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Sample records for reducing aflatoxin exposure

  1. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Workman, Alan D; Carey, Ryan M; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Kennedy, David W; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6-12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  2. Aspergillus flavus diversity on crops and in the environment can be exploited to reduce aflatoxin exposure and improve health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans and animals are exposed to aflatoxins, toxic carcinogenic fungal metabolites, through consumption of contaminated food and feed. Aspergillus flavus, the primary causal agent of crop aflatoxin contamination, is composed of phenotypically and genotypically diverse vegetative compatibility group...

  3. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed. PMID:23606045

  4. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Xue, Kathy S.; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A.; Elmore, Sarah E.; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the GI tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer-344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25 or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1/kg b.w. and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1-albumin, urinary AF (AFM1), and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 hr. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging between 45 to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67 and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1-albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  5. Phytochemicals reduce aflatoxin-induced toxicity in chicken embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasicitus, which frequently contaminate chicken feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased chicken performance and reduced egg producti...

  6. Influences of Climate on Aflatoxin Producing Fungi and Aflatoxin Contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are potent mycotoxins that cause developmental and immune system suppression, cancer, and death. As a result of regulations intended to reduce human exposure, crop contamination with aflatoxins causes significant economic loss for producers, marketers, and processors of diverse susceptibl...

  7. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Hansen, Jeff A.; Kim, Yong B.; De Souza, Anna L. P.; Middleton, Tina F.; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth. PMID:23867763

  8. Aflatoxin

    MedlinePlus

    ... aflatoxin may be found in the following foods: Peanuts and peanut butter Tree nuts such as pecans Corn Wheat ... the FDA tests foods that may contain aflatoxin. Peanuts and peanut butter are some of the most ...

  9. Aflatoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin biosynthesis is a quite complex process involving many intermediates and enzymes, regulated at multi-levels. Scientists from biochemist...

  10. Current Understanding on Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Future Perspective in Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiujiang

    2012-01-01

    Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination. PMID:23202305

  11. Risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in infants less than 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Magoha, Happy; Kimanya, Martin; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Infants less than 6 months of age receiving foods other than breast milk are at a high risk of exposure to mycotoxins. We surveyed food intake and estimated the risk of exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin mycotoxins for infants less than 6 months of age in Northern Tanzania. A total of 143 infants were progressively recruited and three follow-up visits were made at 1, 3 and 5 months of age. A 24-h dietary recall technique was used to estimate flour intake of infants who had been introduced to maize foods. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in the flours were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Exposure to aflatoxins or fumonisins was estimated using the deterministic approach. By the age of 3 months, 98 infants had started taking food; 67 of them, maize flours at levels ranging from 0.57 to 37.50 g per infant per day (average 8 g per infant per day). Fifty-eight per cent of 67 maize flour samples contained detectable aflatoxins (range 0.33-69.47 μg kg(-1) ; median 6 μg kg(-1) ) and 31% contained detectable fumonisins (range 48-1224 μg kg(-1) ; median 124 μg kg(-1) ). For infants who consumed contaminated flours, aflatoxin exposure ranged from 0.14 to 120 ng kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day (all above the health concern level of 0.017 ng kg(-1) BW per day as recommended by the European Food Safety Agency) and fumonisin exposure ranged from 0.005 to 0.88 μg kg(-1) BW per day. Insignificant association was observed between exposure to fumonisins or aflatoxins and stunting or underweight. Reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize and dietary diversification can prevent infants and the public, in general, from exposure to the toxins. PMID:25422038

  12. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community

  13. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd.-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community

  14. Aflatoxin

    MedlinePlus

    Although aflatoxins are known to cause cancer in animals, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows them at low levels in nuts, seeds, and legumes because they are considered "unavoidable ...

  15. Modification of immune function through exposure to dietary aflatoxin in Gambian children.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Paul C; Moore, Sophie E; Hall, Andrew J; Prentice, Andrew M; Wild, Christopher P

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxins are immunotoxins that frequently contaminate staple foods in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in high exposure throughout life. Impaired infant immune system development may be a key predictor of mortality from infectious disease. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of dietary aflatoxin exposure on a number of immune parameters in Gambian children. A cohort of 472 Gambian children 6-9 years of age was recruited. Serum aflatoxin-albumin (AF-alb) adducts were analyzed to provide a measure of exposure. Immune parameters included secretory IgA (sIgA) in saliva, cell-mediated immunity (CMI), determined using the CMI multitest where test antigens are applied to the skin, and antibody responses to both rabies and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines. Birth weight, current anthropometry, and micronutrient status were also recorded. AF-alb adducts were detected in 93% of the children (geometric mean level 22.3 pg/mg; range 5-456 pg/mg). AF-alb level was strongly influenced by month of sampling. In a multivariable analysis, sIgA was markedly lower in children with detectable AF-alb compared with those with nondetectable levels [50.4 micro g/mg protein (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.0-52.8) and 70.2 micro g/mg protein (95% CI 61.1-79.2), respectively; p < 0.0001]. Antibody response to one of four pneumococcal serotypes, but not rabies vaccine, was weakly associated with higher levels of AF-alb. There was no association between CMI responses to test antigens and AF-alb. These data confirm that children in rural Gambia are frequently exposed to high levels of aflatoxin. The study provides evidence that sIgA in saliva may be reduced because of dietary levels of aflatoxin exposure. Given the high burden of infection-related mortality in West Africa, further investigation of the immune effects of aflatoxin exposure in children is merited. PMID:12573908

  16. Aflatoxin levels and exposure assessment of Spanish infant cereals.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Raquel; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) are immunosuppressant, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic agents with a widespread presence in foodstuffs. Since human exposure to aflatoxins occurs primarily by contaminated food intake, and given the greater susceptibility of infants to their adverse effects, the quantification of these mycotoxins in infant food based on cereals is of relevance. Aflatoxin levels were determined in 91 Spanish infant cereals classified in terms of non- and organically produced and several types from 10 different manufacturers, using a extraction procedure followed by inmunoaffinity column clean-up step and HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD) and post-column derivatisation (Kobra Cell system). Daily aflatoxin intake was also assessed. Preliminary analysis showed a valuable incidence of detected infant cereal samples at an upper concentration level than the detection limit for total aflatoxin (66%), corresponding to a 46, 40, 34 and 11% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. Lower aflatoxin values (median, Q1, Q3) in conventional infant cereal (n = 74, AFB1: aflatoxin levels. Gluten-free and cereals with dehydrated fruits had an intermediate level and milk- or honey-based cereals and multi-cereals contained the lowest levels. With the exception of the non-compliant cocoa-based organic formulation

  17. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in utero is associated with DNA methylation in white blood cells of infants in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Castelino, Jovita; Silver, Matt J; Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Durand, Geoffroy; Calvez-Kelm, Florence Le; Prentice, Andrew M; Wild, Christopher P; Moore, Sophie E; Hennig, Branwen J; Herceg, Zdenko; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to environmental toxins during embryonic development may lead to epigenetic changes that influence disease risk in later life. Aflatoxin is a contaminant of staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa, is a known human liver carcinogen and has been associated with stunting in infants. Methods: We have measured aflatoxin exposure in 115 pregnant women in The Gambia and examined the DNA methylation status of white blood cells from their infants at 2–8 months old (mean 3.6 ± 0.9). Aflatoxin exposure in women was assessed using an ELISA method to measure aflatoxin albumin (AF-alb) adducts in plasma taken at 1–16 weeks of pregnancy. Genome-wide DNA methylation of infant white blood cells was measured using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450beadchip. Results: AF-alb levels ranged from 3.9 to 458.4 pg/mg albumin. We found that aflatoxin exposure in the mothers was associated to DNA methylation in their infants for 71 CpG sites (false discovery rate < 0.05), with an average effect size of 1.7% change in methylation. Aflatoxin-associated differential methylation was observed in growth factor genes such as FGF12 and IGF1, and immune-related genes such as CCL28, TLR2 and TGFBI. Moreover, one aflatoxin-associated methylation region (corresponding to the miR-4520b locus) was identified. Conclusions: This study shows that maternal exposure to aflatoxin during the early stages of pregnancy is associated with differential DNA methylation patterns of infants, including in genes related to growth and immune function. This reinforces the need for interventions to reduce aflatoxin exposure, especially during critical periods of fetal and infant development. PMID:25855716

  18. Aflatoxins in hazelnuts and dried figs: Occurrence and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent

    2016-11-15

    A total of 300 samples of hazelnuts and dried fig were analysed for the incidence of any aflatoxins (AFs). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was used to quantify the amounts of AFs. The limit of quantification varied from 0.21 to 0.30μgkg(-1). No AFs were detected in shells of the hazelnuts, while six raw hazelnut kernel samples (12%) and five roasted hazelnut kernel samples (8.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.09 to 11.3μgkg(-1) and from 0.17 to 11.2μgkg(-1), respectively. Sixteen dried fig samples (12.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.1 to 28.2μgkg(-1) and a mean value of 3.8μgkg(-1). Three hazelnuts and six dried fig samples exceeded the European maximum limits (MLs) of 5 and 2μgkg(-1) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), respectively. The contribution of hazelnuts to AFs exposure is higher than that of dried figs. PMID:27283601

  19. Aflatoxin exposure is inversely associated with IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels in vitro and in Kenyan school children

    PubMed Central

    Castelino, Jovita M.; Routledge, Michael N.; Wilson, Shona; Dunne, David W.; Mwatha, Joseph K.; Gachuhi, Kimani; Wild, Christopher P.; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-01-01

    Scope This study explores the relationship between aflatoxin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and its potential effect on child growth. Methods and results 199 Kenyan schoolchildren were studied for aflatoxin-albumin adduct (AF-alb), IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels using ELISA. AF-alb was inversely associated with IGF1 and IGFBP3 (P<0.05). Both IGF1 and IGFBP3 were significantly associated with child height and weight (P<0.01). Children in the highest tertile of AF-alb exposure (> 198.5 pg/mg) were shorter than children in the lowest tertile (< 74.5 pg/mg), after adjusting for confounders (P=0.043). Path analysis suggested that IGF1 levels explained ~16% of the impact of aflatoxin exposure on child height (P=0.052). To further investigate this putative mechanistic pathway, HHL-16 liver cells were treated with AFB1 (0.5, 5 and 20 μg/ml for 24–48 hours). IGF1 and IGFBP3 gene expression measured by qPCR and protein in culture media showed a significant down-regulation of IGF genes and reduced IGF protein levels. Conclusion Aflatoxin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in IGF gene and protein expression in vitro. IGF protein levels were also lower in children with the highest levels of AFB-alb adducts. The data suggest that aflatoxin-induced changes in IGF protein levels could contribute to growth impairment where aflatoxin exposure is high. PMID:24668606

  20. The U.S. breeding program to develop peanut with drought tolerance and reduced aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination costs the U.S. peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) industry over $20 million annually. The development of peanut cultivars with resistance to preharvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) would reduce these costs. Screening techniques have been developed that can measure genetic differ...

  1. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B1 exposure in rats and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is often a co-contaminant with aflatoxin (AF) in grains and may enhance AF’s carcinogenicity by acting as a cancer promoter. An oral dose of calcium montmorillonite clay (i.e. NovaSil, NS) was able to reduce aflatoxin exposure in a Ghanaian population at risk. In vitro...

  2. Occurrence and exposure assessment of aflatoxins in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Cano-Sancho, G; Sanchis, V; Marín, S; Ramos, A J

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the exposure of Catalonian (Spain) population to AFs. Thus, two sub-objectives were considered: (1) to assess the occurrence of AFs in food marketed in Catalonia, and (2) to assess the consumption of those foods susceptible to AFs contamination by Catalonian population. AFs were analysed in a total of 603 samples considering special commodities as free-gluten, ethnic or baby foods. Analytical method consisted of an extraction and clean-up of aflatoxins step using immunoaffinity columns, and determination by HPLC with post-column photochemical derivatization and fluorescence detection. Food dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, administered to 1387 individuals by trained interviewers. Contamination and consumption raw datasets were combined by means of a direct method and a stochastic method, building the pseudo-parametric bootstrap confidence intervals of the main outputs. Margins of exposure (MoE) and cancer incidence were estimated for the different collectives. The highest percentages of positive samples were found in red pepper, pistachios and peanuts. Considering our results, the most exposed group was the celiac sufferer collective followed by the adolescents; however health concern should not be expected in the population groups. PMID:23046858

  3. Occupational Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in a Portuguese Poultry Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luísa; Almeida, Ana; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and is the most potent hepatocarcinogen known in mammals and has been classified by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as Group 1 carcinogen. Although dietary exposure to AFB1 has been extensively documented, there are still few studies dedicated to the problem of occupational exposure. Considering recent findings regarding AFB1 occupational exposure in poultry production, it was considered relevant to clarify if there is also exposure in poultry slaughterhouses. Occupational exposure assessment to AFB1 was done with a biomarker of internal dose that measures AFB1 in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty workers from a slaughterhouse were enrolled in this study. A control group (n = 30) was also considered in order to know AFB1 background levels for Portuguese population. Fourteen workers (47.0%) showed detectable levels of AFB1 with values from 1.06 to 4.03ng ml(-1), with a mean value of 1.73ng ml(-1). No AFB1 was detected in serum of individuals used as controls. Despite uncertainties regarding the exposure route that is contributing more to exposure (inhalation or dermal) is possible to state that exposure to AFB1 is occurring in the slaughterhouse studied. It seems that reducing AFB1 contamination in poultry production can have a positive result in this occupational setting. PMID:26568583

  4. Chronic aflatoxin exposure in children living in Bhaktapur, Nepal: Extension of the MAL-ED study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are toxic chemicals produced by molds. The molds that produce these two toxic chemicals are commonly found in corn and their co-occurence in corn has been demonstrated in many surveys. This study was conducted because it is suspected that exposure to eith...

  5. Aflatoxin-Exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a Novel System for the Generation of Aflatoxin Synthesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gummadidala, Phani M.; Chen, Yung Pin; Beauchesne, Kevin R.; Miller, Kristen P.; Mitra, Chandrani; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Moeller, Peter D. R.; Ferry, John L.; Decho, Alan W.; Chanda, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here, we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle-, and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, laeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism. PMID:27375561

  6. Aflatoxin-Exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a Novel System for the Generation of Aflatoxin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gummadidala, Phani M; Chen, Yung Pin; Beauchesne, Kevin R; Miller, Kristen P; Mitra, Chandrani; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Moeller, Peter D R; Ferry, John L; Decho, Alan W; Chanda, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here, we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle-, and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, laeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio's silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism. PMID:27375561

  7. NON-TOXIGENIC ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS ISOLATES FOR REDUCING AFLATOXIN IN MISSISSIPPI DELTA CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for two non-toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus CT3 and K49 isolated from the Mississippi Delta to reduce aflatoxin contamination of corn was assessed in a field study. These two isolates exhibited comparable growth and aggressiveness as the toxigenic A. flavus isolate F3W4. The...

  8. Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, DD; Zaini, F

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual’s health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran’s position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  9. Aflatoxins in iran: nature, hazards and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, Dd; Zaini, F

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual's health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran's position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  10. Aflatoxin Exposure and Viral Hepatitis in the Etiology of Liver Cirrhosis in The Gambia, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuniholm, Mark H.; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A.; Mendy, Maimuna; Akano, Aliu O.; Sam, Omar; Hall, Andrew J.; Whittle, Hilton; Bah, Ebrima; Goedert, James J.; Hainaut, Pierre; Kirk, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cirrhosis of the liver is thought to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, but few controlled studies on the etiology of cirrhosis have been conducted in this region. Objectives We aimed to elucidate the association between environmental and infectious exposures and cirrhosis in The Gambia. Methods Ninety-seven individuals were diagnosed with cirrhosis using a validated ultrasound scoring system and were compared with 397 controls. Participants reported demographic and food frequency information. Blood samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody, HCV RNA, and the aflatoxin-associated 249ser TP53 mutation. Results HBsAg seropositivity was associated with a significant increase in risk of cirrhosis [odds ratio (OR) = 8.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.4–14.7] as was the presence of HBeAg (OR = 10.3; 95% CI, 2.0–53.9) and HCV infection (OR = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2–9.5). We present novel data that exposure to aflatoxin, as assessed both by high lifetime groundnut (peanut) intake and by the presence of the 249ser TP53 mutation in plasma, is associated with a significant increase in the risk for cirrhosis (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.7 and OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5–9.6, respectively). Additionally, aflatoxin and hepatitis B virus exposure appeared to interact synergistically to substantially increase the risk of cirrhosis, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that the spectrum of morbidity associated with aflatoxin exposure could include cirrhosis. PMID:19057710

  11. Exposure of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 from Mother's Breast Milk in Ilam, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Farajollah; Abdi, Soghra; Davodian, Elaham; Haghani, Karimeh; Bakhtiyari, Salar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Aflatoxins as a highly toxic group of mycotoxins are present in the environment and foodstuff. These have been reported to cause serious health problems in humans. Since aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is excreted into breast milk, investigating the exposure of infants to AFM1 is of special concern. Methods In the present study, breast milk samples were collected from 85 lactating mothers in Ilam province, Iran, and the levels of AFM1 were analyzed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based technique. AFM1 was detected in breast milk of all lactating women. The mean contamination level was 5.91 ± 2.031 ng/L, ranging from 2 ng/L to 10 ng/L. Results Multiple regression analysis indicated no significant associations of consumption of milk and dairy products, meat, fish, legumes, grain products, fruits, and nuts with the concentration of AFM1 in breast milk. Furthermore, no significant association was observed between AFM1 concentration and anthropometric data of infants. Conclusion In western parts of Iran, lactating mothers and their infants could be at risk of aflatoxin B1 and AFM1 exposure, respectively. Therefore, in Iran, the evaluation of AFM1 in human breast milk as a biomarker for postnatal exposure of infants to this carcinogen requires more attention in different regions and various seasons. PMID:26929911

  12. The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Paul Craig

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate dietary staples in tropical regions; chronic high levels of exposure are common for many of the poorest populations. Observations in animals indicate that growth and/or food utilization are adversely affected by aflatoxins. This review highlights the development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in utero and continues in early infancy as weaning foods are introduced. Using aflatoxin-albumin exposure biomarkers, five major studies clearly demonstrate strong dose response relationships between exposure in utero and/or early infancy and growth retardation, identified by reduced birth weight and/or low HAZ and WAZ scores. The epidemiological studies include cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, though aflatoxin reduction intervention studies are now required to further support these data and guide sustainable options to reduce the burden of exposure. The use of aflatoxin exposure biomarkers was essential in understanding the observational data reviewed and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure. Given that an estimated 4.5 billion individuals live in regions at risk of dietary contamination the public health concern cannot be over stated. PMID:24455429

  13. Infants’ Exposure to Aflatoxin M1 from Mother’s Breast Milk in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasian, SA; Maghsood, AH

    2012-01-01

    Background The occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk, especially breast milk, is a valuable biomarker for exposure determination to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In the present study, the risk of exposure to AFM1 in infants fed breast milk was investigated. Methods: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the analysis of AFM1 in breast milk samples from 132 lactating mothers referred to four urban Mothers and Babies Care Unit of Hamadan, western Iran. Results: AFM1 was detected in eight samples (6.06%) at mean concentration of 9.45 ng/L. The minimum and maximum of concentration was 7.1 to 10.8 ng/L, respectively. Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by USA and European Union (25 ng/kg) however, 25% had a level of AFM1 above the allowable level of Australia and Switzerland legal limit (10 ng/L). Conclusions: Lactating mothers and infants in western parts of Iran could be at risk for AFB1 and AFM1 exposure, respectively. Considering all this information, the investigation of AFM1 in lactating mothers as a biomarker for post-natal exposure of infants to this carcinogen deserves further studies in various seasons and different parts of Iran. PMID:23113156

  14. Ecology of Aspergillus flavus, Regulation of Aflatoxin Production and Management Strategies to Reduce Aflatoxin Contamination of Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contamination of corn (maize) by fungi and the accumulation of mycotoxins are a serious agricultural problem for human and animal health. One particular devastating group of mycotoxins, called aflatoxins, has been intensely studied since the 1960s. Studies of Aspergillus flavus, the agricultura...

  15. Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Cotty, Peter J; Jaime-Garcia, Ramon

    2007-10-20

    Aflatoxins are potent mycotoxins that cause developmental and immune system suppression, cancer, and death. As a result of regulations intended to reduce human exposure, crop contamination with aflatoxins causes significant economic loss for producers, marketers, and processors of diverse susceptible crops. Aflatoxin contamination occurs when specific fungi in the genus Aspergillus infect crops. Many industries frequently affected by aflatoxin contamination know from experience and anecdote that fluctuations in climate impact the extent of contamination. Climate influences contamination, in part, by direct effects on the causative fungi. As climate shifts, so do the complex communities of aflatoxin-producing fungi. This includes changes in the quantity of aflatoxin-producers in the environment and alterations to fungal community structure. Fluctuations in climate also influence predisposition of hosts to contamination by altering crop development and by affecting insects that create wounds on which aflatoxin-producers proliferate. Aflatoxin contamination is prevalent both in warm humid climates and in irrigated hot deserts. In temperate regions, contamination may be severe during drought. The contamination process is frequently broken down into two phases with the first phase occurring on the developing crop and the second phase affecting the crop after maturation. Rain and temperature influence the phases differently with dry, hot conditions favoring the first and warm, wet conditions favoring the second. Contamination varies with climate both temporally and spatially. Geostatistics and multiple regression analyses have shed light on influences of weather on contamination. Geostatistical analyses have been used to identify recurrent contamination patterns and to match these with environmental variables. In the process environmental conditions with the greatest impact on contamination are identified. Likewise, multiple regression analyses allow ranking of

  16. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  17. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  18. Co-exposure to fumonisins and aflatoxins in maize-based foods in central america: guatemala as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a human liver carcinogen having a genotoxic mechanism of action. The ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a liver cancer promoter in rats and trout. Both mycotoxins are found in maize so that the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, especially in Centra...

  19. Association between aflatoxin B1 occupational airway exposure and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hao; Mo, Xianwei; Yang, Yang; He, Ke; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the airway exposure of sugar and papermaking factory workers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and to explore the potential association between AFB1 airway exposure and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a case-control study. Dust samples were collected from the sugarcane bagasse warehouse, and presser and paper production workshops. Blood samples were collected from 181 workshop employees and 203 controls who worked outside the workshop. AFB1 albumin adducts were detected using a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To explore the association between AFB1 airway exposure and the risk of HCC, the medical records of 68 HCC patients who worked in a sugar and papermaking factory between January 1994 and December 2013 were analyzed. A questionnaire was used to collect information from 150 healthy controls who worked for the same company and lived near the factory. AFB1 was detected in the dust samples, but could not be detected in any of the rice samples. An analysis of serum samples revealed serum AFB1 albumin adducts in 102 (56.35 %) of the study participants. However, in the control group, only 12 (5.9 %) individuals had detectable levels of AFB1 albumin adducts. Those with airway exposure to Aspergillus flavus-contaminated dust had an elevated risk of HCC compared to those without exposure (odds ratio, 5.24; 95 % confidence interval, 2.77-9.88; P = 0.00). The findings of this study indicate that occupational AFB1 airway exposure might be associated with the risk of AFB1-related HCC among the population that was used in this study. Intervention programs aimed at reducing exposure to inhalational AFB1 are needed urgently. Additional suitably designed, multicenter, prospective studies using large samples are needed to further confirm the results. PMID:24961349

  20. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in late gestation alters protein kinase C and apoptotic protein expression in murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Tan, Wenjuan; Wang, C C; Leung, Lai K

    2016-06-01

    Mycotoxins are chemicals with diverse toxicities that are produced by fungi. Aflatoxin B1 is commonly found in plant food, and is generally regarded as one of the most toxic mycotoxins. In the present study, pregnant ICR mice were given p.o. daily doses of aflatoxin B1 at 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5mg/kg for 4days (from E13.5 to E16.5). Compared to the control group, time of delivery was shortened and low birth weight was induced in mice treated with 0.5 and 5mg aflatoxin B1/kg, respectively. Placental tissue isolated from pregnant mice at E17.5 showed that the mRNA expression of crh was increased in aflatoxin-treated groups. This upregulation might signify premature delivery. Further analysis indicated that Pkc proteins were activated and Bcl-2 was reduced in the placental tissue of the aflatoxin-treated groups. Reduction of the anti-apoptotic proteins, on the other hand, might affect the morphorgenesis and maintenance of the placenta. PMID:26968497

  1. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade. PMID:26501322

  2. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B₁ in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China's Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009-2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R²) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B₁ content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B₁ contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B₁ intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777-0.790 and 0.343-0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2-6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China's current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B₁ contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers' safety and boost international trade. PMID:26501322

  3. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  4. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in Thailand by consumption of brown and color rice.

    PubMed

    Panrapee, Iamtaweejaroen; Phakpoom, Kooprasertying; Thanapoom, Maneeboon; Nampeung, Anukul; Warapa, Mahakarnchanakul

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) intake of the Thai population through consumption of contaminated brown and color rice. A total of 240 rice samples from two harvesting periods were collected in June/July 2012 (period I) and in December 2012/January 2013 (period II) and analyzed for AFB1 by HPLC with fluorescence detection (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.093 ng/g). Exposure assessment was based on AFB1 levels in rice and food intake data for rice according to Thai National Consumption. Frequency and levels of AFB1 were higher in period I (59%, aflatoxin of 20 μg kg(-1), but 12 out of 240 rice samples exceeded the European Union maximum level for AFB1 of 2 μg kg(-1). The data showed that the quality and safety of Thai rice largely comply with the requirement for both exports and domestic consumption. According to the Thai National Consumption data, the estimated AFB1 intake via rice consumption in period I and period II was 0.80 and 0.12 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. The potential risk for cancer, based on the recommendation of the JECFA, was estimated to be 0.011 person/year/100,000 people at a mean consumption. Although the risk via consumption of Thai rice seems to be low, the maximum levels of AFB1 in this staple food suggest that careful monitoring and surveillance of AFB1 contamination in rice is essential to ensure the safety of rice. PMID:26686516

  5. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Vallauri, Dario; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N2, 0.1% O2 and 1% O2, 21% O2), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB1 of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B1 was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G1. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics. PMID:27128939

  6. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Vallauri, Dario; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N₂, 0.1% O₂ and 1% O₂, 21% O₂), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB₁ of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B₁ and G₁ were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B₂ and G₂, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B₁ was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G₁. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics. PMID:27128939

  7. Biological Controls for Aflatoxin Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin exposure is frequent and widespread in most African countries where the key staples, maize and groundnut, are particularly vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin-producing fungi are ubiquitous in Africa where they occupy soil and colonize diverse organic matter while producing sp...

  8. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates reduce aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisin in corn (maize)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus strains vary widely in their production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). A total of 500 Aspergillus strains isolated from a variety of sources showed 16.4% were negative for both aflatoxin and CPA, 41.3% were positive for both mycotoxins, 13.0% were positive only fo...

  9. Development of a gene - based marker correlated to reduced aflatoxin accumulation in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic and toxic metabolites produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus during infection of maize (Zea mays L.) and other seed oil crops. Climatic conditions in the southeastern United States favor A. flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination in maize, making it a major issue...

  10. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  11. Assessment of aflatoxin exposure using serum and urinary biomarkers in São Paulo, Brazil: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jager, Alessandra V; Tonin, Fernando G; Baptista, Gabriela Z; Souto, Pollyana C M C; Oliveira, Carlos A F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the human exposure of individuals from Pirassununga, Brazil, to dietary aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1) by determination of serum AFB1-lysine and urinary aflatoxin biomarkers (AFM1 and AFB1-N(7)-guanine). The participants were recruited among employees from a Campus of the University of São Paulo, which provided food samples from their homes, as well as serum and urine samples four times every three months, from June 2011 until March 2012. The probable daily intake (PDI) of aflatoxin was estimated by using the results from analysis of food products collected by the time of samples collection, and data from a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire. Analyses of AFB1 and AFM1 in food samples were conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Biomarkers in serum and urine were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. AFB1 and AFM1 were detected in 38 samples of cereals (28%, N=136) and 31 milk products (36%, N=86), respectively. AFB1-lysine and AFB1-N(7)-guanine and were not detected in serum or urine samples, respectively. However, AFM1 was found in 74 urine samples (65%), at mean levels in the 4 sampling times ranging from 0.37±0.23 to 1.70±2.88pg/mg creatinine. The mean PDI varied among different sampling times, ranging from 0.09±0.09 to 1.35±5.98ng/kg body weight/day. A modest though significant correlation (r=0.45; p=0.03; N=23) was found for the first time in Brazil between the AFM1 concentration in urine and the PDI for total aflatoxins (AFB1+AFM1) in sampling 1 (June 2011). Urinary AFM1 was confirmed as very sensitive for monitoring the human exposure to dietary aflatoxin. Further studies using serum and urinary biomarkers are needed to estimate the aflatoxin exposure of populations in higher risk areas in Brazil. PMID:26740158

  12. Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José A.; Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Reyes-Ramírez, Patricia; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Sumaya-Martínez, Teresa; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are produced mainly by the mycelial structure of filamentous fungi, or more specifically, molds. These secondary metabolites are synthesized during the end of the exponential growth phase and appear to have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. The contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem for the adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The toxic effect of the ingestion of mycotoxins in humans and animals depends on a number of factors including intake levels, duration of exposure, toxin species, mechanisms of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms. In general, the consumption of contaminated food and feed with mycotoxin induces to neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect in humans and/or animals. The most significant mycotoxins in terms of public health and agronomic perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, fumonisins, patulin, and the ergot alkaloids. Due to the detrimental effects of these mycotoxins, several strategies have been developed in order to reduce the risk of exposure. These include the degradation, destruction, inactivation or removal of mycotoxins through chemical, physical and biological methods. However, the results obtained with these methods have not been optimal, because they may change the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of food. Another alternative strategy to prevent or reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins is by applying antimutagenic agents. These substances act according to several extra- or intracellular mechanisms, their main goal being to avoid the interaction of mycotoxins with DNA; as a consequence of their action, these agents would inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the main strategies used to control AFB1 and ochratoxin A and contains an analysis of some antigenotoxic substances that reduce the

  13. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus as potential biocontrol agents to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanuts harvested in Northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alaniz Zanon, María Silvina; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofía Noemí

    2016-08-16

    Biological control is one of the most promising strategies for preventing aflatoxin contamination in peanuts at field stage. A population of 46 native Aspergillus flavus nonaflatoxin producers were analysed based on phenotypic, physiological and genetic characteristics. Thirty-three isolates were characterized as L strain morphotype, 3 isolates as S strain morphotype, and 10 isolates did not produce sclerotia. Only 11 of 46 non-aflatoxigenic isolates did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. The vegetative compatibility group (VCG) diversity index for the population was 0.37. For field trials we selected the non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus AR27, AR100G and AFCHG2 strains. The efficacy of single and mixed inocula as potential biocontrol agents in Northern Argentina was evaluated through a 2-year study (2014-2015). During the 2014 peanut growing season, most of the treatments reduced the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains in both soil and peanut kernel samples, and no aflatoxin was detected in kernels. During the 2015 growing season, there was a reduction of aflatoxigenic strains in kernel samples from the plots treated with the potential biocontrol agents. Reductions of aflatoxin contamination between 78.36% and 89.55% were observed in treated plots in comparison with the un-inoculated control plots. This study provides the first data on aflatoxin biocontrol based on competitive exclusion in the peanut growing region of Northern Argentina, and proposes bioproducts with potential use as biocontrol agents. PMID:27220011

  14. The microRNAs as potential biomarkers for predicting the onset of aflatoxin exposure in human beings: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Tenorio-Arvide, María G.; Deng, Youjun; Montiel-González, José M. R.; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Flores-Márquez, Ana R.; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The identification of aflatoxins as human carcinogens has stimulated extensive research efforts, which continue to the present, to assess potential health hazards resulting from contamination of the human food supply and to minimize exposure. The use of biomarkers that are mechanistically supported by toxicological studies will be important tools for identifying stages in the progression of development of the health effects of environmental agents. miRNAs are small non-coding mRNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. Also, they are molecular markers of cellular responses to various chemical agents. Growing evidence has demonstrated that environmental chemicals can induce changes in miRNA expression. miRNAs are good biomarkers because they are well defined, chemically uniform, restricted to a manageable number of species, and stable in cells and in the circulation. miRNAs have been used as serological markers of HCC and other tumors. The expression patterns of different miRNAs can distinguish among HCC-hepatitis viruses related, HCC cirrhosis-derivate, and HCC unrelated to either of them. The main objective of this review is to find unreported miRNAs in HCC related to other causes, so that they can be used as specific molecular biomarkers in populations exposed to aflatoxins and as early markers of exposure, damage/presence of HCC. Until today specific miRNAs as markers for aflatoxins-exposure and their reliability are currently lacking. Based on their elucidated mechanisms of action, potential miRNAs that could serve as possible markers of HCC by exposure to aflatoxins are miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-122, miR-148, miR-155, miR-192, miR-214, miR-221, miR-429, and miR-500. Future validation for all of these miRNAs will be needed to assess their prognostic significance and confirm their relationship with the induction of HCC due to aflatoxin exposure. PMID:24672518

  15. The microRNAs as potential biomarkers for predicting the onset of aflatoxin exposure in human beings: a review.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Tenorio-Arvide, María G; Deng, Youjun; Montiel-González, José M R; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Flores-Márquez, Ana R; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The identification of aflatoxins as human carcinogens has stimulated extensive research efforts, which continue to the present, to assess potential health hazards resulting from contamination of the human food supply and to minimize exposure. The use of biomarkers that are mechanistically supported by toxicological studies will be important tools for identifying stages in the progression of development of the health effects of environmental agents. miRNAs are small non-coding mRNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. Also, they are molecular markers of cellular responses to various chemical agents. Growing evidence has demonstrated that environmental chemicals can induce changes in miRNA expression. miRNAs are good biomarkers because they are well defined, chemically uniform, restricted to a manageable number of species, and stable in cells and in the circulation. miRNAs have been used as serological markers of HCC and other tumors. The expression patterns of different miRNAs can distinguish among HCC-hepatitis viruses related, HCC cirrhosis-derivate, and HCC unrelated to either of them. The main objective of this review is to find unreported miRNAs in HCC related to other causes, so that they can be used as specific molecular biomarkers in populations exposed to aflatoxins and as early markers of exposure, damage/presence of HCC. Until today specific miRNAs as markers for aflatoxins-exposure and their reliability are currently lacking. Based on their elucidated mechanisms of action, potential miRNAs that could serve as possible markers of HCC by exposure to aflatoxins are miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-122, miR-148, miR-155, miR-192, miR-214, miR-221, miR-429, and miR-500. Future validation for all of these miRNAs will be needed to assess their prognostic significance and confirm their relationship with the induction of HCC due to aflatoxin exposure. PMID:24672518

  16. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B₁ in Starter Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B₁ in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B₁ residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver's ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of aflatoxin exposure in two cohorts in south-western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Su; Nkurunziza, Peter; Muwanika, Richard; Qian, Guoqing; Tang, Lili; Song, Xiao; Xue, Kathy; Nkwata, Allan; Ssempebwa, John; Lutalo, Tom; Asiki, Gershim; Serwadda, David; Seeley, Janet; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Nalugoda, Fred; Newton, Robert; William, Jonathan H; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are a group of mycotoxins. AF exposure causes acute and chronic adverse health effects such as aflatoxicosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in human populations, especially in the developing world. In this study, AF exposure was evaluated using archived serum samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative participants from two cohort studies in south-western Uganda. AFB1-lysine (AFB-Lys) adduct levels were determined via HPLC fluorescence in a total of 713 serum samples from the General Population Cohort (GPC), covering eight time periods between 1989 and 2010. Overall, 90% (642/713) of the samples were positive for AFB-Lys and the median level was 1.58 pg mg(-1) albumin (range = 0.40-168 pg mg(-1) albumin). AFB-Lys adduct levels were also measured in a total of 374 serum samples from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), across four time periods between 1999 and 2003. The averaged detection rate was 92.5% (346/374) and the median level was 1.18 pg mg(-1) albumin (range = 0.40-122.5 pg mg(-1) albumin). In the GPC study there were no statistically significant differences between demographic parameters, such as age, sex and level of education, and levels of serum AFB-Lys adduct. In the RCCS study, longitudinal analysis using generalised estimating equations revealed significant differences between the adduct levels and residential areas (p = 0.05) and occupations (p = 0.02). This study indicates that AF exposure in people in two populations in south-western Uganda is persistent and has not significantly changed over time. Data from one study, but not the other, indicated that agriculture workers and rural area residents had more AF exposure than those non-agricultural workers and non-rural area residents. These results suggest the need for further study of AF-induced human adverse health effects, especially the predominant diseases in the region. PMID:26208708

  18. Chromosome instability in human hepatocellular carcinoma depends on p53 status and aflatoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Pascal; Marchio, Agnès; Battiston, Carlo; Cordina, Emilie; Russo, Alessandro; Terris, Benoît; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Turlin, Bruno; Tang, Zhao-You; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Dejean, Anne

    2008-05-31

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous disease triggered by various risk factors and frequently characterized by chromosome instability. This instability is considered to be caused primarily by Hepatitis B virus (HBV), although aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent fungal mutagen is also suspected to influence chromosomal repair. We studied 90 HCCs from Italy, the country with the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Europe, 81 samples from France and 52 specimens from Shanghai, in a region where intake of AFB1 via the diet is known to be high. All 223 tumours were characterized for 15 different genomic targets, including allelic loss at 13 chromosome arms and mutations of beta-catenin and p53 genes. Despite disparity in risk-factor distribution, Italian and French cases did not significantly differ for 14 of the 15 targets tested. beta-Catenin and p53 displayed moderate and similar mutation rates (18-29% of cases) in European series. By contrast, tumours from Shanghai were significantly different, with a lower mutation rate for beta-catenin (4% vs. 26%, p<0.0003) and a higher mutation rate for p53 (48% vs. 22%, p<0.0001) when compared with tumours of European origin. The Arg249Ser mutation, hallmark of exposure to AFB1, represented half of the changes in p53 in Shanghai. Furthermore, when stratified for the presence of HBV or p53 mutations, chromosome instability was always higher in Chinese than in European patients. This difference was particularly strong in p53-wildtype tumours (fractional allelic loss, 29.4% vs. 16.7%, p<0.0001). We suggest that AFB1-associated mutagenesis represents a plausible cause for the higher chromosome instability observed in Chinese HCCs, when compared with European primary liver carcinomas. PMID:18467159

  19. Effects of maternal exposure to aflatoxin B1 during pregnancy on fertility output of dams and developmental, behavioral and reproductive consequences in female offspring using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Akhila, B; Pratap Reddy, K; Girish, B P; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2016-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse "programing" effects on the offspring. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the potent reproductive toxicants and currently detected in both milk and tissues. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal exposure to graded doses of aflatoxin B1 on the pregnancy outcomes of dams and postnatal developments of the female offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intramuscularly with vehicle or aflatoxin B1 (10, 20, 50 or 100 μg/kg body weight/day) on days 12-19 of gestation. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and survival. The female offspring were examined through a battery of tests in order to evaluate their developmental, behavioral and reproductive end points. All animals were born alive. The litter size of the aflatoxin B1 treated rats was comparable to the controls. However, the birth weight of the pups in the experimental group was significantly lower when compared to controls. Significant and persistent lags in cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity and ascending wire mesh, with a delay in elapsed time for vaginal opening were detected in the female progeny exposed to aflatoxin B1 during embryonic development. The locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in experimental females were significantly decreased than that of controls. Embryonic exposure to aflatoxin B1 also resulted in prolonged stress response, irregular estrus and suppressed fertility output in the progeny at their adulthood. These results indicate that in utero exposure to aflatoxin B1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats and caused irregular estrus that was accompanied by suppressed fertility output. PMID:26956420

  20. A Prospective Study of Growth and Biomarkers of Exposure to Aflatoxin and Fumonisin during Early Childhood in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Shirima, Candida P.; Kimanya, Martin E.; Routledge, Michael N.; Srey, Chou; Kinabo, Joyce L.; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Wild, Christopher P.; Tu, Yu-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin and fumonisin are toxic food contaminants. Knowledge about effects of their exposure and coexposure on child growth is inadequate. Objective: We investigated the association between child growth and aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in Tanzania. Methods: A total of 166 children were recruited at 6–14 months of age and studied at recruitment, and at the 6th and 12th month following recruitment. Blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed for plasma aflatoxin–albumin adducts (AF-alb) using ELISA, and urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1) using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and growth index z-scores were computed. Results: AF-alb geometric mean concentrations (95% CIs) were 4.7 (3.9, 5.6), 12.9 (9.9, 16.7), and 23.5 (19.9, 27.7) pg/mg albumin at recruitment, 6 months, and 12 months from recruitment, respectively. At these respective sampling times, geometric mean UFB1 concentrations (95% CI) were 313.9 (257.4, 382.9), 167.3 (135.4, 206.7), and 569.5 (464.5, 698.2) pg/mL urine, and the prevalence of stunted children was 44%, 55%, and 56%, respectively. UFB1 concentrations at recruitment were negatively associated with length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) at 6 months (p = 0.016) and at 12 months from recruitment (p = 0.014). The mean UFB1 of the three sampling times (at recruitment and at 6 and 12 months from recruitment) in each child was negatively associated with LAZ (p < 0.001) and length velocity (p = 0.004) at 12 months from recruitment. The negative association between AF-alb and child growth did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Exposure to fumonisin alone or coexposure with aflatoxins may contribute to child growth impairment. Citation: Shirima CP, Kimanya ME, Routledge MN, Srey C, Kinabo JL, Humpf HU, Wild CP, Tu YK, Gong YY. 2015. A prospective study of growth and biomarkers of exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin during early childhood in Tanzania. Environ Health

  1. Efficacy of probiotic bacteria in reducing Aspergillus parasiticus aflatoxin production and hepatic cytotoxicity in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus parasiticus produces highly hepatocarcinogenic aflatoxins (AF) in grains, which are used as poultry feed ingredients. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to serious economic losses stemming from poor performance and diminished egg hatchabi...

  2. Identification of atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates to reduce aflatoxin contamination of maize in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute aflatoxin poisonings (aflatoxicosis) in Kenya have led to the deaths of several hundred people between 2004 and 2006. Etiology of contamination in the outbreak districts (Eastern Province) identified an unusual fungal community structure dominated by the highly toxigenic Aspergillus flavus S s...

  3. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: Effects of sample size and accetp/reject limit on reducing risk of misclassifying lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 100 countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely among regulating countries, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC) began work in 2004 to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for aflatoxin in alm...

  4. Human health implications from co-exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize-based foods in Latin America: Guatemala as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-occurence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in maize has been demonstrated in many surveys. Combined-exposure to FB1 and AFB1 was of concern to the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives because of the known genotoxicity of AFB1 and the ability of FB1 to induce regenerative...

  5. Determination of Environmental Exposure to Microcystin and Aflatoxin as a Risk for Renal Function Based on 5493 Rural People in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Liu, Wenyi; Zeng, Hui; Pu, Chaowen; Zhang, Renping; Qiu, Zhiqun; Chen, Ji-An; Wang, Lingqiao; Tan, Yao; Zheng, Chuanfen; Yang, Xiaohong; Tian, Yingqiao; Huang, Yujing; Luo, Jiaohua; Luo, Yang; Feng, Xiaobin; Xiao, Guosheng; Feng, Lei; Li, Heng; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Changyou; Wang, Jia; Zhou, Ziyuan; Wei, Tiantian; Zuo, Yonglin; Wu, Liping; He, Lixiong; Guo, Yaoping; Shu, Weiqun

    2016-05-17

    Although the nephrotoxicity of microcystin and aflatoxin has been observed in animal and clinical cases, few population data are available. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Southwest China to investigate the association of renal function indicators (RFIs, including BUN, SCr, and eGFR) with exposure to microcystin and aflatoxin in 5493 members of the general population. Microcystin-LR levels in water and aquatic products and aflatoxin B1 levels in daily foods were measured by ELISA, and individual estimated daily intake (EDI) was assessed on the basis of the measurement and questionnaire. We found that participants with abnormal RFIs had a much higher mean level of microcystin-LR EDI than those with normal RFIs and that there was a significant increasing trend for abnormal rates and odds ratios of RFIs with increasing microcystin-LR EDI quartiles (p for trend = 0.000). Compared with the lowest quartile of microcystin-LR exposure, those in the highest quartile had significantly higher risks of abnormal BUN (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.34-2.42), SCr (OR = 4.58, 95% CI = 2.92-7.21), and eGFR (OR = 4.41, 95% CI = 2.55-7.63), respectively, but no higher risk was found in subjects with higher AFB1 exposure. After adjustment for confounding factors, risk associations with microcystin-LR persisted. Consequently, our results suggest that microcystin, rather than aflatoxin, might be one important risk of renal-function impairment. PMID:27071036

  6. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M₁ through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Angélica T; Takabayashi-Yamashita, Cássia R; Ono, Elisabete Y S; Bagatin, Artur K; Rigobello, Fabiana F; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Y; Itano, Eiko N

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM₁ through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM₁ levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM₁ was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM₁ levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM₁ for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM₁ was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. PMID:27589799

  7. Effect of processing on aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Park, Douglas L

    2002-01-01

    Naturally occurring toxicant contamination of foods with mycotoxins is unavoidable and unpredictable and poses a unique challenge to food safety. Aflatoxins are toxic mold metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Primary commodities susceptible to aflatoxin contamination include corn, peanuts and cottonseed and animal-derived foods such as milk when the animal is fed aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Risks associated with aflatoxin-contaminated foods can be reduced through the use of specific processing and decontamination procedures. Factors, which influence the effectiveness of a specific process or procedure, include the chemical stability of the mycotoxin(s), nature of the process, type and interaction with the food/feed matrix and interaction with multiple mycotoxins if present. Practical decontamination procedures must: 1) inactivate, destroy, or remove the toxin, 2) not produce or leave toxic residues in the food/feed, 3) retain the nutritive value of the food/feed, 4) not alter the acceptability or the technological properties of the product, and, if possible, 5) destroy fungal spores. For aflatoxins, multiple processing and/or decontamination schemes have been successful in reducing aflatoxin concentrations to acceptable levels. Physical cleaning and separation procedures, where the mold-damaged kernel/seed/nut is removed from the intact commodity, can result in 40-80% reduction in aflatoxins levels. Processes such as dry and wet milling result in the distribution of aflatoxin residues into less utilized fractions of the commodity. The ammoniation of aflatoxin-contaminated commodities has altered the concentrations as well as toxic and carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin by greater than 99%. Nonbiological materials such as selected anticaking agents covalently bind aflatoxins from aqueous suspensions, diminish aflatoxin uptake by animals, prevent acute aflatoxicosis, and decrease aflatoxin residues in milk. Ultimately, the best processing

  8. New approaches to reduce radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with a long-term risk of health effects, including cancer. Radiation exposure to the U.S. population from cardiac imaging has increased markedly over the past three decades. Initiatives to reduce radiation exposure have focused on the tenets of appropriate study "justification" and "optimization" of imaging protocols. This article reviews ways to optimally reduce radiation dose across the spectrum of cardiac imaging. PMID:25962784

  9. Challenging Role of Dietary Aflatoxin B1 Exposure and Hepatitis B Infection on Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kucukcakan, Basak; Hayrulai-Musliu, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFT) are poisonous substances which are classified in Group 1 carcinogenic agents to humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). AFT can occur naturally in food commodities (maize, corn, rice) as a result of fungal contamination in hot and humid environments. In the food, toxin contamination can remain during manufacturing and long after fungi have stopped being biologically active. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most dominant and potent agent from all AFT. In developing countries, high exposure to AFB1 can cause chronic toxicity and usually increases the incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). However, in these regions hepatitis B is the most common risk factor for HCC cases. Many researches were aimed to enlighten the mechanism and the role of two etiological agents on risk of HCC, but the obtained data was conflicting with each other. It was uncertain that the indicators/biomarkers might be the contribution of the carcinogenic status of the patient; and, the biomarker samples from the subject may only reflect the recent effects of the toxin exposure after consumption of AFB1 contaminated commodities. The studies were facing with the errors of methods which were un-fit to enlighten the possible interaction between Hepatitis B and AFB1 on contribution to HCC. It was pivotal to understand the effect of each risk factor in order to prevent and improve public health in poor and undeveloped regions. Although some of the studies evaluate AFB1 alone as a considerable factor on HCC risk, according to this review it was concluded vice versa. This study was aimed to clarify the main etiological agent of HCC where AFB1 and HBV are endangering public health. In additionally, the purpose was to enlighten the possible synergistic effect between these two factors among HCC pathogenesis. Hence forth, appropriate and right applications could be conducted in undeveloped countries in order to protect public health. PMID:27275251

  10. Evaluation of maize germplasm for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize grain threatens human food and animal feed safety. Breeding for reduced grain aflatoxin accumulation is one of the best strategies presently available to lower grain aflatoxin accumulation. Previously identified sources of germplasm with reduced grain aflatoxin acc...

