal and vertical alveolar ridge defects. They demand advanced bone augmentation techniques for reconstruction. We present the different techniques and materials used in complex bone augmentation. Clinical cases show the application of the methods in the clinical setting. We present current techniques and materials used in complex bone augmentations. Clinical cases show the application of the methods in the clinical setting. Applied techniques include stabilized-guided bone regeneration (GBR), autologous local block augmentation, modified techniques such as Gellrich shell technique including piezosurgery, pelvic bone blocks, complex materials such as graft-derived bone blocks and their unique handling problems. Successful basic principles are reduction of cortical bone healing due to long remodeling time and possible late loss; extended application of materials with interconnecting porous system and particulate material resulting in fast healing analogous to cancellous bone; mechanical stabilization of the augmentation to allow bony healing in vertical defect situations. GBR and autologous bone blocks with minimal cortical thickness and a high volume of particulated material are most favorable techniques. PMID:23733418

  15. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  16. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  17. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  18. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  19. REDUCING ENERGY AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS BY ELECTROSTATIC AUGMENTATION OF A PULSE-JET FABRIC FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In work performed several years ago by EPA's research lab then known as Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (EPA/AEERL), small-scale testing and modeling of electrostatically stimulated fabric filtration (ESFF) has indicated than substantial performance benefits could ...

  20. An application of active surface heating for augmenting lift and reducing drag of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible 2-D nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip of the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.