  11. Potential natural exposure of Mississippi sandhill cranes to aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Couvillion, C E; Jackson, J R; Ingram, R P; Bennett, L W; McCoy, C P

    1991-10-01

    A survey was conducted to determine if carcinogenic mycotoxins were present in foods consumed by Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla). Samples of field corn (Zea mays) (n = 111) and chufa (Cyperus esculentus) (n = 20), obtained in 1987, 1988 and 1989 on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) and nearby private lands were analyzed for aflatoxin B1(AB1), ochratoxin A and sterigmatocystin using thin layer chromatography. Chufa samples were negative for all three mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 was found in corn at concentrations from 5 to 5,000 ppb; the other mycotoxins were not found in corn. Contaminated corn was found in 72% of all corn fields, but the proportion of contaminated fields was 57 to 100% for the 3-yr period. Contamination with AB1 was greatest in corn obtained from the ground post-harvest. Overall, 32% of corn samples from the ground had levels greater than or equal to 200 ppb with a mean of 427 ppb (range = 5 to 5,000 ppb) in contaminated fields. In 1989, mean AB1 concentration in corn on the ground was 5 to 1138 ppb for individual fields. The concentration of AB1 was less than or equal to 200 ppb in all corn samples from upright stalks. The study demonstrated that AB1 is available to sandhill cranes and at levels that may pose a serious health threat. PMID:1758031

  12. Transformation of adsorbed aflatoxin B1 on smectite at elevated temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins cause liver damage and suppress immunity. Smectites can be used to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins through adsorption. To further reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins and to eliminate the treatments of aflatoxin-loaded smectites, degrading the adsorbed aflatoxin to nontoxic or less ...

  13. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  14. Reducing human exposure to Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2013-08-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of Mycobacterium avium pulmonary disease and the challenges of treating patients with M. avium infection, consideration of measures to reduce exposure is warranted. Because M. avium inhabits water and soil, humans are surrounded by that opportunistic pathogen. Because infection has been linked to the presence of M. avium in household plumbing, increasing hot water temperature, reducing aerosol (mist) exposures in bathrooms and showers, and installing filters that prevent the passage of mycobacteria will likely reduce M. avium exposure. Granular activated carbon (charcoal) filters support the growth of M. avium and should be avoided. When gardening, avoid the inhalation of soil dusts by using a mask or wetting the soil because peat-rich potting soils have high numbers of mycobacteria. PMID:23952861

  15. Exposure of newborns to aflatoxin M1 and B1 from mothers' breast milk in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, A; Sabuncuoğlu, S Atasayar; Girgin, G; Sahin, G; Yiğit, S; Yurdakök, M; Tekinalp, G

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are important risks for human health due to their widespread presence in foods and environment. However, contamination risk of breast milk with different pollutants including AFs is high in today's life conditions. Since breast milk is a major nutrient for infants, feeding of infants with safe milk is essential. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the levels of AF M(1) and B(1) in breast milk samples collected from 75 mothers in Ankara, Turkey. AF M(1) and B(1) levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector following an extraction procedure. The limit of detection was found to be 5 ng/l. Both AFs were detected in diverse degrees in all breast milk samples: The level of AF M(1) were in the ranges of 60.90-299.99 ng/l, and AF B(1) were in the ranges of 94.50-4123.80 ng/l. These results pointed out the exposure of mothers and neonates to AF M(1) and B(1), and the necessity of further research on mycotoxin contamination both in foods and biological fluids as well as protection strategies. PMID:19850097

  16. Boric acid: a potential chemoprotective agent against aflatoxin b1 toxicity in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent pulmonary and hepatic carcinogen. Since the eradication of Aflatoxin B1 contamination in agricultural products has been difficult, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boric acid is the major component of industry and its antioxidant role has recently been reported. The present study assessed, for the first time, the effectiveness of boric acid following exposure to Aflatoxin B1 on human whole blood cultures. The biochemical characterizations of glutathione and some enzymes have been carried out in erythrocytes. Alterations in malondialdehyde level were determined as an index of oxidative stress. The sister-chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests were performed to assess DNA damages in lymphocytes. Aflatoxin B1 treatment significantly reduced the activities of antioxidants by increasing malondialdehyde level (30.53 and 51.43%) of blood, whereas, the boric acid led to an increased resistance of DNA to oxidative damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in comparison with control values (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the support of boric acid was especially useful in Aflatoxin-toxicated blood. Thus the risk on tissue targeting of Aflatoxin B1 could be reduced ensuring early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:20431944

  17. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    PubMed

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  18. Comparison of interventions to reduce sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Dawn C; Black, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light is the leading behavioral cause of skin cancer. This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 interventions to reduce UV exposure in college students prior to an opportunity for high-intensity exposure. Participants of 1 college campus were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 interventions prior to their spring holiday spent in a warm, sunny location: (1) a community-based informational campaign, or (2) a combination of the campaign and a cognitive-behavioral small group intervention. Participants of a second college campus served as a comparison group. The cognitive-behavioral group exhibited increased knowledge, more positive attitudes toward UV protection, greater advancement through stages of change, and greater protective clothing use relative to the comparison or community-education groups. The informational campaign had little apparent impact in this study. PMID:19433378

  19. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B1 exposure in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, A.; Johnson, N.M.; Strey, A.; Taylor, J.F.; Marroquin-Cardona, A.; Mitchell, N.J.; Afriyie-Gyawu, E.; Ankrah, N.A.; Williams, J.H.; Wang, J.S.; Jolly, P.E.; Nachman, R.J.; Phillips, T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is often a co-contaminant with aflatoxin (AF) in grains and may enhance AF’s carcinogenicity by acting as a cancer promoter. Calcium montmorillonite (i.e. NovaSil, NS) is a possible dietary intervention to help decrease chronic aflatoxin exposure where populations are at risk. Previous studies show that an oral dose of NS clay was able to reduce AF exposure in a Ghanaian population. In vitro analyses from our laboratory indicated that FB1 (like aflatoxin) could also be sorbed onto the surfaces of NS. Hence, our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of NS clay to reduce urinary FB1 in a rodent model and then in a human population highly exposed to AF. In the rodent model, male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to either, FB1 control, FB1 + 2% NS or absolute control group. FB1 alone or with clay was given as a single dose by gavage. For the human trial, participants received NS (1.5 or 3 g day−1) or placebo (1.5 g day−1) for 3 months. Urines from weeks 8 and 10 were collected from the study participants for analysis. In rats, NS significantly reduced urinary FB1 biomarker by 20% in 24 h and 50% after 48 h compared to controls. In the humans, 56% of the urine samples analyzed (n = 186) had detectable levels of FB1. Median urinary FB1 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by > 90% in the high dose NS group (3 g day−1) compared to the placebo. This work indicates that our study participants in Ghana were exposed to FB1 (in addition to AFs) from the diet. Moreover, earlier studies have shown conclusively that NS reduces the bioavailability of AF and the findings from this study suggest that NS clay also reduces the bioavailability FB1. This is important since AF is a proven dietary risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans and FB1 is suspected to be a dietary risk factor for HCC and esophageal cancer in humans. PMID:22324939

  20. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Sarah E; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure. PMID:24311894

  1. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Sarah E.; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure. PMID:24311894

  2. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Maki, C R; Thomas, A D; Elmore, S E; Romoser, A A; Harvey, R B; Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Phillips, T D

    2016-02-01

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114±14d in milk and weighed 533±56kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of a calcium montmorillonite clay, NovaSil Plus (NSP; BASF Corp., Ludwigshaven, Germany), for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were housed in a freestall barn, fed once a day and milked twice a day. The experiment consisted of five 14-d periods: d 1 through 7 were considered for data collection, and d 8 through 14 were considered a wash-out phase. In each period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: (1) control (CON), consisting of a basal total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose NSP diet (NSP-1%), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP; (3) aflatoxin diet (AFD), consisting of the TMR plus AF challenge; (4) low-dose NSP with AF (NSP-0.5%+AFD), composed of TMR plus 115 g of NSP and AF challenge; and (5) high-dose NSP with AF (NSP-1%+AFD), consisting of TMR plus 230 g of NSP and AF challenge. The AF challenge consisted of top dressing a daily dose of 100 µg/kg estimated dry matter intake (DMI); similarly, NSP was fed at 1.0 or 0.5% of estimated DMI. Milk yield and DMI were similar across treatments averaging 21.1±1.33 kg/d and 19.7±0.56 kg/d, respectively. Concentration of milk fat, protein, and lactose were similar across treatments with averages of 4.91±0.20%, 3.85±0.10%, and 4.70±0.06%, respectively. Concentration of vitamin A averaged 0.28±0.03 µg/mL and riboflavin concentration averaged 1.57±0.13 µg/mL across treatments. The concentration of minerals in milk were similar for all treatments. Cows fed CON and NSP-1% yielded the lowest concentration of AFM1 in milk with 0.03 and 0.01±0.06 µg/L. Addition of NSP reduced milk AFM1 from 1.10±0.06 µg/L with the AF diet to 0.58 and 0.32±0.06 µg/L with the NSP-0.5%+AF and NSP-1%+AF diets, respectively. Excretion of AFM1 was reduced by NSP; mean values were 24.38, 11

  3. Evaluation of aflatoxin degradation by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic and hepatocarcinogenic compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during infection of corn (maize), peanuts, cotton seed, and tree nuts (Figure 1). To minimize exposure to aflatoxins the U.S. Food and Drug Administration enforces a 20 ppb limit of aflatox...

  4. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114 ± 14 d in milk and weighed 533 ± 56 kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of NovaSil Plus (NSP) for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were hous...

  5. Deciphering maize genetics and ecology to reduce insect damage and aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases, which reduce yield and impose health threats via mycotoxin contaminations, are critical impediments for maize production in the southern US states. To address this problem a combination of basic and applied research approaches are being conducted by the interdis...

  6. Developmental exposure of aflatoxin B1 reversibly affects hippocampal neurogenesis targeting late-stage neural progenitor cells through suppression of cholinergic signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Onda, Nobuhiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    To elucidate the maternal exposure effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and its metabolite aflatoxin M1, which is transferred into milk, on postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a diet containing AFB1 at 0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 ppm from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery on weaning. Offspring were maintained through postnatal day (PND) 77 without AFB1 exposure. Following exposure to 1.0 ppm AFB1, offspring showed no apparent systemic toxicity at weaning, whereas dams showed increased liver weight and DNA repair gene upregulation in the liver. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus of male PND 21 offspring, the number of doublecortin(+) progenitor cells were decreased, which was associated with decreased proliferative cell population in the subgranular zone at ≥ 0.3 ppm, although T-box brain 2(+) cells, tubulin beta III(+) cells, gamma-H2A histone family, member X(+) cells, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A(+) cells did not fluctuate in number. AFB1 exposure examined at 1.0 ppm also resulted in transcript downregulation of the cholinergic receptor subunit Chrna7 and dopaminergic receptor Drd2 in the dentate gyrus, although there was no change in transcript levels of DNA repair genes. In the hippocampal dentate hilus, interneurons expressing CHRNA7 or phosphorylated tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TRKB) decreased at ≥ 0.3 ppm. On PND 77, there were no changes in neurogenesis-related parameters. These results suggested that maternal AFB1 exposure reversibly affects hippocampal neurogenesis targeting type-3 progenitor cells. This mechanism likely involves suppression of cholinergic signals on hilar GABAergic interneurons and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TRKB signaling from granule cells. The no-observed-adverse-effect level for offspring neurogenesis was determined to be 0.1 ppm (7.1-13.6 mg/kg body weight/day). PMID:26260870

  7. Reduced Foodborne Toxin Exposure Is a Benefit of Improving Dietary Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia; Mitchell, Nicole J.; Male, Denis; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring foodborne toxins are common in subsistence diets of low-income human populations worldwide. Often, these populations rely on one or two staple foods for the bulk of their calories, making them more susceptible to chronic intake of certain toxins. Exposure to common foodborne toxins is associated with diverse conditions such as cancer, immunotoxicity, growth impairment, and neurological deficits. Interventions focused solely on reducing toxin levels have proven difficult to sustain. Using case studies of two foodborne toxins, aflatoxin and cassava cyanide, this article addresses the heightened risk of particular diseases from eating monotonous diets based in maize, groundnuts, and cassava: common in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We also discuss the potential role of increased dietary diversity in counteracting these diseases. Increased dietary diversity can reduce consumption of toxins and increase intake of nutrients that could counteract the toxicity of such chemicals. In Qidong, China, a population that previously consumed a monotonous maize-based diet and increased dietary diversity since the 1980s has experienced a dramatic reduction in liver cancer mortalities. That liver cancer decreased as dietary diversity increased is the catalyst for the hypothesis that dietary diversity could have a direct impact on reducing health effects of foodborne toxins. Future research, agricultural development, and food policy reforms should take into consideration the multifaceted benefits associated with improved dietary diversity. Collaborations between toxicologists, nutritionists, and policymakers are important to development of sustainable interventions to reduce foodborne toxin exposure and promote health through increased dietary diversity. PMID:25015663

  8. Reduced foodborne toxin exposure is a benefit of improving dietary diversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Mitchell, Nicole J; Male, Denis; Kensler, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Naturally occurring foodborne toxins are common in subsistence diets of low-income human populations worldwide. Often, these populations rely on one or two staple foods for the bulk of their calories, making them more susceptible to chronic intake of certain toxins. Exposure to common foodborne toxins is associated with diverse conditions such as cancer, immunotoxicity, growth impairment, and neurological deficits. Interventions focused solely on reducing toxin levels have proven difficult to sustain. Using case studies of two foodborne toxins, aflatoxin and cassava cyanide, this article addresses the heightened risk of particular diseases from eating monotonous diets based in maize, groundnuts, and cassava: common in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We also discuss the potential role of increased dietary diversity in counteracting these diseases. Increased dietary diversity can reduce consumption of toxins and increase intake of nutrients that could counteract the toxicity of such chemicals. In Qidong, China, a population that previously consumed a monotonous maize-based diet and increased dietary diversity since the 1980s has experienced a dramatic reduction in liver cancer mortalities. That liver cancer decreased as dietary diversity increased is the catalyst for the hypothesis that dietary diversity could have a direct impact on reducing health effects of foodborne toxins. Future research, agricultural development, and food policy reforms should take into consideration the multifaceted benefits associated with improved dietary diversity. Collaborations between toxicologists, nutritionists, and policymakers are important to development of sustainable interventions to reduce foodborne toxin exposure and promote health through increased dietary diversity. PMID:25015663

  9. Challenges facing the biological control strategy for eliminating aflatoxin contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition with Aspergillus flavus isolates incapable of aflatoxin production is currently the most widely used biocontrol method for reducing aflatoxin contamination of in maize and cottonseed where aflatoxin contamination is a persistent problem for human and animal health. The method involves sp...

  10. Comparison of Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination is generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin....

  11. Aflatoxin accumulation in a maize diallel cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimin...

  12. Estimated exposure to zearalenone, ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 through the consume of bakery products and pasta considering effects of food processing.

    PubMed

    Bol, Emilli Keller; Araujo, Letícia; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the processing effect on mycotoxins levels and the exposure to zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) through the consumption of pasta and bakery products. The higher reduction percentage of mycotoxins was observed in cake production (95, 90 and 70% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). Bread and biscuit showed similar reduction in mycotoxins levels (89 and 90% for ZEA; 80 and 85% for OTA; 36 and 40% for AFB1, respectively). The lower reduction in the levels of mycotoxins has been observed for pasta (75, 65 and 10% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). The consumption of these products could represent 12.6% of the maximum tolerable daily intake of ZEA and 30.5% of the tolerable weekly intake of OTA. The margin of exposure value related to the exposure to AFB1 was 24.6. The exposure to ZEA and OTA through the consumption of bakery products and pasta would not represent risk for consumer health, (although conjugated forms were not determined). However, the exposure to AFB1 represents a risk (even without considering the AFB1-conjugated forms). PMID:26807886

  13. Effect of almond processing on levels and distribution of aflatoxins in finished products and byproducts.

    PubMed

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2014-06-18

    The fate of aflatoxins during processing of contaminated almonds into nougat, pastries, and almond syrup was evaluated by testing the effect of each processing step (blanching, peeling, roasting, caramelization, cooking, and water infusion) on the distribution and levels of aflatoxins. Blanching and peeling did not reduce total aflatoxins that were distributed between peeled almonds (90-93%) and skins (7-10%). Roasting of peeled almonds reduced up to 50% of aflatoxins. Up to 70% reduction of aflatoxins was observed during preparation and cooking of almond nougat in caramelized sugar. Aflatoxins were substantially stable during preparation and cooking of almond pastries. The whole process of almond syrup preparation produced a marked increase of total aflatoxins (up to 270%) that were distributed between syrup (18-25%) and spent almonds (75-82%). The increase of total aflatoxins was probably due to the activation of almond enzymes during the infusion step that released free aflatoxins from masked aflatoxins. PMID:24873870

  14. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it’s too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world’s largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue. PMID:23539499

  15. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue. PMID:23539499

  16. Urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane, aflatoxin B1 exposure and hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Yang, Hwai-I; Ahsan, Habibul; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Wang, Li-Yu; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Santella, Regina M.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress and aflatoxin exposure on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a case–control study nested within a large community-based cohort was conducted in Taiwan. Baseline urine samples, collected from a total of 74 incident HCC cases and 290 matched controls, were used to determine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays the level of urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP), a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. These samples had been previously analyzed for urinary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolites and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Pearson partial correlation coefficient analysis showed that urinary AFB1 metabolites and 8-oxodG were significantly associated with the level of urinary 15-F2t-IsoP. After adjustment for potential confounding factors in a conditional logistic regression model, urinary 15-F2t-IsoP was significantly associated with risk of HCC [above versus below the mean odds ratio (OR) = 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30–4.93]. Moreover, when compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of 15-F2t-IsoP, there was a trend of increasing risk of HCC (Ptrend = 0.0008), with adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of 3.87 (1.32–11.38) and 6.27 (2.17–18.13) for the second and third tertile, respectively. In addition, the combination of urinary 15-F2t-IsoP above the mean and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection resulted in an OR of 19.01 (95% CI = 6.67–54.17) compared with those with low urinary 15-F2t-IsoP and without HBV infection. These results suggest that elevated levels of urinary 15-F2t-IsoP may be related to increasing level of aflatoxin exposure and are associated with an increased risk of HCC. PMID:18310087

  17. Temporary modulation of responses to common vaccines and serum cation status in broilers during exposure to low doses of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Yunus, A W; Böhm, J

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of low doses of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on responses to common vaccines and levels of serum cations in broilers. Male broilers at 7 d of age were fed control (no AFB1), a 75 µg of AFB1/kg (75 ppb of AFB1) diet, or a 750 µg of AFB1/kg (750 ppb of AFB1) diet. The 750 ppb of AFB1 diet resulted in a temporary increase in ELISA titers against Newcastle disease virus (P = 0.014) and infectious bursal disease virus (P = 0.005) during wk 2 and 4 of exposure, respectively, compared with the control diet. Conversely, lower (P ≤ 0.01) serum protein concentrations were found in broilers under the 750 ppb AFB1 diet during wk 2 and 4. During wk 2 of exposure, lower serum levels of potassium were noted in birds under both the 75 (P = 0.037) and 750 ppb (P = 0.000) AFB1 diets compared with those under the control diet. During wk 5, higher serum magnesium (P = 0.004), and sodium (P = 0.000) under the 750 ppb AFB1 diet were found compared with the control diet. These data indicate that low dietary levels of AFB1 can temporarily increase or decrease the studied serological variables in broilers depending upon the stage of exposure. PMID:24135593

  18. Sequential dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in F344 rats increases liver preneoplastic changes indicative of a synergistic interaction.

    PubMed

    Qian, Guoqing; Tang, Lili; Lin, Shuhan; Xue, Kathy S; Mitchell, Nicole J; Su, Jianjia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C; Riley, Ronald T; Phillips, Timothy D; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Dietary co-exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) and their interaction on hepatocellular carcinogenesis is of particular concern in toxicology and public health. In this study we evaluated the liver preneoplastic effects of single and sequential dietary exposure to AFB1 and FB1 in the F344 rat carcinogenesis model. Serum biochemical alterations, liver histopathological changes, and the formation of liver glutathione S transferase positive (GST-P+) foci were the major outcome parameters examined. Compared to the AFB1-only treatment, the FB1-only treatment induced less dysplasia, and more apoptosis and mitoses. Sequential AFB1 and FB1 treatment lead to increased numbers of dysplasia, apoptosis and foci of altered hepatocytes, as compared to either mycotoxin treatment alone. More importantly, sequential exposure to AFB1 and FB1 synergistically increased the numbers of liver GTP-P+ foci by approximately 7.3-and 12.9-fold and increased the mean sizes of GST-P+ foci by 6- and 7.5-fold, respectively, as compared to AFB1- or FB1-only treatment groups. In addition, liver ALT and AST levels were significantly increased after sequential treatment as compared to single treatment groups. The results demonstrate the interactive effect of dietary AFB1 and FB1 in inducing liver GST-P+ foci formation and provide information to model future intervention studies. PMID:27430420

  19. Behavioral technology for reducing occupational exposures to styrene.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, B L; Conard, R J; Dangel, R F; Fitch, H G; Smith, M J; Anger, W K

    1986-01-01

    We conducted a test of the usefulness of behavioral methods to control occupational health problems by reducing workers' exposures to toxic chemicals. Four plastics workers were trained in nine behaviors selected for potential to reduce their exposures to styrene, a common chemical with multiple toxic effects. Behavioral measures indicated that the workers quickly came to emit most of the behaviors. Measures of air samples indicated that large decreases in exposures to styrene accompanied the changes in behaviors for the three workers who had been selected because they most needed relief from their exposures and because they had opportunities to control their exposures by the ways they behaved. PMID:3710946

  20. Up-regulation of nucleotide excision repair in mouse lung and liver following chronic exposure to aflatoxin B{sub 1} and its dependence on p53 genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, Jeanne E.; Bondy, Genevieve S.; Mehta, Rekha; Massey, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is biotransformed in vivo into an epoxide metabolite that forms DNA adducts that may induce cancer if not repaired. p53 is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the regulation of global nucleotide excision repair (NER). Male heterozygous p53 knockout (B6.129-Trp53{sup tm1Brd}N5, Taconic) and wild-type mice were exposed to 0, 0.2 or 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} for 26 weeks. NER activity was assessed with an in vitro assay, using AFB{sub 1}-epoxide adducted plasmid DNA as a substrate. For wild-type mice, repair of AFB{sub 1}–N7-Gua adducts was 124% and 96% greater in lung extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm and 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} respectively, and 224% greater in liver extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm AFB{sub 1} (p < 0.05). In heterozygous p53 knockout mice, repair of AFB{sub 1}–N7-Gua was only 45% greater in lung extracts from mice exposed to 0.2 ppm AFB{sub 1} (p < 0.05), and no effect was observed in lung extracts from mice treated with 1.0 ppm AFB{sub 1} or in liver extracts from mice treated with either AFB{sub 1} concentration. p53 genotype did not affect basal levels of repair. AFB{sub 1} exposure did not alter repair of AFB{sub 1}-derived formamidopyrimidine adducts in lung or liver extracts of either mouse genotype nor did it affect XPA or XPB protein levels. In summary, chronic exposure to AFB{sub 1} increased NER activity in wild-type mice, and this response was diminished in heterozygous p53 knockout mice, indicating that loss of one allele of p53 limits the ability of NER to be up-regulated in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • Mice are chronically exposed to low doses of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}). • The effects of AFB{sub 1} and p53 status on nucleotide excision repair are investigated. • AFB{sub 1} increases nucleotide excision repair in wild type mouse lung and liver. • This increase is attenuated in p53 heterozygous mouse lung and liver. • Results portray the role of p53 in

  1. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  2. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  3. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  5. 46 CFR 197.545 - Program to reduce personal exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program to reduce personal exposure. 197.545 Section 197.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.545 Program to reduce personal exposure. (a)...

  6. CONTROL OF AFLATOXINS IN PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, methods to control aflatoxins in peanuts have focused on postharvest measures to reduce existing contamination. Recently, a biopesticide was developed and shown in plot studies to prevent much of the preharvest contamination that normally occurs under late-season drought conditions. Th...

  7. Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Various Dairy Products: Evidence for Biologically Reduced Amount of AFM1 in Yoghurt

    PubMed Central

    RAHIMIRAD, Amir; MAALEKINEJAD, Hassan; OSTADI, Araz; YEGANEH, Samal; FAHIMI, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a carcinogenic substance is found in milk and dairy products. The effect of season and type of dairy products on AFMi level in northern Iran was investigated in this study. Methods Three hundred samples (each season 75 samples) including raw and pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese, and cream samples were collected from three distinct milk producing farms. The samples were subjected to chemical and solid phase extractions and were analyzed by using HPLC technique. Recovery percentages, limit of detection and limit of quantification values were determined. Results Seventy percent and 98% were the minimum and maximum recoveries for cheese and raw milk, respectively and 0.021 and 0.063 ppb were the limit of detection and limit of quantification values for AFM1. We found that in autumn and winter the highest level (0.121 ppb) of AFM1 in cheese and cream samples and failed to detect any AFM1 in spring samples. Interestingly, our data showed that the yoghurt samples had the lowest level of AFM1 in all seasons. Conclusion There are significant differences between the AFM1 levels in dairy products in various seasons and also various types of products, suggesting spring and summer yoghurt samples as the safest products from AFM1 level point of view. PMID:25927044

  8. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of human breast milk in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Pourradi, Nasibeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the last decades there has been great attention paid to aflatoxins. They are highly toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic compounds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is formed in the liver and excreted into the breast milk. It is considered to cause certain hygienic risks for infant health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the AFM1 in the breast milk using AFM1 in milk as a biomarker for exposure to aflatoxin B1 and determine the level of AFM1 contamination in the lactating mothers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 80 lactating women randomly selected from two urban health centers. Mother's milk samples and information on food intake were collected from the participants using structured food-frequency questionnaire. Breast milk samples were tested for AFM1 by a competitive ELISA technique. Results: Our findings showed that only one sample was contaminated with AFM1 with concentrations of 6.8 ng/L. However, the AFM1 level in this sample was lower than the maximum tolerable limit (25 ng/L) accepted by the European Communities and Codex Alimentarius. Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the acceptable level, the presence of AFM1 in only one of them confirms the need for developing strategies to reduce exposure to aflatoxin in foods and to carry out biological monitoring of aflatoxins as a food quality control measure routinely. PMID:24524032

  9. Simple methods to reduce patient exposure during scoliosis radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.F.; Thomas, A.W.; Thompson, W.E.; Wollerton, M.A.; Rachlin, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposure to the breasts of adolescent females can be reduced significantly through the use of one or all of the following methods: fast, rare-earth screen-film combinations; specially designed compensating filters; and breast shielding. The importance of exposure reduction during scoliosis radiography as well as further details on the above described methods are discussed. In addition, the early results of a Center for Devices and Radiological Health study, which recorded exposure and technique data for scoliosis radiography, is presented.

  10. Improved intensifying screen reduces X-ray exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    X-ray intensifying screen may make possible radiographic procedures where detection speed and X-ray tube power have been the limiting factors. Device will reduce total population exposure to harmful radiation in the United States.

  11. Identifying maize germplasm with resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of maize, Zea mays L., grain with aflatoxin, a toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, reduces its value and marketability. Growing hybrids with resistance is generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. Identifying maiz...

  12. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S.

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg−1 body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis’ homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  13. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  14. Phlomis mauritanica extracts reduce the xanthine oxidase activity, scavenge the superoxide anions, and inhibit the aflatoxin B1-, sodium azide-, and 4-nitrophenyldiamine-induced mutagenicity in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Limem, Ilef; Bouhlel, Ines; Bouchemi, Meriem; Kilani, Soumaya; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben-Sghaier, Mohamed; Skandrani, Ines; Behouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-06-01

    Four extracts were prepared from the leaves of Phlomis mauritanica: lyophilized infusion, total oligomer flavonoids, methanol, and ethyl acetate extracts. The antimutagenic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of the mutagenic effects of direct-acting mutagens such as sodium azide and 4-nitrophenylenediamine and indirect-acting mutagens like aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using the Ames assay. The four extracts prepared from P. mauritanica strongly inhibit the mutagenicity induced by AFB1 in both Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98 assay systems. Lyophilized infusion and methanol extracts at the dose of 250 microg per plate reduced AFB1 mutagenicity by 93% and 91%, respectively, in S. typhymurium strain TA 100. We examined also the antioxidant effect of these extracts by the enzymatic xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. Result indicated that total oligomer flavonoids and ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase activity. In contrast, lyophilized infusion, total oligomer flavonoids, and methanol extracts exhibited a high degree of superoxide anion scavenging. Our findings emphasize the potential of P. mauritanica extracts to prevent mutations and oxidant effects. Furthermore, the results presented here could be an additional argument to support the use of this species as a medicinal and dietary plant. PMID:20406134

  15. Ear Rot, Aflatoxin Accumulation, and Fungal Biomass in Maize after Inoculation with Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin, a toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link:Fries, occurs naturally in maize (Zea mays L.). Aflatoxin is a potent human carcinogen and is toxic to livestock, pets, and wildlife. When contaminated with aflatoxin, the value of maize grain is markedly reduced. Eight germplasm l...

  16. Exposure to violence reduces empathetic responses to other's pain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuyan; Zheng, Li; Wang, Hongyi; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Qianfeng; Dienes, Zoltan; Yang, Zhiliang

    2013-07-01

    Past researches showed that empathy for pain not only triggers a resonance mechanism between other and self, but also is modulated by contextual factors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study demonstrated that short-term media violence exposure reduced both pain ratings and also the activation of anterior insula and anterior mid-cingulate cortex to other's pain. Thus, violence exposure modulated empathic responses to other's pain based on a physiological desensitization. PMID:23673251

  17. Prevention of aflatoxin contamination by a soil bacterium of Stenotrophomonas sp. that produces aflatoxin production inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jermnak, Usuma; Chinaphuti, Amara; Poapolathep, Amnart; Kawai, Ryo; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2013-05-01

    A soil bacterium, designated strain no. 27, was found to produce aflatoxin-production inhibitors. The strain was identified as a species of the genus Stenotrophomonas, and was found to be closely related to Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. Two diketopiperazines, cyclo(L-Ala-L-Pro) and cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro), were isolated from the bacterial culture filtrate as main active components. These compounds inhibited aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in liquid medium at concentrations of several hundred µM without affecting fungal growth. Both inhibitors inhibited production of norsorolinic acid, a biosynthetic intermediate involved in an early step of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway, and reduced the mRNA level of aflR, which is a gene encoding a key regulatory protein necessary for the expression of aflatoxin-biosynthetic enzymes. These results indicated that the inhibitors targets are present in early regulatory steps leading to AflR expression. Co-culture of strain no. 27 with aflatoxigenic fungi in liquid medium effectively suppressed aflatoxin production of the fungus without affecting fungal growth. Furthermore, application of the bacterial cells to peanuts in laboratory experiments and at a farmer's warehouse in Thailand by dipping peanuts in the bacterial cell suspension strongly inhibited aflatoxin accumulation. The inhibitory effect was dependent on bacterial cell numbers. These results indicated that strain no. 27 may be a practically effective biocontrol agent for aflatoxin control. PMID:23449921

  18. Efficacy of a biopesticide for control of aflatoxins in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was carried out to determine the efficacy of an aflatoxin biocontrol product in reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. The product, afla-guard7, delivers a nontoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus to the field where it competes with naturally-occurring toxigenic strains of the f...

  19. Aflatoxin Accumulation in BT and non-BT Maize Testcrosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of aflatoxin, which is produced by the fungus, Aspergillus flavus Link: Fries, in maize is a chronic problem in the southeastern United States. Its presence in grain greatly reduces its value and marketability. Aflatoxin accumulation is frequently associated with high temperatures...

  20. Reduced exposure to microwave radiation by rats: frequency specific effects

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, J.A.; DeWitt, J.R.; Portuguez, L.M.; Gandhi, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    Previous research has shown that SAR hotspots are induced within the laboratory rat and that the resulting thermal hotspots are not entirely dissipated by bloodflow. Two experiments were conducted to determine if hotspot formation in the body and tail of the rat, which is radiation frequency specific, would have behavioral consequences. In the first experiment rats were placed in a plexiglas cage one side of which, when occupied by the rat, commenced microwave radiation exposure; occupancy of the other side terminated exposure. Groups of rats were tested during a baseline period to determine the naturally preferred side of the cage. Subsequent exposure to 360-MHz, 700-MHz or 2450-MHz microwave radiation was made contingent on preferred-side occupancy. A significant reduction in occupancy of the preferred side of the cage, and hence, microwaves subsequently occurred. Reduced exposure to 360-MHz and 2450-MHz microwaves at 1, 2, 6 and 10 W/kg were significantly different from 700-MHz microwaves. In the second experiment semichronic exposures revealed the threshold for reduced exposure of 2450-MHz microwaves to be located between whole-body SAR's of 2.1 and 2.8 W/kg.

  1. Survey of aflatoxins in maize tortillas from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Urueta, Pável; Carvajal, Magda; Méndez, Ignacio; Meza, Florencia; Gálvez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, maize tortillas are consumed on a daily basis, leading to possible aflatoxin exposure. In a survey of 396 2-kg samples, taken over four sampling days in 2006 and 2007 from tortilla shops and supermarkets in Mexico City, aflatoxin levels were quantified by HPLC. In Mexico, the regulatory limit is 12 µg kg⁻¹ total aflatoxins for maize tortillas. In this survey, 17% of tortillas contained aflatoxins at levels of 3-385 µg kg⁻¹ or values below the limit of quantification (12 µg kg⁻¹ and 87% were below the regulatory limit. Average aflatoxin concentrations in 56 contaminated samples were: AFB1 (12.1 µg kg⁻¹); AFB2 (2.7 µg kg⁻¹); AFG1 (64.1 µg kg⁻¹) and AFG2 (3.7 µg kg⁻¹), and total AF (20.3 µg kg⁻¹). PMID:24779661

  2. Reducing exposures during the pouring operations of a brass foundry.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, M A; Gressel, M G; O'Brien, D M; Clark, N J

    1993-05-01

    The focus of this exposure assessment and control technology study was a brass foundry and the lead exposures of workers involved in the transportation and pouring of metal. Controls in place at the foundry included ventilation systems at the furnace and along the continuous and stationary pouring lines. Real-time measurements were made to determine which tasks were the primary exposure sources, and a hand-held aerosol monitor was used to measure real-time aerosol exposures (as a surrogate for lead) in the workers' breathing zones. Data were collected over two 30-min sampling periods while worker activities were monitored using a video camera. Analysis of the data showed that the greatest aerosol exposures occurred during the transportation of an unventilated, full ladle, resulting in an average concentration of at least twice that of the other tasks. The study concluded that the addition of exhaust ventilation such as a moveable hood and duct system during the ladle transport and pouring tasks, and the implementation of a side draft hood at the pigging area, could result in a reduction of worker exposure to aerosols during the continuous pouring operation by up to 40%. The controls and techniques suggested in this study could be applied to pouring operations throughout the industry to reduce worker exposure to metal fumes. PMID:8498361

  3. Monopole antenna with metamaterials to reduce the exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Yenny; Begaud, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a simplified model of a terminal mobile where a monopole antenna is associated with three different metamaterials: artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), electromagnetic band gap and resistive high-impedance surface (RHIS). The objective is to evaluate what is the metamaterial which is the best solution to reduce exposure. The exposure has been evaluated using a simplified phantom model. Results show that both AMC and RHIS reduce the exposure preserving the antenna performances. A reduction of 23 % of specific absorption rate 10 g has been obtained when the monopole is associated with an optimized RHIS structure. Antenna with and without metamaterials has been realized. The experimental results confirm the performances given by simulation in terms of impedance matching and radiation.

  4. CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS. ME Gilbert1, ME Kelly2, S. Salant3, T Shafer1, J Goodman3 1Neurotoxicology Div, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, 2Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, 3Helen Hayes Hospital, Haverstraw, NY, 10993.
    ...

  5. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw, reconstituted, and powdered milk samples collected in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Redouane-Salah, S; Morgavi, D P; Arhab, R; Messaï, A; Boudra, H

    2015-06-01

    Aflatoxins are potent toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that can be present in milk, and it is a public health concern. There is scarce information on the incidence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk consumed in Algeria. The presence of AFM1 was investigated in raw milk samples collected between February and October 2011 from 11 dairy farms representative of Algerian production conditions and that were located around Constantine city. Reconstituted and powdered milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity purification. AFM1 was detected in 5 out of 47 samples (11 %) at levels ranging from 9 to 103 ng/L, with one sample exceeding the limit of 50 ng/L set by European regulations. Traces of AFM1 (less than 8 ng/L) were also found in 11 other samples. The incidence of AFM1 contamination was higher in imported powdered milk (29 %) than in raw milk (5 %). Although the concentration of AFM1 in contaminated samples was low, the relatively considerable prevalence found in this exploratory study justifies more detailed and continuous monitoring to reduce consumers' exposure to AFM1. PMID:26009161

  6. Development of corn inbred lines with reduced preharvest aflatoxin contamination and identification of genes/markers for breeding and germplasm evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant resistance is a highly desirable tactic that can be used to manage aflatoxin contamination. Screening and identification of corn germplasm for resistant traits for crop improvement and molecular marker development will bring new genetic diversity into US corn germplasm. Using the combinat...

  7. Mobile phone model with metamaterials to reduce the exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Yenny; Begaud, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a terminal mobile model where an Inverted-F Antenna (IFA) is associated with three different kinds of metamaterials: artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), electromagnetic band gap (EBG) and resistive high-impedance surface (RHIS). The objective was to evaluate whether some metamaterials may be used to reduce exposure while preserving the antenna performances. The exposure has been evaluated using a simplified phantom model. Two configurations, antenna in front of the phantom and antenna hidden by the ground plane, have been evaluated. Results show that using an optimized RHIS, the SAR 10 g is reduced and the antenna performances are preserved. With RHIS solution, the SAR 10 g peak is reduced by 8 % when the antenna is located in front of the phantom and by 6 % when the antenna is hidden by ground plane.

  8. Digital radiography can reduce scoliosis x-ray exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, T.F. Jr.; Cohen, M.J.; Lindseth, R.E.; De Rosa, G.P. )

    1990-09-01

    Digital radiology is a new computerized system of acquiring x-rays in a digital (electronic) format. It possesses a greatly expanded dose response curve that allows a very broad range of x-ray dose to produce a diagnostic image. Potential advantages include significantly reduced radiation exposure without loss of image quality, acquisition of images of constant density irrespective of under or over exposure, and reduced repeat rates for unsatisfactory films. The authors prospectively studied 30 adolescents with scoliosis who had both conventional (full dose) and digital (full, one-half, or one-third dose) x-rays. They found digital made AP and lateral image with all anatomic areas clearly depicted at full and one-half dose. Digital laterals were better at full dose and equal to conventional at one-half dose. Cobb angles were easily measured on all one-third dose AP and on 8 of 10 one-third dose digital laterals. Digital clearly depicted the Risser sign at one-half and one-third dose and the repeat rate was nil in this study, indicating digital compensates well for exposure errors. The study indicates that digital does allow radiation dose to be reduced by at least one-half in scoliosis patients and that it does have improved image quality with good contrast over a wide range of x-ray exposure.

  9. Radiographer Delivered Fluoroscopy Reduces Radiation Exposure During Endoscopic Urological Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, DB; Young, M; Pahuja, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The 1999 Ionising Radiation Regulations recommend that medical professionals using ionising radiation should aim to keep exposure as ‘low as reasonably practicable’. Urologists regularly use fluoroscopy during endoscopic surgical procedures. In some institutions, this is delivered by a radiographer whereas in others, it is delivered by the urological surgeon. Objectives To determine if radiographer-delivered fluoroscopy can reduce the exposure to ionising radiation during urological procedures. Methods An analysis of 395 consecutive patients, who underwent endoscopic urological procedures requiring fluoroscopy, was performed simultaneously across two institutions, over a 4 month period. 321 patients were matched and included in the analysis. Results Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy was associated with reduced ionising radiation exposure for retrograde pyelography procedures ED 0.09626 vs. 1.323 mSev, p= 0.0003, and endoscopic stone surgeries ED 0.3066 Vs. 0.5416 mSev, p=0.0039, but not for ureterorenoscopic stone surgeries 0.4880 vs. 0.2213 mSev, p=0.8292. Conclusion Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy could reduce the patient’s exposure to ionising radiation for some urological procedures. PMID:27158158

  10. Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 by using the synergistic effect of hydrogen peroxide and gamma radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, U D; Govindarajan, P; Dave, P J

    1989-01-01

    Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 was studied by using gamma radiation and hydrogen peroxide. A 100-krad dose of gamma radiation was sufficient to inactivate 50 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of 5% hydrogen peroxide, and 400 krad was required for total degradation of 100 micrograms of aflatoxin in the same system. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 was confirmed by high-pressure liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. Ames microsomal mutagenicity test showed loss of aflatoxin activity. This method of detoxification also reduces the toxin levels effectively in artificially contaminated groundnuts. Images PMID:2497710

  11. Clinical Trials Methods for Evaluation of Potential Reduced Exposure Products

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hanson, Karen; Briggs, Anna; Parascandola, Mark; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; O'Connor, Richard; Shields, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Potential reduced exposure tobacco products (PREPs) may have promise in reducing tobacco-related morbidity or mortality or may promote greater harm to individuals or the population. Critical to determining the risks or benefits from these products are valid human clinical trial PREP assessment methods. Assessment involves determining the effects of these products on biomarkers of exposure and of effect, which serve as proxies for harm, and assessing the potential for consumer uptake and abuse of the product. This article raises the critical methodological issues associated with PREP assessment, reviews the methods that have been used to assess PREPs, and describes the strengths and limitations of these methods. Additionally, recommendations for clinical trials PREP assessment methods and future research directions in this area based on this review and on the deliberations from a National Cancer Institute sponsored Clinical Trials PREP Methods Workshop are provided. PMID:19959672

  12. Employing music exposure to reduce prejudice and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schwab, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro-integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less prejudice (Studies 1 and 3) and were less aggressive against (Study 2) and more helpful toward an outgroup member (Study 3). These effects were unaffected by song liking as well as mood and arousal properties of the songs employed, suggesting that it is indeed the pro-integration content of the lyrics that drives the effects. It is discussed to what extent music exposure could be employed to effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination in the real world. PMID:24604768

  13. Biological control of aflatoxin contamination of crops* §

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yan-ni; Yan, Lei-yan; Jiang, Jin-hua; Ma, Zhong-hua

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins produced primarily by two closely related fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals and humans. Of many approaches investigated to manage aflatoxin contamination, biological control method has shown great promise. Numerous organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and nontoxigenic fungal strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, have been tested for their ability in controlling aflatoxin contamination. Great successes in reducing aflatoxin contamination have been achieved by application of nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus in fields of cotton, peanut, maize and pistachio. The nontoxigenic strains applied to soil occupy the same niches as the natural occurring toxigenic strains. They, therefore, are capable of competing and displacing toxigenic strains. In this paper, we review recent development in biological control of aflatoxin contamination. PMID:18837105

  14. Low-dose cardiac imaging: reducing exposure but not accuracy.

    PubMed

    Small, Gary R; Chow, Benjamin J W; Ruddy, Terrence D

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac imaging techniques that use ionizing radiation have become an integral part of current cardiology practice. However, concern has arisen that ionizing radiation exposure, even at the low levels used for medical imaging, is associated with the risk of cancer. From a single diagnostic cardiac imaging procedure, such risks are low. On a population basis, however, malignancies become more likely on account of stochastic effects being more probable as the number of procedures performed increases. In light of this, and owing to professional and industrial commitment to the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle, over the last decade major strides have been made to reduce radiation dose in cardiac imaging. Dose-reduction strategies have been most pronounced in cardiac computed tomography. This was important since computed tomography has rapidly become a widely used diagnostic alternative to invasive coronary angiography, and initial protocols were associated with relatively high radiation exposures. Advances have also been made in nuclear cardiology and in invasive coronary angiography, and these reductions in patient exposure have all been achieved with maintenance of image quality and accuracy. Improvements in imaging camera technology, image acquisition protocols and image processing have lead to reductions in patient radiation exposure without compromising imaging diagnostic accuracy. PMID:22149528

  15. Estimated exposure to EU regulated mycotoxins and risk characterization of aflatoxin-induced hepatic toxicity through the consumption of the toasted cereal flour called "gofio", a traditional food of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Bernal-Suárez, María Del Mar; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Rial-Berriel, Cristian; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Díaz-Díaz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    "Gofio" is a type of flour made from toasted grain, which is part of the staple food in the Canary Islands, Spain, in which the occurrence of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) Ochratoxin A (OTA), Deoxynivalenol (DNV) and Zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated. 83% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 69.2% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxins (range 2 to 8). All the concentrations were well below the established limits (maximum values of AFs=0.42 μg/kg; FBs=178.3 μg/kg; OTA=0.3 μg/kg; DON=92.5 μg/kg; and ZEA=9.9 μg/kg). The daily dietary exposure to total AFs was estimated to be 7.1% of the TDI. This value was almost double in children, and considering the upper-bound approach could reach 35% of the TDI. For the rest of mycotoxins, the consumers would be exposed to less than 2% of their TDIs. The risk characterization indicates that there is a potential risk in developing aflatoxin induced liver cancer due to gofio consumption in the subpopulation which is simultaneously exposed to other hepatocarcinogens, such as the hepatitis B virus. PMID:27132021

  16. Reducing donor exposure in preterm infants requiring multiple blood transfusions.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A.; Wilson, N.; Skacel, P.; Thomas, R.; Tidmarsh, E.; Yale, C.; de Silva, M.

    1995-01-01

    Preterm infants frequently require multiple blood transfusions. Traditionally, 'fresh' (less than seven days old) blood has been used but this often results in transfusions from multiple donors. To reduce donor exposure the policy for top-up transfusions was changed. A unit of blood under five days old with additional satellite packs was ordered for each infant and used up to its expiry date, allowing up to eight transfusions from a single donation to be given. The mean (SD) number of transfusions per infant in 43 infants transfused according to previous policy and in 29 transfused according to the new policy was similar at 5.6 (4.0) and 5.3 (3.1), respectively. However, donor exposure fell following the change in policy from 4.9 (3.5) to only 2.0 (0.9). Only one infant was exposed to more than three donors compared with 24 infants in the control group. Plasma potassium concentrations were not significantly different following transfusion of blood stored for up to 33 days. This simple change in policy has reduced donor exposure in infants requiring multiple top-up transfusions. PMID:7743280

  17. Global Burden of Aflatoxin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Felicia

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), or liver cancer, is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with prevalence 16–32 times higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Aflatoxin, a contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in maize and nuts, is a known human liver carcinogen. Objectives We sought to determine the global burden of HCC attributable to aflatoxin exposure. Methods We conducted a quantitative cancer risk assessment, for which we collected global data on food-borne aflatoxin levels, consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence. We calculated the cancer potency of aflatoxin for HBV-postive and HBV-negative individuals, as well as the uncertainty in all variables, to estimate the global burden of aflatoxin-related HCC. Results Of the 550,000–600,000 new HCC cases worldwide each year, about 25,200–155,000 may be attributable to aflatoxin exposure. Most cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and China where populations suffer from both high HBV prevalence and largely uncontrolled aflatoxin exposure in food. Conclusions Aflatoxin may play a causative role in 4.6–28.2% of all global HCC cases. PMID:20172840

  18. Reducing uncertainty in risk modeling for methylmercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, R.; Egeland, G.; Middaugh, J.; Lee, R.

    1995-12-31

    The biomagnification and bioaccumulation of methylmercury in marine species represents a challenge for risk assessment related to the consumption of subsistence foods in Alaska. Because of the profound impact that food consumption advisories have on indigenous peoples seeking to preserve a way of life, there is a need to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment. Thus, research was initiated to reduce the uncertainty in assessing the health risks associated with the consumption of subsistence foods. Because marine subsistence foods typically contain elevated levels of methylmercury, preliminary research efforts have focused on methylmercury as the principal chemical of concern. Of particular interest are the antagonistic effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity. Because of this antagonism, methylmercury exposure through the consumption of marine mammal meat (with high selenium) may not be as toxic as comparable exposures through other sources of dietary intake, such as in the contaminated bread episode of Iraq (containing relatively low selenium). This hypothesis is supported by animal experiments showing reduced toxicity of methylmercury associated with marine mammal meat, by the antagonistic influence of selenium on methylmercury toxicity, and by negative clinical findings in adult populations exposed to methylmercury through a marine diet not subject to industrial contamination. Exploratory model development is underway to identify potential improvements and applications of current deterministic and probabilistic models, particularly by incorporating selenium as an antagonist in risk modeling methods.

  19. Determinants of formation of aflatoxin-albumin adducts: a seven-township study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Sun, C-A; Wu, D-M; Wang, L-Y; Chen, C-J; You, S-L; Santella, R M

    2002-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxins is one of the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Individual susceptibility to aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis may be modulated by both genetic and environmental factors affecting metabolism. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate determinants of the formation of aflatoxin covalently bound to albumin (AFB1-albumin adducts). A total of 474 subjects who were free of liver cancer and cirrhosis and were initially selected as controls for previous case–control studies of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Taiwan, were employed in this study. Aflatoxin-albumin adducts were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis C virus by enzyme immunoassay, as well as genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 and T1-1 by polymerase chain reaction. The detection rate of AFB1-albumin adducts was significantly higher in males (42.5%) than in females (21.6%) (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio=2.6, 95% confidence interval=1.4–5.0). The formation of detectable albumin adducts was moderately higher in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers (42.8%) than in non-carriers (36.6%) (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio=1.4, 95% confidence interval=1.0–2.1). In addition, the detection rate of AFB1-albumin adducts tended to increase with the increasing number of null genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 and glutathione S-transferase T1-1. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study has assessed the relative contributions of environmental exposure and host susceptibility factors in the formation of AFB1-albumin adducts in a well characterised Chinese adult population. This study further emphasises the necessity to reduce aflatoxin exposure in people living in an area endemic for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 966–970. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600584 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12434285

  20. Selenomethionine reduces visual deficits due to developmental methylmercury exposures

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniel N.; Connaughton, Victoria P.; Dellinger, John A.; Klemer, David; Udvadia, Ava; Carvan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental exposures to methylmercury (MeHg) have life-long behavioral effects. Many micronutrients, including selenium, are involved in cellular defenses against oxidative stress and may reduce the severity of MeHg-induced deficits. Zebrafish embryos (<4 hours post fertilization, hpf) were exposed to combinations of 0.0-0.30 μM MeHg and/or selenomethionine (SeMet) until 24 hpf then placed in clean medium. Fish were tested as adults under low light conditions (~60 μW/m2) for visual responses to a rotating black bar. Dose-dependent responses to MeHg exposure were evident (ANOVA, P<0.001) as evidenced by reduced responsiveness, whereas SeMet did not induce deficits except at 0.3 μM,. Ratios of SeMet:MeHg of 1:1 or 1:3 resulted in responses that were indistinguishable from controls (ANOVA, P<0.001). No gross histopathologies were observed (H&E stain) in the retina or optic tectum at any MeHg concentration. Whole-cell, voltage-gated, depolarization-elicited outward K+ currents of bipolar cells in intact retina of slices adult zebrafish were recorded and outward K+ current amplitude was larger in bipolar cells of MeHg-treated fish. This was due to the intense response of cells expressing the delayed rectifying IK current; cells expressing the transient IA current displayed a slight trend for smaller amplitude among MeHg-treated fish. Developmental co-exposure to SeMet reduced but did not eliminate the increase in the MeHg-induced IK response, however, IA responses increased significantly over MeHg-treated fish to match control levels. Electrophysiological deficits parallel behavioral patterns in MeHg-treated fish, i.e., initial reactions to the rotating bar were followed by periods of inactivity and then a resumption of responses. PMID:17905328

  1. Characterizing the intensity of changes made to reduce mechanical exposure.

    PubMed

    Wells, Richard; Laing, Andrew; Cole, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Interventions to prevent musculoskeletal disorders by reducing mechanical exposures may range from equipment adjustments, through changing workstations and equipment or implementing administrative controls, to the design and redesign of work processes. Although generally positive, the literature reports mixed results for the effects of such workplace interventions on musculoskeletal disorders. We propose that an important factor which influences these results is the change intensity. This construct includes: the body part(s) affected, the size of exposure magnitude reduction in the particular task or tasks involved in the change, the time fraction of the job to which the change applies, the coverage of the change (proportion of the workforce affected), and the adherence (if applicable) by the workforce to the change. The intensities of changes recently completed as part of a participatory ergonomics research program were characterized using this approach. Intensity scores were estimated based upon these parameters for peak and cumulative mechanical exposures. Changes affecting a production system re-design and re-configuration were judged to have medium to high intensity, while most other changes were judged to be of small intensity. Comparisons are made to the intensity of changes determined from reports in the published literature. Factors which maximize intensity as well as potential barriers to achieving higher intensities are described. PMID:20037230

  2. Proactive Regulation Reduces Asbestos Exposures in Lake County, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, D.; Ley, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Lake County Air Quality Management District adopted its rule for Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in 1996 with the goal of preventing impacts and exposures through education, proactive project design, and common sense. Utilizing detailed GIS mapping and streamlined mitigation measures, the District maintains an effective program to reduce the hazard of NOA in our community. Measures for NOA are also incorporated into the County Grading Ordinance, and most small projects fall under those rules. Larger projects require a Serpentine Dust Control Plan from the District that provides clear mitigation measures, with the focus primarily on dust prevention. This cooperative approach results in a comprehensive effort to minimize potential health hazards from naturally occurring asbestos. Compliance is more easily achieved when workers are informed of the hazards and potential for exposure, and the rules/mitigation measures are clear and simple. Informed individuals generally take prompt corrective action to protect themself and those around them from the potential for breathing asbestos-containing dust. This proactive program results in improved community health by preventing exposure to asbestos.

  3. Aflatoxin metabolism in humans: detection of metabolites and nucleic acid adducts in urine by affinity chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Groopman, J.D.; Donahue, P.R.; Zhu, J.Q.; Chen, J.S.; Wogan, G.N.

    1985-10-01

    A high-affinity IgM monoclonal antibody specific for aflatoxins was covalently bound to Sepharose 4B and used as a preparative column to isolate aflatoxin derivatives from the urine of people and experimental animals who had been exposed to the carcinogen environmentally or under laboratory conditions. Aflatoxin levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography after elution from the affinity column. In studies on rats injected with ( UC)aflatoxin B1, the authors identified the major aflatoxin-DNA adduct, 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua), and the oxidative metabolites M1 and P1 as the major aflatoxin species present in the urine. When this methodology was applied to human urine samples obtained from people from the Guangxi Province of China exposed to aflatoxin B1 through dietary contamination, the aflatoxin metabolites detected were also AFB1-N7-Gua and aflatoxins M1 and P1. Therefore, affinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody represents a useful and rapid technique with which to isolate this carcinogen and its metabolites in biochemical epidemiology and for subsequent quantitative measurements, providing exposure information that can be used for risk assessment.

  4. Pesticide exposure and sprayer design: ergonomics evaluation to reduce pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Grimbuhler, Sonia; Lambert, Mandy; Nelson, Julien; Richardson, James

    2012-01-01

    Plant protection products are used in agriculture to improve yields, but this use can cause contamination of the environment and is also likely to have adverse short and long term effects on agricultural workers. This poster describes a systems approach to reducing the risk of operator exposure to plant protection products through the introduction of ergonomics to the design process of large agricultural sprayers. PMID:22317563

  5. Nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus TX9-8 Competitively Prevents Aflatoxin Production by A. flavus Isolates of Large and Small Sclerotial Morphotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus is the main etiological agent for aflatoxin contamination of crops. Using nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates to competitively exclude toxigenic A. flavus isolates in agricultural fields has become an adopted approach to reduce aflatoxin contamination. We determined th...

  6. Aflatoxin: A 50-Year Odyssey of Mechanistic and Translational Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery 50 years ago, the aflatoxins have become recognized as ubiquitous contaminants of the human food supply throughout the economically developing world. The adverse toxicological consequences of these compounds in populations are quite varied because of a wide range of exposures leading to acute effects, including rapid death, and chronic outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, emerging studies describe a variety of general adverse health effects associated with aflatoxin, such as impaired growth in children. Aflatoxin exposures have also been demonstrated to multiplicatively increase the risk of liver cancer in people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) illustrating the deleterious impact that even low toxin levels in the diet can pose for human health. The public health impact of aflatoxin exposure is pervasive. Aflatoxin biomarkers of internal and biologically effective doses have been integral to the establishment of the etiologic role of this toxin in human disease through better estimates of exposure, expanded knowledge of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and as tools for implementing and evaluating preventive interventions. PMID:20881231

  7. Aflatoxin Contamination in Wheat Flour Samples from Golestan Province, Northeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, N; Semnani, S; Roshandel, G; Namjoo, M; Keshavarzian, H; Chogan, AG; Kebria, F Ghasemi; Joshaghani, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to the high toxicity of aflatoxin and its effects on public health, determination of aflatoxin level in Wheat flour samples in the Golestan province, north of Iran was investigated. To examine the effect of seasonal changes, summer and winter sampling was performed with standard sampling methods. Methods: A total of 200 flour samples were collected from 25 factories. HPLC method with immunoaffinity chromatography was used to measure aflatoxin types (G2, G1, B2 and B1). Statistical analysis was performed by the Pearson correlation test, One-way ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Mean total aflatoxin levels of samples were 0.82 and 1.99 ng/g in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 levels were detected in 3.1%, 7.4% over permissible limits by worldwide regulations in samples collected in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxins in winter were higher than summer. The highest frequency of aflatoxin contamination in winter was B2 (98%) and in summer G1 (51%). The relationship between humidity and rate of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin was significant in winter. Results of multivariate regression were showed the strongest relationship with humidity and aflatoxin level. Despite the contamination of flour samples, there was no contamination higher than the standard limit of Iran Standard Institute. But it was significantly higher than similar studies from other regions. Conclusions: Therefore, with regard to negative impacts of aflatoxin on health, aflatoxin contamination should be considered in future programs. Decrease of aflatoxin contamination may be made practical through reducing wheat storage duration and controlling humidity. PMID:23193505

  8. Product identification and safety evaluation of aflatoxin B1 decontaminated by electrolyzed oxidizing water.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ke; Liu, Hai jie; Li, Li te

    2012-09-26

    In this study with aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts, the effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) in the decontamination of aflatoxin B(1) was investigated. The aflatoxin B(1) content was markedly reduced upon treatment with EOW, particularly with neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW). The conversion product of EOW treatment was isolated and identified as 8-chloro-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B(1) (compound 1), which is an amphiphilic molecule, in contrast to fat-soluble aflatoxin B(1). A mutagenic response study revealed that the number of revertants per plate after treatment of bacterial strains TA-97, TA-98, TA-100, and TA-102 with NEW was within the standard value range. The HepG2 cell viability assay yielded an IC(50) value of compound 1 approximately 150 mM. This study indicates that EOW had the ability to decontaminate aflatoxin B(1), and the conversion product, compound 1, did not exhibit mutagenic activity or cytotoxic effects. PMID:22950859

  9. Cadmium: Simulation of environmental control strategies to reduce exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, K. J.; Miles, L. J.; Greenkorn, R. A.

    1981-07-01

    The effects of selected environmental control strategies on human dietary and respiratory exposure to environmental cadmium (Cd) have been simulated. For each control strategy, mean Cd dietary and respiratory exposures are presented for a twenty-year simulation period. Human exposures related to cadmium are associated with both process waste disposal and product disposal. Dietary exposure is by far the dominant mechanism for Cd intake. Dietary exposure related to aqueous discharges is primarily a result of municipal sludge landspreading, whereas that associated with emissions to the atmosphere derives mainly from the deposition on cropland of airborne particulates from product incineration. Only relatively small dietary exposure reductions are possible through restrictions on any single Cd use. Combinations of waste management and environmental control measures promise greater reductions in dietary and respiratory exposure than those achievable through use restrictions.

  10. Potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Da-wei; Liu, Hong-yi; Zhang, Hai-bin; Cao, Ming-chang; Sun, Yong; Wu, Wen-da; Lu, Chang-hu

    2016-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China. Collected in the reserve’s core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contamination incidences vary among different zones and the mycotoxins levels of different food samples also presented disparity. Average mycotoxin concentration from rice grain was greater than that from other food types. Among mycotoxin-positive samples, 59.3% were simultaneously contaminated with more than one toxin. This study demonstrated for the first time that red-crowned cranes were exposed to mycotoxins in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and suggested that artificial wetlands could not be considered good habitats for the birds in this reserve, especially rice fields. PMID:26834016

  11. Potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-wei; Liu, Hong-yi; Zhang, Hai-bin; Cao, Ming-chang; Sun, Yong; Wu, Wen-da; Lu, Chang-hu

    2016-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China. Collected in the reserve's core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contamination incidences vary among different zones and the mycotoxins levels of different food samples also presented disparity. Average mycotoxin concentration from rice grain was greater than that from other food types. Among mycotoxin-positive samples, 59.3% were simultaneously contaminated with more than one toxin. This study demonstrated for the first time that red-crowned cranes were exposed to mycotoxins in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and suggested that artificial wetlands could not be considered good habitats for the birds in this reserve, especially rice fields. PMID:26834016

  12. Smokeless tobacco brand switching: a means to reduce toxicant exposure?

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, D K; Ebbert, J O; Anderson, A; Lin, H; Le, C; Hecht, S S

    2007-03-16

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) brand switching on biomarkers of ST exposure and on ST use. Subjects seeking treatment to reduce their use were randomized to ST brand switching with controlled ST topography, brand switching with ad libitum ST use, or a waitlist control with subsequent randomization to one of these two conditions. The waitlist control group was included to assess whether changes were a consequence of time effect. During the intervention, Copenhagen or Kodiak ST users were asked to switch to products that were sequentially lower in nicotine content: Skoal Long Cut Straight or Wintergreen for 4 weeks and then Skoal Bandits for the subsequent 4 weeks. Measures were obtained during the course of treatment and at 12-week follow-up. Significant reductions in total urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-L-(3-pyridyl)-L-butanol (NNAL) plus its glucuronides (total NNAL) were observed with no significant differences between the controlled topography and ad libitum conditions. Significant reductions were also observed in the amount and duration of dips with a significant intervention effect for durational measures. At 12 weeks, the 7-day biochemically-verified tobacco abstinent rate was 26% in the ad libitum group. ST brand switching may be a feasible alternative intervention for ST users interested in quitting but unwilling to stop ST use completely. PMID:16996230

  13. Reducing youth exposure to alcohol ads: targeting public transit.

    PubMed

    Simon, Michele

    2008-07-01

    Underage drinking is a major public health problem. Youth drink more heavily than adults and are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of alcohol. Previous research has demonstrated the connection between alcohol advertising and underage drinking. Restricting outdoor advertising in general and transit ads in particular, represents an important opportunity to reduce youth exposure. To address this problem, the Marin Institute, an alcohol industry watchdog group in Northern California, conducted a survey of alcohol ads on San Francisco bus shelters. The survey received sufficient media attention to lead the billboard company, CBS Outdoor, into taking down the ads. Marin Institute also surveyed the 25 largest transit agencies; results showed that 75 percent of responding agencies currently have policies that ban alcohol advertising. However, as the experience in San Francisco demonstrated, having a policy on paper does not necessarily mean it is being followed. Communities must be diligent in holding accountable government officials, the alcohol industry, and the media companies through which advertising occurs. PMID:18389374

  14. A quantitative method for determination of aflatoxin B in roasted corn.

    PubMed

    Shannon, G M; Shotwell, O L

    1975-07-01

    Roasting aflatoxin-contaminated corn will reduce toxin levels. A quantitative analysis for aflatoxin in roasted corn has been developed by modifying a cleanup technique for green coffee extracts approved as official first action by the AOAC. A chloroform extract is partially purified on a Florisil column, and thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plates are developed with methylene chloride-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol-formic acid (81+15+3+1). Recoveries average 101% and the sensitivity limit is 5 ppb aflatoxin B1. A 2-dimensional TLC procedure can also be used to separate the aflatoxins from background interferences. PMID:1150613

  15. Evaluation of potential biocontrol agent for aflatoxin in Argentinean peanuts.

    PubMed

    Alaniz Zanon, M S; Chiotta, M L; Giaj-Merlera, G; Barros, G; Chulze, S

    2013-04-01

    Biocontrol by competitive exclusion has been developed as the most promising means of controlling aflatoxins in peanuts. A 2-year study was carried out to determine the efficacy of an Aspergillus flavus strain as biocontrol agent to reduce aflatoxin production in peanuts under field conditions in Argentina. The competitive strain used was a nontoxigenic A. flavus (AFCHG2) naturally occurring in peanut from Córdoba, Argentina. The inoculum was produced through solid-state fermentation on long grain rice and applied at rate of 50kg inoculum/ha. The incidence of the released strain within the A. flavus communities in soil and peanuts was determined using the shift in the ratio toxigenic:nontoxigenic and VCG analysis. During the 2009/2010 growing season, treatments produced significant reductions in the incidence of toxigenic isolates of A. flavus/Aspergillus parasiticus in soil and peanuts. However, no preharvest aflatoxin contamination was observed. In the 2010/2011 growing season, plants were exposed to late season drought conditions that were optimal for aflatoxin contamination. Significant reductions in aflatoxin levels averaging 71% were detected in treated plots with different inoculation treatments. The results suggest that using the strategy of competitive exclusion A. flavus AFCHG2 can be applied to reduce aflatoxin contamination in Argentinean peanuts. PMID:23454811

  16. Ethylene Inhibits Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus Grown on Peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Gunterus, A.; Roze, L.V.; Beaudry, R.; Linz, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus synthesize aflatoxins when they grow on a variety of susceptible food and feed crops. These mycotoxins are among the most carcinogenic naturally occurring compounds known and they pose significant health risks to humans and animals. We previously demonstrated that ethylene and CO2 act alone and together to reduce aflatoxin synthesis by A. parasiticus grown on laboratory media. To demonstrate the potential efficacy of treatment of stored seeds and grains with these gases, we tested ethylene and CO2 for ability to inhibit aflatoxin accumulation on Georgia Green peanuts stored for up to 5 days. We demonstrated an inverse relationship between A. parasiticus spore inoculum size and the level of toxin accumulation. We showed that ethylene inhibits aflatoxin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner on peanuts; CO2 also inhibits aflatoxin synthesis over a narrow dose range. Treatments had not discernable effect on mold growth. These observations support further exploration of this technology to reduce aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops in the field and during storage. PMID:17418318

  17. Genetic analysis of the Aspergillus flavus vegetative compatibility group to which a biological control agent that limits aflatoxin contamination in USA crops belongs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most effective means of reducing aflatoxin contamination of agricultural crops is through competitive exclusion of aflatoxin-producing fungi using vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) of Aspergillus flavus that do not produce aflatoxin. Presently there are two VCGs in the USA registered with t...

  18. The case for aflatoxins in the causal chain of gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Claudia; Koshiol, Jill; Guerrero, Ariel R; Kogan, Marcelo J; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic aflatoxin exposure has long been related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, its association with gallbladder cancer (GBC) was postulated. Here we present the data supporting this hypothesis in Chile, the country with the highest GBC mortality worldwide with age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) of 10.3 in women and 5.04 in men. The highest GBC rates occur in Southern Chile (ASMR=18), characterized by: high Amerindian ancestry, associated with high bile acid synthesis and gallstones; high poverty and high cereal agriculture, both associated with aflatoxin exposure. Aflatoxins have been detected in imported and locally grown foods items. We estimated population dietary exposure ranging from 0.25 to 35.0 ng/kg-body weight/day. The only report on human exposure in Chile found significantly more aflatoxin biomarkers in GBC than in controls (Odds Ratio=13.0). The hypothesis of aflatoxin-GBC causal link in the Chilean population is supported by: genetically-determined rapid cholesterol excretion and high gallstones prevalence (49.4%); low prevalence of HCC (ASMR=4.9) and low HBV infection (0.15%) the main co-factor of aflatoxins in HCC risk. If the association between aflatoxins and GBC were confirmed, public health interventions based on food regulation could have a substantial public health impact. PMID:26804596

  19. Automated Aflatoxin Analysis Using Inline Reusable Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC-Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Rhemrev, Ria; Pazdanska, Monika; Marley, Elaine; Biselli, Scarlett; Staiger, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A novel reusable immunoaffinity cartridge containing monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxins coupled to a pressure resistant polymer has been developed. The cartridge is used in conjunction with a handling system inline to LC with fluorescence detection to provide fully automated aflatoxin analysis for routine monitoring of a variety of food matrixes. The handling system selects an immunoaffinity cartridge from a tray and automatically applies the sample extract. The cartridge is washed, then aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are eluted and transferred inline to the LC system for quantitative analysis using fluorescence detection with postcolumn derivatization using a KOBRA® cell. Each immunoaffinity cartridge can be used up to 15 times without loss in performance, offering increased sample throughput and reduced costs compared to conventional manual sample preparation and cleanup. The system was validated in two independent laboratories using samples of peanuts and maize spiked at 2, 8, and 40 μg/kg total aflatoxins, and paprika, nutmeg, and dried figs spiked at 5, 20, and 100 μg/kg total aflatoxins. Recoveries exceeded 80% for both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. The between-day repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 9.6% for aflatoxin B1 for the six levels and five matrixes. Satisfactory Z-scores were obtained with this automated system when used for participation in proficiency testing (FAPAS®) for samples of chilli powder and hazelnut paste containing aflatoxins. PMID:26651571

  20. Elucidation of the functional genomics of antioxidant-based inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic acid reduces > 95% of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus without affecting fungal growth. Microarray analysis of caffeic acid-treated A. flavus indicated expression of almost all genes in the aflatoxin biosynthetic cluster were down-regulated. The only exceptions were genes norB an...

  1. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

  2. Genome wide association mapping of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of maize with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with sign...

  3. Recombination and lineage-specific gene loss in the aflatoxin gene cluster of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus are potent carcinogens that contaminate agricultural crops. Recent efforts to reduce aflatoxin concentrations in crops have focused on biological control using nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains AF36 (= NRRL 18543) and NRRL 21882 (the active component of af...

  4. Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus endemic to Italy for biocontrol of aflatoxins in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective biological control of aflatoxin­producing Aspergillus flavus with atoxigenic members of that species requires suitable A. flavus well adapted to and resident in target agroecosystems. Eighteen atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus endemic in Italy were compared for ability to reduce aflatoxin c...

  5. Evaluation of African-bred maize germplasm lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, contaminate maize grain and threatens human food and feed safety. Plant resistance is considered the best strategy for reducing aflatoxin accumulation. Six maize germplasm lines, TZAR101-TZAR106, were released by the IITA-SRRC maize breeding col...

  6. Assessment of biocontrol strains for reduction of mycotoxins (aflatoxin and CPA) in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus strains K49, NRRL 21882 (from Afla-Guard®) and AF36 are being developed as biocontrol agents for the control of aflatoxin in maize. In this study, the three non-aflatoxigenic strains were compared to evaluate which is most effective in reducing aflatoxin. Also, we tested these st...

  7. Associations of serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct level with socio-demographic factors and aflatoxins intake from nuts and related nut products in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death. PMID:22230243

  8. Purified form of cytochrome P-450 from rainbow trout with high activity toward conversion of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin B1-2,3-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Williams, D E; Buhler, D R

    1983-10-01

    Aflatoxin B1, the most potent hepatic chemical carcinogen known, is activated to the putative product aflatoxin B1-2,3-epoxide via a cytochrome P-450-dependent reaction. Mt. Shasta rainbow trout is the most sensitive species known to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of aflatoxin B1. We have previously isolated and purified a minor form of cytochrome P-450 from this strain of rainbow trout, with a lambda max in the carbon monoxide-reduced difference spectrum of 449.5 nm and a molecular weight of 54,000. In this study, we have compared in a reconstituted system this trout P-450 to trout cytochrome P-448 and rat cytochrome P-450 and P-448 for metabolism and activation of aflatoxin B1. Trout cytochrome P-450 had much higher activity towards aflatoxin B1 and a greater degree of regioselectivity in the formation of aflatoxin B1-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrodiol and was much more efficient in producing aflatoxin B1 covalent adducts with DNA. The existence of such a form of cytochrome P-450 in Mt. Shasta rainbow trout may be responsible for the acute sensitivity of this strain to the carcinogenic effects of aflatoxin B1. PMID:6411332

  9. Reduce Toxic Exposures: Get Involved and Take Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the connection between many chemical exposures and learning and other developmental disabilities (LDD). National and local groups are developing new programs around the country that are making this connection--and taking action with regard to policy, education and research efforts. They are working towards reducing…

  10. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Adult Brain Plasticity. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Moderate Fetal Alcohol Exposure Impairs the Neurogenic Response to an Enriched Environment in Adult Mice" (I. Y. Choi; A. M. Allan; and L. A. Cunningham). Observations of mice…

  11. Reduction of aflatoxins by Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Hackbart, H C S; Machado, A R; Christ-Ribeiro, A; Prietto, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the microorganisms Rhizopus oryzae (CCT7560) and Trichoderma reesei (QM9414), producers of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) enzymes, to reduce the level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. The variables considered to the screening were the initial number of spores in the inoculum and the culture time. The culture was conducted in contaminated 4 % potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and the residual mycotoxins were determined every 24 h by HPLC-FL. The fungus R. oryzae has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in the 96 h and aflatoxins M1 and G2 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The fungus T. reesei has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in the 96 h and aflatoxin G1 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The highest reduction occurred in the middle of R. oryzae culture. PMID:24925827

  12. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins. PMID:26797635

  13. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting.

    PubMed

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B₁ and B₂ were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB₁ + AFB₂, whereas AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%-19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%-99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%-99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB₁ + AFB₂ measured in rejected fractions (15%-18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01-0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB₁ and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins. PMID:26797635

  14. Effectiveness of employee training and motivation programs in reducing exposure to inorganic lead and lead alkyls.

    PubMed

    Maples, T W; Jacoby, J A; Johnson, D E; Ter Haar, G L; Buckingham, F M

    1982-09-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has advanced engineering controls over administrative controls and protective equipment to reduce exposures to chemicals in the workplace. The application of employee training and motivation programs (such as job safety analysis) to reduce exposures to chemicals has not been emphasized. To determine the effectiveness of such programs, a pilot project in an alkyl lead production facility was conducted with 35 employees in an effort to reduce exposures to organic and inorganic lead. Results after 12 months show a 40% reduction in lead-in-urine and a 24% reduction in lead-in-blood, both indicators of total exposure to organic inorganic lead. PMID:7148690

  15. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure. PMID:26490018

  16. Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys.

    PubMed

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Hines, M; Kruse, R L; Wang, C; Redmon, J B; Sparks, A; Weiss, B

    2010-04-01

    Foetal exposure to antiandrogens alters androgen-sensitive development in male rodents, resulting in less male-typical behaviour. Foetal phthalate exposure is also associated with male reproductive development in humans, but neurodevelopmental outcomes have seldom been examined in relation to phthalate exposure. To assess play behaviour in relation to phthalate metabolite concentration in prenatal urine samples, we recontacted participants in the Study for Future Families whose phthalate metabolites had been measured in mid-pregnancy urine samples. Mothers completed a questionnaire including the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a validated instrument used to assess sexually dimorphic play behaviour. We examined play behaviour scores (masculine, feminine and composite) in relationship to (log(10)) phthalate metabolite concentrations in mother's urine separately for boys (N = 74) and girls (N = 71). Covariates (child's age, mother's age and education and parental attitude towards atypical play choices) were controlled using multivariate regression models. Concentrations of dibutyl phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and their sum, were associated with a decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys (regression coefficients -4.53,-3.61 and -4.20, p = 0.01, 0.07 and 0.04 for MnBP, MiBP and their sum respectively). Concentrations of two urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and the sum of these DEHP metabolites plus mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were associated with a decreased masculine score (regression coefficients -3.29,-2.94 and -3.18, p = 0.02, 0.04 and 0.04) for MEHHP, MEOHP and the sum respectively. No strong associations were seen between behaviour and urinary concentrations of any other phthalate metabolites in boys, or between girls' scores and any metabolites. These data, although based on

  17. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P < 0.0001), suggesting that resistance to fungal reproduction is associated with MLR aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption. PMID:25198847

  18. Aflatoxin B₁ and M₁ in milk.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, P T; Becker-Algeri, T; Drunkler, D; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-06-01

    The aflatoxin M1 (AFLAM1) is a mycotoxin that results from the hydroxylation of the aflatoxin B1 (AFLAB1). It contaminates the milk of animals fed with a diet containing its precursor. In this work, we determined the occurrence of AFLAB1 and AFLAM1 in milk, as well as the chromatographic conditions to quantify these mycotoxins. The extraction and quantification of AFLAB1 and AFLAM1 in naturally contaminated and artificially spiked milk samples which are produced and marketed in the state of RS were performed using the AOAC official method and UHPLC with fluorescence detection. We obtained a separation factor of 2.3 for AFLAB1 and AFLAM1 using a mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid:acetonitrile:methanol (55:10:35). The analytical curves had a wide linearity range and the limit of quantification (LOQm) concentrations of AFLAB1 and AFLAM1 were equal to 0.5 and 0.25 μg L(-1), respectively. Samples of pasteurized and ultra-high-temperature processed (UHT) milk showed natural contamination, and the levels for both aflatoxins ranged from 0.7 to 1.5 μg L(-1). Raw and concentrated milk samples only contained AFLAM1, with a maximum average concentration of 1.7 μg L(-1). These concentrations, higher than permitted by legislation, confirm the existence of a health risk, as well as highlight the relevance of searching for alternatives to reduce this contamination. PMID:24856405

  19. Aerosol dynamics and health: strategies to reduce exposure and harm.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    The term 'air pollution' is used to describe the presence of chemicals or materials in the atmosphere that produce poor air quality. Air pollutants may be classified into four principal categories which include anthropogenic (man-made; e.g. combustion products), biogenic (biological; e.g. pollen, allergens), technogenic (technology; e.g. metal aerosols or smelter) and geogenic (geological; e.g. erosion of earth, i.e. minerals, volcanic ash). From these categories are derived the seven main pollutants of human health concern, i.e. carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons, lead, and particulate matter (PM). The common provenance of all these emissions is from the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, petrol and diesel), biomass (e.g. cooking) and tobacco smoke. PM is now considered to be the most precarious of pollutants, with the combustion-derived nano-particles being linked to a myriad of premature and excess deaths world-wide; especially for persons with pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. This meeting intended to bring together scientists from a host of disciplines (toxicologists, biologists, chemists, physicists and material scientists) that work at the bio-particulate interface. It aimed to present and discuss, via topical 'break-out' sessions, the current thoughts on the 'burden to human health' following exposure to and harm from combustion-derived particles. Furthermore, strategies for 'harm reduction' were another feature of this cross-disciplinary meeting. The final objectives were to identify biomarkers of exposure and harm to these inhalation hazards. All topics covered sought to find biomarker indices for human health effects. PMID:19604050

  20. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  1. Development of Methods for Determination of Aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lijuan; Chen, Min; Ying, Yibin

    2016-12-01

    Aflatoxins can cause damage to the health of humans and animals. Several institutions around the world have established regulations to limit the levels of aflatoxins in food, and numerous analytical methods have been extensively developed for aflatoxin determination. This review covers the currently used analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in different food matrices, which includes sampling and sample preparation, sample pretreatment methods including extraction methods and purification methods of aflatoxin extracts, separation and determination methods. Validation for analysis of aflatoxins and safety considerations and precautions when doing the experiments are also discussed. PMID:25840003

  2. Adoption as an offspring strategy to reduce ectoparasite exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Bize, Pierre; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    Adoption occurs frequently in colonial species where both the cost of parasitism and the opportunity for dependent young to find a foster family are typically high. Because ectoparasites show highly aggregated distributions among colony members, we tested two central predictions of the novel hypothesis that adoption is driven by selection on young to reduce ectoparasite load: first, that nest-based ectoparasites cause offspring to seek adoption, and second, that an individual's parasite load will be reduced after it has been adopted. In agreement with these predictions, experimentally infested Alpine swift Apus melba offspring sought adoption significantly more often and at an earlier stage than young kept free of ectoparasitic louse-flies. Second, the parasite load of experimentally infested young was reduced after adoption via a redistribution of ectoparasites among the foster family members. Our findings emphasize what we believe to be a novel role for parasites in the evolution of adoption and, by extension, in the emergence of social interactions. PMID:12952653

  3. Have Regulatory Efforts to Reduce Organophosphorus Insecticide Exposures Been Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Clune, Alison L.; Ryan, P. Barry

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) was signed into law in 1996 to strengthen the regulation of pesticide tolerances in food. Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were the first group of pesticides reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the new law. Objective: Our goal was to determine whether urinary concentrations of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides declined between the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III and NHANES 1999–2004. Methods: Using mass spectrometry–based methods, we analyzed urine samples from a nationally representative sample of 2,874 adults 20–59 years of age in NHANES 1999–2004 and samples from a non-nationally representative sample of 197 adult participants for NHANES III (1988–1994) for six common DAP metabolites of OP pesticides. Results: Median urinary DAP concentrations decreased by more than half between NHANES III and NHANES 2003–2004. Reductions of about 50%–90% were also observed for 95th percentile concentrations of five of the six metabolites. Frequencies of detection (FODs) decreased in all six metabolites (< 50% reduction). On average, median and 95th percentile concentrations and FODs showed a larger decrease in diethylphosphate metabolites than dimethylphosphate metabolites. Conclusions: Human exposure to OP insecticides as assessed by urinary DAP concentrations has decreased since the implementation of the FQPA, although we cannot be certain that U.S. EPA actions in response to the FQPA directly caused the decrease in DAP concentrations. PMID:22251442

  4. Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers fed moldy peanut meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ma, Qiugang; Li, Xiaoying; Shi, Huiqin; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 for the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Six replicates of ten broilers each were assigned to one of seven dietary treatments, which were labeled C0 (basal diet); M0 (basal diet containing moldy peanut meal); C500 and C1000 (C0+500 or 1000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations, composed mainly of ANSB060); and M500, M1000 and M2000 (M0+500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations). The concentrations of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ in the moldy diets (M0, M500, M100 and M2000) fluctuated around 70.7±1.3, 11.0±1.5, 6.5±0.8 and 2.0±0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the M0 diet caused a significant decrease in average daily weight gain and increased feed requirements, with a gain ratio increasing from d 8 to 42, deterioration in meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers' livers as compared with the C0 diet. The addition of ANSB060 to the aflatoxin-contaminated diets offset these negative effects, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect on growth performance and meat quality while reducing the amount of aflatoxin residues in the livers of broilers fed naturally moldy peanut meal. PMID:23872125

  5. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  6. Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America. PMID:23761295

  7. Community-Based Intervention to Reduce Pesticide Exposure to Farmworkers and Potential Take-Home Exposure to their Families

    PubMed Central

    Bradman, Asa; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Boeniger, Mark; Castorina, Rosemary; Snyder, John; Barr, Dana B.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Striley, Cynthia; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. EPA Worker Protection Standard requires pesticide safety training for farmworkers. Combined with re-entry intervals, these regulations are designed to reduce pesticide exposure. Little research has been conducted on whether additional steps may reduce farmworker exposure and the potential for take-home exposure to their families. We conducted an intervention with 44 strawberry harvesters (15 control and 29 intervention group members) to determine whether education, encouragement of handwashing, and the use of gloves and removable coveralls reduced exposure. Post-intervention, we collected foliage and urine samples, as well as hand rinse, lower-leg skin patch, and clothing patch samples. Post-intervention loading of malathion on hands was lower among workers who wore gloves compared to those who did not (median = 8.2 vs 777.2 μg/pair, respectively (p<0.001)); similarly, median MDA levels in urine were lower among workers who wore gloves (45.3 vs 131.2 μg/g creatinine, p<0.05). Malathion was detected on clothing (median = 0.13 μg/cm2), but not on skin. Workers who ate strawberries had higher MDA levels in urine (median=114.5 vs 39.4 μg/g creatinine, p<0.01). These findings suggest that wearing gloves reduces pesticide exposure to workers contacting strawberry foliage containing dislodgeable residues. Additionally, wearing gloves and removing work clothes before returning home could reduce transport of pesticides to worker homes. Behavioral interventions are needed to reduce consumption of strawberries in the field. PMID:18368011

  8. Evaluation of Atoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus as Potential Biocontrol Agents for Aflatoxin in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination resulting from maize infection by Aspergillus flavus is both an economic concern and public health concern. Therefore, strategies for controlling maize contamination are being investigated. Abilities of 11 naturally occurring atoxigenic strains in Nigeria to reduce aflatox...

  9. Identification of QTL contributing resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toxic metabolic product aflatoxin produced by the saprophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus (Link:Fr) in maize (Zea mays L.) can cause health and economic harm when levels exceed very minute quantities. The selection of resistant germplasm has great potential to reduce the problem, but the highly q...

  10. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Reduces Vitamin D3 in the Blood Stream and Respiratory Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... respiratory tract Share | Exposure to cigarette smoke reduces vitamin D3 in the blood stream and respiratory tract ... be understood as to how smoke causes inflammation. Vitamin D3 has anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. ...

  11. Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Development of Strategies to Interrupt Aflatoxin Formation and Discovery of Fungal Enzymes for Biofuel Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus produces toxic and the most carcinogenic mycotoxins, the aflatoxins. The primary objectives of our A. flavus genomics program are to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination in food and feed and control fungal infection in preharvest crops such as corn, cotton, peanut and tre...

  12. BIOCOMPETITIVE EXCLUSION OF AFLATOXIN PRODUCING FUNGI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic cancer causing Aspergillus metabolites that cause immune-system suppression, growth retardation, cancer and death in both humans and domestic animals. Aflatoxin-producing species have considerable intraspecific variability, and the species that causes most aflatoxin cont...

  13. Comparative Genomics in Identifying Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus produces the most toxic and the most carcinogenic mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 and B2. In order to solve aflatoxin contamination of food commodities, A. flavus genomics tools for identification of genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis have been employed. A. flavus Expressed Seque...

  14. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  15. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection...

  16. Aflatoxin B1 induced upregulation of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ghufran, Md Sajid; Ghosh, Krishna; Kanade, Santosh R

    2016-09-01

    The exposure of naturally occurring mycotoxins affects human health and play a vital role in cancer initiation and progression. Aflatoxin B1 is a difuranocoumarin mycotoxin, classified as a group I carcinogen. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of aflatoxin B1 on epigenetic regulatory proteins. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 expression was induced upon aflatoxin B1 treatment in a dose and time dependent manner. Further global arginine methylation was also increased in the same manner. This is the first report showing the induction of epigenetic regulatory protein, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 upon aflatoxin B1 treatment. Further study is required to establish the detailed pathway of PRMT5 induction. PMID:27242039

  17. Response of a Mu-class glutathione S-transferase from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to aflatoxin B1 exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Liu, Lihui; Huang, Jianhua; Duan, Yafei; Wang, Jun; Fu, Mingjun; Lin, Heizhao

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional phase II enzymes that are involved in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous compounds. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Mu-class GST (PmMuGST) was isolated from the hepatopancreas of Penaeus monodon using rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The full length cDNA of PmMuGST is 867 bp, contains an open read frame of 660 bp, and encodes a polypeptide of 219 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.61 kDa and pI of 6.15. Sequence analysis indicated that the predicted protein sequence of PmMuGST was very similar to (86 %) that of Litopenaeus vannamei. A conserved domain of GST_N_Mu_like (PSSM: cd03075) and GST_C_family_superfamily_like (PSSM: cl02776) was indentified in PmMuGST. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that PmMuGST was present in all of the tested tissues. PmMuGST transcripts both in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle were significantly induced after 14 days of treatment with a low dosage of AFB1 (50 μg/kg) exposure and were significantly inhibited after 42 and 56 days of a high dosage of AFB1 (1000, 2500 μg/kg AFB1) exposure. Taken together, the Mu-class GST from P. monodon was inducible and was involved in the response to AFB1 exposure. PMID:27386274

  18. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  19. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  20. Aflatoxins ingestion and canine mammary tumors: There is an association?

    PubMed

    Frehse, M S; Martins, M I M; Ono, E Y S; Bracarense, A P F R L; Bissoqui, L Y; Teixeira, E M K; Santos, N J R; Freire, R L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of mycotoxins on dogs feed and to explore the potential association between mycotoxins exposure and the chance of mamary tumors in a case-control study. The study included 256 female dogs from a hospital population, 85 with mammary tumors (case group) and 171 without mammary tumors (control group). An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to both groups, and the data were analyzed by the EpiInfo statistical package. For the study, 168 samples of the feed offered to dogs were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mycotoxins were found in 79 samples (100%) in the case group and 87/89 (97.8%) in the control group. Mycotoxins were detected in all types of feed, regardless feed quality. Level of aflatoxin B1 (p = 0.0356, OR = 2.74, 95%, CI 1.13 to 6.60), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (p = 0.00007, OR = 4.60, 95%, CI = 2.16 to 9.79), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) (p = 0.0133, OR = 9.91, 95%, CI 1.21 to 81.15) were statistically higher in case of mammary cancer. In contrast, neutering was a protective factor for mammary cancer (p = 0.0004, OR = 0.32, 95%, CI = 0.17 to 0.60). PMID:26271706

  1. Effect of sensory exposure on liking for fat- or sugar-reduced biscuits.

    PubMed

    Biguzzi, Coralie; Lange, Christine; Schlich, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of exposure to fat- or sugar-reduced biscuits on liking for these products. Two sets of biscuits were manufactured, each including a standard variant and 4 variants differing by the level of reduction of either fat or sugar content, to 33% of fat content or 28% of sugar content. Biscuit consumers were recruited to eat either the fat (n = 113) or the sugar-reduced set of biscuits (n = 106). They participated in 5 testing sessions, once a week, in laboratory conditions. During each session, they rated their liking of the 5 variants. At the end of each of the 4 first sessions, consumers were given 16 biscuits for their home consumption during the week. Participants were split into 3 groups of exposure: every week, a control group received the standard variant, a "direct" group received the most reduced variant and a "stepwise" group received a more and more reduced variant. After both control and stepwise exposure, almost no evolution of liking was observed. At the end of the direct exposure period to the 33% fat-reduced variant, liking for this variant significantly improved. On the contrary, after the direct exposure to the 28% sugar-reduced variant, liking only improved for 9 and 16% sugar-reduced variants. PMID:26145272

  2. Effectiveness of pulsed light treatment for degradation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in rough rice and rice bran

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins primarily accumulate in the hull and bran layers of rough rice making these by-products of rice milling unsuitable for animal feed or human consumption. Contaminated rough rice is also a potential source of aflatoxin exposure to workers handling the grain during post-harvest storage and p...

  3. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

    PubMed Central

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. PMID:26512692

  4. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water.

    PubMed

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-10-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. PMID:26512692

  5. Synthetic materials to reduce exposure to mycotoxins in fermented foods and beverages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are a broad class of toxic fungal metabolites that occasionally contaminate agricultural commodities. Mycotoxin contamination reduces the value of affected commodities and negatively impacts the health of consumers. A popular approach to reduce the effects of exposure to mycotoxins is the...

  6. Time reducing exposure containing 18 fluorine flourodeoxyglucose master vial dispensing in hot lab: Omega technique.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vatturi Venkata Satya Prabhakar; Manthri, Ranadheer; Hemalatha, Pottumuthu; Kumar, Vuyyuru Navin; Azhar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Hot lab dispensing of large doses of 18 fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose in master vials supplied from the cyclotrons requires high degrees of skill to handle high doses. Presently practiced conventional method of fractionating from the inverted tiltable vial pig mounted on a metal frame has its own limitations such as increasing isotope handling times and exposure to the technologist. Innovative technique devised markedly improves the fractionating efficiency along with speed, precision, and reduced dose exposure. PMID:27095872

  7. Time reducing exposure containing 18 fluorine flourodeoxyglucose master vial dispensing in hot lab: Omega technique

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vatturi Venkata Satya Prabhakar; Manthri, Ranadheer; Hemalatha, Pottumuthu; Kumar, Vuyyuru Navin; Azhar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Hot lab dispensing of large doses of 18 fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose in master vials supplied from the cyclotrons requires high degrees of skill to handle high doses. Presently practiced conventional method of fractionating from the inverted tiltable vial pig mounted on a metal frame has its own limitations such as increasing isotope handling times and exposure to the technologist. Innovative technique devised markedly improves the fractionating efficiency along with speed, precision, and reduced dose exposure. PMID:27095872

  8. Phenanthrene exposure induces cardiac hypertrophy via reducing miR-133a expression by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lixing; Xi, Zhihui; Wang, Chonggang; Zhang, Youyu; Yang, Zhibing; Zhang, Shiqi; Chen, Yixin; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that there is an emerging link between environmental pollution and cardiac hypertrophy, while the mechanism is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether phenanthrene (Phe) could cause cardiac hypertrophy, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. We found that: 1) Phe exposure increased the heart weight and cardiomyocyte size of rats; 2) Phe exposure led to enlarged cell size, and increased protein synthesis in H9C2 cells; 3) Phe exposure induced important markers of cardiac hypertrophy, such as atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and c-Myc in H9C2 cells and rat hearts; 4) Phe exposure perturbed miR-133a, CdC42 and RhoA, which were key regulators of cardiac hypertrophy, in H9C2 cells and rat hearts; 5) Phe exposure induced DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in H9C2 cells and rat hearts; 6) Phe exposure led to methylation of CpG sites within the miR-133a locus and reduced miR-133a expression in H9C2 cells; 7) DNMT inhibition and miR-133a overexpression could both alleviate the enlargement of cell size and perturbation of CdC42 and RhoA caused by Phe exposure. These results indicated that Phe could induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the rat and H9C2 cells. The mechanism might involve reducing miR-133a expression by DNA methylation. PMID:26830171

  9. Intrauterine Exposure to Paracetamol and Aniline Impairs Female Reproductive Development by Reducing Follicle Reserves and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Chalmey, Clementine; Jensen, Benjamin; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne; Svingen, Terje; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Koch, Holger Martin; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter; Jégou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2016-03-01

    Studies report that fetal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen by maternal consumption can interfere with male reproductive development. Moreover, recent biomonitoring data report widespread presence of paracetamol in German and Danish populations, suggesting exposure via secondary (nonpharmaceutical) sources, such as metabolic conversion from the ubiquitous industrial compound aniline. In this study, we investigated the extent to which paracetamol and aniline can interfere with female reproductive development. Intrauterine exposure to paracetamol by gavage of pregnant dams resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in adult offspring, suggesting that fetal hormone signaling had been disturbed. Female offspring of paracetamol-exposed mothers had ovaries with diminished follicle reserve and reduced fertility. Fetal gonads of exposed animals had also reduced gonocyte numbers, suggesting that the reduced follicle count in adults could be due to early disruption of germ cell development. However, ex vivo cultures of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum fetuses showed no decrease in proliferation or expression following exposure to paracetamol. This suggests that the effect of paracetamol occurs prior to this developmental stage. Accordingly, using embryonic stem cells as a proxy for primordial germ cells we show that paracetamol is an inhibitor of cellular proliferation, but without cytotoxic effects. Collectively, our data show that intrauterine exposure to paracetamol at levels commonly observed in pregnant women, as well as its precursor aniline, may block primordial germ cell proliferation, ultimately leading to reduced follicle reserves and compromised reproductive capacity later in life. PMID:26732887

  10. Aflatoxins as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in humans.

    PubMed

    Wogan, G N

    1992-04-01

    On a global basis, primary liver cancer (PLC) is a very prevalent form of cancer. Wide variation of PLC incidence in different areas of the world suggests the involvement of environmental factors in its etiology. Two major classes of risk factors have been identified. Extensive evidence indicates the importance of infection by the hepatitis B virus as a major risk factor for PLC. Because many organic chemicals induce liver cancer in experimental animals, those to which human exposure is known to occur are also of interest with respect to their possible involvement as risk factors for PLC. Particular emphasis has been placed on aflatoxins because of the frequency with which they occur as food contaminants, together with their potency as liver carcinogens for a large number of experimental animals, including subhuman primates. Other mycotoxins, notably sterigmatocystin and fumonisin, also are relatively potent carcinogens for the liver of animals, but little is known about human exposure to them. Epidemiological surveys carried out over the past 25 years in Asia and Africa have revealed a strong statistical association between aflatoxin ingestion and PLC incidence. The combined experimental and epidemiological evidence has led to designation of aflatoxins as human carcinogens according to International Agency for Cancer Research criteria. Collectively, current evidence strongly suggests that PLC is of multifactorial origin, with probable interactions between viral and chemical agents in populations concurrently exposed to both classes of risk factors. Recently developed methods that permit individual monitoring of aflatoxin exposure, hepatitis B virus infection, and genetic damage caused by these agents are being applied in the design of molecular and biochemical epidemiological studies of the etiology of the disease. Application of this methodology may contribute to elucidation of the relative importance of interacting etiological agents in different populations

  11. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  12. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  13. The efficacy of bamboo charcoal in comparison with smectite to reduce the detrimental effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro rumen fermentation of a hay-rich feed mixture.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ya-Hui; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hong-Jian; Chen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Two commercial materials, a bamboo charcoal (BC) and a smectite clay (SC), were assessed in vitro with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in an equilibrium adsorption test. The adsorption capacity and proportion adsorbed (0.381 μg/mg, 0.955) for BC were greater than for SC (0.372 μg/mg, 0.931). The effects of in vitro ruminal fermentation of hay-rich feed incubated with 1.0 μg/mL AFB1 for 0-10 g/L doses of BC and SC were measured at 39 °C for 72 h. The BC and SC binders increased AFB1 loss at dosages ≥1.0 g/L (p < 0.0001). Average AFB1 loss (p < 0.0001) was greater for SC (0.904) than BC (0.881). Both SC and SC addition increased in vitro dry matter loss, and the average dry matter losses were similar. Asymptotic gas volume and volatile fatty acid production were greater for BC than for SC (p < 0.0001). Thus, BC may be as effective as SC in removing aflatoxin B1's detrimental effects on rumen degradability and fermentation under the occurrence of microbial aflatoxin degradation. PMID:25014194

  14. The Efficacy of Bamboo Charcoal in Comparison with Smectite to Reduce the Detrimental Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on In Vitro Rumen Fermentation of a Hay-Rich Feed Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ya-Hui; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hong-Jian; Chen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Two commercial materials, a bamboo charcoal (BC) and a smectite clay (SC), were assessed in vitro with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in an equilibrium adsorption test. The adsorption capacity and proportion adsorbed (0.381 μg/mg, 0.955) for BC were greater than for SC (0.372 μg/mg, 0.931). The effects of in vitro ruminal fermentation of hay-rich feed incubated with 1.0 μg/mL AFB1 for 0–10 g/L doses of BC and SC were measured at 39 °C for 72 h. The BC and SC binders increased AFB1 loss at dosages ≥1.0 g/L (p < 0.0001). Average AFB1 loss (p < 0.0001) was greater for SC (0.904) than BC (0.881). Both SC and SC addition increased in vitro dry matter loss, and the average dry matter losses were similar. Asymptotic gas volume and volatile fatty acid production were greater for BC than for SC (p < 0.0001). Thus, BC may be as effective as SC in removing aflatoxin B1’s detrimental effects on rumen degradability and fermentation under the occurrence of microbial aflatoxin degradation. PMID:25014194

  15. Maresin-1 reduces airway inflammation associated with acute and repetitive exposures to organic dust.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Tara M; Bauer, Christopher D; Heires, Art J; Poole, Jill A; Wyatt, Todd A; West, William W; Romberger, Debra J

    2015-07-01

    Agriculture industry workers are at a higher risk for chronic bronchitis and obstructive pulmonary diseases, and current therapeutics are not entirely effective. We previously found that the specialized proresolving lipid mediator maresin-1 (MaR1) reduced proinflammatory cytokine release and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in bronchial epithelial cells exposed to extracts of organic dust (DE) derived from swine confinement facilities in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine whether MaR1 is effective at limiting lung inflammation associated with acute and repetitive exposures to DE in an established murine model of inhalant dust exposures. C57Bl/6 mice were treated with MaR1 or vehicle control and intranasally instilled with DE once or daily for 3 weeks. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for total and differential cell counts and proinflammatory cytokine levels, and lung tissues were assessed for histopathology and ICAM-1 expression. In both single and repetitive DE exposure studies, MaR1 significantly decreased bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil infiltration, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1 levels without altering repetitive DE-induced bronchioalveolar inflammation or lymphoid aggregate formation. Lung tissue ICAM-1 expression was also reduced in both single and repetitive exposure studies. These data suggest that MaR1 might contribute to an effective strategy to reduce airway inflammatory diseases induced by agricultural-related organic dust environmental exposures. PMID:25655838

  16. Exposure to inhaled isobutyl nitrite reduces T cell-dependent responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, L.S.F.; Barnett, J.B. )

    1991-03-11

    Isobutyl nitrite is a drug of abuse popular among male homosexuals and among adolescents. In order to approximate the nitrite exposures of inhalant abusers, mice were treated with 900 ppm isobutyl nitrite in an inhalation chamber for 45 min per day for 14 days. At 72 hr after the last exposure, mice were assayed for immune competence. Under these conditions, mice gained only half the weight of mice exposed to air. The spleens of nitrite exposed mice weighed 15% less and had 24% fewer cells per spleen than controls. Adjusted for equal cell numbers, T cell mitogenic and allogeneic proliferative responses were significantly reduce by 33% and 47%, respectively. Unstimulated spleen cells had elevated levels of IL-2 transcription following exposure to isobutyl nitrite suggesting that nitrite inhalation caused a nonspecific induction of T cells. In contrast, B cell proliferative responses to LPS were unaltered. Exposure to the nitrite reduced the frequency of T-dependent antibody plaque-forming cells (PFC) by 63% and the total number of reduced by 60% after as few as five daily exposures to isobutyl nitrite. Therefore, the data suggest that habitual inhalation of isobutyl nitrite impairs immune competence and that toxicity appears to be directed toward T cell functions.

  17. Aflatoxin control through transgenic approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of preharvest aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops such as corn, cotton, peanut, and tree nuts is possible through time consuming and expensive agronomic practices. Breeding for disease-resistant crops is also very time consuming and does not lend itself readily to combat the evolut...

  18. The Evolution of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biosynthesis of aflatoxin (AF) involves over 20 enzymatic reactions in a complex polyketide pathway that converts acetate and malonate to the intermediates sterigmatocystin (ST) and O-methylsterigmatocysin (OMST), the respective penultimate and ultimate precursors of AF. Although ST, OMST, and ...

  19. Using Behavior Change to Reduce Child Lead Exposure in Resource-Poor Settings: A Formative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feit, M. N.; Mathee, A.; Harpham, T.; Barnes, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this formative research was to explore the acceptability and feasibility of changing housekeeping behaviors as a low-cost approach that may reduce childhood lead exposure in Johannesburg, South Africa. Using the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) methodology, modified housekeeping behaviors were negotiated with participants who…

  20. Hazardous Chemicals on the Job: A Workers Guide to Reducing Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Fran; Kayman, Lindsey

    This guide is intended to assist workers in reducing their exposure to hazardous chemicals on the job. It describes a systematic preventive approach to hazardous chemicals that is based on the following steps: determining which chemicals are in use at a particular worksite (techniques for asking the company and steps to take if the company is…

  1. A Community-Based Initiative to Reduce Children's Exposure to Toxics in Household Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Anne Berlin; Luskin, Jack

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to explore the efficacy of a community-based outreach initiative, piloted in Worcester, Massachusetts, to reduce children's exposure to toxic chemicals in common household products by changing parental behavior regarding product purchase and use. Design/methodology/approach--The program model was based on the…

  2. A Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution: Identifying Possible Target Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Brendon R.; Mathee, Angela; Shafritz, Lonna B.; Krieger, Laurie; Zimicki, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution has been causally linked to acute lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5. The aim of this study was to identify target behaviors for a behavioral intervention to reduce child exposure to indoor air pollution by attempting to answer two research questions: Which behaviors are protective of child respiratory…

  3. Prolonged head-down tilt exposure reduces maximal cutaneous vasodilator and sweating capacity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Shibasaki, M.; Wilson, T. E.; Cui, J.; Levine, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    Cutaneous vasodilation and sweat rate are reduced during a thermal challenge after simulated and actual microgravity exposure. The effects of microgravity exposure on cutaneous vasodilator capacity and on sweat gland function are unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that simulated microgravity exposure, using the 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest model, reduces maximal forearm cutaneous vascular conductance (FVC) and sweat gland function and that exercise during HDT preserves these responses. To test these hypotheses, 20 subjects were exposed to 14 days of strict HDT bed rest. Twelve of those subjects exercised (supine cycle ergometry) at 75% of pre-bed rest heart rate maximum for 90 min/day throughout HDT bed rest. Before and after HDT bed rest, maximal FVC was measured, via plethysmography, by heating the entire forearm to 42 degrees C for 45 min. Sweat gland function was assessed by administering 1 x 10(-6) to 2 M acetylcholine (9 doses) via intradermal microdialysis while simultaneously monitoring sweat rate over the microdialysis membranes. In the nonexercise group, maximal FVC and maximal stimulated sweat rate were significantly reduced after HDT bed rest. In contrast, these responses were unchanged in the exercise group. These data suggest that 14 days of simulated microgravity exposure, using the HDT bed rest model, reduces cutaneous vasodilator and sweating capacity, whereas aerobic exercise training during HDT bed rest preserves these responses.

  4. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer's health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested for their aflatoxigenic ability. Almond samples were tested for aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-fluorescence. In total, 352 fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Portuguese almonds: 127 were identified as A. flavus (of which 28% produced aflatoxins B), 196 as typical or atypical A. parasiticus (all producing aflatoxins B and G), and 29 as A. tamarii (all nonaflatoxigenic). Aflatoxins were detected in only one sample at 4.97 μg/kg. PMID:22666128

  5. Attempts to reduce exposure to fungi, β-glucan, bacteria, endotoxin and dust in vegetable greenhouses and a packaging unit.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Frederiksen, Margit W

    2014-01-15

    Indoor handling of large amounts of plant materials occurs in different occupational settings including greenhouses and causes exposure to bioaerosols. The bioaerosol components fungi, β-glucan, bacteria and endotoxin are involved in different airway symptoms and health effects can be dose-dependent. Therefore, there is a persistent need to reduce exposure. The aims of this study were to identify tasks causing exposure and to evaluate preventive measures aimed at reducing exposure of greenhouse workers to bioaerosols, and to study factors affecting the exposure. We have focused on different exposure scenarios; one with high short-term exposure found during clearing of old cucumber plants; the other with long-term, mid-level exposure found during tomato picking, leaf nipping, stringing up tomato plants, and packaging of cucumbers. Clearing of non-dried cucumber plants compared with clearing of dried cucumber plants significantly reduced the exposure to dust, endotoxin, bacteria, fungal spores and β-glucan. More endotoxin and fungi are emitted and more of the emitted particles were of respirable size if the leaves were dried. Along the cucumber packaging line, exposure levels were highly specific to each personal subtask. The subtask 'unloading of cucumbers' was the source of exposure making task ventilation or shielding of the process a possibility. Elimination of leaf debris on the floor reduced the exposure to fungi significantly. However, leaf debris on the floor did not contribute significantly to the exposure to dust, endotoxin and bacteria. Furthermore, to eliminate leaf debris, it had to be cleared away and this was associated with a higher exposure to dust and endotoxin. The age of the plants affected the exposure level to bioaerosols with higher exposures from old plants. In conclusion, different tasks and subtasks cause very different exposure levels. It is possible to reduce exposure by identifying subtasks causing the exposure and by modifying work

  6. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Brian R.; Ross, Brennan; Chou, Joan Wang; Khankan, Rana; Khialeeva, Elvira; Bui, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors—reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon—gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescent and young adult mice. In the current study, we examine the consequences of these factors on reelin protein expression and neuronal cell morphology in adult mice. While the cell populations that express reelin in the adult brain appear unchanged in location and distribution, the levels of full length and cleaved reelin protein show persistent reductions following prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon. Cell positioning and organization in the hippocampus and cerebellum are largely normal in animals with either reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, but cellular complexity and dendritic spine organization is altered, with a skewed distribution of immature dendritic spines in adult animals. Paradoxically, combinatorial exposure to both factors appears to generate a rescue of the dendritic spine phenotypes, similar to the mitigation of behavioral and morphological changes observed in our prior study. Together, our observations support an interaction between reelin expression and chlorpyrifos oxon exposure that is not simply additive, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors in regulating brain morphology. PMID:27364165

  7. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Brian R; Ross, Brennan; Chou, Joan Wang; Khankan, Rana; Khialeeva, Elvira; Bui, Kimberly; Carpenter, Ellen M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors-reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon-gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescent and young adult mice. In the current study, we examine the consequences of these factors on reelin protein expression and neuronal cell morphology in adult mice. While the cell populations that express reelin in the adult brain appear unchanged in location and distribution, the levels of full length and cleaved reelin protein show persistent reductions following prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon. Cell positioning and organization in the hippocampus and cerebellum are largely normal in animals with either reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, but cellular complexity and dendritic spine organization is altered, with a skewed distribution of immature dendritic spines in adult animals. Paradoxically, combinatorial exposure to both factors appears to generate a rescue of the dendritic spine phenotypes, similar to the mitigation of behavioral and morphological changes observed in our prior study. Together, our observations support an interaction between reelin expression and chlorpyrifos oxon exposure that is not simply additive, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors in regulating brain morphology. PMID:27364165

  8. Monitoring and reducing exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John W; Wallace, Lance A; Camann, David E; Dickey, Philip; Gilbert, Steven G; Lewis, Robert G; Takaro, Tim K

    2009-01-01

    The health risks to babies from pollutants in house dust may be 100 times greater than for adults. The young ingest more dust and are up to ten times more vulnerable to such exposures. House dust is the main exposure source for infants to allergens, lead, and PBDEs, as well as a major source of exposure to pesticides, PAHs, Gram-negative bacteria, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, phthalates, phenols, and other EDCs, mutagens, and carcinogens. Median or upper percentile concentrations in house dust of lead and several pesticides and PAHs may exceed health-based standards in North America. Early contact with pollutants among the very young is associated with higher rates of chronic illness such as asthma, loss of intelligence, ADHD, and cancer in children and adults. The potential of infants, who live in areas with soil contaminated by automotive and industrial emissions, can be given more protection by improved home cleaning and hand washing. Babies who live in houses built before 1978 have a prospective need for protection against lead exposures; homes built before 1940 have even higher lead exposure risks. The concentration of pollutants in house dust may be 2-32 times higher than that found in the soil near a house. Reducing infant exposures, at this critical time in their development, may reduce lifetime health costs, improve early learning, and increase adult productivity. Some interventions show a very rapid payback. Two large studies provide evidence that home visits to reduce the exposure of children with poorly controlled asthma triggers may return more than 100% on investment in 1 yr in reduced health costs. The tools provided to families during home visits, designed to reduce dust exposures, included vacuum cleaners with dirt finders and HEPA filtration, allergy control bedding covers, high-quality door mats, and HEPA air filters. Infants receive their highest exposure to pollutants in dust at home, where they spend the most time, and where the family has the

  9. Estimating aflatoxin in farmers' stock peanut lots by measuring aflatoxin in various peanut-grade components.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, T B; Hagler, W M; Giesbrecht, F G; Dorner, J W; Dowell, F E; Cole, R J

    1998-01-01

    Five, 2 kg test samples were taken from each of 120 farmers' stock peanut lots contaminated with aflatoxin. Kernels from each 2 kg sample were divided into the following grade components: sound mature kernels plus sound splits (SMKSS), other kernels (OK), loose shelled kernels (LSK), and damaged kernels (DAM). Kernel mass, aflatoxin mass, and aflatoxin concentration were measured for each of the 2400 component samples. For 120 lots tested, average aflatoxin concentrations in SMKSS, OK, LSK, and DAM components were 235, 2543, 11,775, and 69,775 ng/g, respectively. Aflatoxins in SMKSS, OK, LSK, and DAM components represented 6.9, 7.9, 33.3, and 51.9% of the total aflatoxin mass, respectively. Cumulatively, 3 aflatoxin risk components--OK, LSK, and DAM--accounted for 93.1% of total aflatoxin, but only 18.4% percent of test sample mass. Correlation analysis suggests that the most accurate predictor of aflatoxin concentration in the lot is the cumulative aflatoxin mass in the high 3 risk components OK + LSK + DAM (correlation coefficient, r = 0.996). If the aflatoxin in the combined OK + LSK + DAM components is expressed in concentration units, r decreases to 0.939. Linear regression equations relating aflatoxin in OK + LSK + DAM to aflatoxin concentration in the lot were developed. The cumulative aflatoxin in the OK + LSK + DAM components was not an accurate predictor (r = 0.539) of aflatoxin in the SMKSS component. Statistical analyses of 3 other data sets published previously yielded similar results. PMID:9477563

  10. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  11. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  12. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  13. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  14. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by molds, which can be spread in improperly processed and stored nuts, dried fruits and grains....

  15. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  16. Very brief exposure II: the effects of unreportable stimuli on reducing phobic behavior.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Paul; Anderson, Jason F; Han, Edward

    2011-06-01

    This experiment compared the effects of exposure to masked phobic stimuli at a very brief stimulus-onset asynchrony on spider-phobic and non-phobic individuals. Participants were identified through a widely used questionnaire and a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT) with a live, caged tarantula to establish baseline levels of avoidance. One week later, they were individually administered one of two continuous series of masked images: spiders or flowers. Preliminary masking experiments showed that independent samples of participants from the same populations failed to recognize these stimuli. Participants in the main experiment reported ratings of subjective distress immediately before and after the exposure manipulation. Then they engaged in the BAT once again. Very brief exposure to images of spiders reduced phobic participants' avoidance of the tarantula. No effects were evidenced on subjective distress, or on non-phobic participants. Theoretical implications for the non-conscious basis of fear are discussed. PMID:21334225

  17. The two genome sequence release and blast server construction for aflatoxin-producing L and S strains Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites. These compounds, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, contaminate pre-harvest agricultural crops in the field and post-harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed...

  18. Effect of nontoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on aflatoxin contamination of wounded peanut seeds inoculated with agricultural soil containing natural fungal populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts and other seed and grain crops are commonly contaminated with carcinogenic aflatoxins, secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin contamination of peanuts in the field can be reduced by 77 to 98% with biological control through the application of nont...

  19. Vision 20/20: Increased image resolution versus reduced radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ritman, Erik L.

    2008-06-15

    This is a review of methods, currently and potentially, available for significantly reducing x-ray exposure in medical x-ray imaging. It is stimulated by the radiation exposure implications of the growing use of helical scanning, multislice, x-ray computed tomography for screening, such as for coronary artery atherosclerosis and cancer of the colon and lungs. Screening requires high-throughput imaging with high spatial and contrast resolution to meet the need for high sensitivity and specificity of detection and classification of specific imaged features. To achieve this goal beyond what is currently available with x-ray imaging methods requires increased x-ray exposure, which increases the risk of tissue damage and ultimately cancer development. These consequences limit the utility of current x-ray imaging in screening of at-risk subjects who have not yet developed the clinical symptoms of disease. Current methods for reducing x-ray exposure in x-ray imaging, mostly achieved by increasing sensitivity and specificity of the x-ray detection process, may still have potential for an up-to-tenfold decrease. This could be sufficient for doubling the spatial resolution of x-ray CT while maintaining the current x-ray exposure levels. However, a spatial resolution four times what is currently available might be needed to adequately meet the needs for screening. Consequently, for the proposed need to increase spatial resolution, an additional order of magnitude of reduction of x-ray exposure would be needed just to keep the radiation exposure at current levels. This is conceivably achievable if refraction, rather than the currently used attenuation, of x rays is used to generate the images. Existing methods that have potential for imaging the consequences of refracted x ray in a clinical setting are (1) by imaging the edge enhancement that occurs at the interfaces between adjacent tissues of different refractive indices, or (2) by imaging the changes in interference

  20. Smoke exposure of human macrophages reduces HDAC3 activity, resulting in enhanced inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Aaron R; Nocka, Karl N; Williams, Cara M M

    2012-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating condition resulting from exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Pulmonary macrophages secrete a plethora of inflammatory mediators that are increased in the lungs of COPD patients, but whether this phenotype results directly from smoke exposure remains unknown. Using an in vitro model for alveolar macrophages (AM) derived from human peripheral blood monocytes with granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-MØ), we analyzed the mechanistic connection between cigarette smoke exposure and histone deacetylase (HDAC) regulation, hypothesized to be a contributing factor in COPD pathophysiology. Here we show that acute smoke exposure inhibits HDAC enzymatic activity in GM-MØ. Analysis of mRNA and total cellular proteins for expression of class I (1, 2, 3 and 8), class II (4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10), and class IV (11) HDAC revealed no effect of smoke exposure, whereas nuclear HDAC3 protein content was reduced. To better understand the physiological significance of reduced HDAC3 activity, we utilized siRNA to knockdown HDAC1, 2 and 3 individually. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated reduction of HDAC3 resulted in increased production of IL8 and IL1β in response to LPS stimulation, while HDAC2 knockdown had no effect on either cytokine. Lower nuclear content of HDAC3 in the context of equivalent total HDAC protein levels following smoke exposure may reflect increased nuclear export of HDAC3, allowing increased nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB ) driven cytokine expression that can contribute to inflammation. PMID:22613758

  1. Reducing prenatal phthalate exposure through maternal dietary changes: results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Methods Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for three days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Results Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F=0.21; adjusted p-value=0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t=−1.07, adjusted p-value=0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  2. Reducing Prenatal Phthalate Exposure Through Maternal Dietary Changes: Results from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Emily S; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2015-09-01

    Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for 3 days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F = 0.21; adjusted p value = 0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t = -1.07, adjusted p value = 0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  3. Fetal Cyclophosphamide Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer and Reduced Spermatogenesis and Ovarian Follicle Numbers in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Comish, Paul B.; Drumond, Ana Luiza; Kinnell, Hazel L.; Anderson, Richard A.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.; Shetty, Gunapala

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to radiation during fetal development induces testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and reduces spermatogenesis in mice. However, whether DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents elicit these effects in mice remains unclear. Among such agents, cyclophosphamide (CP) is currently used to treat breast cancer in pregnant women, and the effects of fetal exposure to this drug manifested in the offspring must be better understood to offer such patients suitable counseling. The present study was designed to determine whether fetal exposure to CP induces testicular cancer and/or gonadal toxicity in 129 and in 129.MOLF congenic (L1) mice. Exposure to CP on embryonic days 10.5 and 11.5 dramatically increased TGCT incidence to 28% in offspring of 129 mice (control value, 2%) and to 80% in the male offspring of L1 (control value 33%). These increases are similar to those observed in both lines of mice by radiation. In utero exposure to CP also significantly reduced testis weights at 4 weeks of age to ∼70% of control and induced atrophic seminiferous tubules in ∼30% of the testes. When the in utero CP-exposed 129 mice reached adulthood, there were significant reductions in testicular and epididymal sperm counts to 62% and 70%, respectively, of controls. In female offspring, CP caused the loss of 77% of primordial follicles and increased follicle growth activation. The results indicate that i) DNA damage is a common mechanism leading to induction of testicular cancer, ii) increased induction of testis cancer by external agents is proportional to the spontaneous incidence due to inherent genetic susceptibility, and iii) children exposed to radiation or DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents in utero may have increased risks of developing testis cancer and having reduced spermatogenic potential or diminished reproductive lifespan. PMID:24691397

  4. Fetal cyclophosphamide exposure induces testicular cancer and reduced spermatogenesis and ovarian follicle numbers in mice.

    PubMed

    Comish, Paul B; Drumond, Ana Luiza; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L; Shetty, Gunapala

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to radiation during fetal development induces testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and reduces spermatogenesis in mice. However, whether DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents elicit these effects in mice remains unclear. Among such agents, cyclophosphamide (CP) is currently used to treat breast cancer in pregnant women, and the effects of fetal exposure to this drug manifested in the offspring must be better understood to offer such patients suitable counseling. The present study was designed to determine whether fetal exposure to CP induces testicular cancer and/or gonadal toxicity in 129 and in 129.MOLF congenic (L1) mice. Exposure to CP on embryonic days 10.5 and 11.5 dramatically increased TGCT incidence to 28% in offspring of 129 mice (control value, 2%) and to 80% in the male offspring of L1 (control value 33%). These increases are similar to those observed in both lines of mice by radiation. In utero exposure to CP also significantly reduced testis weights at 4 weeks of age to ∼ 70% of control and induced atrophic seminiferous tubules in ∼ 30% of the testes. When the in utero CP-exposed 129 mice reached adulthood, there were significant reductions in testicular and epididymal sperm counts to 62% and 70%, respectively, of controls. In female offspring, CP caused the loss of 77% of primordial follicles and increased follicle growth activation. The results indicate that i) DNA damage is a common mechanism leading to induction of testicular cancer, ii) increased induction of testis cancer by external agents is proportional to the spontaneous incidence due to inherent genetic susceptibility, and iii) children exposed to radiation or DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents in utero may have increased risks of developing testis cancer and having reduced spermatogenic potential or diminished reproductive lifespan. PMID:24691397

  5. Effectiveness of common shelter-in-place techniques in reducing ammonia exposure following accidental release.

    PubMed

    Tarkington, Brett; Harris, Angela J; Barton, Paul S; Chandler, Ben; Goad, Phillip T

    2009-04-01

    Shelter-in-place strategies such as remaining indoors; breathing through a damp cloth; sealing cracks in windows and doors using towels, duct tape, or plastic sheeting; and running a shower are often recommended by emergency response officials to protect against accidental or intentional release of hazardous airborne chemicals and biologicals. Similar recommendations have been made to and used by community members exposed to anhydrous ammonia after catastrophic release of ammonia gas due to a derailment or other accidents. Such incidents have resulted in fatalities and serious injury to exposed individuals; however, other individuals within the same area have escaped injury and, in many cases, sustained no injuries as a result of sheltering-in-place. Although there are some studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of remaining in the home or breathing through a damp cloth to reduce exposure to various agents, there have been no studies that directly address the efficacy of running the shower in reducing exposure to ammonia gas. The present study was designed to simulate sheltering-in-place inside a typical bathroom with the shower running. The effectiveness of breathing through a damp cloth was also evaluated using a CPR mannequin placed inside a chamber built to represent a typical household bathroom. Ammonia gas at 300 or 1000 ppm was added to the chamber until the concentration peaked and stabilized, then the shower was turned on and the ammonia gas concentration was continuously monitored. In the mannequin studies, using a damp cloth reduced exposure to ammonia gas by 2- to 18-fold. Turning on the shower was even more effective at reducing ammonia levels. After 27 min, the ammonia concentration in the chamber was reduced to 2% of the initial concentration, even though gas was being continuously added to the chamber. These results indicate that use of shelter-in-place strategies substantially reduces ammonia exposure and that by combining shelter

  6. Legislation reduces exposure to second‐hand tobacco smoke in New Zealand bars by about 90%

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Dinusha; Fowles, Jefferson; Woodward, Alistair; Christophersen, Annemarie; Dickson, Stuart; Hosking, Matthew; Berezowski, Richard; Lea, Rod A

    2007-01-01

    Aim To measure exposure to second‐hand smoke (SHS) in New Zealand bars before and after comprehensive smoke‐free legislation enacted on 10 December 2004. Methods Cotinine is the main specific metabolite of nicotine and a well‐established biomarker for SHS exposure. We measured cotinine levels in saliva of non‐smoking volunteers before and after a 3 h visit to 30 randomly selected bars in 3 cities across the country. Two measures of cotinine before the smoke‐free law change during winter and spring 2004, and two follow‐up measurements in the same volunteers and venues during winter and spring 2005, were included. Results Before the smoke‐free law change, in all bars and in all volunteers, exposure to SHS was evident with an average increase in saliva cotinine of 0.66 ng/ml (SE 0.03 ng/ml). Increases in cotinine correlated strongly with the volunteers' subjective observation of ventilation, air quality and counts of lit cigarettes. However, even venues that were judged to be “seemingly smoke free” with “good ventilation” produced discernable levels of SHS exposure. After the law change, there remained some exposure to SHS, but at much lower levels (mean saliva cotinine increase of 0.08 ng/ml, SE 0.01 ng/ml). Smoking indoors in bars was almost totally eliminated: in 2005 only one lit cigarette was observed in 30 visits. Conclusions Comprehensive smoke‐free legislation in New Zealand seems to have reduced exposure of bar patrons to SHS by about 90%. Residual exposures to SHS in bars do not result from illicit smoking indoors. PMID:17652238

  7. Exposure to sucrose during periods of withdrawal does not reduce cocaine-seeking behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Céline; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Solinas, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant access to drugs of abuse and alternative rewards such as sucrose has been shown to decrease addiction-related behaviors in animals. Here we investigated whether access to sucrose during abstinence in contexts that are temporally and physically distinct from drug-related contexts could reduce subsequent drug seeking. In addition, we investigated whether a history of cocaine self-administration would alter the rewarding effects of sucrose. Rats self-administered cocaine for ten sessions, while yoked-saline rats received only saline injections, and then we subjected them to a 30-day withdrawal period during which they had access to water and sucrose continuously or intermittently according to a schedule that induces binge-drinking behavior. At the end of the withdrawal period, rats were tested for cocaine seeking behavior during a single 6 h session. We found that exposure to cocaine increased sucrose consumption only when rats had intermittent access to sucrose, but exposure to sucrose did not alter drug seeking regardless of the schedule of access. These results suggest that exposure to cocaine cross-sensitizes to the rewarding effects of sucrose, but exposure to sucrose during abstinence, temporally and physically distinct from drug-related environments, does not to reduce drug seeking. PMID:26997496

  8. Chronic Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Reduces Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans Through Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tiantian; Li, Ping; Wu, Siyu; Li, Dan; Wu, Jingxuan; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M; He, Defu

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant. Although multiple adverse effects of PFOS have been demonstrated, whether PFOS can accelerate aging and affect animal longevity remains unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that a 50 h exposure to 0.2-200 µM PFOS reduced lifespan in a concentration dependent manner. In transgenic nematodes, lifespans are affected by mutations of daf-16, daf-2 or age-1 genes, which are related to the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling pathway (IIS). PFOS exposure caused an additional reduction in average lifespan in daf-2(e1370) and daf-16b(KO) nematodes. In contrast, daf-16(mu86) nematodes showed no additional reduction with PFOS exposure and age-1(hx546) mutants did not exhibit a reduction in lifespan with PFOS exposure, compared with wildtype nematodes. Overall, our findings demonstrate that PFOS exposure accelerates aging and shortens longevity of animals. The PFOS-induced effect may involve genes of the IIS pathway, particularly daf-16 and age-1. PMID:27095033

  9. Developmental Exposure to TCDD Reduces Fertility and Negatively Affects Pregnancy Outcomes across Multiple Generations

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known endocrine disruptor. Since humans and animals are most sensitive to toxicant exposure during development, we previously developed a mouse model of in utero TCDD exposure in order to examine the impact of this toxicant on adult reproductive function. Our initial in utero toxicant-exposure study revealed a dose-dependent reduction in uterine sensitivity to progesterone; however, we did not previously explore establishment or maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, in the current study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in adult C57BL/6 mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure. Herein we demonstrate reduced fertility and an increased incidence of premature birth (PTB) in F1 mice exposed in utero to TCDD as well as in three subsequent generations. Finally, our studies revealed that mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure exhibit an increased sensitivity to inflammation which further negatively impacted gestation length in all generations examined. PMID:20955784

  10. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco users: Clinical evaluation methodology

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jennifer N.; Breland, Alison B.; Weaver, Michael; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Several potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) for smokeless tobacco (SLT) users are marketed in the United States, though their effects are largely unknown. These products include some that are low in tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNs), like Stonewall, a pressed tobacco tablet, and General snus, a moist snuff product produced in Sweden. Methodology assessing the toxicant exposure and effects of cigarette-like PREPs for smokers has been developed, and might be modified for use in evaluating PREPs for SLT users. This report describes two studies examining the toxicant exposure and effects of two PREPs for SLT users. Study 1 (n = 13) consisted of four 4.5-hr laboratory sessions where SLT products (own brand, Stonewall, General snus, and tobacco-free placebo) were used for four 30-min episodes and nicotine exposure and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms were measured. Study 2 (n = 19) consisted of four 5-day ad libitum use periods when participants used own brand, Stonewall, General snus, or no SLT and urinary levels of metabolites of nicotine (cotinine) and the TSN 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNAL) and abstinence symptoms were measured. Compared with own brand, Stonewall was associated with lower levels of cotinine and NNAL, while General snus was associated with similar levels of cotinine and lower levels of NNAL. Abstinence symptoms generally did not differ across tobacco conditions. These results show that clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression associated with PREPs for SLT users. PMID:19023835

  11. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  12. Acute Exposure to Crystalline Silica Reduces Macrophage Activation in Response to Bacterial Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Gillian L.; Seaver, Benjamin P.; Jessop, Forrest; Shepherd, David M.; Beamer, Celine A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the relationship between alveolar macrophages (AMs) and crystalline silica (SiO2) using in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicity models; however, exactly how exposure to SiO2 alters the functionality of AM and the potential consequences for immunity to respiratory pathogens remains largely unknown. Because recognition and clearance of inhaled particulates and microbes are largely mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the surface of AM, we hypothesized that exposure to SiO2 limits the ability of AM to respond to bacterial challenge by altering PRR expression. Alveolar and bone marrow-derived macrophages downregulate TLR2 expression following acute SiO2 exposure (e.g., 4 h). Interestingly, these responses were dependent on interactions between SiO2 and the class A scavenger receptor CD204, but not MARCO. Furthermore, SiO2 exposure decreased uptake of fluorescently labeled Pam2CSK4 and Pam3CSK4, resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β, but not IL-6. Collectively, our data suggest that SiO2 exposure alters AM phenotype, which in turn affects their ability to uptake and respond to bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:26913035

  13. Acute Exposure to Crystalline Silica Reduces Macrophage Activation in Response to Bacterial Lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Gillian L; Seaver, Benjamin P; Jessop, Forrest; Shepherd, David M; Beamer, Celine A

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the relationship between alveolar macrophages (AMs) and crystalline silica (SiO2) using in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicity models; however, exactly how exposure to SiO2 alters the functionality of AM and the potential consequences for immunity to respiratory pathogens remains largely unknown. Because recognition and clearance of inhaled particulates and microbes are largely mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the surface of AM, we hypothesized that exposure to SiO2 limits the ability of AM to respond to bacterial challenge by altering PRR expression. Alveolar and bone marrow-derived macrophages downregulate TLR2 expression following acute SiO2 exposure (e.g., 4 h). Interestingly, these responses were dependent on interactions between SiO2 and the class A scavenger receptor CD204, but not MARCO. Furthermore, SiO2 exposure decreased uptake of fluorescently labeled Pam2CSK4 and Pam3CSK4, resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β, but not IL-6. Collectively, our data suggest that SiO2 exposure alters AM phenotype, which in turn affects their ability to uptake and respond to bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:26913035

  14. Exposure to Ergot Alkaloids During Gestation Reduces Fetal Growth in Sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckett, Susan; Pratt, Scott; Andrae, John

    2014-08-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and 2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E-. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E-. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development.

  15. Exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation reduces fetal growth in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Susan K.; Andrae, John G.; Pratt, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: (1) endophyte-infected (N. coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and (2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E−; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E−. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E−. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development. PMID:25191653

  16. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus to prevent aflatoxin contamination in crops: advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a diverse assemblage of strains that include aflatoxin-producing and non-toxigenic strains with cosmopolitan distribution. The most promising strategy currently being used to reduce preharvest contamination of crops with aflatoxin is to introduce non-aflatoxin (biocontrol) A. flavus into the crop environment. Whether or not introduction of biocontrol strains into agricultural fields is enough to reduce aflatoxin contamination to levels required for acceptance of the contaminated food as fit for consumption is still unknown. There is no question that biocontrol strains are able to reduce the size of the populations of aflatoxin-producing strains but the available data suggests that at most only a four- to five-fold reduction in aflatoxin contamination is achieved. There are many challenges facing this strategy that are both short term and long term. First, the population biology of A. flavus is not well understood due in part to A. flavus’s diversity, its ability to form heterokaryotic reproductive forms, and its unknown ability to survive for prolonged periods after application. Second, biocontrol strains must be selected that are suitable for the environment, the type of crop, and the soil into which they will be introduced. Third, there is a need to guard against inadvertent introduction of A. flavus strains that could impose an additional burden on food safety and food quality, and fourth, with global warming and resultant changes in the soil nutrients and concomitant microbiome populations, the biocontrol strategy must be sufficiently flexible to adapt to such changes. Understanding genetic variation within strains of A. flavus is important for developing a robust biocontrol strategy and it is unlikely that a “one size fits all” strategy will work for preharvest aflatoxin reduction. PMID:24575088

  17. SOSORT 2012 consensus paper: reducing x-ray exposure in pediatric patients with scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This 2012 Consensus paper reviews the literature on side effects of x-ray exposure in the pediatric population as it relates to scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Alternative methods of spinal assessment and imaging are reviewed, and strategies for reducing the number of radiographs are developed. Using the Delphi technique, SOSORT members developed consensus statements that describe how often radiographs should be taken in each of the pediatric and adolescent sub-populations. PMID:24782912

  18. Developing an intervention strategy to reduce phthalate exposure in Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Chou, Yen-Yin; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-06-01

    Children in Taiwan seem to be exposed to higher concentrations of phthalates than do children in Western countries. We developed intervention strategies to reduce the exposure of phthalates in Taiwanese girls. Thirty girls 4-13 years old who had been exposed to high levels of phthalates were selected from prior studies. To reduce their phthalate-exposure sources, we developed seven intervention strategies: handwashing, not using plastic containers, not eating food with a plastic bag/plastic-wrap cover, not microwaving food, not taking nutrition supplements, and reducing use of cosmetics/personal care products. Pre- and post-intervention urine samples were collected during a one-week study. HPLC-MS/MS was used to analyze urinary phthalate metabolites. The dominant urinary phthalate metabolite was mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP). Post-intervention concentrations of eight urinary phthalate metabolites were significantly lower. Girls in the high-frequency handwashing group had significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.009) and mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) (p=0.07) than did girls in the low-frequency handwashing group. Girls who drank fewer beverages from plastic cups had significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.016), MEHHP (p=0.038), and MECPP (p=0.012). Girls who used less shampoo and shower gel also had marginally significantly lower urinary MBP (p=0.06) and mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) (p=0.06). The intervention strategies that we set up in this study were effective for reducing exposure to phthalates in children. Handwashing and drinking fewer beverages from plastic cups were the most effective strategies for reducing phthalate metabolites in urine, especially MBP and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. Education and voluntary self-restraint were useful for reducing the body burden of phthalates. PMID:25725197

  19. Reducing Personal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution Improves Cardiovascular Health in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Wang, Shengfeng; Lee, Matthew M.Y.; Barnes, Gareth D.; Miller, Mark R.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Boon, Nicholas A.; Donaldson, Ken; Li, Jing; Li, Liming; Mills, Nicholas L.; Newby, David E.; Jiang, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is a major global public health concern. Objectives: We investigated the benefits of reducing personal exposure to urban air pollution in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: In an open randomized crossover trial, 98 patients with coronary heart disease walked on a predefined route in central Beijing, China, under different conditions: once while using a highly efficient face mask, and once while not using the mask. Symptoms, exercise, personal air pollution exposure, blood pressure, heart rate, and 12-lead electrocardiography were monitored throughout the 24-hr study period. Results: Ambient air pollutants were dominated by fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) that was present at high levels [74 μg/m3 for PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diamater <2.5 µm)]. Consistent with traffic-derived sources, this PM contained organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and was highly oxidizing, generating large amounts of free radicals. The face mask was well tolerated, and its use was associated with decreased self-reported symptoms and reduced maximal ST segment depression (–142 vs. –156 μV, p = 0.046) over the 24-hr period. When the face mask was used during the prescribed walk, mean arterial pressure was lower (93 ± 10 vs. 96 ± 10 mmHg, p = 0.025) and heart rate variability increased (high-frequency power: 54 vs. 40 msec2, p = 0.005; high-frequency normalized power: 23.5 vs. 20.5 msec, p = 0.001; root mean square successive differences: 16.7 vs. 14.8 msec, p = 0.007). However, mask use did not appear to influence heart rate or energy expenditure. Conclusions: Reducing personal exposure to air pollution using a highly efficient face mask appeared to reduce symptoms and improve a range of cardiovascular health measures in patients with coronary heart disease. Such interventions to reduce personal exposure to PM air pollution have the potential to reduce the

  20. Co-occurence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize: guatemala as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are found in maize. AFB1 is a genotoxic carcinogen (IARC Group 1) and FB1 a liver cancer promoter in rodents and trout (IARC Group 2B). Therefore, the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, most notably in areas where maize serves as a dietary st...

  1. Interventions to reduce individual exposure of elderly individuals and children to haze: a review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sini; Li, Lingling; Gao, Wei; Wang, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Given rapid economic developments and urbanization over the last few decades, China has experienced frequent haze episodes, which have adverse effects on public health. Children and elderly individuals are more susceptible than the general population to air pollution. In this study, we introduce interventions to reduce the exposure of elderly individuals and children to air pollution during hazy weather. These interventions include avoiding outdoor activities, wearing a dust mask, reducing burning biomass fuels, reducing frying and smoking at home, using an air filtration unit and taking supplemental antioxidants. However, the actual benefits of these measures remain unproven and are unlikely to be adequate. Sustained clean air policies remain the most important and efficient solution to reduce air pollution-related health effects. PMID:26904254

  2. Diverse maize germplasm aflatoxin levels survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin infects a wide range of hosts and causes devastating economic losses to producers. Aflatoxin is produced by soil-borne fungi, A. flavus, A. paraciticus, A. niger, and A. fumigatus. A number of environmental factors can increase accumulation such as water stress, high temperature, and ins...

  3. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compliance with Tables 1 and 2 of this paragraph for inshell and kernel pistachio lots that weigh up to and... kernel lot sample for aflatoxin testing and the minimum number of incremental samples required is shown... Pistachio Kernel Lot Sampling Increments for Aflatoxin Certification Lot weight(lbs.) Minimum...

  4. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... compliance with Tables 1 and 2 of this paragraph for inshell and kernel pistachio lots that weigh up to and... kernel lot sample for aflatoxin testing and the minimum number of incremental samples required is shown... Pistachio Kernel Lot Sampling Increments for Aflatoxin Certification Lot weight(lbs.) Minimum...

  5. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... compliance with Tables 1 and 2 of this paragraph for inshell and kernel pistachio lots that weigh up to and... kernel lot sample for aflatoxin testing and the minimum number of incremental samples required is shown... Pistachio Kernel Lot Sampling Increments for Aflatoxin Certification Lot weight(lbs.) Minimum...

  6. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compliance with Tables 1 and 2 of this paragraph for inshell and kernel pistachio lots that weigh up to and... kernel lot sample for aflatoxin testing and the minimum number of incremental samples required is shown... Pistachio Kernel Lot Sampling Increments for Aflatoxin Certification Lot weight(lbs.) Minimum...

  7. Aspergillus flavus Genomics for Controlling Aflatoxin Contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main objectives of the Aspergillus flavus genomics program are to identify genes and regulatory components involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis for solving aflatoxin contamination in agricultural crops. A. flavus Expressed Sequence Tags (EST), microarray and whole genome sequencing have been achi...

  8. Aflatoxin-Phytoalexin Interrelationship in Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the pathogens that attack peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) are of fungal origin. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus invade peanuts and subsequently lead to their contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxins. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination makes peanuts unsafe for consumption and is a major ...

  9. Evolution of the Aflatoxin Gene Cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Why Aspergillus species produce aflatoxin remains an unsolved question. In this report, we suggest that evolution of the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster has been a multistep process. More than 300 million years ago, a primordial cluster of genes allowed production of anthraquinones that may ha...

  10. Effectiveness of fluorography versus cineangiography at reducing radiation exposure during diagnostic coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Mai, Xingchen; Tummala, Lakshmi; Kliger, Chad; Bangalore, Sripal; Miller, Louis H; Sedlis, Steven P; Feit, Frederick; Liou, Michael; Attubato, Michael; Coppola, John; Slater, James

    2014-04-01

    Coronary angiography is the gold standard for defining obstructive coronary disease. However, radiation exposure remains an unwanted hazard. Patients referred for coronary angiography with abdominal circumference<45 inches and glomerular filtration rate>60 ml/min were randomized to the fluorography (n=25) or cineangiography (n=25) group. Patients in the fluorography group underwent coronary angiography using retrospectively stored fluorography with repeat injection under cineangiography only when needed for better resolution per operator's discretion. Patients in the cineangiography group underwent coronary angiography using routine cineangiography. The primary end point was patient radiation exposure measured by radiochromic film. Secondary end points included the radiation output measurement of kerma-area product and air kerma at the interventional reference point (Ka,r) and operator radiation exposure measured by a dosimeter. Patient radiation exposure (158.2 mGy [76.5 to 210.2] vs 272.5 mGy [163.3 to 314.0], p=0.001), kerma-area product (1,323 μGy·m2 [826 to 1,765] vs 3,451 μGy·m2 [2,464 to 4,818], p<0.001), and Ka,r (175 mGy [112 to 252] vs 558 mGy [313 to 621], p<0.001) were significantly lower in the fluorography compared with cineangiography group (42%, 62%, and 69% relative reduction, respectively). Operator radiation exposure trended in the same direction, although statistically nonsignificant (fluorography 2.35 μGy [1.24 to 6.30] vs cineangiography 5.03 μGy [2.48 to 7.80], p=0.059). In conclusion, the use of fluorography in a select group of patients during coronary angiography, with repeat injection under cineangiography only when needed, was efficacious at reducing patient radiation exposure. PMID:24513469

  11. Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Roy, Monika; Harris, Julie; Afreen, Sadia; Deak, Eszter; Gade, Lalitha; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Park, Benjamin; Chiller, Tom; Luby, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    During September 2009, we performed a rapid cross-sectional study to investigate the extent of aflatoxin contamination among common Bangladeshi foods. We collected eight common human food commodities (rice, lentils, wheat flour, dates, betelnut, red chili powder, ginger and groundnuts) and poultry feed samples from two large markets in each of three cities in Bangladesh. We quantified aflatoxin levels from pooled subsamples using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels were highest in dates and groundnuts (maximum 623 and 423 ng/g), respectively. Samples of betelnut (mean 30.6 ng/g), lentils (mean 21.2 ng/g) and red chili powder (>20 ng/g) also had elevated levels. The mean aflatoxin level among poultry feed samples was 73.0 ng/g. Aflatoxin levels were above the US maximum regulatory levels of 20 ng/g in five of eight commonly ingested human food commodities tested. PMID:24786620

  12. Comparison of nixtamalization and extrusion processes for a reduction in aflatoxin content.

    PubMed

    Elias-Orozco, R; Castellanos-Nava, A; Gaytán-Martínez, M; Figueroa-Cárdenas, J D; Loarca-Piña, G

    2002-09-01

    Traditional nixtamalization and an extrusion method for making the dough (masa) for corn tortillas that requires using lime and hydrogen peroxide were evaluated for the detoxification of aflatoxins. The traditional nixtamalization process reduced levels of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) by 94%, aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) by 90% and aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-dihydrodiol (AFB(1)-dihydrodiol) by 93%. The extrusion process reduced levels of AFB(1) by 46%, AFM(1) by 20% and AFB(1)-dihydrodiol by 53%. Extrusion treatments with 0, 0.3 and 0.5% lime reduced AFB(1) levels by 46, 74 and 85%, respectively. The inactivation of AFB(1), AFM(1) and AFB(1)-dihydrodiol in the extrusion process using lime together with hydrogen peroxide showed higher elimination of AFB(1) than treatments with lime or hydrogen peroxide alone. The extrusion process with 0.3% lime and 1.5% hydrogen peroxide was the most effective process to detoxify aflatoxins in corn tortillas, but a high level of those reagents negatively affected the taste and aroma of the corn tortilla as compared with tortillas elaborated by the traditional nixtamalization process. PMID:12396399

  13. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure.

  14. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Battilani, P; Toscano, P; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Moretti, A; Camardo Leggieri, M; Brera, C; Rortais, A; Goumperis, T; Robinson, T

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure. PMID:27066906

  15. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure. PMID:27066906

  16. Reducing Exposure to High Fluoride Drinking Water in Estonia—A Countrywide Study

    PubMed Central

    Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Karro, Enn

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a naturally occurring contaminant in groundwater in Estonia. There are several regions in Estonia with fluoride contents in public water supplies as high as 7 mg/L. Long-term exposure to high-fluoride drinking water may have several adverse health effects, primarily dental fluorosis. The opportunities for exposure reduction rely highly on water treatment technologies. Since 2004 public water suppliers in Estonia have made efforts to diminish fluoride content in drinking water systems. A follow-up study on a country level was carried out in 2004–2012 to analyze the changes in population exposure to excessive (over 1.5 mg/L) fluoride in drinking water and to get information about the reduction methods applied by public water supplies (PWS) to optimize the fluoride levels in public water system. The results showed that bigger PWS have been more effective in fluoride reduction measures than small PWS. The main methods used to lower the fluoride content were reverse osmosis technology and replacement of water sources with new ones (new drilled wells). As a result of all the measures taken the overall high-fluoride exposure has been reduced substantially (82%). PMID:24637908

  17. Efficacy of passive sand filtration in reducing exposure of salmonids to the actinospore of Myxobolus cerebralis.

    PubMed

    Nehring, R Barry; Thompson, Kevin G; Taurman, Karen; Atkinson, William

    2003-12-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex parasitized by Myxobolus cerebralis releases triactinomyxon (TAM) actinospores that can infect some species of salmonids and cause salmonid whirling disease. Silica sand was tested as a filtration medium for removal of TAMs from water containing the parasite. Laboratory tests indicated sand filtration removed > 99.99% of TAMs. In 2 different field tests, groups of 1 mo old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed for 2 wk to filtered and unfiltered water from a spring-fed pond enzootic for M. cerebralis. In November 2000, the exposure dose was estimated as between 3 and 5 TAMs fish(-1). During a March 2001 exposure, the estimated dose was between 286 and 404 TAMs fish(-1). Fish were held for 6 mo post exposure (p.e.) in laboratory aquaria for observation and evidence of clinical signs of whirling disease. We used 4 diagnostic techniques to assess the prevalence and severity of infection by M. cerebralis among fish exposed to filtered and unfiltered water. These included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genomic DNA of the parasite, histological evaluation for tissue damage, tissue digestion for quantification of cranial myxospores of the parasite, and total non-sampling mortality that occurred over 6 mo p.e. All diagnostic tests verified that the prevalence and severity of infection was significantly reduced among fish in treatment groups exposed to filtered water compared to those exposed to unfiltered water in both the low-dose and high-dose exposures. PMID:14735924

  18. Does Media Literacy Mitigate Risk for Reduced Body Satisfaction Following Exposure to Thin-Ideal Media?

    PubMed

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to thin-ideal media can contribute to increased body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. Understanding the factors that may prevent or exacerbate the negative effects of media exposure on body dissatisfaction is important to facilitate prevention of these problems. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body image in three instructional set experimental conditions: appearance comparison, peer norms, and control. An important aim was to examine baseline levels of media literacy as a protective factor and trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison as risk factors. Early adolescent girls (N = 246) completed baseline measures and 1 week later viewed thin-ideal media images, before and after which they rated their state body satisfaction. Participants in the appearance comparison instruction but not peer norms instruction condition had significantly reduced body satisfaction. Media literacy, particularly high levels of critical thinking, mitigated the negative effects of trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison on body satisfaction outcomes. These findings provide evidence for the role of media literacy as a protective factor against the negative effects on body satisfaction of exposure to thin-ideal media images, and also provide evidence to support the development and implementation of media literacy-based body image interventions. PMID:26880285

  19. Effectiveness of a Multidimensional Randomized Control Intervention to Reduce Quartz Exposure Among Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    van Deurssen, Erik; Meijster, Tim; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Boessen, Ruud; Spaan, Suzanne; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2015-10-01

    There is little evidence with respect to the effectiveness of intervention programs that focus on the reduction of occupational quartz exposure in the construction industry. This article evaluates the effectiveness of a multidimensional intervention which was aimed at reducing occupational quartz exposure among construction workers by increasing the use of technical control measures. Eight companies participating in the cluster randomized controlled trial were randomly allocated to the intervention (four companies) or control condition (four companies). The multidimensional intervention included engineering, organizational, and behavioural elements at both organizational and individual level. Full-shift personal quartz exposure measurements and detailed observations were conducted before and after the intervention among bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers (n = 282). About 59% of these workers measured at baseline were reassessed during follow-up. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to evaluate the intervention effect on exposure levels. Concrete drillers in the intervention group used technical control measures, particularly water suppression, for a significantly greater proportion of the time spent on abrasive tasks during follow-up compared to baseline (93 versus 62%; P < 0.05). A similar effect, although not statistically significant, was observed among demolishers. A substantial overall reduction in quartz exposure (73 versus 40% in the intervention and control group respectively; P < 0.001) was observed for concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers. The decrease in exposure in the intervention group compared to controls was significantly larger for demolishers and tuck pointers, but not for concrete drillers. The observed effect could at least partly be explained by the introduced interventions; the statistically significant increased use of control measures among concrete drillers explains the observed effect

  20. An Intervention to Reduce Residential Insecticide Exposure during Pregnancy among an Inner-City Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Megan K.; Barr, Dana B.; Camann, David E.; Cruz, Linda A.; Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Borjas, Mejico; Reyes, Andria; Evans, Dave; Kinney, Patrick L.; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perera, Frederica P.; Matsoanne, Stephen; Whyatt, Robin M.

    2006-01-01

    Background We previously reported widespread insecticide exposure during pregnancy among inner-city women from New York City. Here we report on a pilot intervention using integrated pest management (IPM) to reduce pest infestations and residential insecticide exposures among pregnant New York City African-American and Latina women (25 intervention and 27 control homes). Methods The IPM consisted of professional cleaning, sealing of pest entry points, application of low-toxicity pesticides, and education. Cockroach infestation levels and 2-week integrated indoor air samples were collected at baseline and one month postintervention. The insecticides detected in the indoor air samples were also measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. Results Cockroach infestations decreased significantly (p = 0.016) after the intervention among intervention cases but not control households. Among the intervention group, levels of piperonyl butoxide (a pyrethroid synergist) were significantly lower in indoor air samples after the intervention (p = 0.016). Insecticides were detected in maternal blood samples collected at delivery from controls but not from the intervention group. The difference was significant for trans-permethrin (p = 0.008) and of borderline significance (p = 0.1) for cis-permethrin and 2-isopropoxyphenol (a propoxur metabolite). Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to use biologic dosimeters of prenatal pesticide exposure for assessing effectiveness of IPM. These pilot data suggest that IPM is an effective strategy for reducing pest infestation levels and the internal dose of insecticides during pregnancy. PMID:17107853

  1. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Miranda da Silva, Cristiane; Peres Leal, Mayara; Brochetti, Robson Alexandre; Braga, Tárcio; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Saraiva Câmara, Niels Olsen; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Ligeiro-de-Oliveira, Ana Paula; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA), an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1%) or vehicle (distillated water) during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure). Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant. PMID:26569396

  2. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis by modulating the oxidative stress response of Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Shang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Lu, Zhisong; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) is a promising natural preservative and generally recognized as safe for commodities as well as consumers. In this work, the antifungal effects of CIN on Aspergillus flavus were evaluated both in solid and in liquid culture conditions. Our results indicated that CIN effectively inhibited radial growth, spore production, mycelium formation, and aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis by A. flavus in a dose-dependent manner. At the concentration of 104 mg L(-1), CIN exposure was able to completely inhibit fungal growth as well as aflatoxin B1 production. Furthermore, the inhibitory activities of CIN were closely connected with the treatment period and the tested fungal species. Compared with the control strains, CIN dose dependently changed the morphology and ultrastructure of mycelium in different degree. Especially, the reduction of hydrogen peroxide was considered to follow the destruction of mitochondrial. Meanwhile, CIN significantly cut the levels of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The activity of total superoxide dismutase was significantly inhibited after CIN treatment at the end of incubation, whereas the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were opposite. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of CIN could attribute to oxidative stress alleviation possibly induced by modifications of cellular structure as well as redox status. PMID:26585445

  3. F420H2-Dependent Degradation of Aflatoxin and other Furanocoumarins Is Widespread throughout the Actinomycetales

    PubMed Central

    Lapalikar, Gauri V.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Warden, Andrew C.; Scott, Colin; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Two classes of F420-dependent reductases (FDR-A and FDR-B) that can reduce aflatoxins and thereby degrade them have previously been isolated from Mycobacterium smegmatis. One class, the FDR-A enzymes, has up to 100 times more activity than the other. F420 is a cofactor with a low reduction potential that is largely confined to the Actinomycetales and some Archaea and Proteobacteria. We have heterologously expressed ten FDR-A enzymes from diverse Actinomycetales, finding that nine can also use F420H2 to reduce aflatoxin. Thus FDR-As may be responsible for the previously observed degradation of aflatoxin in other Actinomycetales. The one FDR-A enzyme that we found not to reduce aflatoxin belonged to a distinct clade (herein denoted FDR-AA), and our subsequent expression and analysis of seven other FDR-AAs from M. smegmatis found that none could reduce aflatoxin. Certain FDR-A and FDR-B enzymes that could reduce aflatoxin also showed activity with coumarin and three furanocoumarins (angelicin, 8-methoxysporalen and imperatorin), but none of the FDR-AAs tested showed any of these activities. The shared feature of the compounds that were substrates was an α,β-unsaturated lactone moiety. This moiety occurs in a wide variety of otherwise recalcitrant xenobiotics and antibiotics, so the FDR-As and FDR-Bs may have evolved to harness the reducing power of F420 to metabolise such compounds. Mass spectrometry on the products of the FDR-catalyzed reduction of coumarin and the other furanocoumarins shows their spontaneous hydrolysis to multiple products. PMID:22383957

  4. Immunogenicity of Stabilized HIV-1 Envelope Trimers with Reduced Exposure of Non-neutralizing Epitopes.

    PubMed

    de Taeye, Steven W; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Torrents de la Peña, Alba; Guttman, Miklos; Julien, Jean-Philippe; van den Kerkhof, Tom L G M; Burger, Judith A; Pritchard, Laura K; Pugach, Pavel; Yasmeen, Anila; Crampton, Jordan; Hu, Joyce; Bontjer, Ilja; Torres, Jonathan L; Arendt, Heather; DeStefano, Joanne; Koff, Wayne C; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Eggink, Dirk; Berkhout, Ben; Dean, Hansi; LaBranche, Celia; Crotty, Shane; Crispin, Max; Montefiori, David C; Klasse, P J; Lee, Kelly K; Moore, John P; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Sanders, Rogier W

    2015-12-17

    The envelope glycoprotein trimer mediates HIV-1 entry into cells. The trimer is flexible, fluctuating between closed and more open conformations and sometimes sampling the fully open, CD4-bound form. We hypothesized that conformational flexibility and transient exposure of non-neutralizing, immunodominant epitopes could hinder the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). We therefore modified soluble Env trimers to stabilize their closed, ground states. The trimer variants were indeed stabilized in the closed conformation, with a reduced ability to undergo receptor-induced conformational changes and a decreased exposure of non-neutralizing V3-directed antibody epitopes. In rabbits, the stabilized trimers induced similar autologous Tier-1B or Tier-2 NAb titers to those elicited by the corresponding wild-type trimers but lower levels of V3-directed Tier-1A NAbs. Stabilized, closed trimers might therefore be useful components of vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs. PMID:26687358

  5. Performance of different work clothing types for reducing skin exposure to pesticides during open field treatment.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the performance of different work clothing types for reducing skin exposure to five pesticides (azinphos-methyl, terbutylazine, alachlor, dimethoate, and dicamba) in field distribution by tractor equipped with boom sprayer. Performance was assessed by measuring the penetration factors of different types of work clothing. The results show that the protection offered by personal protective equipment (PPE) was always >97%, whereas the performance of cotton garments ranged from 84.1% to 92.5%. The different cotton garments differed significantly in their permeability, and the upper part of the body was the anatomical region showing the greatest values of the penetration factors. These results confirm the necessity of using PPE properly to minimise dermal exposure to pesticides. PMID:19424648

  6. Chronic caffeine or theophylline exposure reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor site interactions.

    PubMed

    Roca, D J; Schiller, G D; Farb, D H

    1988-05-01

    Methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, are adenosine receptor antagonists that exert dramatic effects upon the behavior of vertebrate animals by increasing attentiveness, anxiety, and convulsive activity. Benzodiazepines, such as flunitrazepam, generally exert behavioral effects that are opposite to those of methylxanthines. We report the finding that chronic exposure of embryonic brain neurons to caffeine or theophylline reduces the ability of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to potentiate the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor. This theophylline-induced "uncoupling" of GABA- and benzodiazepine-binding site allosteric interactions is blocked by chloroadenosine, an adenosine receptor agonist, indicating that the chronic effects of theophylline are mediated by a site that resembles an adenosine receptor. We speculate that adverse central nervous system effects of long-term exposure to methylxanthines such as in caffeine-containing beverages or theophylline-containing medications may be exerted by a cell-mediated modification of the GABAA receptor. PMID:2835648

  7. Aflatoxin B1 metabolism to aflatoxicol and derivatives lethal to Bacillus subtilis GSY 1057 by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) liver.

    PubMed

    Schoenhard, G L; Lee, D J; Howell, S E; Pawlowski, N E; Libbey, L M; Sinnhuber, R O

    1976-06-01

    Aflatoxicol, R0, was isolated from Mt. Shasta strain rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), and liver homogenates were incubated with aflatoxin B1. Its identity was confirmed by mass, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrometry. The structure was identical to one of the diastereomers prepared by chemical reduction of aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxicol was apparently formed by a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent soluble enzyme of the 105,000 x g supernatant from rainbow trout. Aflatoxicol was not lethal in phosphate buffer to Bacillus subtilis GSY 1057 (metB4, hisA1, uvr-1) nor were aflatoxins B1, Q1, and B2. In the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and trout liver microsomes, aflatoxicol reduced the viability of B. subtilis. Aflatoxin B2, which lacks the vinyl ether present in the other compounds, could not be activated. The product of aflatoxin B1 activation by trout liver microsomes was sought after incubation of 14C-labeled aflatoxin B1. The radioactivity was found in unaltered aflatoxin B1 and in three extremely polar metabolites. The quantity of the new metabolites and the level of microbial lethality was reduced by addition of cytosine and cysteine to the incubation medium. The vinyl ether configuration was a structural requirement for activation, and this finding and the nature of the enzymatic reaction were consistent with the hypothesis that the compounds were metabolized to highly reactive and unstable electrophilic products which bound to nucleophiles such as cytosine and were lethal to B. subtilis. The formation of aflatoxicol as the major product of trout liver metabolism is of great significance considering that it could be activated to a lethal compound and that rainbow trout are one of the most sensitive species to aflatoxin B1-induced carcinoma. PMID:5190

  8. Escherichia coli Morphological Changes and Lipid A Removal Induced by Reduced Pressure Nitrogen Afterglow Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  9. Escherichia coli morphological changes and lipid A removal induced by reduced pressure nitrogen afterglow exposure.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Hayat; Rizzati, Virginie; Bernis, Corinne; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Sarrette, Jean Philippe; Cousty, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Lipid A is a major hydrophobic component of lipopolysaccharides (endotoxin) present in the membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria, and the major responsible for the bioactivity and toxicity of the endotoxin. Previous studies have demonstrated that the late afterglow region of flowing post-discharges at reduced pressure (1-20 Torr) can be used for the sterilization of surfaces and of the reusable medical instrumentation. In the present paper, we show that the antibacterial activity of a pure nitrogen afterglow can essentially be attributed to the large concentrations of nitrogen atoms present in the treatment area and not to the UV radiation of the afterglow. In parallel, the time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial Escherichia coli (E. coli) population is correlated with morphologic changes observed on the bacteria by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for increasing afterglow exposure times. The effect of the afterglow exposure is also studied on pure lipid A and on lipid A extracted from exposed E. coli bacteria. We report that more than 60% of lipid A (pure or bacteria-extracted) are lost with the used operating conditions (nitrogen flow QN2 = 1 standard liter per minute (slpm), pressure p = 5 Torr, microwave injected power PMW = 200 W, exposure time: 40 minutes). The afterglow exposure also results in a reduction of the lipid A proinflammatory activity, assessed by the net decrease of the redox-sensitive NFκB transcription factor nuclear translocation in murine aortic endothelial cells stimulated with control vs afterglow-treated (pure and extracted) lipid A. Altogether these results point out the ability of reduced pressure nitrogen afterglows to neutralize the cytotoxic components in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25837580

  10. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying increased anxiety after soman exposure: reduced GABAergic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Prager, Eric M; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Apland, James P; Braga, Maria F M

    2014-09-01

    The recent sarin attack in Syria killed 1429 people, including 426 children, and left countless more to deal with the health consequences of the exposure. Prior to the Syrian chemical assault, nerve agent attacks in Japan left many victims suffering from neuropsychiatric illnesses, particularly anxiety disorders, more than a decade later. Uncovering the neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of anxiety after nerve agent exposure is necessary for successful treatment. Anxiety is associated with hyperexcitability of the basolateral amygdala (BLA). The present study sought to determine the nature of the nerve agent-induced alterations in the BLA, which could explain the development of anxiety. Rats were exposed to soman, at a dose that induced prolonged status epilepticus. Twenty-four hours and 14-days after exposure, neurons from the BLA were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. At both the 24h and 14-day post-exposure time-points, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in the BLA were reduced, along with reduction in the frequency but not amplitude of miniature IPSCs. In addition, activation of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a cholinergic receptor that participates in the regulation of BLA excitability and is involved in anxiety, increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in both soman-exposed rats and controls, but was less effective in increasing sIPSCs in soman-exposed rats. Despite the loss of both interneurons and principal cells after soman-induced status epilepticus, the frequency of sEPSCs was increased in the soman-exposed rats. Impaired function and cholinergic modulation of GABAergic inhibition in the BLA may underlie anxiety disorders that develop after nerve agent exposure. PMID:25150775

  11. Pathophysiological Mechanisms Underlying Increased Anxiety after Soman Exposure: Reduced GABAergic Inhibition in the Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Prager, Eric M.; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Apland, James P.; Braga, Maria F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The recent sarin attack in Syria killed 1,429 people, including 426 children, and left countless more to deal with the health consequences of the exposure. Prior to the Syrian chemical assault, nerve agent attacks in Japan left many victims suffering from neuropsychiatric illnesses, particularly anxiety disorders, more than a decade later. Uncovering the neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of anxiety after nerve agent exposure is necessary for successful treatment. Anxiety is associated with hyperexcitability of the basolateral amygdala (BLA). The present study sought to determine the nature of the nerve agent-induced alterations in the BLA, which could explain the development of anxiety. Rats were exposed to soman, at a dose that induced prolonged status epilepticus. Twenty-four hours and 14-days after exposure, neurons from the BLA were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. At both the 24 h and 14-day post-exposure time-points, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in the BLA were reduced, along with reduction in the frequency but not amplitude of miniature IPSCs. In addition, activation of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a cholinergic receptor that participates in the regulation of BLA excitability and is involved in anxiety, increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in both soman-exposed rats and controls, but was less effective in increasing sIPSCs in soman-exposed rats. Despite the loss of both interneurons and principal cells after soman-induced status epilepticus, the frequency of sEPSCs was increased in the soman-exposed rats. Impaired function and cholinergic modulation of GABAergic inhibition in the BLA may underlie anxiety disorders that develop after nerve agent exposure. PMID:25150775

  12. UV-B exposure reduces locomotor performance by impairing muscle function but not mitochondrial ATP production.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh Kazerouni, Ensiyeh; Franklin, Craig E; Seebacher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) can reduce swimming performance by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. High concentrations of ROS can damage mitochondria, resulting in reduced ATP production. ROS can also damage muscle proteins, thereby leading to impaired muscle contractile function. We have shown previously that UV-B exposure reduces locomotor performance in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) without affecting metabolic scope. Our aim was therefore to test whether UV-B influences swimming performance of mosquitofish by ROS-induced damage to muscle proteins without affecting mitochondrial function. In a fully factorial design, we exposed mosquitofish to UV-B and no-UV-B controls in combination with exposure to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus no-NAC controls. We used NAC, a precursor of glutathione, as an antioxidant to test whether any effects of UV-B on swimming performance were at least partly due to UV-B-induced ROS. UV-B significantly reduced critical sustained swimming performance and tail beat frequencies, and it increased ROS-induced damage (protein carbonyl concentrations and lipid peroxidation) in muscle. However, UV-B did not affect the activity of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA), an enzyme associated with muscle calcium cycling and muscle relaxation. UV-B did not affect ADP phosphorylation (state 3) rates of mitochondrial respiration, and it did not alter the amount of ATP produced per atom of oxygen consumed (P:O ratio). However, UV-B reduced the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio. Under UV-B exposure, fish treated with NAC showed greater swimming performance and tail beat frequencies, higher glutathione concentrations, and lower protein carbonyl concentrations and lipid peroxidation than untreated fish. Tail beat amplitude was not affected by any treatment. Our results showed, firstly, that the effects of UV-B on locomotor performance were mediated by ROS and, secondly, that reduced swimming performance was not caused by

  13. Individual and demographic consequences of reduced body condition following repeated exposure to high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Janet L; Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J; Clayton, Mark; Peters, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Although the lethal consequences of extreme heat are increasingly reported in the literature, the fitness costs of exposure to sublethal high air temperatures, typically identified in the 30-40 degrees C range, are poorly understood. We examine the effect of high (> or = 35 degrees C) daily maxima on body condition of a semiarid population of White-plumed Honeyeaters, Ptilotula penicillatus, monitored between 1986 and 2012. During this 26-yr period, temperature has risen, on average, by 0.06 degrees C each year at the site, the frequency of days with thermal maxima > or = 35 degrees C has increased and rainfall has declined. Exposure to high temperatures affected body condition of White-plumed Honeyeaters, but only in low-rainfall conditions. There was no effect of a single day of exposure to temperatures > or = 35 degrees C but repeated exposure was associated with reduced body condition: 3.0% reduction in body mass per day of exposure. Rainfall in the previous 30 d ameliorated these effects, with reduced condition evident only in dry conditions. Heat-exposed males with reduced body condition were less likely to be recaptured at the start of the following spring; they presumably died. Heat-exposed females, regardless of body condition, showed lower survival than exposed males, possibly due to their smaller body mass. The higher mortality of females and smaller males exposed to temperatures > or = 35 degrees C may have contributed to the increase in mean body size of this population over 23 years. Annual survival declined across time concomitant with increasing frequency of days > or = 35 degrees C and decreasing rainfall. Our study is one of few to identify a proximate cause of climate change related mortality, and associated long-term demographic consequence. Our results have broad implications for avian communities living in arid and semiarid regions of Australia, and other mid-latitudes regions where daily maximum temperatures already approach physiological

  14. Effects of early life exposure to methylmercury in Daphnia pulex on standard and reduced food ration

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Dzigbodi A.; Hudson, Sherri L.; Dawson, John A.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    As a well-known eco-toxicological model organism, Daphnia pulex may also offer advantages in human health research for assessing long-term effects of early life exposures to coupled stressors. Here, we examine consequences of early life exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) under standard and reduced food ration. We exposed Daphnia for 24 h in early life to varying concentrations of methylmercury(II) chloride (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 ng/L) and thereafter kept Daphnia on either a standard or a reduced food ration. The data suggests an additive effect of MeHg concentration and food ration on decreasing lifespan, although MeHg concentration does not affect survival linearly. Food ration and MeHg concentration were predictive of reduced reproduction, and there is some evidence of an interaction (p = 0.048). Multi-stressor work in alternative model systems may be useful for prioritizing research, taking into account potential antagonistic, additive or synergistic effects that nutritional status may have on chemical toxicity. PMID:25263226

  15. Protected zone ventilation and reduced personal exposure to airborne cross-infection.

    PubMed

    Cao, G; Nielsen, P V; Jensen, R L; Heiselberg, P; Liu, L; Heikkinen, J

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the performance of protected zone ventilation (PZV) and hybrid protected zone ventilation (HPZV) to reduce the direct exposure to exhaled air from others' breathing. Experimental measurements are carried out to test the performance of PZV in a full-scale office room with two breathing thermal manikins. The measurements were performed under three configurations, including two standing manikins at different distances: 0.35, 0.5, and 1.1 m. When the supply air velocity is increased to 4 m/s in the downward plane jet, the dimensionless concentration is 40% lower than for fully mixed ventilation, which can be considered as a measure of protection from the zoning condition. The measurement results showed that in both the PZV and the HPZV system it is possible to decrease the transmission of tracer gas from one manikin to the opposite manikin; therefore, it probably would reduce the risk of air borne cross-infection between two people at the same relative positions. The results suggest that PZV and HPZV may be used to reduce the exposure of people in a protected zone from indoor pollutants emitted in a source zone. PMID:24995998

  16. Inhibition by the bioflavonoid ternatin of aflatoxin B1-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Souza, M F; Tomé, A R; Rao, V S

    1999-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a metabolite of Aspergillus flavus is a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage are the principal manifestations of aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity which could be mitigated by antioxidants. Many plant constituents, e.g. flavonoids, lignans and spice principles (capsaicin, curcumin, eugenol, etc.) have been reported to prevent liver damage associated with lipid peroxidation. In this study we investigated ternatin, a tetramethoxyflavone isolated from Egletes viscosa, for possible protection against liver injury induced by aflatoxin B1 in rats. Seventy two hours after a single intraperitoneal dose of aflatoxin B1 (1 mg kg(-1)), the concentration of malondialdehyde, the product of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates, and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly elevated (P<0.001). Subcutaneous ternatin (25 mg kg(-1)) pretreatment greatly reduced aflatoxin B1-induced increases in the levels of serum enzymes (ALT from 5071+/-763 to 293+/-66 international units L(-1) and AST from 4241+/-471 to 449+/-108 international units L(-1)) and elevated malondialdehyde levels (from 11.37+/-1.27 to 0.79+/-0.22 nmol (mg wet tissue)(-1)) in a manner similar to oral vitamin E (300 mg kg(-1)), a standard antioxidant. Further, histological changes induced by aflatoxin B1 such as hepatocellular necrosis and bile-duct proliferation were markedly inhibited in animals pretreated with ternatin or vitamin E. These data provide evidence that ternatin inhibits lipid peroxidation and affords protection against liver damage induced by aflatoxin B1. Ternatin might, therefore, be a suitable candidate for the chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis associated liver cancer. PMID:10217309

  17. Early-life object exposure with a habituated mother reduces fear reactions in foals.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2016-01-01

    Fear reactions in horses are a major cause of horse-human accidents, and identification of effective pathways for reduction in fearfulness can help decreasing the frequency of accidents. For a young mammal, the mother is one of the most salient aspects of its environment, and she can have a strong influence on her offspring's behaviour. This study investigated whether fearfulness in foals can be reduced through weekly exposure to usually frightening objects with a habituated mother during the first 8 weeks of life. Prior to foaling, mares (N = 22) were habituated to five initially fear-eliciting situations, including exposure to novel stationary and moving objects. At birth, the foals were randomly assigned to either a Demonstration group (N = 11) or a Control group (N = 11). Demonstration mares demonstrated habituation towards the objects to their foals once per week in weeks 1-8 post-partum. Control mares were inside the empty test arena with their foals for the same amount of time. The foals were tested at 8 weeks and 5 months of age in four standardised fear tests. Demonstration foals showed significantly reduced fear responses (behaviour and heart rate) and increased exploratory behaviour at both 8 weeks and 5 months of age. The effect was likely achieved through a combination of maternal transmission and individual learning. It is concluded that fearfulness in foals may be reduced through exposure to frightening objects together with their habituated mother during the first 8 weeks of life. PMID:26395986

  18. QuickTox™ Kit for QuickScan Aflatoxin FREE.

    PubMed

    Polakowski, Sergiusz; Roberts, Russell W; Tanguay, Keith; Bailey, Cheryl; Davis, Alan H; Gow, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    The QuickTox Kit for QuickScan Aflatoxin FREE uses competitive lateral flow technology and a reader based system for quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in varied matrixes. Aqueous based extraction protocols are used for corn and wheat, reducing use of solvents. Fifty percent ethanol (Reagent Alcohol) extraction is used for oats, sorghum, and barley. Eighty percent ethanol (Reagent Alcohol) extraction is used for whole peanut, peanut seed, and peanut hull samples. Matrix specific assay procedures and calibration curves are used to enable analyses across multiple sample types. The performance of this assay was examined using naturally contaminated aflatoxin corn samples and spiked samples of barley, oats, sorghum, wheat, whole peanut, peanut seed, and peanut hull samples. All data were judged against previously established acceptance criteria. Performance was evaluated in linearity, selectivity, matrix, lot consistency, and robustness experiments in the sponsor's laboratory. Results produced in all studies except robustness were within acceptable ranges. Out of range robustness study results reflected simultaneous deviation in sample volume and assay development time compared to the standard assay procedures. Aflatoxin B1, B2, and G1 were detected with approximately equal sensitivity; sensitivity for G2 was 64% that of B1. The presence of other common mycotoxins did not interfere with the assay. Matrix studies in an independent laboratory examined corn and barley to challenge both aqueous and ethanol based extraction procedures. All data points in these studies fell within the ranges defined in the acceptance criteria. The assay exhibited a linear dose response over the range tested, 0-100 ppb, with R(2) values exceeding 0.93 and RSDr values for results ranging from 2.27 to 23.84%. PMID:26651570

  19. A Community-Based Participatory Worksite Intervention to Reduce Pesticide Exposures to Farmworkers and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Alicia L.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Camacho, José; López, Jesús; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Minkler, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated a community-based participatory research worksite intervention intended to improve farmworkers' behaviors at work and after work to reduce occupational and take-home pesticide exposures. The workers received warm water and soap for hand washing, gloves, coveralls, and education. Self-reported assessments before and after the intervention revealed that glove use, wearing clean work clothes, and hand washing at the midday break and before going home improved significantly. Some behaviors, such as hand washing before eating and many targeted after-work behaviors, did not improve, indicating a need for additional intervention. PMID:19890160

  20. Effect of γ irradiation on fungal load and aflatoxins reduction in red chillies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Zuber, Mohammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Parveen, Ishrat

    2013-01-01

    Chillies are a very important cash crop of Pakistan. The effects of gamma irradiation on microbial load, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total aflatoxins have been studied in chillies samples, collected from different districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Aflatoxins were analyzed using HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed that among the Aspergillus species isolated, those belonging to section parasiticus were predominant. Gamma radiations of doses 2, 4 and 6 kGy were employed on fungi and chilli samples. The results have demonstrated that the dose of 6 kGy reduced the fungal load by 5 logs. Furthermore, 6 kGy reduced the level of AFB1 and total AFs in ground and whole chillies by 1-2 logs (α < 0.05).

  1. A novel technique of unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty achieves effective biomechanical strength and reduces radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yan; Yang, Lei; Li, Haijun; Ren, Yajun; Cao, Xiaojian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel technique of percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) with effective biomechanical strength and lower radiation exposure. Methods: Thirty fresh lumbar vertebrae isolated from six hogs were decalcified and compressed to induce osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Kyphoplasty was performed using three different techniques (ten for each group): conventional unilateral approach (group A), conventional bilateral approach (group B) and novel unilateral approach (group C). Biomechanical indexes including Yield load and stiffness were tested before and after kyphoplasty. The anterior height of each vertebral body (AHVB) was measured before compression, after compression and after kyphoplasty. Frequency of C-arm use and volume of bone cement were also recorded in the process. Results: Compared with group A, our novel technique in group C can significantly improve the recovery of AHVB after compression fractures. However, there was no statistical difference between group B and group C. Values of Yield load in both group B and group C were statistically higher than that in group A, however, no significant difference was found between group B and C. Statistical results of stiffness were similar to Yield load. Regarding volume of bone cement and radiation exposure, the novel technique in group C needed more bone cement and fluoroscopy use than in group A but less than in group B. Conclusions: This novel device makes unilateral kyphoplasty feasible, safe and effective. In the premise of guaranteed biomechanical strength, the new technique significantly reduces risk of radiation exposure in kyphoplasty. PMID:27158403

  2. In vivo and in vitro exposure to PCB 153 reduces long-term potentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, R J; Gyori, J; DeCaprio, A P; Carpenter, D O

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of gestational and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 (2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexaCB) on the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) observed in the CA1 region of hippocampal brain slices prepared from rats at 30 days of age. We compared these actions to those observed when PCB 153 is dissolved in normal Krebs-Ringer solution and perfused on slices from control rats of the same age. In vivo exposure was at three dose levels (1. 25, 5, and 20 mg/kg/day) from gestational day 3 through weaning at postnatal day 21. Although responses to low-frequency stimulation of the Schaffer collateral pathway in exposed animals were not different from controls, significantly reduced LTP was induced after tetanic stimulation, even at the lowest dose studied. We observed a comparable depression of LTP when control slices were perfused with Krebs-Ringer that had been equilibrated with PCB 153 in a generator column. Neither in vivo nor in vitro exposure significantly altered the input-output curves obtained before tetanic stimulation, but both suppressed the increase in response observed in controls after tetanic stimulation. Because LTP is thought to be correlated with learning ability, these observations may provide at least a partial mechanism to explain the reduction of intelligence quotient observed in humans exposed to PCBs early in development. PMID:11017886

  3. Changing exposures in a changing world: models for reducing the burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Mishamandani, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Environmental exposures are changing dramatically in location, intensity, and frequency. Many developing countries are undergoing a transition in which they face the double burden of infectious diseases as well as chronic diseases. Noncommunicable diseases have emerged as the leading cause of death and disability in developing countries. Globally, pollution is insufficiently appreciated and inadequately quantified as a cause of disease. The health burden from both noninfectious diseases and infectious disease, especially parasites, is high among exposed people. Mothers and children are particularly vulnerable to pollution-related diseases in developing countries. Exposures to pollution can cause protracted noncommunicable diseases across their life span. A global initiative to promote human health sciences and technologies would enhance collaborations and communications amongst investigators and public environmental health officials. Existing models that facilitate the transfer of information and research results exist and can provide insight into building such an international network, allowing better prediction of disease risk and provide ways to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants. A global network would bring together scientists from multiple disciplines and countries to work toward a better understanding of the double burden of disease, especially in low and middle income countries, and promote ways to improve public health. PMID:26887030

  4. Lead exposure reduces carotenoid-based coloration and constitutive immunity in wild mallards.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; Mougeot, François; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodriguez-Estival, Jaime; López-Antia, Ana; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    The ingestion of spent lead (Pb) from ammunition is a known cause of mortality in waterfowl, but little is known about sublethal effects produced by Pb poisoning on birds, especially in wild populations. The authors studied potential sublethal effects associated with Pb exposure in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Ebro delta (northeastern Spain) after a ban on Pb ammunition. They analyzed the relationships between blood Pb levels and oxidative stress, immune response, and carotenoid-based coloration, which are known to be influenced by oxidative stress. Levels of Pb were reduced by half from 6 yr to 9 yr after the ban. Lipid peroxidation was positively related to Pb levels in females. The δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was suppressed by Pb exposure and negatively associated with the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Carotenoid levels were positively associated with blood Pb concentration in both sexes, and males with higher Pb levels presented a less intense coloration in legs and beak. Levels of Pb were positively related to hemolytic activity of circulating immune system components and negatively related to lysozyme levels. In summary, Pb exposure was associated in a gender-specific way with increased oxidative stress, consequences on color expression, and impaired constitutive immunity. In females, antioxidants seemed to be allocated mostly in reproduction rather than in self-maintenance, whereas males seemed to better maintain oxidative balance to the detriment of coloration. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1516-1525. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26551027

  5. "Treating" prejudice: an exposure-therapy approach to reducing negative reactions toward stigmatized groups.

    PubMed

    Birtel, Michèle D; Crisp, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    One of the ways in which therapists treat anxiety disorders is to expose patients to a fear-evoking stimulus within a safe environment before encouraging more positive stimulus-related thoughts. In the study reported here, we adapted these psychotherapeutic principles of exposure therapy to test the hypothesis that imagining a positive encounter with a member of a stigmatized group would be more likely to promote positive perceptions when it was preceded by an imagined negative encounter. The results of three experiments targeting a range of stigmatized groups (adults with schizophrenia, gay men, and British Muslims) supported this hypothesis. Compared with purely positive interventions, interventions in which a single negative encounter was imagined just prior to imagining a positive encounter resulted in significantly reduced prejudice. Furthermore, reduced anxiety uniquely derived from the mixed-valence imagery task statistically explained enhanced intentions to engage positively with the previously stigmatized group in the future. PMID:23019142

  6. Effect of aflatoxins on rat peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, V; Costa, G B; Seminara, S

    1990-01-01

    Phagocytosis, intracellular killing of Candida albicans, and superoxide production by rat peritoneal macrophages exposed to aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, B2a, and M1 at several times and concentrations were analyzed to evaluate the intensity of a depressive effect for each mycotoxin. All aflatoxins used at very low concentrations had a depressive effect on the functions of macrophages. The biggest impairment of phagocytosis, intracellular killing, and spontaneous superoxide production was observed in macrophages exposed to aflatoxins B1 and M1. PMID:2176448

  7. Exposure to sunlight reduces the risk of myopia in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Ding, Hui; Stell, William K; Liu, Liangping; Li, Saiqun; Liu, Hongshan; Zhong, Xingwu

    2015-01-01

    might have an effect to reduced hyperopic defocus-induced myopia. Also, the data imply that early life exposure to sunlight may help to maintain normal development of emmetropization later in life, and thus lower the risk of myopic anisometropia in adolescent monkey. PMID:26030845

  8. Evaluation of an Elementary School–based Educational Intervention for Reducing Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Khalid; Ahmed, Ershad; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Liu, Xinhua; Siddique, Abu B.; Wasserman, Gail A.; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to well water arsenic (As) remains a major rural health challenge in Bangladesh and some other developing countries. Many mitigation programs have been implemented to reduce As exposure, although evaluation studies for these efforts are rare in the literature. Objectives In this study we estimated associations between a school-based intervention and various outcome measures of As mitigation. Methods We recruited 840 children from 14 elementary schools in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Teachers from 7 schools were trained on an As education curriculum, whereas the remaining 7 schools without any training formed the control group. Surveys, knowledge tests, and well-water testing were conducted on 773 children both at baseline and postintervention follow-up. Urine samples were collected from 210 children from 4 intervention schools and the same number of children from 4 control schools. One low-As (< 10 μg/L) community well in each study village was ensured during an 18-month intervention period. Results After adjustment for the availability of low-As wells and other sociodemographic confounders, children receiving the intervention were five times more likely to switch from high- to low-As wells (p < 0.001). We also observed a significant decline of urinary arsenic (UAs) (p = < 0.001) (estimated β = –214.9; 95% CI: –301.1, –128.7 μg/g creatinine) among the children who were initially drinking from high-As wells (> Bangladesh standard of 50 μg/L) and significantly improved As knowledge attributable to the intervention after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions These findings offer strong evidence that school-based intervention can effectively reduce As exposure in Bangladesh by motivating teachers, children, and parents. Citation Khan K, Ahmed E, Factor-Litvak P, Liu X, Siddique AB, Wasserman GA, Slavkovich V, Levy D, Mey JL, van Geen A, Graziano JH. 2015. Evaluation of an elementary school–based educational intervention

  9. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  10. Estimated Daily Phthalate Exposures in a Population of Mothers of Male Infants Exhibiting Reduced Anogenital Distance

    PubMed Central

    Marsee, Kevin; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in animal studies. A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first evidence of subtle developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to phthalates. We used two previously published methods to estimate the daily phthalate exposures for the four phthalates whose urinary metabolites were statistically significantly associated with developmental effects in the 214 mother–infant pairs [di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP)] and for another important phthalate [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)]. We estimated the median and 95th percentile of daily exposures to DBP to be 0.99 and 2.68 μg/kg/day, respectively; for DEP, 6.64 and 112.3 μg/kg/day; for BBzP, 0.50 and 2.47 μg/kg/day; and for DEHP, 1.32 and 9.32 μg/kg/day. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference doses for these chemicals are 100 (DBP), 800 (DEP), 200 (BBzP), and 20 (DEHP) μg/kg/day. The median and 95th percentile exposure estimates for the phthalates associated with reduced anogenital distance in the study population are substantially lower than current U.S. EPA reference doses for these chemicals and could be informative to any updates of the hazard assessments and risk assessments for these chemicals. PMID:16759976

  11. Evaluating the acute effects of oral, non-combustible potential reduced exposure products marketed to smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, CO; Weaver, MF; Eissenberg, T

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-combustible potential reduced exposure products (PREPs; eg, Star Scientific’s Ariva; a variety of other smokeless tobacco products) are marketed to reduce the harm associated with smoking. This marketing occurs despite an absence of objective data concerning the toxicant exposure and effects of these PREPs. Methods used to examine combustible PREPs were adapted to assess the acute effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. Methods 28 overnight abstinent cigarette smokers (17 men, 14 non-white) each completed seven, Latin-squared ordered, approximately 2.5 h laboratory sessions that differed by product administered: Ariva, Marlboro Snus (Philip Morris, USA), Camel Snus (RJ Reynolds, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA), Commit nicotine lozenge (GlaxoSmithKline; 2 mg), own brand cigarettes, Quest cigarettes (Vector Tobacco; delivers very low levels of nicotine) and sham smoking (ie, puffing on an unlit cigarette). In each session, the product was administered twice (separated by 60 min), and plasma nicotine levels, expired air CO and subjective effects were assessed regularly. Results Non-combustible products delivered less nicotine than own brand cigarettes, did not expose smokers to CO and failed to suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms as effectively as combustible products. Conclusions While decreased toxicant exposure is a potential indicator of harm reduction potential, a failure to suppress abstinence symptoms suggests that currently marketed non-combustible PREPs may not be a viable harm reduction strategy for US smokers. This study demonstrates how clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the short-term effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. PMID:19346218

  12. Potential of Chitinolytic Serratia marcescens Strain JPP1 for Biological Control of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Yan, Pei-sheng; Cao, Li-xin; Ding, Qing-long; Shao, Chi; Zhao, Teng-fei

    2013-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strain JPP1 was isolated from peanut hulls in Huai'an city, Jiangsu Province, China. Its potential to inhibit the mycelial growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the subsequent aflatoxin production was evaluated. The strain JPP1 could produce chitinase to degrade fungal cell walls, which was the main mechanism of strain JPP1 for biocontrol. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi treated with the crude chitinase revealed abnormal morphological changes. While the strain was grown in the peanut hulls-based medium, the chitinase activity reached 7.39 units. RT-PCR analysis showed that the crude chitinase repressed the transcription of genes involved in the aflatoxin gene cluster, such as aflR, aflC (pksL1), and aflO (dmtA) genes. By visual agar plate assay and tip culture method, the strain JPP1 exhibited remarkable inhibitory effect on mycelia growth (antifungal ratio >95%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (antiaflatoxigenic ratio >98%). An in vitro assay with seed coating agent of bacterial suspension showed that strain JPP1 effectively reduced fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin production on peanut seeds, and its antagonistic effect was superior to the common agricultural fungicide of carbendazim. These characteristics suggest that S. marcescens JPP1 strain could potentially be utilized for the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi and aflatoxin in Chinese peanut main producing areas. PMID:23865052

  13. Industrial Exposures at Birth are Associated with Reduced Forced Vital Capacity in Childhood

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Previous studies have reported associations of ambient air pollutant exposures with childhood decrements in lung volumes. While the current study was designed primarily to examine traffic exposures, we also examined the impact of other early life exposures on pulmonary...

  14. Reduced Sun Exposure Does Not Explain the Inverse Association of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D with Percent Body Fat in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater adiposity is associated with lower blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The extent to which this may result from reduced sun exposure among heavier individuals is unknown. This analysis was conducted to determine whether sun exposure habits differ according to percent body fat (%...

  15. Non-fluoroscopic navigation systems for radiofrequency catheter ablation for supraventricular tachycardia reduce ionising radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    See, Jason; Amora, Jonah L; Lee, Sheldon; Lim, Paul; Teo, Wee Siong; Tan, Boon Yew; Ho, Kah Leng; Lee, Chee Wan; Ching, Chi Keong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of non-fluoroscopic systems (NFS) to guide radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is associated with lower radiation exposure. This study aimed to determine if NFS reduces fluoroscopy time, radiation dose and procedure time. METHODS We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing RFCA for SVT. NFS included EnSite™ NavX™ or CARTO® mapping. We compared procedure and fluoroscopy times, and radiation exposure between NFS and conventional fluoroscopy (CF) cohorts. Procedural success, complications and one-year success rates were reported. RESULTS A total of 200 patients over 27 months were included and RFCA was guided by NFS for 79 patients; those with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), left-sided atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) and right-sided AVRT were included (n = 101, 63 and 36, respectively). Fluoroscopy times were significantly lower with NFS than with CF (10.8 ± 11.1 minutes vs. 32.0 ± 27.5 minutes; p < 0.001). The mean fluoroscopic dose area product was also significantly reduced with NFS (NSF: 5,382 ± 5,768 mGy*cm2 vs. CF: 21,070 ± 23,311 mGy*cm2; p < 0.001); for all SVT subtypes. There was no significant reduction in procedure time, except for left-sided AVRT ablation (NFS: 79.2 minutes vs. CF: 116.4 minutes; p = 0.001). Procedural success rates were comparable (NFS: 97.5% vs. CF: 98.3%) and at one-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in the recurrence rates (NFS: 5.2% vs. CF: 4.2%). No clinically significant complications were observed in both groups. CONCLUSION The use of NFS for RFCA for SVT is safe, with significantly reduced radiation dose and fluoroscopy time. PMID:26805664

  16. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    PubMed Central

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Mills, Nicholas L; Chan, Julian KK; Leseman, Daan LAC; Aitken, Robert J; Fokkens, Paul HB; Cassee, Flemming R; Li, Jing; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years) walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3), temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C) and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19%) were similar (P > 0.05 for all) on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P < 0.01) when subjects wore a facemask, although heart rate was similar (91 ± 11 vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05). Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P < 0.05; LF-power 919 ± 352 vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P < 0.05) when subjects wore the facemask. Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution. PMID:19284642

  17. Di-isoheptyl Phthalate (DIHP) in utero exposure reduces testicular testosterone (T) production in fetal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to DIHP, a commercial phthalate ester plasticizer used in flooring manufacturing, during the fetal period of sexual differentiation disrupts male reproductive development resulting in reproductive malformations and reduced androgen-dependent reproductive tissue weights i...

  18. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled. PMID:24779934

  19. Inhibition of aflatoxin production by selected insecticides.

    PubMed

    Draughon, F A; Ayres, J C

    1981-04-01

    The insecticide naled completed inhibition production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 by and growth of Aspergillus parasiticus at a 100-ppm (100 microgram/ml) concentration. The insecticides dichlorvos, Landrin, pyrethrum, Sevin, malathion, and Diazinon significantly (P = 0.05) inhibited production of aflatoxins at a 100-ppm concentration. However, at a concentration of 10 ppm, significant inhibition in production of aflatoxins was found only with naled, dichlorvos, Sevin, Landrin, and pyrethrum. Dichlorvos, Landrin, Sevin, and naled inhibited growth of A. parasiticus by 28.9 , 18.9, 15.7, and 100%, respectively, at 100 ppm. Stimulation of growth was observed when diazinon was added to cultures. Aflatoxin B1 was most resistant to inhibition by insecticides, followed by G1, G2, and B2, respectively. PMID:6786222

  20. Bacillus subtilis GSY 1057 assay for aflatoxin B activation by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed

    Schoenhard, G L; Bishop, P E; Lee, D J; Sinnhuber, R O

    1975-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive microbial assay was developed to detect lethal products of aflatoxin B metabolism by rainbow trout (Salmon gairdneri) Mt. Shasta strain. Bacillus subtilis GSY 1057 (hisA1, uvr-1, metB4), a DNA repair deficient strain, was incubated for 20 min in the 20,000 times g supernate from trout liver homogenates which had been preincubated for 10 min with various levels of aflatoxin B. Serial dilutions of the incubation mixture were plated in triplicate on tryptose blood agar base plates and colonies were counted after 12 hr at 37 degrees C. One mumole aflatoxin B in 3.2 ml incubation mixture reduced viability 60%. PMID:808527

  1. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the kernel (shelled) lot sample for aflatoxin testing and the number of incremental samples required... 80 24.0 8.0 22,001-150,000 100 30.0 10.0 Table 2 to § 983.150(d)(2)—Shelled Pistachio Kernel Lot... aflatoxin level shall be calculated on a kernel weight basis. (4) Certification of lots “negative” as...

  2. Oral tungstate (Na2WO4) exposure reduces adaptive immune responses in mice after challenge.

    PubMed

    Osterburg, Andrew R; Robinson, Chad T; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Stockelman, Michael; Schwemberger, Sandy J; Chapman, Gail; Babcock, George F

    2014-01-01

    Tungstate (WO²⁻₄) has been identified as a ground water contaminant at military firing ranges and can be absorbed by ingestion. In this study, C57BL6 mice were exposed to sodium tungstate (Na2WO4·2H2O) (0, 2, 62.5, 125, and 200 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water for an initial 28-day screen and in a one-generation (one-gen) model. Twenty-four hours prior to euthanasia, mice were intraperitoneally injected with Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) (20 μg/mouse) or saline as controls. After euthanasia, splenocytes and blood were collected and stained with lymphocyte and/or myeloid immunophenotyping panels and analyzed by flow cytometry. In the 28-day and one-gen exposure, statistically significant reductions were observed in the quantities of activated cytotoxic T-cells (TCTL; CD3(+)CD8(+)CD71(+)) and helper T-cells (TH; CD3(+)CD4(+)CD71(+)) from spleens of SEB-treated mice. In the 28-day exposures, CD71(+) TCTL cells were 12.87 ± 2.05% (SE) in the 0 tungstate (control) group compared to 4.44 ± 1.42% in the 200 mg/kg/day (p < 0.001) group. TH cells were 4.85 ± 1.23% in controls and 2.76 ± 0.51% in the 200 mg/kg/day (p < 0.003) group. In the one-gen exposures, TCTL cells were 7.98 ± 0.49% and 6.33 ± 0.49% for P and F1 mice after 0 mg/kg/day tungstate vs 1.58 ± 0.23% and 2.52 ± 0.25% after 200 mg/kg/day of tungstate (p < 0.001). Similarly, TH cells were reduced to 6.21 ± 0.39% and 7.20 ± 0.76%, respectively, for the 0 mg/kg/day P and F1 mice, and 2.28 ± 0.41% and 2.85 ± 0.53%, respectively, for the 200 mg/kg/day tungstate P and F1 groups (p < 0.001). In delayed-type hypersensitivity Type IV experiments, tungstate exposure prior to primary and secondary antigen challenge significantly reduced footpad swelling at 20 and 200 mg/kg/day. These data indicate that exposure to tungstate can result in immune suppression that may, in turn, reduce host defense against

  3. Reduced uptake of [18F]FDOPA PET in asymptomatic welders with occupational manganese exposure

    PubMed Central

    Criswell, S.R.; Perlmutter, J.S.; Videen, T.O.; Moerlein, S.M.; Flores, H.P.; Birke, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Welding exposes workers to manganese (Mn) fumes, but it is unclear if this exposure damages dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia and predisposes individuals to develop parkinsonism. PET imaging with 6-[18F]fluoro-l-dopa (FDOPA) is a noninvasive measure of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron integrity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether welding exposure is associated with damage to nigrostriatal neurons in asymptomatic workers. Methods: We imaged 20 asymptomatic welders exposed to Mn fumes, 20 subjects with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD), and 20 normal controls using FDOPA PET. All subjects were examined by a movement disorders specialist. Basal ganglia volumes of interest were identified for each subject. The specific uptake of FDOPA, Ki, was generated for each region using graphical analysis method. Results: Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) analysis demonstrated a strong interaction between diagnostic group and region (F4,112 = 15.36, p < 0.001). Caudate Kis were lower in asymptomatic welders (0.0098 + 0.0013 minutes−1) compared to control subjects (0.0111 + 0.0012 minutes−1, p = 0.002). The regional pattern of uptake in welders was most affected in the caudate > anterior putamen > posterior putamen. This uptake pattern was anatomically reversed from the pattern found in subjects with IPD. Conclusions: Active, asymptomatic welders with Mn exposure demonstrate reduced FDOPA PET uptake indicating dysfunction in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The caudate Ki reduction in welders may represent an early (asymptomatic) marker of Mn neurotoxicity and appears to be distinct from the pattern of dysfunction found in symptomatic IPD. PMID:21471467

  4. Within-subject Pooling of Biological Samples to Reduce Exposure Misclassification in Biomarker-based Studies

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Flavie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Philippat, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background: For chemicals with high within-subject temporal variability, assessing exposure biomarkers in a spot biospecimen poorly estimates average levels over long periods. The objective is to characterize the ability of within-subject pooling of biospecimens to reduce bias due to exposure misclassification when within-subject variability in biomarker concentrations is high. Methods: We considered chemicals with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.6 and 0.2. In a simulation study, we hypothesized that the chemical urinary concentrations averaged over a given time period were associated with a health outcome and estimated the bias of studies assessing exposure that collected 1 to 50 random biospecimens per subject. We assumed a classical type error. We studied associations using a within-subject pooling approach and two measurement error models (simulation extrapolation and regression calibration), the latter requiring the assay of more than one biospecimen per subject. Results: For both continuous and binary outcomes, using one sample led to attenuation bias of 40% and 80% for compounds with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.6 and 0.2, respectively. For a compound with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.6, the numbers of biospecimens required to limit bias to less than 10% were 6, 2, and 2 biospecimens with the pooling, simulation extrapolation, and regression calibration methods (these values were, respectively, 35, 8, and 2 for a compound with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.2). Compared with pooling, these methods did not improve power. Conclusion: Within-subject pooling limits attenuation bias without increasing assay costs. Simulation extrapolation and regression calibration further limit bias, compared with the pooling approach, but increase assay costs. PMID:27035688

  5. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  6. Altered Microbiota Contributes to Reduced Diet-Induced Obesity upon Cold Exposure.

    PubMed

    Ziętak, Marika; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Markiewicz, Lidia H; Ståhlman, Marcus; Kozak, Leslie P; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-06-14

    Maintenance of body temperature in cold-exposed animals requires induction of thermogenesis and management of fuel. Here, we demonstrated that reducing ambient temperature attenuated diet-induced obesity (DIO), which was associated with increased iBAT thermogenesis and a plasma bile acid profile similar to that of germ-free mice. We observed a marked shift in the microbiome composition at the phylum and family levels within 1 day of acute cold exposure and after 4 weeks at 12°C. Gut microbiota was characterized by increased levels of Adlercreutzia, Mogibacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Desulfovibrio and reduced levels of Bacilli, Erysipelotrichaceae, and the genus rc4-4. These genera have been associated with leanness and obesity, respectively. Germ-free mice fed a high-fat diet at room temperature gained less adiposity and improved glucose tolerance when transplanted with caecal microbiota of mice housed at 12°C compared to mice transplanted with microbiota from 29°C. Thus, a microbiota-liver-BAT axis may mediate protection against obesity at reduced temperature. PMID:27304513

  7. Reducing the Meta-Emotional Problem Decreases Physiological Fear Response during Exposure in Phobics

    PubMed Central

    Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petrocchi, Nicola; Trincas, Roberta; Tenore, Katia; Buonanno, Carlo; Mancini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders may not only be characterized by specific symptomatology (e.g., tachycardia) in response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem or first-level emotion) but also by the tendency to negatively evaluate oneself for having those symptoms (secondary problem or negative meta-emotion). An exploratory study was conducted driven by the hypothesis that reducing the secondary or meta-emotional problem would also diminish the fear response to the phobic stimulus. Thirty-three phobic participants were exposed to the phobic target before and after undergoing a psychotherapeutic intervention addressed to reduce the meta-emotional problem or a control condition. The electrocardiogram was continuously recorded to derive heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and affect ratings were obtained. Addressing the meta-emotional problem had the effect of reducing the physiological but not the subjective symptoms of anxiety after phobic exposure. Preliminary findings support the role of the meta-emotional problem in the maintenance of response to the fearful stimulus (primary problem). PMID:27504102

  8. Exposure to ozone reduces postharvest quality loss in red and green chilli peppers.

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Marcin; Rees, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of continuous exposure to ozone at 0.45, 0.9 and 2μmolmol(-1) on quality changes during the storage of red and green chilli peppers at 10°C was investigated. Ozone at 0.45 and 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced disease incidence in red peppers, with no further benefits at 2μmolmol(-1). Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced weight loss during storage and improved firmness maintenance. Skin colour was bleached in red peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), and in green ones at all tested doses. Total phenolic content was not affected by ozone but antioxidant activity was reduced in green chilli peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), due to lower ascorbic acid content in those samples. Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) extended the shelf-life of chilli peppers. PMID:27211651

  9. Novel Applications of Modified Ultrafiltration and Autologous Priming Techniques to Reduce Blood Product Exposure on ECMO

    PubMed Central

    Neal, James R.; Blau, Caitlin L.; Cornelius, Amanda M.; Pike, Roxann B.; Dearani, Joseph A.; Mora, Bassem N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Patients needing the assistance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at risk of hemodilution and, in some instances, may require exposure to large amounts of allogeneic blood products. Patient outcomes can be improved by taking steps to reduce transfusions and hemodilution. Currently, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used across the world to reduce hemodilution after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Another common technique during bypass initiation is autologous priming. By applying modified versions of these techniques, ECMO patients may potentially benefit. Usually, patients requiring immediate transition from CPB to ECMO are not stable enough to tolerate MUF. Through alterations of the CPB and ECMO circuit tubing, MUF can be performed once on ECMO. Another technique to potentially lower the transfusion requirements for ECMO patients is a complete circuit blood transfer during an ECMO circuit exchange. While selective component changes are preferred if possible, occasionally a complete circuit change must be done. To minimize hemodilution or prevent priming with blood products, the original ECMO circuit's blood can be transferred to the new ECMO circuit before connecting to the patient. Both of these techniques, in our opinion, helped to reduce the number of transfusions that our ECMO patients have seen during these critical time periods. PMID:27134305

  10. Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A.; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  11. Aflatoxin control in maize by Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Scarpari, Marzia; Bello, Cristiano; Pietricola, Chiara; Zaccaria, Marco; Bertocchi, Luigi; Angelucci, Alessandra; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Scala, Valeria; Parroni, Alessia; Fabbri, Anna A; Reverberi, Massimo; Zjalic, Slaven; Fanelli, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1. PMID:25525683

  12. Interactions of aflatoxin with histones and DNA.

    PubMed

    Black, H S; Jirgensons, B

    1967-05-01

    The interactions of aflatoxin B(1) with certain histone fractions and DNA were investigated by means of viscosity measurements and equilibrium dialysis. Two main histone fractions (F2b and F1), both lysine-rich, were examined after treatment with the toxin. Fraction 2b and 1 differ in amino acid composition and behave differently, in regard to gross conformation, in the presence of electrolytes. Aflatoxin increased the viscosity of fraction 2b but affected the viscosity of fraction 1 only slightly. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that aflatoxin was bound to both histone fractions. Aflatoxin also increased the viscosity of DNA and equilibrium dialysis showed that 1 molecule of the toxin was bound to approximately every 5 nucleotides of the nucleic acid. Binding constants for the aflatoxin complexes were calculated as 1000 for F2b, 700 for F1, and 5500 for DNA. The biological implications of these data, in regard to the effect aflatoxin has on the information-transcription process, are discussed. PMID:6039901

  13. Exposure to Mozart music reduces cognitive impairment in pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus rats.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingshou; Qin, Yi; Jing, Wei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Wang, Yanran; Guo, Daqing; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-02-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often display cognitive deficits. However, current epilepsy therapeutic interventions mainly aim at how to reduce the frequency and degree of epileptic seizures. Recovery of cognitive impairment is not attended enough, resulting in the lack of effective approaches in this respect. In the pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy rat model, memory impairment has been classically reported. Here we evaluated spatial cognition changes at different epileptogenesis stages in rats of this model and explored the effects of long-term Mozart music exposure on the recovery of cognitive ability. Our results showed that pilocarpine rats suffered persisting cognitive impairment during epileptogenesis. Interestingly, we found that Mozart music exposure can significantly enhance cognitive ability in epileptic rats, and music intervention may be more effective for improving cognitive function during the early stages after Status epilepticus. These findings strongly suggest that Mozart music may help to promote the recovery of cognitive damage due to seizure activities, which provides a novel intervention strategy to diminish cognitive deficits in TLE patients. PMID:26834859

  14. Does Ad Hoc Coronary Intervention Reduce Radiation Exposure? – Analysis of 568 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Truffa, Márcio A. M.; Alves, Gustavo M.P.; Bernardi, Fernando; Esteves Filho, Antonio; Ribeiro, Expedito; Galon, Micheli Z.; Spadaro, André; Kajita, Luiz J.; Arrieta, Raul; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advantages and disadvantages of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention have been described. However little is known about the radiation exposure of that procedure as compared with the staged intervention. Objective To compare the radiation dose of the ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention with that of the staged procedure Methods The dose-area product and total Kerma were measured, and the doses of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were added. In addition, total fluoroscopic time and number of acquisitions were evaluated. Results A total of 568 consecutive patients were treated with ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 320) or staged percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 248). On admission, the ad hoc group had less hypertension (74.1% vs 81.9%; p = 0.035), dyslipidemia (57.8% vs. 67.7%; p = 0.02) and three-vessel disease (38.8% vs. 50.4%; p = 0.015). The ad hoc group was exposed to significantly lower radiation doses, even after baseline characteristic adjustment between both groups. The ad hoc group was exposed to a total dose-area product of 119.7 ± 70.7 Gycm2, while the staged group, to 139.2 ± 75.3 Gycm2 (p < 0.001). Conclusion Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention reduced radiation exposure as compared with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed at two separate times. PMID:26351982

  15. Interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter A; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani; Smith, S Jay; Tannor, Bernice; Hutchinson, Angela B; Wilson, Katherine M; Gandhi, Nisha; Lee, Nancy C; Rimer, Barbara; Coates, Ralph C; Kerner, Jon F; Hiatt, Robert A; Buffler, Patricia; Rochester, Phyllis

    2004-12-01

    The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation is well established. Behaviors such as seeking shade, avoiding sun exposure during peak hours of radiation, wearing protective clothing, or some combination of these behaviors can provide protection. Sunscreen use alone is not considered an adequate protection against ultraviolet radiation. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, other harms or benefits, economic evaluations, and barriers to use of selected interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services found that education and policy approaches to increasing sun-protective behaviors were effective when implemented in primary schools and in recreational or tourism settings, but found insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness when implemented in other settings, such as child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, and occupational settings. They also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of interventions oriented to healthcare settings and providers, media campaigns alone, interventions oriented to parents or caregivers of children, and community-wide multicomponent interventions. The report also provides suggestions for areas for future research. PMID:15556744

  16. Strategies in prevention of preharvest aflatoxin contamination in peanuts: Aflatoxin biosynthesis, genetics and genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), or groundnut, is an important crop economically and nutritionally worldwide. It is also one of the most susceptible host crops to Aspergillus flavus resulting in aflatoxin contamination. The reduction and elimination of aflatoxin contamination in pre-harvest and pos...

  17. Updated estimates of earnings benefits from reduced exposure of children to environmental lead

    SciTech Connect

    Salkever, D.S.

    1995-07-01

    The recent and important study by Schwartz found that almost three-fourths of the benefits of reduced lead exposure in children are in the form of earnings gains (earnings losses avoided). New data on recent trends in returns to education and cognitive skills in the labor market suggest a need to revise this estimate upward. Based on an analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the present study estimates that an upward revision of at least 50% (or $2.5 billion per annual birth cohort) is indicated. The study also finds evidence that percentage earnings gains are considerably larger for females than for males. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Reduced worker exposure and improved energy efficiency in industrial fume-hoods using an airvest

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.; Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reduction in the breathing zone concentration of an experimentally simulated pollutant, by factors ranging from 100 to 800, was observed with the device (called an airvest). With use of the airvest by the worker, the hood face velocity can be reduced, leading to substantial energy savings in conditioning of make up air in the building. The airvest works by elimination or ventilation of the eddy that develops in front of a worker when the worker stands in the open face of a fume hood. Normally this eddy draws some of the pollutant (commonly generated near and in front of the worker) towards the worker`s breathing zone. Experiments sing a heated full-size mannequin were conducted with a full scale walk-in fume hood. Sulfur hexafluoride was used to simulate pollutant generation and exposure during a work situation. Flow visualization with smoke was also undertaken to evaluate the airvest qualitatively. 3 refs.

  19. Immunogenicity of stabilized HIV-1 envelope trimers with reduced exposure of non-neutralizing epitopes

    PubMed Central

    de Taeye, Steven W.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Guttman, Miklos; Julien, Jean-Philippe; van den Kerkhof, Tom L.G.M.; Burger, Judith A.; Pritchard, Laura K.; Pugach, Pavel; Yasmeen, Anila; Crampton, Jordan; Hu, Joyce; Bontjer, Ilja; Torres, Jonathan L.; Arendt, Heather; DeStefano, Joanne; Koff, Wayne C.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Eggink, Dirk; Berkhout, Ben; Dean, Hansi; LaBranche, Celia; Crotty, Shane; Crispin, Max; Montefiori, David C.; Klasse, P. J.; Lee, Kelly K.; Moore, John P.; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The envelope glycoprotein trimer mediates HIV-1 entry into cells. The trimer is flexible, fluctuating between closed and more open conformations and sometimes sampling the fully open, CD4-bound form. We hypothesized that conformational flexibility could hinder the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). We therefore modified soluble Env trimers to stabilize their closed, ground states. The trimer variants were indeed stabilized in the closed conformation, with a reduced ability to undergo receptor-induced conformational changes and a decreased exposure of non-neutralizing V3-directed antibody epitopes. In rabbits, the stabilized trimers induced similar autologous Tier-1B or Tier-2 NAb titers to those elicited by the corresponding wild-type trimers, but lower levels of V3-directed Tier-1A NAbs. Stabilized, closed trimers might therefore be useful components of vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs. PMID:26687358

  20. ROLE OF COMPETITION AND ADVERSE CULTURE CONDITIONS IN PREVENTING THE LOSS OF A AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS DURING SERIAL TRANSFERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is genetically unstable when repeatedly transferred in culture. Serial transfers often result in loss of aflatoxin production and in associated morphological changes such as reduced sporulation, proliferation of aerial hyphae and an inability to produce sclerotia. However, degene...

  1. Perchlorate Exposure Reduces Primordial Germ Cell Number in Female Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ann M.; Earp, Nathanial C.; Redmond, Mandy E.; Postlethwait, John H.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Buck, C. Loren; Cresko, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Perchlorate is a common aquatic contaminant that has long been known to affect thyroid function in vertebrates, including humans. More recently perchlorate has been shown to affect primordial sexual differentiation in the aquatic model fishes zebrafish and threespine stickleback, but the mechanism has been unclear. Stickleback exposed to perchlorate from fertilization have increased androgen levels in the embryo and disrupted reproductive morphologies as adults, suggesting that perchlorate could disrupt the earliest stages of primordial sexual differentiation when primordial germ cells (PGCs) begin to form the gonad. Female stickleback have three to four times the number of PGCs as males during the first weeks of development. We hypothesized that perchlorate exposure affects primordial sexual differentiation by reducing the number of germ cells in the gonad during an important window of stickleback sex determination at 14–18 days post fertilization (dpf). We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the number of PGCs at 16 dpf in control and 100 mg/L perchlorate-treated male and female stickleback. Perchlorate exposure from the time of fertilization resulted in significantly reduced PGC number only in genotypic females, suggesting that the masculinizing effects of perchlorate observed in adult stickleback may result from early changes to the number of PGCs at a time critical for sex determination. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a connection between an endocrine disruptor and reduction in PGC number prior to the first meiosis during sex determination. These findings suggest that a mode of action of perchlorate on adult reproductive phenotypes in vertebrates, including humans, such as altered fecundity and sex reversal or intersex gonads, may stem from early changes to germ cell development. PMID:27383240

  2. Prenatal nicotine exposure increases apnoea and reduces nicotinic potentiation of hypoglossal inspiratory output in mice

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Dean M; Peebles, Karen C; Kwok, Henry; Adams, Brandon M; Clarke, Lan-Ling; Woollard, Gerald A; Funk, Gregory D

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of in utero nicotine exposure on postnatal development of breathing pattern and ventilatory responses to hypoxia (7.4 % O2) using whole-body plethysmography in mice at postnatal day 0 (P0), P3, P9, P19 and P42. Nicotine delayed early postnatal changes in breathing pattern. During normoxia, control and nicotine-exposed P0 mice exhibited a high frequency of apnoea (fA) which declined by P3 in control animals (from 6.7 ± 0.7 to 2.2 ± 0.7 min−1) but persisted in P3 nicotine-exposed animals (5.4 ± 1.3 min−1). Hypoxia induced a rapid and sustained reduction in fA except in P0 nicotine-exposed animals where it fell initially and then increased throughout the hypoxic period. During recovery, fA increased above control levels in both groups at P0. By P3 this increase was reduced in control but persisted in nicotine-exposed animals. To examine the origin of differences in respiratory behaviour, we compared the activity of hypoglossal (XII) nerves and motoneurons in medullary slice preparations. The frequency and variability of the respiratory rhythm and the envelope of inspiratory activity in XII nerves and motoneurons were indistinguishable between control and nicotine-exposed animals. Activation of postsynaptic nicotine receptors caused an inward current in XII motoneurons that potentiated XII nerve burst amplitude by 25 ± 5 % in control but only 14 ± 3 % in nicotine-exposed animals. Increased apnoea following nicotine exposure does not appear to reflect changes in basal activity of rhythm or pattern-generating networks, but may result, in part, from reduced nicotinic modulation of XII motoneurons. PMID:11826179

  3. Left Atrial Appendage Closure Guided by Integrated Echocardiography and Fluoroscopy Imaging Reduces Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Jan; Eickholt, Christian; Petersen, Margot; Kehmeier, Eva; Veulemans, Verena; Kelm, Malte; Willems, Stephan; Meyer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure guided by automated real-time integration of 2D-/3D-transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and fluoroscopy imaging results in decreased radiation exposure. Methods and Results In this open-label single-center study LAA closure (AmplatzerTM Cardiac Plug) was performed in 34 consecutive patients (8 women; 73.1±8.5 years) with (n = 17, EN+) or without (n = 17, EN-) integrated echocardiography/fluoroscopy imaging guidance (EchoNavigator® [EN]; Philips Healthcare). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between both groups. Successful LAA closure was documented in all patients. Radiation dose was reduced in the EN+ group about 52% (EN+: 48.5±30.7 vs. EN-: 93.9±64.4 Gy/cm2; p = 0.01). Corresponding to the radiation dose fluoroscopy time was reduced (EN+: 16.7±7 vs. EN-: 24.0±11.4 min; p = 0.035). These advantages were not at the cost of increased procedure time (89.6±28.8 vs. 90.1±30.2 min; p = 0.96) or periprocedural complications. Contrast media amount was comparable between both groups (172.3±92.7 vs. 197.5±127.8 ml; p = 0.53). During short-term follow-up of at least 3 months (mean: 8.1±5.9 months) no device-related events occurred. Conclusions Automated real-time integration of echocardiography and fluoroscopy can be incorporated into procedural work-flow of percutaneous left atrial appendage closure without prolonging procedure time. This approach results in a relevant reduction of radiation exposure. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01262508 PMID:26465747

  4. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B2 and G2 in peanuts using spectrofluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Luna, A S; Luiz, R A; Lima, I C A; Março, P H; Valderrama, P; Boqué, R; Ferré, J

    2013-05-17

    In the present study a method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B2 and G2 in peanuts has been developed. The method uses second order standard addition method and excitation-emission fluorescence data together with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The aflatoxin analysis was based on extraction with methanol-water and carried out using immunoaffinity clean-up. The results of PARAFAC on a set of spiked and naturally contaminated peanuts indicated that the two aflatoxins could be successfully determined. The method was validated and analytical figures of merit were obtained for both analytes. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.05 and 0.04 μg kg(-1) for aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.16 and 0.12 μg kg(-1) for aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. Coupling of spectrofluorimetry with PARAFAC can be considered as an alternative method for quantification of aflatoxins in the presence of unknown interferences obtained through analysis of highly complex matrix of peanuts samples at a reduced cost per analysis. PMID:23639393

  5. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  6. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  7. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  8. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  9. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that...

  10. Fast synthesis of high-quality reduced graphene oxide at room temperature under light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some, Surajit; Kim, Sungjin; Samanta, Khokan; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Park, Younghun; Lee, Sae Mi; Lee, Keunsik; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2014-09-01

    An approach of presenting new reducing reagents, sodium-benzophenone (Na-B) or Na-B in the presence of the hydrazine (Na-B-H) system under light exposure could produce rGOs with/without N-doping at room temperature in both the solution phase and on a solid substrate. Benzophenone activated those solutions acting as a photosensitizer under light. It was assumed that the newly generated radical anions with electrons from Na-B under light can reduce GO to rGO sheets (rGONa-B1). In addition, the Na-B-H system can allow a higher degree of reduction with the doping of nitrogen atoms by the introduction of hydrazine to produce radical anions and electrons with a sodium hydrazide complex, which helps decrease the sheet resistance of the as-made rGONa-B-H2. The excellent properties (very low oxygen content (C/O ~16.2), and low sheet resistance (~130 Ω square-1)) of the rGOs were confirmed by XPS, XRD, IR, Raman spectroscopy, TGA, wettability, and sheet resistance measurements. High-quality rGO films on flexible substrates could be prepared by directly immersing the GO films in these solutions for several minutes.An approach of presenting new reducing reagents, sodium-benzophenone (Na-B) or Na-B in the presence of the hydrazine (Na-B-H) system under light exposure could produce rGOs with/without N-doping at room temperature in both the solution phase and on a solid substrate. Benzophenone activated those solutions acting as a photosensitizer under light. It was assumed that the newly generated radical anions with electrons from Na-B under light can reduce GO to rGO sheets (rGONa-B1). In addition, the Na-B-H system can allow a higher degree of reduction with the doping of nitrogen atoms by the introduction of hydrazine to produce radical anions and electrons with a sodium hydrazide complex, which helps decrease the sheet resistance of the as-made rGONa-B-H2. The excellent properties (very low oxygen content (C/O ~16.2), and low sheet resistance (~130 Ω square-1)) of the r

  11. Comprehensive Coach Education Reduces Head Impact Exposure in American Youth Football

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Yeargin, Susan W.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite little evidence that defines a threshold of head impact exposure or that participation in youth sports leads to long-term cognitive impairments, it is prudent to identify methods of reducing the frequency of head impacts. Purpose: To compare the mean number of head impacts between youth football players in practice and games between leagues that implemented the Heads Up Football (HUF) educational program and those that did not (NHUF). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: During the 2014 season, head impact exposure was measured using xPatch accelerometers from 70 youth football players aged 8 to 15 years from 5 leagues. Data were collected during both games and practices. The NHUF group comprised 32 players from 8 teams within 3 leagues. The HUF group comprised 38 players from 7 teams within 2 leagues. Independent-sample t tests evaluated differences in head impact exposure across groups (ie, HUF and NHUF). Results: Players (mean ± SD: age, 11.7 ± 1.4 years; height, 152.2 ± 10.5 cm; weight, 51.6 ± 9.6 kg) experienced a total of 7478 impacts over 10g, of which 4250 (56.8%) and 3228 (43.2%) occurred in practices and games, respectively. The majority of impacts occurred within the NHUF group (62.0%), followed by the HUF group (38.0%). With a 10g impact threshold, the mean number of impacts during practice per individual event was lower in the HUF group (mean ± SD, 5.6 ± 2.9) than in the NHUF group (mean ± SD, 8.9 ± 3.1; difference, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.9-3.9). This difference was attenuated when the threshold was changed to 20g but remained significant (difference, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.3). At both the 10g and 20g impact thresholds, no differences were found in games. Conclusion: Players who participated in HUF leagues accumulated fewer head impacts per practice at both the 10g and 20g thresholds. Youth football leagues should consider the HUF educational program, while exploring additional interventions, to help reduce the

  12. β-1,3-Glucan reverses aflatoxin B1-mediated suppression of immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Bakheet, Saleh A; Attia, Sabry M; Alwetaid, Mohammad Y; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz

    2016-05-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is immunotoxic to animals and is a suspected immunosuppressant in humans. β-1,3-Glucan (BG) consists of glucose polymers and has a variety of stimulatory effects on the immune system. In this study, we investigated the role of BG on the expression of phenotypic markers and cytokine secretion in mice exposed to AFB1. We treated animals with BG (150mg/kg, p.o., once daily) for 7days beginning at the onset of AFB1 exposure. Exposure of animals to AFB1 alone (1250μg/kg, p.o, once daily) for 7days resulted in a decrease in the percentages of lymphocyte subsets (CD4(+), GITR(+), CD8(+), TCR β(+), CD3(+), Foxp3(+), CD4(+)Foxp3(+), and CD127(+)) as compared to an normal control (NC). However, both BG alone and BG given in conjunction with exposure to AFB1 significantly increased the percentages of these lymphocyte subsets in blood. We also observed that mice exposed to AFB1 showed reduced IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17, and IFN-γ production in the spleen and serum. In contrast, oral administration of BG alone and in conjunction with AFB1 exposure augmented the levels of these cytokines. Moreover, this finding was confirmed through RT-PCR and western blot analysis of mRNA and protein expression in the spleen. Altogether, it can be concluded from these studies that BG enhances the responses of lymphocyte subsets, including cytokine production, even when given following exposure to AFB1 immunotoxin. These data demonstrate that BG carries out its immunomodulating activity by regulating cytokine production. Our findings also provide a direction for development of specific immunomodulating therapy. PMID:26997472

  13. Effect of sexual recombination on population diversity in aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs) in crops worldwide. Recent efforts to reduce AF concentrations in crops have focused on the use of two non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains, AF36 and NRRL 21882 (Afla-Guard), as biological control agents. These products are a...

  14. Aflatoxin contamination of corn under different agro-environmental conditions and biocontrol applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of the fungus Aspergillus flavus has been shown to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination in corn. This study compared field application of a bioplastic-based formulation for delivering atoxigenic A. flavus isolates in Northern Italy and the Mississippi Delta. RESULTS:...

  15. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for detecting Aflatoxin B1 of maize kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of detecting the Aflatoxin B1 in maize kernels inoculated with Aspergillus flavus conidia in the field was assessed using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique. After pixel-level calibration, wavelength dependent offset, the masking method was adopted to reduce the noise and ...

  16. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  17. Providing Coaching and Cotinine Results to Preteens to Reduce Their Secondhand Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wahlgren, Dennis R.; Liles, Sandy; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Matt, Georg E.; Ji, Ming; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Swan, Gary E.; Chatfield, Dale; Ding, Ding

    2011-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) poses health risks to children living with smokers. Most interventions to protect children from SHSe have coached adult smokers. This trial determined whether coaching and cotinine feedback provided to preteens can reduce their SHSe. Methods: Two hundred one predominantly low-income families with a resident smoker and a child aged 8 to 13 years who was exposed to two or more cigarettes per day or had a urine cotinine concentration ≥ 2.0 ng/mL were randomized to control or SHSe reduction coaching groups. During eight in-home sessions over 5 months, coaches presented to the child graphic charts of cotinine assay results as performance feedback and provided differential praise and incentives for cotinine reductions. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the differential change in SHSe over time by group. Results: For the baseline to posttest period, the coaching group had a greater decrease in both urine cotinine concentration (P = .039) and reported child SHSe in the number of cigarettes exposed per day (child report, P = .003; parent report, P = .078). For posttest to month 12 follow-up, no group or group by time differences were obtained, and both groups returned toward baseline. Conclusions: Coaching preteens can reduce their SHSe, although reductions may not be sustained without ongoing counseling, feedback, and incentives. Unlike interventions that coach adults to reduce child SHSe, programs that increase child avoidance of SHSe have the potential to reduce SHSe in all settings in which the child is exposed, without requiring a change in adult smoking behavior. PMID:21474574

  18. Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin B1 in ducklings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ni-Ya; Qi, Ming; Gao, Xin; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Jie; Gu, Chang-Qin; Song, Wen-Jing; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Sun, Lv-Hui; Qi, De-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the hepatic transcriptome in ducklings through RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Twenty four, 1-day-old ducklings were divided into 4 treatment groups. Each group received an oral dose of AFB1 at 0, 10, 20, 40 μg/kg BW per day for 2 weeks. Administration of 20 and 40 μg/kg BW of AFB1 significantly decreased body weight, feed intake, serum total protein and albumin, while increasing serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, and hepatic histopathological lesions. Furthermore, RNA was extracted from the liver of ducklings administrated 0 and 40 μg/kg BW of AFB1. Two RNA-Seq libraries were created from pooled samples and produced over 149 M reads, totaling 14.9 Gb of sequence. Approximately 96,953 predicted transcripts were assembled, 749 of which had significant differential expressions (≥ 2-fold) between the control and AFB1 treatment. GO and KEGG pathway analysis results showed that many genes involved in phase I metabolism, phase II detoxification, oxidation-reduction process, carcinogenesis, apoptosis and cell cycle, and fatty acid metabolism were affected by AFB1 exposure. Conclusion, this study determined the hepatic transcriptome responded to AFB1 exposure, and provide candidate genes can be targeted to prevent and/or reduce aflatoxicosis in ducklings. PMID:26763128

  19. The effect of aflatoxin-B1 on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and assessment of dietary supplementation of NovaSil for the prevention of aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Zychowski, Katherine E; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M; Phillips, Timothy D

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  20. Relationships between in vivo and in vitro aflatoxin production: reliable prediction of fungal ability to contaminate maize with aflatoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic mycotoxins frequently produced by Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of maize with aflatoxins imposes both economic and health burdens in many regions. Identification of the most important etiologic agents of contamination is complicated by mixed infections and vary...

  1. A randomized intervention trial to reduce mechanical exposures in the Colombian flower industry.

    PubMed

    Barrero, L H; Ceballos, C; Ellegast, R; Pulido, J A; Monroy, M; Berrio, S; Quintana, L A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions to reduce mechanical demands and upper-extremity MSDs is scarce in agriculture. We conducted an intervention to reduce mechanical exposures during manual flower cutting through job rotation, education and reduction of force requirements. One-hundred and twenty workers (20 to 60 years old; 89% women) from six companies that cultivate roses participated in this study. Three companies were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. We studied changes between baseline and follow-up in self-reported effort and upper-extremity postures, kinematics and muscular activity. Most of the observed changes were moderate for both groups. The intervention group showed differential improvements compared to the control group for the maximum wrist radial deviation and forearm pronation, and acceleration of the forearm supination-pronation and elbow flexion-extension; and the muscular activity of the flexor and extensor carpi radialis and the flexor carpi ulnaris. However, we also observed that the maximum ulnar deviation, velocity of the wrist flexion-extension and muscular activity of the extensor carpi ulnaris improved more in the control group. These mixed results may be related to limited time for intervention adjustment, and uncontrolled task changes in the control group. Future research should address these issues and test other solutions. PMID:22317489

  2. The importance of aflatoxin to the ethanol fuel industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, hepatocarcinogenic compounds produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during infection of corn (maize), peanuts, cotton seed, and tree nuts. Aflatoxin becomes problematic when contaminated corn is used as a feedstock for ethanol production. Although aflatoxin h...

  3. Developing resistance to aflatoxin in maize and cottonseed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At this time, no “magic bullet” for solving the aflatoxin contamination problem in maize and cottonseed has been identified, so several strategies must be utilized simultaneously to ensure a healthy crop, free of aflatoxins. The most widely explored strategy for the control of aflatoxin contaminatio...

  4. Single Aflatoxin Contaminated Corn Kernel Analysis with Fluorescence Hyperspectral Image

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin leve...

  5. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  6. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin...

  7. Challenges in evaluating PM concentration levels, commuting exposure, and mask efficacy in reducing PM exposure in growing, urban communities in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Patel, Disa; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James; Maidin, Alimin

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) contributes to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and preterm birth complications. This project assessed PM exposure in Eastern Indonesia's largest city, where air quality has not been comprehensively monitored. We examined the efficacy of wearing masks as an individual intervention effort to reduce in-transit PM exposures. Handheld particulate counters were used to investigate ambient air quality for spatial analysis, as well as the differences in exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (μg/m(3)) by different transportation methods [e.g. motorcycle (n=97), pete-pete (n=53), and car (n=55); note: n=1 means 1m(3) of air sample]. Mask efficacy to reduce PM exposure was evaluated [e.g. surgical masks (n=39), bandanas (n=52), and motorcycle masks (n=39)]. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to provide a range of uncertainty in exposure assessment. Overall PM10 levels (91±124 μg/m(3)) were elevated compared to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 24-hour air quality guideline (50 μg/m(3)). While average PM2.5 levels (9±14 μg/m(3)) were below the WHO's guideline (25 μg/m(3)), measurements up to 139 μg/m(3) were observed. Compared to cars, average motorcycle and pete-pete PM exposures were four and three times higher for PM2.5, and 13 and 10 times higher for PM10, respectively. Only surgical masks were consistent in lowering PM2.5 and PM10 (p<0.01). Young children (≤5) were the most vulnerable age group, and could not reach the safe dosage even when wearing surgical masks. Individual interventions can effectively reduce individual PM exposures; however, policy interventions will be needed to improve the overall air quality and create safer transportation. PMID:26599141

  8. Fungal degradation of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Shantha, T

    1999-01-01

    A number of fungal cultures were screened to select an organism suitable to be used in the detoxification of aflatoxin B1. They were co-cultured in Czapek-Dox-Casamino acid medium with aflatoxin B1 producing Aspergillus flavus. Several fungal cultures were found to prevent synthesis of aflatoxin B1 in liquid culture medium. Among these Phoma sp., Mucor sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma sp. 639, Rhizopus sp. 663, Rhizopus sp. 710, Rhizopus sp. 668, Alternaria sp. and some strains belonging to the Sporotrichum group (ADA IV B14(a), ADA SF VI BF (9), strain 720) could inhibit aflatoxin synthesis by > or =90%. A few fungi, namely ADA IV B1, ADA F1, ADA F8, also belonging to the Sporotrichum group, were less efficient than the Phoma sp. The Cladosporium sp. and A. terreus sp. were by far the least efficient, registering <10% inhibition. The cultures which prevent aflatoxin biosynthesis are also capable of degrading the preformed toxin. Among these, Phoma sp. was the most efficient destroying about 99% of aflatoxin B1. The cell free extract of Phoma sp. destroyed nearly 50 microg aflatoxin B1 100 ml(-1) culture medium (90% of the added toxin), and this was more effective than its own culture filtrate over 5 days incubation at 28+/-2 degrees C. The degradation was gradual: 35% at 24 h, 58% at 48 h, 65% at 72 h, 85% at 96 h and 90% at 120 h. The possibility of a heat stable enzymatic activity in the cell free extract of Phoma is proposed. PMID:10945479

  9. Research on reducing radiation exposure for clinical applications of X-ray attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Min-Cheol; Han, Man-Seok; So, Woon-Young; Lee, Hyeon-Guck; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Seung-Yeol

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at identifing areas with low radiation exposure where workers could be taken in the examination room in case that they had to hold the patients by estimating the attenuation of primary radiation and measuring the spatial distribution of scattered radiation. The laboratory equipment included on the X-ray generator, a phantom (human phantom), and a dosimeter. The experiment measured the performance of the examination system (dose reproducibility), the dose of primary radiation (X-rays), and the dose of scattered radiation (secondary radiation). Both the primary and the scattered radiation were attenuated by a factor of tube in vacuum experimental tests of the inverse square law. In this study, the attenuation was 2 ˜ 2.246 for primary radiation and 2 ˜ 2.105 for secondary radiation. Natural attenuation occurred as the X-rays passed through air, and an attenuation equation was established in this study. The equation for primary radiation (1st dose) was y = A1* exp(- x/t1)+ y0. The high-intensity contour of the direction for the cathode was wider than that of the direction for the anode, showing a wide range on the rear side of the cathode and on the rear side of the anode. We tried to find the positions where the workers' radiation exposure could be reduced. When the medical radiation workers have to hold the patient for an abdominal examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the left side of the patient. For a lumbar-spine lateral examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and behind the patient, and for a femur AP (anterior-posterior) examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the right side of the patient.

  10. The Eng1 β-Glucanase Enhances Histoplasma Virulence by Reducing β-Glucan Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Garfoot, Andrew L.; Shen, Qian; Wüthrich, Marcel; Klein, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum parasitizes host phagocytes. To avoid antimicrobial immune responses, Histoplasma yeasts must minimize their detection by host receptors while simultaneously interacting with the phagocyte. Pathogenic Histoplasma yeast cells, but not avirulent mycelial cells, secrete the Eng1 protein, which is a member of the glycosylhydrolase 81 (GH81) family. We show that Histoplasma Eng1 is a glucanase that hydrolyzes β-(1,3)-glycosyl linkages but is not required for Histoplasma growth in vitro or for cell separation. However, Histoplasma yeasts lacking Eng1 function have attenuated virulence in vivo, particularly during the cell-mediated immunity stage. Histoplasma yeasts deficient for Eng1 show increased exposure of cell wall β-glucans, which results in enhanced binding to the Dectin-1 β-glucan receptor. Consistent with this, Eng1-deficient yeasts trigger increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokine production from macrophages and dendritic cells. While not responsible for large-scale cell wall structure and function, the secreted Eng1 reduces levels of exposed β-glucans at the yeast cell wall, thereby diminishing potential recognition by Dectin-1 and proinflammatory cytokine production by phagocytes. In α-glucan-producing Histoplasma strains, Eng1 acts in concert with α-glucan to minimize β-glucan exposure: α-glucan provides a masking function by covering the β-glucan-rich cell wall, while Eng1 removes any remaining exposed β-glucans. Thus, Histoplasma Eng1 has evolved a specialized pathogenesis function to remove exposed β-glucans, thereby enhancing the ability of yeasts to escape detection by host phagocytes. PMID:27094334

  11. Numerical Simulation of cardiovascular deconditioning in different reduced gravity exposure scenarios. Parabolic flight validation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel

    Numerical models and simulations are an emerging area of research in human physiology. As complex numerical models are available, along with high-speed computing technologies, it is possible to produce more accurate predictions of the long-term effects of reduced gravity on the human body. NELME (Numerical Emulation of Long-Term Microgravity Effects) has been developed as an electrical-like control system model of the pysiological changes that may arise when gravity changes are applied to the cardiovascular system. Validation of the model has been carried out in parabolic flights at UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. A number of parabolas of up to 8 seconds were performed at Sabadell Airport with an aerobatic single-engine CAP10B plane capable of performing such maneuvres. Heart rate, arterial pressure, and gravity data was collected and compared to the output obtained from the model in order to optimize its parameters. The model is then able to perform simulations for long-term periods of exposure to microgravity, and then the risk for a major malfunction is evaluated. Vascular resistance is known to be impaired during a long-term mission. This effects are not fully understood, and the model is capable of providing a continuous thread of simulated scenarios, while varying gravity in a nearly-continuous way. Aerobic exercise as countermeasure has been simulated as a periodic perturbation into the simulated physiological system. Results are discussed in terms of the validaty and reliability of the outcomes from the model, that have been found compatible with the available data in the literature. Different gender sensitivities to microgravity exposure are discussed. Also thermal stress along with exercise, as it happens in the case of Extravehicular activity is smulated. Results show that vascular resistance is significantly impared (p<0,05) at gravity levels less than 0,4g, when exposed for a period of time longer than 16 days. This degree of impairement is comparable with

  12. Aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries: Geographical distribution, mechanism of action and prevention

    PubMed Central

    HAMID, ABDU SELIM; TESFAMARIAM, ISAIAS GOITOM; ZHANG, YUCHENG; ZHANG, ZHEN GUI

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most well-known primary liver malignancy worldwide. Its incidence is rising at alarming rates and has become a public concern globally. It is more frequent in developing countries than in industrialized countries with respect to geographical variation, ethnic disparities and socioeconomic status. Dietary exposure to aflatoxins is among the major HCC risk factors. Aflatoxin B1, which is a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, which presumptively causes cancer by inducing DNA adducts leading to genetic changes in target liver cells. AFB1 is metabolized by cytochrome-P450 enzymes to the reactive intermediate AFB1-8, 9 epoxide (AFBO) which binds to liver cell DNA, resulting in DNA adducts. DNA adducts interact with the guanine bases of liver cell DNA and cause a mutational effect in the P53 tumor suppressor gene at the codon 249 hotspot in exon 7, which may lead to HCC. Approximately 4.5 billion of the world’s population is exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated food, particularly in low-income countries. Prevention involves treating crops that are susceptible to fungal contamination, appropriate handling of foodstuffs and the use of chemopreventive intervention. Moreover, an integrated network collaboration of different sectors, including public health, agricultural departments and mass media, is required to ensure effective food regulation systems so as to minimize the contamination of food by aflatoxins. PMID:23599745

  13. Monitoring of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in Czechoslovak human sera by immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Fukal, L. ); Reisnerova, H. )

    1990-03-01

    Since a level of food contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A has been found low in Czechoslovakia, human exposure to these mycotoxins may not be negligible. However, analysis of food samples provides only indirect evidence of mycotoxin ingestion and no evidence about mycotoxin absorption. Direct evidence can only be obtained by analysis of human body fluids. Therefore, the authors decided to carry out a monitoring of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A level in human sera. In general, TLC and HPLC are most commonly used to analyze mycotoxins and its metabolites. The recent development of immunochemical techniques opens the possibility of determining individual exposure in a relatively large human population. These assays have the advantage of high specificity and sensitivity. Sample through-put is high, and the methods are technically simple and can be performed at low cost.

  14. Exposure to a putative alarm cue reduces downstream drift in larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, C M; Kierczynski, K E; Hume, J B; Luhring, T M

    2016-09-01

    An experimental mesocosm study suggested larval sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus detect and respond to an alarm cue released by dead adult conspecifics. Larvae exhibited a reduced tendency to move downstream when exposed to the cue and were less likely to move under continuous v. pulsed exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that short-term exposure to the alarm cue would probably result in retraction into the burrow, consistent with the blind, cryptic lifestyle of the larval P. marinus. PMID:27456088

  15. Reduced mating success of female tortricid moths following intense pheromone auto-exposure varies with sophistication of mating system.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2012-02-01

    Mating disruption is a valuable tool for the management of pest lepidopteran species in many agricultural crops. Many studies have addressed the effect of female pheromone on the ability of males to find calling females but, so far, fewer have addressed the effect of pheromone on the mating behavior of females. We hypothesized that mating of female moth species may be adversely affected following sex pheromone auto-exposure, due to abnormal behavioral activity and/or antennal sensitivity. Our results indicate that, for Grapholita molesta and Pandemis pyrusana females, copulation, but not calling, was reduced following pre-exposure to sex pheromone. In contrast, for Cydia pomonella and Choristoneura rosaceana, sex pheromone pre-exposure did not affect either calling or copulation propensity. Adaptation of female moth antennae to their own sex pheromone, following sex pheromone auto-exposure, as measured by electroantennograms, occurred in a species for which identical exposure reduced mating success (G. molesta) and in a species for which such exposure did not affect mating success (C. rosaceana). These results suggest that pre-exposure of female moths of certain species to sex pheromone may further contribute to the success of pheromone-based mating disruption. Therefore, we conclude that, in some species, mating disruption may include a secondary mechanism that affects the mating behavior of female moths, in addition to that of males. PMID:22350561

  16. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. PMID:25644316

  17. Findings and implications from a national study on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs).

    PubMed

    Hund, Lisa M; Farrelly, Matthew C; Allen, Jane A; Chou, Rosaleen H; St Claire, Ann W; Vallone, Donna M; Healton, Cheryl G

    2006-12-01

    Tobacco companies have recently introduced products that they claim have reduced toxins and carcinogens, and that they say may be less harmful to smokers. These are potential reduced exposure products, or PREPs. This study measured smokers' awareness of PREPs, use of PREPs, interest in trying PREPs, and beliefs about the regulation of PREPs. This study was based on nationally representative data collected in 2002 and 2003 through the American Smoking and Health Survey. The final sample included 1,174 adult smokers. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to produce estimates and explore potential correlates of the outcomes. A total of 41.9% of adult smokers reported having heard of at least one of the PREPs measured, and 11.0% reported having tried one of these products. Half of adult smokers (49.9%) said they would like to try PREPs. Interest in trying PREPs was associated with having made a quit attempt, being concerned about the effect of smoking on one's health, and having a household income of less than US dollars 20,000. About half of adult smokers (49.1%) incorrectly believed that PREPs are evaluated for safety by the government before being placed on the market, and 84.2% believed that the government should evaluate the safety of PREPs before they are sold to consumers. This study provides new and timely information on the use of, interest in trying, and beliefs about the regulation of PREPs among a nationally representative sample of adult smokers. With half of adult smokers interested in trying PREPs, the need for concrete scientific evidence on the potential impact of these products is critical. PMID:17132527

  18. Reducing exposure to environmental toxicants before birth: moving from risk perception to risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Grason, Holly A; Misra, Dawn P

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we considered approaches to reducing maternal exposure to hazardous environmental toxicants, focusing on risk communication to pregnant women and providers, but also considering identification of environmental toxicants in the community and reduction of environmental toxicants. We addressed the following questions: (1) What do pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health? and (2) What policy strategies are needed (should be considered) to move forward in risk reduction in this area? We reviewed the literature on knowledge of pregnant women and providers regarding these issues. While there is limited research on what pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health, there is evidence of reproductive and perinatal toxicity. This article describes a wide range of policy strategies that could be implemented to address environmental toxicants in the context of perinatal health. Effective leadership in this area will likely require collaboration of both environmental health and maternal and child health leaders and organizations. PMID:19753941

  19. Reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure to prevent skin cancer methodology and measurement.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Mayer, Joni A

    2005-08-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer, and is also one of the most preventable. This paper builds on an evidence review of skin cancer prevention interventions that was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (n=85 studies), and summarizes the state of knowledge about research methodology and measurement in studies of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. As this field advances, researchers should strive to minimize threats to validity in their study designs, as well as to consider the balance between internal and external validity. There is a need for more longer-duration interventions, and follow-up periods that make possible conclusions about the potential of these interventions to affect intermediate markers of skin cancer or at least sustained behavior change. Also, more work is needed to minimize attrition and characterize nonresponders and study dropouts. Verbal report measures of behavior are the most widely used measures of solar protection behavior. Given their limitations, investigators should routinely collect data about reliability and validity of those measures. They should also increase efforts to complement verbal data with objective measures including observations, skin reflectance, personal dosimetry, skin swabbing, and inspection of moles. Measures of environments and policies should incorporate observations, documentation, and direct measures of ambient UVR and shade. This article places the data derived from the evidence review in the context of needs and recommendations for future research in skin cancer prevention. PMID:16005810

  20. Neonatal exposure to bisphenol A reduces the pool of primordial follicles in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Horacio A; Santambrosio, Noelia; Santamaría, Clarisa G; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) disrupts neonatal follicle development in rats. From postnatal day 1 (PND1) to PND7, pups received corn oil (control), diethylstilbestrol (DES20: 20 μg/kg-d, DES0.2: 0.2 μg/kg-d), or BPA (BPA20: 20mg/kg-d, BPA0.05: 0.05 mg/kg-d). We examined follicular dynamics, multioocyte follicles (MOFs) incidence, proliferation and apoptosis rates, expression of steroid receptors (ERα, ERβ, PR, AR) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27) in PND8 ovaries. DES20, DES0.2 and BPA20-ovaries showed fewer primordial follicles and increased growing follicles. DES20-ovaries exhibited increased incidence of MOFs. Oocyte survival, AR, PR and apoptosis were not changed. Primordial and recruited follicles from BPA20-ovaries showed higher p27, whereas ERβ and proliferation were both increased in recruited follicles. ERα positive primary follicles increased in BPA 20-ovaries. Results show that BPA reduces the primordial follicle pool by stimulating the neonatal initial recruitment, associated with an increased proliferation rate likely mediated by an estrogenic pathway. PMID:20692330

  1. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  2. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2016-01-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T. )

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with (3H)inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of (3H)inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers.

  4. Aflatoxins in food products consumed in Brazil: a preliminary dietary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P D; de Mello, M Homem; França, J A; Caldas, E D

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary dietary exposure assessment for aflatoxins (AFs; AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) was conducted to evaluate the potential carcinogenic risks for the Brazilian population. AF concentration data in food were obtained from analysis reports issued by the Central Public Health Laboratory of the Federal District (LACEN-DF) and from published work. Food consumption and body weight (bw) data were obtained from a national survey conducted in 2008/2009. Cancer risks arising from exposure to aflatoxins were assessed using the carcinogenic potency of AFs estimated by the JECFA, and hepatitis B virus prevalence in the Brazilian population. Additionally, margins of exposure (MOE) were also calculated for the various scenarios investigated. A total of 942 food samples were analysed for AFs in the Federal District between 2002 and 2011 with 4.5% of them being positive for at least one aflatoxin (LOQ = 2 µg kg(-1)). The highest percentage of contamination was found in peanuts (8.1%) and Brazil nuts (6.0%), with mean levels ranging from 6.7 µg kg(-1) in peanut products to 36.9 µg kg(-1) in Brazil nuts. Most of the studies conducted elsewhere in Brazil found similar results. Total AF intake for the total Brazilian population and high consumers of food relevant for AF contamination in Brazil (upper bound; samples < LOQ = 0.5 LOQ) were 6.8 and 27.6 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. Cancer risk reached 0.0753 cancers year(-1) per 10(5) individuals for the total population and 0.3056 cancers year(-1) per 10(5) individuals for high consumers. MOE reached 25 and 6 for the total population and high consumers, respectively, indicating a potential risk for consumers. Aflatoxins are genotoxic carcinogens, and government action should be maintained and continuously improved in order to guarantee that human exposure levels are kept as low as possible. PMID:22963655

  5. Using a mobile transparent plastic-lead-boron shielding barrier to reduce radiation dose exposure in the work place

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, S A; Mecozzi, J M

    2001-01-11

    Moveable radiation shielding barriers made of plastic material containing lead and boron can be used to reduce radiation exposure near the work place. Personnel can maneuver and position the transparent radiation shielding barriers anywhere within the work place. The lead in the shielding barrier provides an effective shielding material against radiation exposure (approximately a 1.0 mm lead equivalent protection) while the boron in the shielding barrier provides neutron absorption to reduce the moderation/reflection effects of the shielding materials (approximately a 2% {Delta}k/k reduction).

  6. Reducing Blood-borne Exposure in Interventional Radiology: What the IR Should Know

    SciTech Connect

    Tso, David K.; Athreya, Sriharsha

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiologists are at risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens in their day-to-day practice. Percutaneous exposure from unsafe sharps handling, mucocutaneous exposure from body fluid splashes, and glove perforation from excessive wear can expose the radiologist to potentially infectious material. The increasing prevalence of blood-borne pathogens, including hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus, puts nurses, residents, fellows, and interventional radiologists at risk for occupational exposure. This review outlines suggestions to establish a culture of safety in the interventional suite.

  7. Reduced gene expression levels after chronic exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Tulupova, Elena; Rossnerova, Andrea; Libalova, Helena; Honkova, Katerina; Gmuender, Hans; Pastorkova, Anna; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Sram, Radim J

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the ability of particulate matter (PM) and chemicals adsorbed onto it to induce diverse gene expression profiles in subjects living in two regions of the Czech Republic differing in levels and sources of the air pollution. A total of 312 samples from polluted Ostrava region and 154 control samples from Prague were collected in winter 2009, summer 2009 and winter 2010. The highest concentrations of air pollutants were detected in winter 2010 when the subjects were exposed to: PM of aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm (PM2.5) (70 vs. 44.9μg/m(3)); benzo[a]pyrene (9.02 vs. 2.56ng/m(3)) and benzene (10.2 vs. 5.5μg/m(3)) in Ostrava and Prague, respectively. Global gene expression analysis of total RNA extracted from leukocytes was performed using Illumina Expression BeadChips microarrays. The expression of selected genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene expression profiles differed by locations and seasons. Despite lower concentrations of air pollutants a higher number of differentially expressed genes and affected KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways was found in subjects from Prague. In both locations immune response pathways were affected, in Prague also neurodegenerative diseases-related pathways. Over-representation of the latter pathways was associated with the exposure to PM2.5. The qRT-PCR analysis showed a significant decrease in expression of APEX, ATM, FAS, GSTM1, IL1B and RAD21 in subjects from Ostrava, in a comparison of winter 2010 and summer 2009. In Prague, an increase in gene expression was observed for GADD45A and PTGS2. In conclusion, high concentrations of pollutants in Ostrava were not associated with higher number of differentially expressed genes, affected KEGG pathways and expression levels of selected genes. This observation suggests that chronic exposure to air pollution may result in reduced gene expression response with possible negative health consequences. PMID:26298100

  8. Ameliorative Effects of Tinospora Cordifolia Root Extract on Histopathological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Aflatoxin-B1 in Mice Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rekha; Sharma, Veena

    2011-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the ability of the Tinospora cordifolia to scavenge free radicals generated during aflatoxicosis. A total no. of 48 male Swiss albino mice (30 ± 5 g) were exposed to Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) (2 μg/30 g b.wt, orally) either individually or in combination with T. cordifolia (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, orally) once daily for 25 days. AFB1 exposure led to significant rise in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and fall in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, and protein content. T. cordifolia was found to show protective effect by lowering down the content of TBARS and enhancing the GSH, ascorbic acid, protein, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., SOD, CAT, glutathione peroxidase, GST, and GR in kidney. Histopathological analysis of kidney samples also confirmed the protective values and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of herb. T. cordifolia showed protection against aflatoxin-induced nephrotoxicity due to the presence of alkaloids such as a choline, tinosporin, isocolumbin, palmatine, tetrahydropalmatine, and magnoflorine. PMID:21976812

  9. Safeguarding Our Children at Home: Reducing Exposures to Toxic Chemicals and Heavy Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elise; Snow, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that exposure to environmental pollutants, prenatally and in early childhood, may contribute significantly to diseases and disabilities. For example, exposures to mercury or lead early in life can impact the nervous system and brain, potentially contributing to learning, behavioral, and developmental disabilities. The…

  10. Reducing Sex-Typed Perceptions of Children: The Role of Environmental Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kimberlee C.; Huston, Aletha C.

    This study examined the effect of the amount and diversity of information about a child on adults' perceptions of the child's personality traits and sex-typed interests. A sample of 197 college students (ranging in age from 18 to 28 years) were randomly assigned one of three exposure conditions: (1) maximum exposure (subjects observed six boys,…

  11. Low G preconditioning reduces liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of repeated lower +Gz exposure on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wister rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, a low G preconditioning group (LG) (exposed to +4 Gz/5 min per day for 3 d before +10 Gz/5 min exposure), and a +10 Gz/5 min group (10G) (n = 20 in each group). Blood specimens and liver tissue were harvested at 0 h and 6 h after +10 Gz/5 min exposure. Liver function was analyzed by measuring serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and liver injury was further assessed by histopathological observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+-K+-ATPase were determined in hepatic tissue. RESULTS: The group LG had lower ALT, AST, and MDA values at 0 h after exposure than those in group 10G. SOD values and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the LG group were higher than in group 10G 0 h post-exposure. Hepatocyte injury was significantly less in group LG than in group 10G on histopathological evaluation. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that repeated low +Gz exposure shows a protective effect on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. PMID:26074692

  12. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    PubMed

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards. PMID:24779933

  13. Pre-exposure to food temptation reduces subsequent consumption: A test of the procedure with a South-African sample.

    PubMed

    Duh, Helen Inseng; Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the consumption of unhealthy Westernized diet in a context of poverty and resultant food insecurity may have contributed to South-Africa's status of the third fattest country in the World. Considering that a number of South-Africans are reported to have experienced, or are still experiencing food insecurity, procedures which have been shown to reduce the consumption of unhealthy food in higher income countries may be ineffective in South-Africa. We thus tested the robustness of the so called pre-exposure procedure in South-Africa. We also tested the moderating role of childhood poverty in the pre-exposure procedure. With the pre-exposure procedure, a respondent is exposed to a tempting unhealthy food (e.g. candy) in a context that is designed such that eating the food interferes with a task goal. The typical result is that this procedure spills over and reduces consumption of similar tempting food later on. An experimental study conducted in a South-African laboratory showed that the pre-exposure effect is robust even with a sample, where food insecurity prevails. Childhood poverty did not moderate the effect. This study proves that behavioral procedures aimed at reducing the consumption of unhealthy food would be valuable in less rich non-Western countries. Further testing of the robustness of the pre-exposure effect is however recommended in other poorer food insecure countries. PMID:26505288

  14. Suspended particles only marginally reduce pyrethroid toxicity to the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex (L.) during pulse exposure.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Cedergreen, Nina; Kronvang, Brian; Andersen, Maj-Britt Bjergager; Nørum, Ulrik; Kretschmann, Andreas; Strobel, Bjarne Westergaard; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2016-04-01

    Current ecotoxicological research on particle-associated pyrethroids in freshwater systems focuses almost exclusively on sediment-exposure scenarios and sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates. We studied how suspended particles influence acute effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin on the epibenthic freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.) using brief pulse exposures followed by a 144 h post exposure recovery phase. Humic acid (HA) and the clay mineral montmorillonite (MM) were used as model sorbents in environmentally realistic concentrations (5, 25 and 125 mg L(-1)). Mortality of G. pulex was recorded during the post exposure recovery phase and locomotor behavior was measured during exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. We found that HA in concentrations ≥25 mg L(-1) adsorbed the majority of pyrethroids but only reduced mortality of G. pulex up to a factor of four compared to pyrethroid-only treatments. MM suspensions adsorbed a variable fraction of pyrethroids (10% for bifenthrin and 70% for lambda-cyhalothrin) but did not significantly change the concentration-response relationship compared to pure pyrethroid treatments. Behavioral responses and immobilisation rate of G. pulex were reduced in the presence of HA, whereas behavioral responses and immobilisation rate were increased in the presence of MM. This indicates that G. pulex was capable of sensing the bioavailable fraction of lambda-cyhalothrin. Our results imply that suspended particles reduce to only a limited extent the toxicity of pyrethroids to G. pulex and that passive uptake of pyrethroids can be significant even when pyrethroids are adsorbed to suspended particles. PMID:26831865

  15. Reducing Cost of Rabies Post Exposure Prophylaxis: Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Salahuddin, Naseem; Gohar, M. Aftab; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a uniformly fatal disease, but preventable by timely and correct use of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Unfortunately, many health care facilities in Pakistan do not carry modern life-saving vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG), assuming them to be prohibitively expensive and unsafe. Consequently, Emergency Department (ED) health care professionals remain untrained in its application and refer patients out to other hospitals. The conventional Essen regimen requires five vials of cell culture vaccine (CCV) per patient, whereas Thai Red Cross intradermal (TRC-id) regimen requires only one vial per patient, and gives equal seroconversion as compared with Essen regimen. Methodology/Principal Findings This study documents the cost savings in using the Thai Red Cross intradermal regimen with cell culture vaccine instead of the customary 5-dose Essen intramuscular regimen for eligible bite victims. All patients presenting to the Indus Hospital ED between July 2013 to June 2014 with animal bites received WHO recommended PEP. WHO Category 2 bites received intradermal vaccine alone, while Category 3 victims received vaccine plus wound infiltration with Equine RIG. Patients were counseled, and subsequent doses of the vaccine administered on days 3, 7 and 28. Throughput of cases, consumption utilization of vaccine and ERIG and the cost per patient were recorded. Conclusions/Significance Government hospitals in Pakistan are generally underfinanced and cannot afford treatment of the enormous burden of dog bite victims. Hence, patients are either not treated at all, or asked to purchase their own vaccine, which most cannot afford, resulting in neglect and high incidence of rabies deaths. TRC-id regimen reduced the cost of vaccine to 1/5th of Essen regimen and is strongly recommended for institutions with large throughput. Training ED staff would save lives through a safe, effective and affordable technique. PMID:26919606

  16. Ultrasound Guidance for Renal Tract Access and Dilation Reduces Radiation Exposure during Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purposes. To present our series of 38 prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures performed with renal access and tract dilation purely under ultrasound guidance and describe the benefits and challenges accompanying this approach. Methods. Thirty-eight consecutive patients presenting for percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stone removal were included in this prospective cohort study. Ultrasonographic imaging in the prone position was used to obtain percutaneous renal access and guide tract dilation. Fluoroscopic screening was used only for nephrostomy tube placement. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative procedural and patient data were collected for analysis. Results. Mean age of patients was 52.7 ± 17.2 years. Forty-five percent of patients were male with mean BMI of 26.1 ± 7.3 and mean stone size of 27.2 ± 17.6 millimeters. Renal puncture was performed successfully with ultrasonographic guidance in all cases with mean puncture time of 135.4 ± 132.5 seconds. Mean dilation time was 11.5 ± 3.8 min and mean stone fragmentation time was 37.5 ± 29.0 min. Mean total operative time was 129.3 ± 41.1. No patients experienced any significant immediate postoperative complication. All patients were rendered stone-free and no additional secondary procedures were required. Conclusions. Ultrasound guidance for renal access and tract dilation in prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a feasible and effective technique. It can be performed safely with significantly reduced fluoroscopic radiation exposure to the patient, surgeon, and intraoperative personnel. PMID:27042176

  17. Nurse Case Management and Housing Interventions Reduce Allergen Exposures: The Milwaukee Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Breysse, Jill; Wendt, Jean; Dixon, Sherry; Murphy, Amy; Wilson, Jonathan; Meurer, John; Cohn, Jennifer; Jacobs, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the impact of a combination of home environmental interventions and nurse case management services on total settled dust loadings and on allergen concentrations in the homes of asthmatic children. Methods Using a randomized longitudinal controlled trial study design, we randomly assigned homes of asthmatic children in Milwaukee to either a control (n=64) or an intervention (n=57) group. Control group homes received a visual assessment, education, bed/pillow dust mite encasings, and treatment of lead-based paint hazards. The intervention group received these same services plus nurse case management that included tailored, individual asthma action plans, provision of minor home repairs, home cleaning using special vacuuming and wet washing, and integrated pest management. Dust vacuum samples were collected from measured surface areas of floors in the TV room, kitchen, and child's bedroom at baseline and at three-, six-, and 12-month follow-up visits. Dust loading (mass per surface area) is a means of measuring total dust and the total amount of allergen present. Results For the intervention group, geometric mean dust loadings declined significantly from baseline (39 milligrams per square foot [mg/ft2]) to post-intervention (11 mg/ft2) (p<0.001). Baseline dust loading, treatment group, visit, and season were significant predictors of follow-up dust loadings. Mean post-intervention dust loadings were 72% higher in the control group. The total amount of allergen in settled house dust declined significantly following the intervention because total dust loading declined; the concentration of allergens in settled dust did not change significantly. Conclusion The combination of nurse case management and home environmental interventions promotes collaboration between health and housing professionals and is effective in reducing exposures to allergens in settled dust. PMID:21563716

  18. General anesthesia exposure in early life reduces the risk of allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Yang, Ya-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chen; Guo, Mindy Ming-Huey; Jiang, Jyun-Hong; Huang, Ying-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract General anesthesia (GA) has been used for second line treatment strategy for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients. The association between GA in children and risk of followed-up allergic diseases is unclear. This study aims to assess the risk of allergic diseases after GA in children. We did a nationwide retrospective cohort study by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The subsequent risks for allergic diseases, including asthma (ICD-9: 493.X), allergic rhinitis (AR; ICD-9 CM code 477.X), and atopic dermatitis (AD; ICD-9-CM code 691.X), were compared between exposure to GA and none before 1 year of age throughout the follow-up period using the Cox proportional hazards model. Insurance claims data for 32,742 children younger than 1 year old from all insured children in the NHIRD. Of those, 2358 subjects were exposed to GA; 414 and 1944 children exposed to mask and intubation ventilation, respectively, served as the study cohort, whereas the remaining 30,384 children made up the comparison cohort. Children in the GA group were at a lower risk of developing asthma, AR and AD, with adjusted hazard ratios of 0.67 (0.62–0.72, 95%CI), 0.72 (0.68–0.77, 95%CI), 0.60 (0.56–0.64, 95%CI), respectively. Children who were exposed to GA in early life before 1 year of age had reduced risk of subsequently developing allergic diseases such as asthma, AD, and AR, when compared with general population. PMID:27428241

  19. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p < .001), and lights as having lower health risks and carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p <.001). The average PREP rating for level of tar (5.3) was not significantly less than the light mean of 5.4, but both were significantly less than the regular mean of 8.4 (p <.001). Although no advertisements explicitly said that the products were healthy or safe, advertisements for PREP products and light cigarettes were interpreted as conveying positive messages about health and safety. Most smokers believed that claims made in cigarette advertisements must be approved by a government agency. The results indicate that advertisements can and do leave consumers with perceptions of the health and safety of tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text. PMID:15799598

  20. The influence of storage practices on aflatoxin contamination in maize in four agroecological zones of Benin, west Africa.

    PubMed

    Hell; Cardwell; Setamou; Poehling

    2000-10-15

    Aflatoxin level in 300 farmers' stores in four agro-ecological zones in Benin, a west African coastal country, were determined over a period of 2 years. At sampling a questionnaire was used to evaluate maize storage practices. Farmers were asked what storage structure they used, their storage form, storage period, pest problems in storage and what was done against them. Beninese farmers often changed their storage structures during the storage period, transfering the maize from a drying or temporary store to a more durable one. Most of the farmers complained about insects damaging stored maize. Often, storage or cotton insecticides were utilized against these pests. Regression analysis identified those factors that were associated with increased or reduced aflatoxin.Maize samples in the southern Guinea and Sudan savannas were associated with higher aflatoxin levels and the forest/savanna mosaic was related to lower toxin levels. Factors associated with higher aflatoxin were: storage for 3-5 months, insect damage and use of Khaya senegalensis-bark or other local plants as storage protectants. Depending on the agroecological zone, storage structures that had a higher risk of aflatoxin development were the "Ago", the "Secco", the "Zingo" or storing under or on top of the roof of the house. Lower aflatoxin levels were related to the use of storage or cotton insecticides, mechanical means or smoke to protect against pests or cleaning of stores before loading them with the new harvest. Fewer aflatoxins were found when maize was stored in the "Ago" made from bamboo or when bags were used as secondary storage containers. PMID:10880814

  1. Evaluation of misting controls to reduce respirable silica exposure for brick cutting.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Bryan R; Shulman, Stanley; Maynard, Andrew; Williams, Dena; Watkins, Daniel

    2005-08-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.7 million workers in the United States are potentially exposed to respirable crystalline silica, with a large percentage having been exposed to silica concentrations higher than the limits set by current standards and regulations. The purpose of this study is to characterize the use of water-misting engineering controls to reduce exposure to respirable crystalline silica for construction workers engaged in the task of brick cutting. Since data concerning the efficacy of engineering controls collected at worksites is often confounded by factors such as wind, worker skill level, the experiments were conducted in a laboratory environment. A completely enclosed testing chamber housed the brick-cutting saw. Respirable dust concentrations were measured using the Model 3321 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. Specifically, the laboratory experiment was designed to compare dust suppression through water misting using conventional freely flowing water techniques. Brass atomizing nozzles with three flow rates were used for making this comparison: low (5.0 ml s(-1) or 4.8 gal h(-1)), medium (9.0 ml s(-1) or 8.6 gal h(-1)) and high (18 ml s(-1) or 17.3 gal h(-1)). The flow rate for freely flowing water, using manufacturer-supplied equipment, was 50 ml s(-1) (48 gal h(-1)). The experiment consisted of five replications of five samples each (low-misting, medium-misting, high-misting, freely flowing water and no control). The order of sampling within each replicate was randomized. Estimates of dust reduction showed that low-misting nozzles reduced the respirable mass fraction of dust by about 63%, medium-misting nozzles by about 67%, high-misting nozzles by about 79% and freely flowing water by about 93%. Based on these results, it may be feasible to use misting to control respirable silica dust instead of freely flowing water. This strategy is of practical interest to the construction industry which must frequently limit the amount of water used on

  2. Classification of corn kernels contaminated with aflatoxins using fluorescence and reflectance hyperspectral image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus. Aflatoxin contamination remains a problem in agricultural products due to its toxic and carcinogenic properties. Conventional chemical methods for aflatoxin detection are time-consuming and destructive....

  3. How effectively do horizontal and vertical response strategies of long-finned pilot whales reduce sound exposure from naval sonar?

    PubMed

    Wensveen, Paul J; von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Ainslie, Michael A; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Tyack, Peter L; Miller, Patrick J O

    2015-05-01

    The behaviour of a marine mammal near a noise source can modulate the sound exposure it receives. We demonstrate that two long-finned pilot whales both surfaced in synchrony with consecutive arrivals of multiple sonar pulses. We then assess the effect of surfacing and other behavioural response strategies on the received cumulative sound exposure levels and maximum sound pressure levels (SPLs) by modelling realistic spatiotemporal interactions of a pilot whale with an approaching source. Under the propagation conditions of our model, some response strategies observed in the wild were effective in reducing received levels (e.g. movement perpendicular to the source's line of approach), but others were not (e.g. switching from deep to shallow diving; synchronous surfacing after maximum SPLs). Our study exemplifies how simulations of source-whale interactions guided by detailed observational data can improve our understanding about motivations behind behaviour responses observed in the wild (e.g., reducing sound exposure, prey movement). PMID:25795075

  4. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla; Svingen, Terje; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Isling, Louise Krag; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben, as well as paracetamol. The compounds were tested together (Totalmix) or in subgroups with anti-androgenic (AAmix) or estrogenic (Emix) potentials. Paracetamol was tested separately. In pre-pubertal rats, a significant reduction in primordial follicle numbers was seen in AAmix and PM groups, and reduced plasma levels of prolactin was seen in AAmix. In one-year-old animals, the incidence of irregular estrous cycles was higher after Totalmix-exposure and reduced ovary weights were seen in Totalmix, AAmix, and PM groups. These findings resemble premature ovarian insufficiency in humans, and raises concern regarding potential effects of mixtures of EDCs on female reproductive function. PMID:27049580

  5. Improving performance of HVAC systems to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings; recommendations to reduce risks posed by biological attacks.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Penny J; Mair, Michael; Inglesby, Thomas V; Gross, Jonathan; Henderson, D A; O'Toole, Tara; Ahern-Seronde, Joa; Bahnfleth, William P; Brennan, Terry; Burroughs, H E Barney; Davidson, Cliff; Delp, William; Ensor, David S; Gomory, Ralph; Olsiewski, Paula; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, William M; Streifel, Andrew J; White, Ronald H; Woods, James E

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of biological attacks is a growing strategic threat. Covert aerosol attacks inside a building are of particular concern. In the summer of 2005, the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center convened a Working Group to determine what steps could be taken to reduce the risk of exposure of building occupants after an aerosol release of a biological weapon. The Working Group was composed of subject matter experts in air filtration, building ventilation and pressurization, air conditioning and air distribution, biosecurity, building design and operation, building decontamination and restoration, economics, medicine, public health, and public policy. The group focused on functions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in commercial or public buildings that could reduce the risk of exposure to deleterious aerosols following biological attacks. The Working Group's recommendations for building owners are based on the use of currently available, off-the-shelf technologies. These recommendations are modest in expense and could be implemented immediately. It is also the Working Group's judgment that the commitment and stewardship of a lead government agency is essential to secure the necessary financial and human resources and to plan and build a comprehensive, effective program to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings. PMID:16545023

  6. 75 FR 25279 - Device Improvements to Reduce the Number of Under-Doses, Over-Doses, and Misaligned Exposures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Device Improvements to Reduce the Number of Under-Doses, Over- Doses, and Misaligned Exposures From Therapeutic Radiation; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  7. METHODS FOR CONDUCTING SNAIL (APLEXA HYPNORUM) EMBRYO THROUGH ADULT EXPOSURES: EFFECTS OF CADMIUM AND REDUCED PH LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two separate embryo through adult exposures were conducted with cadmium and with reduced pH levels to validate various test methodologies and to determine the feasibility of testing and ease of handling the freshwater snail (Aplexa hypnorum) in a test system designed for fish bio...

  8. Maternal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fecundity: the MIREC study

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, M.P.; Arbuckle, T.E.; Fraser, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What is the effect of maternal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) on female fecundity? SUMMARY ANSWER Increasing concentrations of PFOA or PFHxS in maternal plasma were associated with reduced fecundability and infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are a group of synthetic compounds used in industrial production. There is a concern about the effect of PFCs on fecundity, as measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Although some recent studies suggest that increasing concentrations of PFCs may decrease fecundity, divergence in the methodological approaches used to evaluate this association have prevented firm conclusions being reached. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study is a cohort study of 2,001 women recruited before 14 weeks of gestation in 10 cities across Canada between 2008 and 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS A questionnaire was administered and medical chart data and biospecimens were collected from participants. After excluding women who withdrew, those for whom data were incomplete, those whose pregnancies followed birth control failure, and accounting for male fertility, 1743 participants remained. TTP was defined as the number of months of unprotected intercourse needed to become pregnant in the current pregnancy, as self-reported in the first trimester of pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS measured in the first trimester were considered as a surrogate of preconception exposure. Fecundability odds ratios (FORs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models for discrete time. FOR < 1 denote a longer TTP and FORs >1 denote a shorter TTP. The odds of infertility (TTP > 12 months or infertility treatment in the index pregnancy) were estimated using logistic regression. Each chemical concentration (ng/ml) was log-transformed and divided by

  9. Exposure reconstruction for reducing uncertainty in risk assessment: example using MTBE biomarkers and a simple pharmacokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Pleil, J D; Kim, D; Prah, J D; Rappaport, S M

    2007-01-01

    Adverse health risks from environmental agents are generally related to average (long-term) exposures. Because a given individual's contact with a pollutant is highly variable and dependent on activity patterns, local sources and exposure pathways, simple 'snapshot' measurements of surrounding environmental media may not accurately assign the exposure level. Furthermore, susceptibility to adverse effects from contaminants is considered highly variable in the population so that even similar environmental exposure levels may result in differential health outcomes in different individuals. The use of biomarker measurements coupled to knowledge of rates of uptake, metabolism and elimination has been suggested as a remedy for reducing this type of uncertainty. To demonstrate the utility of such an approach, we invoke results from a series of controlled human exposure tests and classical first-order rate kinetic calculations to estimate how well spot measurements of methyl tertiary butyl ether and the primary metabolite, tertiary butyl alcohol, can be expected to predict different hypothetical scenarios of previous exposures. We found that blood and breath biomarker measurements give similar results and that the biological damping effect of the metabolite production gives more stable estimates of previous exposure. We also explore the value of a potential urinary biomarker, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate suggested in the literature. We find that individual biomarker measurements are a valuable tool in reconstruction of previous exposures and that a simple pharmacokinetic model can identify the time frames over which an exogenous chemical and the related chemical biomarker are useful. These techniques could be applied to broader ranges of environmental contaminants to assess cumulative exposure risks if ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolization and Excretion) is understood and systemic biomarkers can be measured. PMID:17564841

  10. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw, UHT milk and dairy products in Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Santini, Antonello; Raiola, Assunta; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Macaluso, Andrea; Bognanno, Matteo; Galvano, Fabio; Ritieni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    A survey on 73 milk samples from different animal breeds and 24 dairy products samples from Sicily, Italy, was carried out for the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) by LC-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity cleanup. AFM1 was detected in 48% and 42% of the milk and dairy samples at concentration ranges between <5.0-16.0 and <5.0-18.0 ng L⁻¹, respectively. Within the raw milk samples, 92% had an AFM1 content below 5.0 ng L⁻¹, in 7% of the cases it was in the range 5.0-10.0 ng L⁻¹ and 1% was contaminated between 10.0 and 20.0 ng L⁻¹. For the dairy products, ultra-high-temperature treated (UHT) milk, milk cream and cheese, the incidence was 42%, of which 83% contained less than 5.0 ng L⁻¹ and 17% contained 10.0-20.0 ng L⁻¹ AFM1. The levels of contamination found justify continuous monitoring for public health and to reduce consumer exposure. PMID:24779902

  11. An evaluation of welding processes to reduce hexavalent chromium exposures and reduce costs by using better welding techniques.

    PubMed

    Keane, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A group of stainless steel arc welding processes was compared for emission rates of fume and hexavalent chromium, and costs per meter length of weld. The objective was to identify those with minimal emissions and also compare relative labor and consumables costs. The selection included flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), shielded-metal arc welding (SMAW), and multiple gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, and fume generation rates and hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) were measured. GMAW processes used were short-circuit (SC) and pulsed-spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding. Costs were estimated per meter of a 6.3-mm thick horizontal butt weld. Emission rates of Cr(6+) were lowest for GMAW processes and highest for SMAW; several GMAW processes had less than 2% of the SMAW generation rate. Labor and consumable costs for the processes studied were again highest for SMAW, with those of several GMAW types about half that cost. The results show that use of any of the GMAW processes (and flux-cored welding) could substantially reduce fume and Cr(6+) emissions, and greatly reduce costs relative to SMAW. PMID:25574138

  12. An Evaluation of Welding Processes to Reduce Hexavalent Chromium Exposures and Reduce Costs by Using Better Welding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    A group of stainless steel arc welding processes was compared for emission rates of fume and hexavalent chromium, and costs per meter length of weld. The objective was to identify those with minimal emissions and also compare relative labor and consumables costs. The selection included flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), shielded-metal arc welding (SMAW), and multiple gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, and fume generation rates and hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) were measured. GMAW processes used were short-circuit (SC) and pulsed-spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding. Costs were estimated per meter of a 6.3-mm thick horizontal butt weld. Emission rates of Cr6+ were lowest for GMAW processes and highest for SMAW; several GMAW processes had less than 2% of the SMAW generation rate. Labor and consumable costs for the processes studied were again highest for SMAW, with those of several GMAW types about half that cost. The results show that use of any of the GMAW processes (and flux-cored welding) could substantially reduce fume and Cr6+ emissions, and greatly reduce costs relative to SMAW. PMID:25574138

  13. Ambient Air Mitigation Strategies for Reducing Exposures to Mobile Source PM2.5 Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation discussing ambient air mitigation strategies for near-road exposures. The presentation provides an overview of multiple methods, but focuses on the role roadside features (sound walls, vegetation) may play. This presentation summarizes preoviously published work by...

  14. Daphnia magna shows reduced infection upon secondary exposure to a pathogen.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Seanna J; Wilson, Philip J; Little, Tom J

    2012-12-23

    Previous pathogen exposure is an important predictor of the probability of becoming infected. This is deeply understood for vertebrate hosts, and increasingly so for invertebrate hosts. Here, we test if an initial pathogen exposure changes the infection outcome to a secondary pathogen exposure in the natural host-pathogen system Daphnia magna and Pasteuria ramosa. Hosts were initially exposed to an infective pathogen strain, a non-infective pathogen strain or a control. The same hosts underwent a second exposure, this time to an infective pathogen strain, either immediately after the initial encounter or 48 h later. We observed that an initial encounter with a pathogen always conferred protection against infection compared with controls. PMID:22875818

  15. Systematic Review of Control Measures to Reduce Hazardous Drug Exposure for Health Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Crickman, Rachael; Finnell, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Because of their involvement in the transport, handling, preparation, administration, or disposal of hazardous medications, health care workers across multiple settings are at risk for adverse health consequences from exposure to these drugs. This review presents evidence-based strategies to mitigate the harmful exposures. These include engineering controls, full use of personal protective equipment, medical and environmental monitoring, hazard identification, and the need for a comprehensive hazardous drug control program that includes education and training for health care workers. PMID:26417920

  16. Developmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls Reduces Amphetamine Behavioral Sensitization in Long-Evans Rats

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Emily; Monaikul, Supida; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Chi, Lai Har; Schantz, Susan L.; Sable, Helen J. K.

    2013-01-01

    PCBs have long been known to affect dopamine (DA) function in the brain. The current study used an amphetamine behavioral sensitization paradigm in rats developmentally exposed to PCBs. Long-Evans rats were given perinatal exposure to 0, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day PCBs and behavioral sensitization to d-amphetamine (AMPH) was assessed in one adult male and female/litter. Non-exposed (control) males showed increasing locomotor activity to repeated injections of 0.5 mg/kg AMPH, typical of behavioral sensitization. PCB-exposed males showed greater activation to the initial acute AMPH injection, but sensitization occurred later and was blunted relative to controls. Sensitization in control females took longer to develop than in the males, but no exposure-related differences were observed. Analysis of whole brain and serum AMPH content following a final IP injection of 0.5 mg/kg revealed no differences among the exposure groups. Overall, these results indicated developmental PCB-exposure can alter the motor-stimulating effects of repeated AMPH injections. Males developmentally exposed to PCBs appeared to be pre-sensitized to AMPH, but quickly showed behavioral tolerance to the same drug dose. Results also revealed the behavioral effect was not due to exposure-induced alterations in AMPH metabolism following PCB exposure. PMID:23623962

  17. Rapid immunoenzyme assay of aflatoxin B1 using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urusov, Alexandr E; Petrakova, Alina V; Vozniak, Maxim V; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2014-01-01

    The main limitations of microplate-based enzyme immunoassays are the prolonged incubations necessary to facilitate heterogeneous interactions, the complex matrix and poorly soluble antigens, and the significant sample dilutions often required because of the presence of organic extractants. This study presents the use of antibody immobilization on the surface of magnetic particles to overcome these limitations in the detection of the mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1. Features of the proposed system are a high degree of nanoparticle dispersion and methodologically simple immobilization of the antibodies by adsorption. Reactions between the immobilized antibodies with native and labeled antigens are conducted in solution, thereby reducing the interaction period to 5 min without impairing the analytical outcome. Adsorption of immunoglobulins on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles increases their stability in aqueous-organic media, thus minimizing the degree of sample dilution required. Testing barley and maize extracts demonstrated a limit of aflatoxin B1 detection equal to 20 pg/mL and total assay duration of 20 min. Using this method, only the 3-fold dilution of the initial methanol/water (60/40) extraction mixture in the microplate wells is necessary. The proposed pseudo-homogeneous approach could be applied toward immunodetection of a wide range of compounds. PMID:25412219

  18. Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production of Aspergillus flavus by Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Injeong

    2007-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei KC-324 was tested for its ability to inhibit aflatoxin production and mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 15517 in liquid culture. Aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis and mycelial growth were inhibited in both simultaneous culture and individual antagonism assays,suggesting that the inhibitory activity was due to extracellular metabolites produced in cell-free supernatant fluids of the cultured broth of L. casei KC-324. In cell-free supernatant fluids of all media tested,deMan,Rogosa and Sharpe broth,potato dextrose broth,and Czapek-Dox broth + 1% yeast extract showed higher antiaflatoxigenic activity. In these case, fungal growths, however, was not affected as measured by mycelial dry weight. The antiaflatoxigenic metabolites from L. casei KC-324 were produced over wide range of temperatures between 25℃ and 37℃. However, these metabolites were not thermostable since the inhibitory activity of the supernatant was inactivated within 30 minutes at 100℃ and 121℃. The inhibitory activity was not influenced by changing pH of supernatant between 4 and 10. However,the antiaflatoxigenic activity was slightly reduced at pH 10. PMID:24015075

  19. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes. PMID:25808427

  20. Exposure to ozone reduces influenza disease severity and alters distribution of influenza viral antigens in murine lungs.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, J A; Zee, Y C; Osebold, J W

    1982-09-01

    Exposure to ambient levels of ozone (0.5 ppm) was shown to alter the pathogenesis of respiratory infection after aerosol infection of mice with influenza A virus. A semiquantitative method for determination of the sites of virus replication by direct immunofluorescence indicated that exposure to ozone reduced the involvement of respiratory epithelium in the infectious process and resulted in a less widespread infection of the alveolar parenchyma. Furthermore, the ozone-mediated alteration in viral antigen distribution was consistent with significantly reduced influenza disease mortality and prolonged survival time, but only when the oxidant was present during the course of infection. Reduced disease severity in ozone-exposed animals appeared to be independent of peak pulmonary virus titers, pulmonary interferon titers, and pulmonary and serum-neutralizing antibody titers. These studies suggested that the distribution of influenza virus in the murine lung was a key factor in disease severity. PMID:6182839

  1. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4μg/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. PMID:23416649

  2. Mycotic and aflatoxin contamination in Myristica fragrans seeds (nutmeg) and Capsicum annum (chilli), packaged in Italy and commercialized worldwide.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, G; Ostuni, M; Calonico, C; Rossi, S; Capei, R; Lo Nostro, A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of moulds known to be carcinogenic for humans, and therefore should not be ingested in high doses. This study aimed to determine the level of mould and aflatoxin contamination in dehydrated chilli and nutmeg imported from India and Indonesia, respectively, packaged in Italy, and commercialized worldwide. We tested 63 samples of chilli (22 sanitized through heat treatment and 41 not heat-treated) and 52 samples of nutmeg (22 heat-treated and 30 not heat-treated) for aflatoxin, moulds and moisture content. Heat-treated samples were less contaminated than untreated samples. Spices in powder form (both chilli and nutmeg) were more contaminated than whole ones. In untreated spices, we observed a positive correlation between mould and moisture content. Of the powdered nutmeg and chilli samples, 72.5% and 50% tested positive for aflatoxin contamination, with a range of 0-17.2 μg kg(-1) and 0-10.3 μg kg(-1), respectively. The steam treatment of spices would be useful in reducing the initial amount of moulds. Although the risk from the consumption of spices contaminated with aflatoxins is minimal, owing to the small amount used in food, preventive screening of the whole food chain is very important, especially because the most frequently identified toxin was B1, which is the most dangerous of the four toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2). PMID:27582627

  3. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei Hafner, Katlyn S. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2014-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in

  4. Rapid analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins in plant-derived dietary supplement and cosmetic oils.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as healthier alternatives to animal-based fats and oils. More recently, there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios, and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose, and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g., as salad dressings) and for the preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to the high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition, and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and interlaboratory validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  5. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  6. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets. PMID:27052947

  7. Reducing Farmworker Residential Pesticide Exposure: Evaluation of a Lay Health Advisor Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Marín, Antonio; Snively, Beverly M.; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of a promotora program for teaching women in Latino farmworker families about pesticide safety and increasing pesticide safety behaviors. Volunteer promotoras delivered a pesticide safety curriculum (intervention) and nutrition curriculum (control) to farmworker women residing in western North Carolina and Virginia. Pre- and post-intervention interviews assessed differences in delivery of the intervention, recognition of the intervention, pesticide knowledge, pesticide exposures behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly more receipt of pesticide education and greater recognition of the key messages. However, their knowledge, pesticide exposure behaviors, and integrated pest management behaviors did not change. A more structured program is needed to be sure that the dose of interventions is large enough to overcome educational and cultural characteristics of immigrant communities. Policy changes are needed to address circumstances outside of farmworkers’ control that affect pesticide exposure. PMID:18287581

  8. Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Experience Reduced Control of Isotonic Force

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tanya T.; Levy, Susan S.; Riley, Edward P.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Simmons, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can result in diverse and extensive damage to the central nervous system, including the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. Given that these brain regions are involved in the generation and maintenance of motor force, we predicted that prenatal alcohol exposure would adversely affect this parameter of motor control. We previously reported that children with gestational alcohol exposure experience significant deficits in regulating isometric (i.e., constant) force. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these children exhibit similar deficits when producing isotonic (i.e., graded) force. Methods Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and typically developing children completed a series of isotonic force contractions by exerting force on a load cell to match a criterion target force displayed on a computer monitor. Two levels of target force (5% or 20% of maximum voluntary force) were investigated in combination with varying levels of visual feedback. Results Compared to controls, children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure generated isotonic force signals that were less accurate, more variable, and less complex in the time domain compared to control children. Specifically, interactions were found between group and visual feedback for response accuracy and signal complexity, suggesting that these children have greater difficulty altering their motor output when visual feedback is low. Conclusions These data suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure produces deficits in regulating isotonic force, which presumably result from alcohol-related damage to developing brain regions involved in motor control. These children will most likely experience difficulty performing basic motor skills and daily functional skills that require coordination of finely graded force. Therapeutic strategies designed to increase feedback and, consequently, facilitate visual-motor integration could improve isotonic force

  9. Reliable HPLC Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mostafa M. H.; Gomaa, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 is the foremost metabolite of aflatoxin B1 in humans and animals, which may be present in animal products from animals fed with aflatoxin B1 contaminated feed. In this study a high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of aflatoxin M1 in eggs was described. The egg samples were diluted with warmed water and the toxin was immunoextracted followed by fluorescence detection. The average recovery of aflatoxin M1 at the three different levels 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 μg/kg varied between 87% and 98%. The method is linear from the limit of quantification 0.05 μg/kg up to 3 μg/kg levels. This method is intended for aflatoxin M1 analyses in eggs simply with minimum toxin lose, excellent recovery, and accurate results with the limit of detection 0.01 μg/kg. PMID:23984192

  10. Aflatoxins in pozol, a nixtamalized, maize-based food.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Albores, J A; Arámbula-Villa, G; Preciado-Ortíz, R E; Moreno-Martínez, E

    2004-07-15

    To determine whether pozol, a nixtamalized maize-based food was contaminated with aflatoxins, samples of non-fermented pozol were collected during the period November 2002 to April 2003 from local markets at Comitan in Chiapas, Mexico. The samples were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Nineteen out of one hundred and eleven samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and traces of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The percentage of samples contaminated with AFB2 in pozol prepared with white maize was 5.4%. Pozol mixed with toasted cacao paste had a contamination rate of 41.5%. No aflatoxins were detected in pozol prepared with yellow maize. It was found that only 1 of 19 contaminated samples had aflatoxin concentrations above 20 ppb. PMID:15193807

  11. Substrate specificity of an aflatoxin-metabolizing aldehyde reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, E M; Hayes, J D

    1995-01-01

    The enzyme from rat liver that reduces aflatoxin B1-dialdehyde exhibits a unique catalytic specificity distinct from that of other aldo-keto reductases. This enzyme, designated AFAR, displays high activity towards dicarbonyl-containing compounds with ketone groups on adjacent carbon atoms; 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, acenaphthenequinone and camphorquinone were found to be good substrates. Although AFAR can also reduce aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes such as succinic semialdehyde, it is inactive with glucose, galactose and xylose. The enzyme also exhibits low activity towards alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl-containing compounds. Determination of the apparent Km reveals that AFAR has highest affinity for 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and succinic semialdehyde, and low affinity for glyoxal and DL-glyceraldehyde. PMID:8526867

  12. Aflatoxin B₁ and aflatoxins in ground red chilli pepper after drying.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Ali; Bindak, Recep; Erkmen, Osman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 180 red chilli pepper (RCP) berry samples were obtained from two different croplands of Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş (Turkey) in August, September and October. RCP berry samples were dried under sunlight and grinded. Ground red chilli pepper (GRCP) samples were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs, sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and AFB1 contamination. According to the results, in 49 of 180 samples, AFB1 and in 37 samples, AFs were higher than legal limits. The lowest amounts of AFs and AFB1 were obtained in August and the highest amounts in October. χ(2) analysis showed that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between cities among 3 months according to number of samples with AFs and AFB1 above legal limits. According to the Duncan multiple-range test, there was no significant difference between all months. Strict measures are necessary to produce high-quality GRCP. RCP berry must be treated to reduce moulds before production of GRCP. PMID:26099014

  13. Reducing unwanted trauma memories by imaginal exposure or autobiographical memory elaboration: An analogue study of memory processes

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Mauchnik, Jana; Handley, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Unwanted memories of traumatic events are a core symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. A range of interventions including imaginal exposure and elaboration of the trauma memory in its autobiographical context are effective in reducing such unwanted memories. This study explored whether priming for stimuli that occur in the context of trauma and evaluative conditioning may play a role in the therapeutic effects of these procedures. Healthy volunteers (N = 122) watched analogue traumatic and neutral picture stories. They were then randomly allocated to 20 min of either imaginal exposure, autobiographical memory elaboration, or a control condition designed to prevent further processing of the picture stories. A blurred picture identification task showed that neutral objects that preceded traumatic pictures in the stories were subsequently more readily identified than those that had preceded neutral stories, indicating enhanced priming. There was also an evaluative conditioning effect in that participants disliked neutral objects that had preceded traumatic pictures more. Autobiographical memory elaboration reduced the enhanced priming effect. Both interventions reduced the evaluative conditioning effect. Imaginal exposure and autobiographical memory elaboration both reduced the frequency of subsequent unwanted memories of the picture stories. PMID:21227404

  14. The effect of positive mood induction on reducing reinstatement fear: Relevance for long term outcomes of exposure therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zbozinek, Tomislav D.; Holmes, Emily A.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2015-01-01

    While exposure therapy is effective in treating anxiety, fear can return after exposure. Return of fear can be understood through mechanisms of extinction learning. One form of return of fear is reinstatement, or, the fear that results from an unsignaled unconditional stimulus (US) presentation after extinction. Though the conditional response (CR; e.g., fear) typically reduces during extinction, the excitatory conditional stimulus (CS+) valence remains negative. The more negative the CS+ valence after the end of extinction, the greater the fear at reinstatement. The current study evaluated the degree to which positive mood induction (positive imagery training; PIT) compared to control (positive verbal training; PVT) before extinction a) decreased CS+ negative valence during extinction and b) reduced reinstatement fear. Compared to PVT, PIT a) increased positive affect, b) decreased post-extinction CS+ negative valence, and c) reduced reinstatement responding as measured by eye blink startle reflex (when shock was used at reinstatement) and self-report fear (regardless of reinstatement US type). Results suggest that increasing positive affect prior to exposure therapy could reduce relapse through reinstatement. PMID:26073498

  15. Estimation of urinary concentration of aflatoxin M1 in Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yajing; Fang, Lizheng; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Liu, Zhiming; Shi, Weixing; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a main cause of hepatocarcenogenoma in Chinese population. Measurement of aflatoxin exposure in human may help in providing clear evidence for the exposure of specific environmental pollutants in certain population. "One child policy" in China offered parents more careful to choose safe food during pregnancy, but no reports published on the efficacy of their endeavor. In present study, we aimed to assess the exposure of AFM1 in Chinese pregnant women. The urine samples were collected from 600 volunteers from Zhejiang province, China and the urinary concentration of AFM1 was measured using ELISA kit. AFM1 was detected in 84% of the pregnant women. The geometric mean and 95th percentile concentration of AFM1 in pregnant women were 50.3 ng/L and 633.5 ng/L, respectively. Our results point out that pregnant women especially are at the high risk of exposure to AFM1 . Our results also indicate that although "one child policy" offered parents to pay more attention for the selection of safe food, but detection of AFM1 in urine of pregnant women indicate that more foods containing AFM1 still need to be detected. Highest exposure of AFM1 in pregnant women indicates that awareness campaigns must be started especially in the rural areas of China regarding the possible hazardous effects of AFM1 exposure in pregnant women. PMID:24102482

  16. Reducing uncertainty in ecological risk assessment: The pros of measuring contaminant exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, J.A.; Pease, A.

    1995-12-31

    Wildlife species (mammals, birds and reptiles) are primarily exposed to contamination in soils via ingestion of food. Uncertainties in risk analyses for this pathway are largely associated with the estimation of the amount of contamination in food items. The benefits of measuring contaminant concentrations in food items are examined based on comparison of risk results with and without measurements of exposure. At two hazardous waste sites, plants and earthworms were analyzed for metals and organics. Site-specific bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated and compared to literature reported values. In general, the metals concentrations in plant samples were higher than those predicted by literature values with the exception of cadmium and copper. Metal concentrations measured in invertebrates (worms) were lower than those predicted by literature values with the exception of arsenic. Literature BAFs did not adequately predict concentrations of barium, mercury or copper in invertebrate tissue. In the ecological risk assessments for both of the sites, if site-specific measurements were used, risks for wildlife species were not predicted. However if literature BAF values were used, unacceptable risks were predicted. The higher estimates of risks were associated with overestimates of dietary exposures of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc. Measurement of contaminant exposures provided for a more realistic and cost-effective estimate of ecological risks. The effect of using the empirical data on the magnitude of risks were evaluated including decisions concerning remediation. A cost-benefit analysis will be provided comparing the costs of measurement of exposures versus remediation.

  17. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal. PMID:23831729

  18. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle growth in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal undernutrition and stress expose the fetus to above normal levels of GLC and predispose to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to determine if fetal GLC exposure impairs skeletal muscle growth independently of maternal undernutrition. Three groups (n=7/group) of timed...

  19. Does Narrative Exposure Therapy Reduce PTSD in Survivors of Mass Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This review examines the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) , a short-term intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of mass violence and torture, who have often suffered multiple traumas over several years. Methods: Randomized control trials were reviewed if they measured PTSD outcome and were…

  20. Developmental sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reduces anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Richendrfer, Holly; Pelkowski, Sean D; Colwill, Ruth M; Créton, Robbert

    2012-07-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are typically influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although several genetic risk factors have been identified in recent years, little is known about the environmental factors that either cause neurobehavioral disorders or contribute to their progression in genetically predisposed individuals. One environmental factor that has raised concerns is chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in agriculture and is found ubiquitously in the environment. In the present study, we examined the effects of sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure on anxiety-related behavior during development using zebrafish larvae. We found that sub-chronic exposure to 0.01 or 0.1 μM chlorpyrifos during development induces specific behavioral defects in 7-day-old zebrafish larvae. The larvae displayed decreases in swim speed and thigmotaxis, yet no changes in avoidance behavior were seen. Exposure to 0.001 μM chlorpyrifos did not affect swimming, thigmotaxis, or avoidance behavior and exposure to 1 μM chlorpyrifos induced behavioral defects, but also induced defects in larval morphology. Since thigmotaxis, a preference for the edge, is an anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae, we propose that sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure interferes with the development of anxiety-related behaviors. The results of this study provide a good starting point for examination of the molecular, cellular, developmental, and neural mechanisms that are affected by environmentally relevant concentrations of organophosphate pesticides. A more detailed understanding of these mechanisms is important for the development of predictive models and refined health policies to prevent toxicant-induced neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:22579535

  1. Repeated exposure reduces the response to impulsive noise in European seabass.

    PubMed

    Radford, Andrew N; Lèbre, Laurie; Lecaillon, Gilles; Nedelec, Sophie L; Simpson, Stephen D

    2016-10-01

    Human activities have changed the acoustic environment of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems around the globe. Mounting evidence indicates that the resulting anthropogenic noise can impact the behaviour and physiology of at least some species in a range of taxa. However, the majority of experimental studies have considered only immediate responses to single, relatively short-term noise events. Repeated exposure to noise could lead to a heightened or lessened response. Here, we conduct two long-term (12 week), laboratory-based exposure experiments with European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to examine how an initial impact of different sound types potentially changes over time. Naïve fish showed elevated ventilation rates, indicating heightened stress, in response to impulsive additional noise (playbacks of recordings of pile-driving and seismic surveys), but not to a more continuous additional noise source (playbacks of recordings of ship passes). However, fish exposed to playbacks of pile-driving or seismic noise for 12 weeks no longer responded with an elevated ventilation rate to the same noise type. Fish exposed long-term to playback of pile-driving noise also no longer responded to short-term playback of seismic noise. The lessened response after repeated exposure, likely driven by increased tolerance or a change in hearing threshold, helps explain why fish that experienced 12 weeks of impulsive noise showed no differences in stress, growth or mortality compared to those reared with exposure to ambient-noise playback. Considering how responses to anthropogenic noise change with repeated exposure is important both when assessing likely fitness consequences and the need for mitigation measures. PMID:27282635

  2. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a ‘time bomb’ that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221

  3. Impact of the California Lead Ammunition Ban on Reducing Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles and Turkey Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Bloom, Peter H.; Torres, Steve G.; Hernandez, Yvette Z.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Boyce, Walter M.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  4. The Transcriptional Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Ivermectin Exposure Identifies Novel Genes Involved in the Response to Reduced Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Steven T.; Ivens, Al; Butler, Victoria; Ravikumar, Sai P.; Laing, Roz; Woods, Debra J.; Gilleard, John S.

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the transcriptional response of Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to the anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM) using whole genome microarrays and real-time QPCR. Our original aim was to identify candidate molecules involved in IVM metabolism and/or excretion. For this reason the IVM tolerant strain, DA1316, was used to minimise transcriptomic changes related to the phenotype of drug exposure. However, unlike equivalent work with benzimidazole drugs, very few of the induced genes were members of xenobiotic metabolising enzyme families. Instead, the transcriptional response was dominated by genes associated with fat mobilization and fatty acid metabolism including catalase, esterase, and fatty acid CoA synthetase genes. This is consistent with the reduction in pharyngeal pumping, and consequential reduction in food intake, upon exposure of DA1316 worms to IVM. Genes with the highest fold change in response to IVM exposure, cyp-37B1, mtl-1 and scl-2, were comparably up-regulated in response to short–term food withdrawal (4 hr) independent of IVM exposure, and GFP reporter constructs confirm their expression in tissues associated with fat storage (intestine and hypodermis). These experiments have serendipitously identified novel genes involved in an early response of C. elegans to reduced food intake and may provide insight into similar processes in higher organisms. PMID:22348077

  5. Potential role of reduced environmental UV exposure as a driver of the current epidemic of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Zirwas, Matthew J; Elias, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    The basis for the sudden and dramatic increase in atopic dermatitis (AD) and related atopic diseases in the second half of the 20th century is unclear. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the transition from rural to urban living leads to reduced childhood exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. Hence instead of having the normal TH1 bias and immune tolerance because of repeated exposure to pathogens, urban dwellers have TH2 cell immune activity and atopic disease in a more sterile environment. Various other environmental exposures have been implicated in the explosion of AD (and atopic disorders in general), including breast-feeding, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to domesticated furry pets. Notably, the key role of a compromised barrier of neonatal skin as a predisposing factor in the development of childhood AD has recently been demonstrated. In this article we review the salubrious effects of suberythemogenic doses of UVB irradiation for the skin barrier. We then discuss how the lack of sufficient UVB exposure could have contributed to the rapid increase in the incidence of AD in developed countries. This hypothesis offers a separate but not competing partial explanation, which should be viewed as not discounting the role of the etiopathogenic factors that also could influence the prevalence of atopic disorders. PMID:26298230

  6. Inhibitory effects of respiration inhibitors on aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2014-04-01

    Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

  8. Larval exposure to environmentally relevant mixtures of alkylphenolethoxylates reduces reproductive competence in male fathead minnows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bistodeau, T.J.; Barber, L.B.; Bartell, S.E.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Klaustermeier, J.; Woodard, J.C.; Lee, K.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of nonylphenolethoxylate/octylphenolethoxylate (NPE/OPE) compounds in aquatic environments adjacent to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) warrants an assessment of the endocrine disrupting potential of these complex mixtures on aquatic vertebrates. In this study, fathead minnow larvae were exposed for 64 days to a mixture of NPE/OPE, which closely models the NPE/OPE composition of a major metropolitan WWTP effluent. Target exposure concentrations included a total NPE/OPE mixture load of 200% of the WWTP effluent concentration (148 ??g/L), 100% of the WWTP effluent concentration (74 ??g/L) and 50% of the WWTP effluent concentration (38 ??g/L). The NPE/OPE mixture contained 0.2% 4-t-octylphenol, 2.8% 4-nonylphenol, 5.1% 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate, 9.3% 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate, 0.9% 4-t-octylphenolmonoethoxylate, 3.1% 4-t-octylphenoldiethoxylate, 33.8% 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate, and 44.8% 4-nonylphenoldiethoxycarboxylate. An additional exposure of 5 ??g/L 4-nonylphenol (nominal) was conducted. The exposure utilized a flow-through system supplied by ground water and designed to deliver consistent concentrations of applied chemicals. Following exposure, larvae were raised to maturity. Upon sexual maturation, exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males in a competitive spawning assay. Nest holding ability of control and exposed fish was carefully monitored for 7 days. All male fish were then sacrificed and analyzed for plasma vitellogenin, developmental changes in gonadal tissues, alterations in the development of secondary sexual characters, morphometric changes, and changes to reproductive behavior. When exposed to the 200% NPE/OPE treatment most larvae died within the first 4 weeks of exposure. Both the 100% and 50% NPE/OPE exposures caused a significant decrease in reproductive behavior, as indicated by an inability of many of the previously exposed males to acquire and hold a nest site required for reproduction

  9. Community-Based Participatory Research and Policy Advocacy to Reduce Diesel Exposure in West Oakland, California

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Priscilla A.; Garcia, Analilia P.; Gordon, Margaret; Garzón, Catalina; Palaniappan, Meena; Prakash, Swati; Beveridge, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a multimethod case study analysis of a community-based participatory research partnership in West Oakland, California, and its efforts to study and address the neighborhood's disproportionate exposure to diesel air pollution. We employed 10 interviews with partners and policymakers, participant observation, and a review of documents. Results of the partnership's truck count and truck idling studies suggested substantial exposure to diesel pollution and were used by the partners and their allies to make the case for a truck route ordinance. Despite weak enforcement, the partnership's increased political visibility helped change the policy environment, with the community partner now heavily engaged in environmental decision-making on the local and regional levels. Finally, we discussed implications for research, policy, and practice. PMID:21551381

  10. Bisphenol A exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown by reducing apoptosis in cultured neonatal mouse ovaries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changqing; Wang, Wei; Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a known endocrine disrupting chemical and reproductive toxicant. Previous studies indicate that in utero BPA exposure increases the percentage of germ cells in nests and decreases the percentage of primordial follicles. However, the mechanism by which BPA affects germ cell nest breakdown is unknown. Thus, we hypothesized that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown by interfering with oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. To test our hypothesis, ovaries from newborn mice were collected and cultured with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) or different doses of BPA (0.1, 1, 5, and 10μg/mL). Ovaries then were subjected to histological evaluation of germ cell nests and primordial follicles or to measurements of factors that regulate oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our results indicate that in vitro BPA exposure significantly inhibits germ cell nest breakdown by altering the expression of key ovarian apoptotic genes, but not by interfering with the oxidative stress pathway. PMID:26049153

  11. Community-based participatory research and policy advocacy to reduce diesel exposure in West Oakland, California.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Priscilla A; Minkler, Meredith; Garcia, Analilia P; Gordon, Margaret; Garzón, Catalina; Palaniappan, Meena; Prakash, Swati; Beveridge, Brian

    2011-12-01

    We conducted a multimethod case study analysis of a community-based participatory research partnership in West Oakland, California, and its efforts to study and address the neighborhood's disproportionate exposure to diesel air pollution. We employed 10 interviews with partners and policymakers, participant observation, and a review of documents. Results of the partnership's truck count and truck idling studies suggested substantial exposure to diesel pollution and were used by the partners and their allies to make the case for a truck route ordinance. Despite weak enforcement, the partnership's increased political visibility helped change the policy environment, with the community partner now heavily engaged in environmental decision-making on the local and regional levels. Finally, we discussed implications for research, policy, and practice. PMID:21551381

  12. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally and persist through infancy (5 months) and juvenile (2 years) stages. Although the volumes of hippocampal subdivisions in FAE animals are not atypical at birth, by age 2, they are only 65-70% of those estimated in age-matched controls. These data suggest that moderate, naturalistic alcohol consumption during late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume. PMID:25913787

  13. Reducing the underreporting of percutaneous exposure incidents: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Carlos; Heine, Markus; Loebermann, Micha; Klammt, Sebastian; Podbielski, Andreas; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Reisinger, Emil C

    2016-08-01

    Although risk reduction strategies have been implemented throughout the world, underreporting of percutaneous exposure incidents (PEIs) is common among exposed health care workers. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate of reported PEIs before and after implementation of an intensified reporting management policy. The introduction of an intensified reporting system led to significantly increased reporting after a PEI has occurred. However, continuous education needs to be provided to improve awareness. PMID:27125915

  14. Making Time for Nature: Visual Exposure to Natural Environments Lengthens Subjective Time Perception and Reduces Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Meredith S.; Repke, Meredith A.; Nickerson, Norma P.; Conway, Lucian G.; Odum, Amy L.; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity in delay discounting is associated with maladaptive behaviors such as overeating and drug and alcohol abuse. Researchers have recently noted that delay discounting, even when measured by a brief laboratory task, may be the best predictor of human health related behaviors (e.g., exercise) currently available. Identifying techniques to decrease impulsivity in delay discounting, therefore, could help improve decision-making on a global scale. Visual exposure to natural environments is one recent approach shown to decrease impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task, although the mechanism driving this result is currently unknown. The present experiment was thus designed to evaluate not only whether visual exposure to natural (mountains, lakes) relative to built (buildings, cities) environments resulted in less impulsivity, but also whether this exposure influenced time perception. Participants were randomly assigned to either a natural environment condition or a built environment condition. Participants viewed photographs of either natural scenes or built scenes before and during a delay discounting task in which they made choices about receiving immediate or delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants also completed an interval bisection task in which natural or built stimuli were judged as relatively longer or shorter presentation durations. Following the delay discounting and interval bisection tasks, additional measures of time perception were administered, including how many minutes participants thought had passed during the session and a scale measurement of whether time "flew" or "dragged" during the session. Participants exposed to natural as opposed to built scenes were less impulsive and also reported longer subjective session times, although no differences across groups were revealed with the interval bisection task. These results are the first to suggest that decreased impulsivity from exposure to natural as opposed to built

  15. Reducing lead exposure from drinking water: recent history and current status.

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Richard P.; Patch, Steven C.; Morgan, Diane M.; Pandolfo, Tamara J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of lead contamination of drinking water, noting the various regulatory-driven measures that have been adopted in the U.S. since 1986 to address this public health issue. The article summarizes the literature on the dynamics of tap water lead contamination and discusses this widespread source of lead exposure in the context of the latest research evidence. PMID:16134575

  16. Acute pergolide exposure stiffens engineered valve interstitial cell tissues and reduces contractility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Capulli, Andrew K; MacQueen, Luke A; O'Connor, Blakely B; Dauth, Stephanie; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-01-01

    Medications based on ergoline-derived dopamine and serotonin agonists are associated with off-target toxicities that include valvular heart disease (VHD). Reports of drug-induced VHD resulted in the withdrawal of appetite suppressants containing fenfluramine and phentermine from the US market in 1997 and pergolide, a Parkinson's disease medication, in 2007. Recent evidence suggests that serotonin receptor activity affected by these medications modulates cardiac valve interstitial cell activation and subsequent valvular remodeling, which can lead to cardiac valve fibrosis and dysfunction similar to that seen in carcinoid heart disease. Failure to identify these risks prior to market and continued use of similar drugs reaffirm the need to improve preclinical evaluation of drug-induced VHD. Here, we present two complimentary assays to measure stiffness and contractile stresses generated by engineered valvular tissues in vitro. As a case study, we measured the effects of acute (24 h) pergolide exposure to engineered porcine aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) tissues. Pergolide exposure led to increased tissue stiffness, but it decreased both basal and active contractile tone stresses generated by AVIC tissues. Pergolide exposure also disrupted AVIC tissue organization (i.e., tissue anisotropy), suggesting that the mechanical properties and contractile functionality of these tissues are governed by their ability to maintain their structure. We expect further use of these assays to identify off-target drug effects that alter the phenotypic balance of AVICs, disrupt their ability to maintain mechanical homeostasis, and lead to VHD. PMID:27174867

  17. Evaluating the efficacy of playground washing to reduce environmental metal exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Zahran, Sammy; Kristensen, Louise; Rouillon, Marek

    2015-07-01

    Washing and wet mopping is often advocated as a remedial treatment to limit exposure to lead dust. Here, surface and pre- and post-play wipes were measured to ascertain dust metal exposures (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) following play routines at four playgrounds in the smelter city of Port Pirie, South Australia, which are washed regularly. Although post-play hand wipe metals were 55.9% (95% CI: -0.78, -0.34) lower on wash days, loadings increased ∼5.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 11.7) per hour after washing. Despite washing, post-play hand lead exceeded a conservative value of 800 μg/m(2) within 24 h or sooner, with loadings increasing in proximity to the smelter. Post-play lead loadings were always >1000 μg/m(2) at the playground closest to smelter. Playground washing results in short-lived exposure reduction and effective treatment requires elimination of smelter emissions. PMID:25818090

  18. Ethanol exposure affects gene expression in the embryonic organizer and reduces retinoic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Yelin, Ronit; Schyr, Racheli Ben-Haroush; Kot, Hadas; Zins, Sharon; Frumkin, Ayala; Pillemer, Graciela; Fainsod, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental malformations caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), the strongest manifestation of FASD, results in short stature, microcephally and facial dysmorphogenesis including microphthalmia. Using Xenopus embryos as a model developmental system, we show that ethanol exposure recapitulates many aspects of FAS, including a shortened rostro-caudal axis, microcephally and microphthalmia. Temporal analysis revealed that Xenopus embryos are most sensitive to ethanol exposure between late blastula and early/mid gastrula stages. This window of sensitivity overlaps with the formation and early function of the embryonic organizer, Spemann's organizer. Molecular analysis revealed that ethanol exposure of embryos induces changes in the domains and levels of organizer-specific gene expression, identifying Spemann's organizer as an early target of ethanol. Ethanol also induces a defect in convergent extension movements that delays gastrulation movements and may affect the overall length. We show that mechanistically, ethanol is antagonistic to retinol (Vitamin A) and retinal conversion to retinoic acid, and that the organizer is active in retinoic acid signaling during early gastrulation. The model suggests that FASD is induced in part by an ethanol-dependent reduction in retinoic acid levels that are necessary for the normal function of Spemann's organizer. PMID:15708568

  19. Sampling and preparation of samples of peanut butter for aflatoxin analysis.

    PubMed

    Waltking, A E

    1980-01-01

    Procedures are discussed for sampling peanut butter and preparing those samples for alatoxin analysis. Special emphasis is placed on sampling the product from shipping pallets and comminuting chunk stype peanut butter in order to reduce the variability in the analysis associated with the nonuniform distribution of aflatoxin in the product. The slurry method of preparation is a convenient means of obtaining a sample which is representative of a nonhomogeneous product. PMID:7380779

  20. Low-amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic field exposure causes delayed and reduced growth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Grémiaux, Alexandre; Girard, Sébastien; Guérin, Vincent; Lothier, Jérémy; Baluška, František; Davies, Eric; Bonnet, Pierre; Vian, Alain

    2016-01-15

    It is now accepted that plants perceive high-frequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF). We wondered if the HF-EMF signal is integrated further in planta as a chain of reactions leading to a modification of plant growth. We exposed whole small ligneous plants (rose bush) whose growth could be studied for several weeks. We performed exposures at two different development stages (rooted cuttings bearing an axillary bud and 5-leaf stage plants), using two high frequency (900MHz) field amplitudes (5 and 200Vm(-1)). We achieved a tight control on the experimental conditions using a state-of-the-art stimulation device (Mode Stirred Reverberation Chamber) and specialized culture-chambers. After the exposure, we followed the shoot growth for over a one-month period. We observed no growth modification whatsoever exposure was performed on the 5-leaf stage plants. When the exposure was performed on the rooted cuttings, no growth modification was observed on Axis I (produced from the elongation of the axillary bud). Likewise, no significant modification was noted on Axis II produced at the base of Axis I, that came from pre-formed secondary axillary buds. In contrast, Axis II produced at the top of Axis I, that came from post-formed secondary buds consistently displayed a delayed and significant reduced growth (45%). The measurements of plant energy uptake from HF-EMF in this exposure condition (SAR of 7.2 10(-4)Wkg(-1)) indicated that this biological response is likely not due to thermal effect. These results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic field only affected development of post-formed organs. PMID:26643955

  1. Evaluation of an initiative to reduce radiation exposure from CT to children in a non-pediatric-focused facility.

    PubMed

    Blumfield, Einat; Zember, Jonathan; Guelfguat, Mark; Blumfield, Amit; Goldman, Harold

    2015-12-01

    We would like to share our experience of reducing pediatric radiation exposure. Much of the recent literature regarding successes of reducing radiation exposure has come from dedicated children's hospitals. Nonetheless, over the past two decades, there has been a considerable increase in CT imaging of children in the USA, predominantly in non-pediatric-focused facilities where the majority of children are treated. In our institution, two general hospitals with limited pediatric services, a dedicated initiative intended to reduce children's exposure to CT radiation was started by pediatric radiologists in 2005. The initiative addressed multiple issues including eliminating multiphase studies, decreasing inappropriate scans, educating referring providers, training residents and technologists, replacing CT with ultrasound or MRI, and ensuring availability of pediatric radiologists for consultation. During the study period, the total number of CT scans decreased by 24 %. When accounting for the number of scans per visit to the emergency department (ED), the numbers of abdominal and head CT scans decreased by 37.2 and 35.2 %, respectively. For abdominal scans, the average number of phases per scan decreased from 1.70 to 1.04. Upon surveying the pediatric ED staff, it was revealed that the most influential factors on ordering of scans were daily communication with pediatric radiologists, followed by journal articles and lectures by pediatric radiologists. We concluded that a non-pediatric-focused facility can achieve dramatic reduction in CT radiation exposure to children; however, this is most effectively achieved through a dedicated, multidisciplinary process led by pediatric radiologists. PMID:26263878

  2. Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: the dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rafael; Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; López-Antia, Ana; Taggart, Mark A; Martínez-Haro, Monica; Guitart, Raimon; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2014-02-01

    The use of lead (Pb) ammunition in the form of shot pellets has been identified as a Pb exposure risk in wildlife and their human consumers. We explore the hypothesis that Pb shot ban enforcement reduces the risk of avian Pb poisoning as well as Pb exposure in game meat consumers. We assessed compliance with a partial ban on Pb shot commencing in 2003 by examination of 937 waterbirds harvested by hunters between 2007 and 2012 in the Ebro delta (Spain). Prevalence of Pb shot ingestion was determined, as were Pb concentrations in liver and muscle tissue to evaluate the potential for Pb exposure in game meat consumers. Hunted birds with only embedded Pb shot (no steel) declined from 26.9% in 2007-08 to <2% over the following three hunting seasons after ban reinforcement. Pb shot ingestion in mallards decreased from a pre-ban value of 30.2% to 15.5% in the post-ban period. Liver Pb levels were predominantly defined by the presence of ingested shot, whereas muscle levels were defined by the presence of both ingested and embedded shot. Only 2.5% of mallard muscle tissue had Pb levels above European Union regulations for meat (0.1μg/g wet weight) in the 2008-09 season, when Pb shot ingestion prevalence was also at a minimum (5.1%). Effective restrictions in Pb ammunition use have a dual benefit since this reduces Pb exposure for game meat consumers due to embedded ammunition as well as reducing Pb poisoning in waterbirds. PMID:24309467

  3. Fungal Biodeterioration, Aflatoxin Contamination, and Nutrient Value of "Suya Spices".

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Adeniyi, Mary Adejoke; Asemoloye, Michael Dare

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to analyze the nutrient values, examine the biodeteriorating fungi biota, and analyze the mycotoxin contents of "Suya spices." Fungi with highest percentage occurrence on all the samples are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, yeast, and Trichoderma koningii. Nutrient composition of the samples is significantly different statistically (P < 0.05) with high protein (9.53% to 13.17%), fiber (9.27 to 13.17%), carbohydrate (46.27% to 50.90%), and ash (8.47% to 9.70%) contents but low moisture (9.03% to 9.47%) and fat (9.77% to 13.53%) contents. Aflatoxin analysis of the samples revealed that they all contain aflatoxin in varying amount but no detectible aflatoxin content in the control. 59.54% of the detected aflatoxin is aflatoxin B1 with highest recorded in Agbowo, Mokola, and Sango samples (i.e., 28.03, 22.44, and 13.8 μg/kg, resp.). 4.78% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin B2 which is only found in Sango and Mokola samples (3.59 and 2.6 μg/kg, resp.). 32.76% of aflatoxin is aflatoxin G1 with the highest found in Agbowo and Mokola samples (i.e., 18.63 and 10.41 μg/kg, resp.). 2.93% of the aflatoxin is aflatoxin G2 which is only detected in Sango and Agbowo samples (i.e., 1.19 and 2.65 μg/kg, resp.). PMID:27092289

  4. Concomitant efavirenz reduces pharmacokinetic exposure to the antimalarial drug artemether-lumefantrine in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liusheng; Parikh, Sunil; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Lizak, Patricia; Marzan, Florence; Dorsey, Grant; Havlir, Diane; Aweeka, Francesca T.

    2012-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral drug efavirenz (EFV) and the antimalarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are commonly co-administered to treat HIV and malaria. EFV is a known inducer of cytochrome P450 3A4, which converts artemether to dihydroartemisinin (DHA) that is also active and metabolizes longer acting lumefantrine (LR). A study in healthy volunteers was completed to address the concern that EFV impacts AL pharmacokinetics (PK). Methods Adults received AL (80/480 mg BID) for 3-days prior to and during EFV co-administration (600 mg daily for 26-days) with intensive PK for artemether, DHA, and LR conducted after the last AL dose for each period. EFV PK was evaluated with and without AL. PK parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. Results Twelve subjects completed the two-period study. PK exposure for artemether, DHA, and LR [as estimated by the area under the concentration time curve (AUClast)] decreased or trended toward decrease with EFV, compared to when administered alone [−51% (p=0.084), −46% (p=0.005), and −21% (p=0.102), respectively]. Day 7 LR levels, previously deemed predictive of treatment success, were 46% lower (p=0.002) with EFV, but the LR half-life was unchanged. EFV PK exposure was minimally altered following AL co-administration [AUC0–24h decreased by 17% (p=0.034)]. Conclusions Exposure to DHA, but not LR, was significantly lower during EFV-AL co-administration compared to that during administration of AL alone. These findings may have implications for the treatment efficacy of AL, particularly in children. However, the observed modest changes probably do not warrant dosage adjustment during co-administration of AL with EFV. PMID:22918158

  5. Benefits of reducing prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants to children's neurodevelopment in China

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, F.; Li, T.Y.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Rauh, V.A.; Zhang, Y.G.; Tang, D.L.

    2008-10-15

    Coal burning provides 70% of the energy for China's industry and power, but releases large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants. PAHs are reproductive and developmental toxicants, mutagens, and carcinogens. We evaluated the benefit to neurobehavioral development from the closure of a coal-fired power plant that was the major local source of ambient PAHs. The research was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a coal-fired power plant operated seasonally before it was shut down in May 2004. Two identical prospective cohort studies enrolled nonsmoking women and their newborns in 2002 (before shutdown) and 2005 (after shutdown). Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by PAH-DNA adducts (benzo(a)pyrene-DNA) in umbilical cord blood. Child development was assessed by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. Prenatal exposure to other neurotoxicants and potential confounders (including lead, mercury, and environmental tobacco smoke) was measured. We compared the cohorts regarding the association between PAH-DNA adduct levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Significant associations previously seen in 2002 between elevated adducts and decreased motor area developmental quotient (DQ) (p = 0.043) and average DQ (p = 0.047) were not observed in the 2005 cohort (p = 0.546 and p = 0.146). However, the direction of the relationship did not change. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral development in Tongliang children benefitedby elimination of PAH exposure from the coal-burning plant, consistent with the significant reduction in PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of children in the 2005 cohort. The results have implications for children's environmental health in China and elsewhere.

  6. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Quintens, Roel; Samari, Nada; de Saint-Georges, Louis; van Oostveldt, Patrick; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during chronic (Californium-252) exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy) doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight. PMID:27203085

  7. Combined Exposure to Simulated Microgravity and Acute or Chronic Radiation Reduces Neuronal Network Integrity and Survival.

    PubMed

    Pani, Giuseppe; Verslegers, Mieke; Quintens, Roel; Samari, Nada; de Saint-Georges, Louis; van Oostveldt, Patrick; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2016-01-01

    During orbital or interplanetary space flights, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations and microgravity. However, most earth-based studies on the potential health risks of space conditions have investigated the effects of these two conditions separately. This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of radiation exposure and microgravity on neuronal morphology and survival in vitro. In particular, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity after acute (X-rays) or during chronic (Californium-252) exposure to ionizing radiation using mouse mature neuron cultures. Acute exposure to low (0.1 Gy) doses of X-rays caused a delay in neurite outgrowth and a reduction in soma size, while only the high dose impaired neuronal survival. Of interest, the strongest effect on neuronal morphology and survival was evident in cells exposed to microgravity and in particular in cells exposed to both microgravity and radiation. Removal of neurons from simulated microgravity for a period of 24 h was not sufficient to recover neurite length, whereas the soma size showed a clear re-adaptation to normal ground conditions. Genome-wide gene expression analysis confirmed a modulation of genes involved in neurite extension, cell survival and synaptic communication, suggesting that these changes might be responsible for the observed morphological effects. In general, the observed synergistic changes in neuronal network integrity and cell survival induced by simulated space conditions might help to better evaluate the astronaut's health risks and underline the importance of investigating the central nervous system and long-term cognition during and after a space flight. PMID:27203085

  8. Periadolescent ethanol exposure reduces adult forebrain ChAT+IR neurons: correlation with behavioral pathology.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, C L; Criado, J R; Wills, D N; Liu, W; Crews, F T

    2011-12-29

    Substance abuse typically begins in adolescence; therefore, the impact of alcohol during this critical time in brain development is of particular importance. Epidemiological data indicate that excessive alcohol consumption is prevalent among adolescents and may have lasting neurobehavioral consequences. Loss of cholinergic input to the forebrain has been demonstrated following fetal alcohol exposure and in adults with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. In the present study, immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was determined to assess forebrain cholinergic neurons (Ch1-4), and behavioral changes following periadolescent alcohol exposure. Wistar rats were exposed to intermittent ethanol vapor (14 h on/10 h off/day) for 35 days from postnatal day (PD) 22 to PD 57 (average blood alcohol concentration (BAC): 163 mg%). Rats were withdrawn from vapor and assessed for locomotor activity, startle response, conflict behavior in the open field, and immobility in the forced swim test, as adults. Rats were then sacrificed at day 71/72 and perfused for histochemical analyses. Ethanol vapor-exposed rats displayed: increased locomotor activity 8 h after the termination of vapor delivery for that 24 h period at day 10 and day 20 of alcohol vapor exposure, significant reductions in the amplitude of their responses to prepulse stimuli during the startle paradigm at 24 h withdrawal, and at 2 weeks following withdrawal, less anxiety-like and/or more "disinhibitory" behavior in the open field conflict, and more immobility in the forced swim test. Quantitative analyses of ChAT immunoreactivity revealed a significant reduction in cell counts in the Ch1-2 and Ch3-4 regions of the basal forebrain in ethanol vapor-exposed rats. This reduction in cell counts was significantly correlated with less anxiety-like and/or more "disinhibitory" behavior in the open field conflict test. These studies demonstrate that behavioral measures of arousal, affective state, disinhibitory

  9. Evaluating the technical feasibility of aflatoxin risk reduction strategies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia; Khlangwiset, Pornsri

    2010-01-01

    Public health interventions must be readily accepted by their target populations to have any meaningful impact, and must have financial and infrastructural support to be feasible in the parts of the world where they are most needed. At the same time, these interventions must be assessed for potential unintended consequences, either to the environment or to human health. In this paper, we evaluate the technical feasibility of interventions to control aflatoxin risk, to be potentially deployed in parts of Africa where aflatoxin exposure poses a significant public health concern. We have applied a conceptual framework for feasibility to four interventions, one associated with each of four different stages of aflatoxin risk: biocontrol (pre-harvest), a post-harvest intervention package (post-harvest), NovaSil clay (dietary), and hepatitis B vaccination (clinical). For each intervention, we have assessed the following four components of technical feasibility: 1) characteristics of the basic intervention, 2) characteristics of delivery, 3) requirements on government capacity, and 4) usage characteristics. We propose ways in which feasibility of each intervention is currently high or low from the perspective of adoption in Africa, how public education is crucial for each of these interventions to succeed, and how to align economic incentives to make the interventions more suitable for less developed countries. PMID:20455160

  10. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 Levels in Produced Pasteurized Milk in Ahvaz City by Using HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Abdolazim; Nazari Khorasgani, Zahra; Alemzadeh, Ziyaaddin; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Rezvan; Tarhani, Najmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background Aflatoxins are one of the most potent toxic substances that occur naturally. Nowadays extensive attention has been taken to their existence in food and environment, as there is the possibility of harm to humans following chronic exposure to extremely low levels via food chain. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hepatic carcinogenic metabolite found in the milk of lactating animals fed with contaminated feed contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Objectives This study aimed to determine the levels of AFM1 in produced pasteurized milk in the Ahvaz of city. Materials and Methods For this purpose, 100 samples of pasteurized milk from the Jamus Factory were analyzed the to determine AFM1 content by using an immunoaffinity column for clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a C18 column, a fluorescence detector (excitation 365 nm, emission 435 nm) and a mobile phase of acetonitrile–water (25:75, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Results AFM1 was detected in all 100 samples of pasteurized milk at concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 9.760 ng/L. Conclusions The mean concentration of AFM1 in the the pasteurized milk samples was 2.7 ng/L, which was below the 50 ng/L, accepted as level of for milk in Iran. PMID:24624159

  11. Molecular Characterization of Atoxigenic Strains for Biological Control of Aflatoxins in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic, carcinogens produced by several species in Aspergillus section Flavi. Strains of A. flavus that do not produce aflatoxins, called atoxigenic strains, have been used commercially in North America as tools for limiting aflatoxin contamination. A similar aflatoxin manage...

  12. The healthy workplace project: Reduced viral exposure in an office setting.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kelly A; Beamer, Paloma I; Plotkin, Kevin R; Sifuentes, Laura Y; Koenig, David W; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-05-01

    Viral illnesses such as gastroenteritis and the common cold create a substantial burden in the workplace due to reduced productivity, increased absenteeism, and increased health care costs. Behaviors in the workplace contribute to the spread of human viruses via direct contact between hands, contaminated surfaces, and the mouth, eyes, and/or nose. This study assessed whether implementation of the Healthy Workplace Project (HWP) (providing hand sanitizers, disinfecting wipes, facial tissues, and use instructions) would reduce viral loads in an office setting of approximately 80 employees after seeding fomites and the hands of volunteer participants with an MS-2 phage tracer. The HWP significantly reduced viable phage detected on participants' hands, communal fomites, and personal fomites (p ≤ .010) in office environments and presents a cost-effective method for reducing the health and economic burden associated with viral illnesses in the workplace. PMID:26066784

  13. Reduced Life Expectancy Model for Effects of Long Term Exposure on Lethal Toxicity with Fish

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiming J.; Connell, Des W.

    2013-01-01

    A model based on the concept of reduction in life expectancy (RLE model) as a result of long term exposure to toxicant has been developed which has normal life expectancy (NLT) as a fixed limiting point for a species. The model is based on the equation (LC50 = a ln(LT50) + b) where a and b are constants. It was evaluated by plotting ln LT50 against LC50 with data on organic toxicants obtained from the scientific literature. Linear relationships between LC50 and ln LT50 were obtained and a Calculated NLT was derived from the plots. The Calculated NLT obtained was in good agreement with the Reported NLT obtained from the literature. Estimation of toxicity at any exposure time and concentration is possible using the model. The use of NLT as a reference point is important since it provides a data point independent of the toxicity data set and limits the data to the range where toxicity occurs. This novel approach, which represents a departure from Haber's rule, can be used to estimate long term toxicity from limited available acute toxicity data for fish exposed to organic biocides. PMID:24455314

  14. Hippocampal Neuron Populations Are Reduced in Vervet Monkeys With Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally and persist through infancy (5 months) and juvenile (2 years) stages. Although the volumes of hippocampal subdivisions in FAE animals are not atypical at birth, by age 2, they are only 65–70% of those estimated in age-matched controls. These data suggest that moderate, naturalistic alcohol consumption during late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume. © 2015 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57:470–485, 2015. PMID:25913787

  15. Aflatoxin B1 in Affecting Broiler’s Performance, Immunity, and Gastrointestinal Tract: A Review of History and Contemporary Issues

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Agha W.; Razzazi-Fazeli, E.; Bohm, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Research during the last five decades has well established the negative effects of the mycotoxin on health of poultry. However, the last ten years of relevant data have accentuated the potential of low levels of aflatoxin B1 to deteriorate broiler performance. In this regard, any attempt to establish a dose-effect relationship between aflatoxin B1 level and broiler performance is also complicated due to differences in types of broilers and length of exposure to the mycotoxin in different studies. Contrary to the prevalent notion regarding literature saturation with respect to aflatoxicosis of chicken, many areas of aflatoxicosis still need to be explored. Literature regarding effects of the mycotoxin on the gastrointestinal tract in this regard is particular scanty and non-conclusive. In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed. PMID:22069726

  16. Efficacy of some antioxidants supplementation in reducing oxidative stress post sodium tungstate exposure in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, S; Flora, S J S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of some antioxidants against sodium tungstate induced oxidative stress in male wistar rats. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100ppm in drinking water) for three months except for control group. In the same time, many rats were supplemented orally with different antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), n-acetylcysteine (NAC), quercetin or naringenin (0.30mM)) for five consecutive days a week for the same mentioned period before. Exposure to sodium tungstate significantly (P<0.05) inhibit blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, liver and blood reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels in tissues. ALA acid and NAC supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure increased GSH and also, was beneficial in the recovery of altered superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, besides, significantly reducing blood and tissue reactive oxygen species and TBARS levels. The results suggest a more pronounced efficacy of ALA acid and NAC supplementation than quercetin or naringenin supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure in preventing induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24613855

  17. Aflatoxin Toxicity Reduction in Feed by Enhanced Binding to Surface-Modified Clay Additives

    PubMed Central

    Jaynes, William F.; Zartman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that clay additives, such as bentonites, can bind aflatoxins in ingested feed and reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Bentonite deposits are found throughout the world and mostly consist of expandable smectite minerals, such as montmorillonite. The surfaces of smectite minerals can be treated with organic compounds to create surface-modified clays that more readily bind some contaminants than the untreated clay. Montmorillonites treated with organic cations, such as hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), more effectively remove organic contaminants, such as benzene and toluene, from water than untreated clay. Similarly, montmorillonite treated with PTMA (Kd = 24,100) retained more aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) from aqueous corn flour than untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 944). Feed additives that reduced aflatoxin toxicity in animal feeding studies adsorbed more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than feed additives that were less effective. The organic cations HDTMA and PTMA are considered toxic and would not be suitable for clay additives used in feed or food, but other non-toxic or nutrient compounds can be used to prepare surface-modified clays. Montmorillonite (SWy) treated with choline (Kd = 13,800) and carnitine (Kd = 3960) adsorbed much more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than the untreated clay (Kd = 944). A choline-treated clay prepared from a reduced-charge, high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 20,100) adsorbed more AfB1 than the choline-treated high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 1340) or the untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 293). Surface-modified clay additives prepared using low-charge smectites and nutrient or non-toxic organic compounds might be used to more effectively bind aflatoxins in contaminated feed or food and prevent toxicity. PMID:22069725

  18. Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult- or Lifetime-Exposure in Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Swaddle, John P.; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems. We performed a dosing study with dietary methylmercury in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), at doses from 0.3 – 2.4 parts per million. Birds were exposed to mercury either as adults only or throughout their lives. All doses of mercury reduced reproductive success, with the lowest dose reducing the number of independent offspring produced in one year by 16% and the highest dose, representing approximately half the lethal dose for this species, causing a 50% reduction. While mercury did not affect clutch size or survivorship, it had the most consistent effect on the proportion of chicks that fledged from the nest, regardless of mode of exposure. Among birds exposed as adults, mercury caused a steep increase in the latency to re-nest after loss of a clutch. Birds exposed for their entire lifetimes, which were necessarily the offspring of dosed parents, had up to 50% lower reproductive success than adult-exposed birds at low doses of methylmercury, but increased reproductive success at high doses, suggesting selection for mercury tolerance at the highest level of exposure. Our results indicate that mercury levels in prey items at contaminated sites pose a significant threat to populations of songbirds through reduced reproductive success. PMID

  19. Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticle Exposure Improves Microvascular Dysfunction and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Minarchick, Valerie C.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Sabolsky, Edward M.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    The elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular wall is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. This increase in oxidative stress contributes to various mechanisms of vascular dysfunction, such as decreased nitric oxide bioavailability. Therefore, anti-oxidants are being researched to decrease the high levels of ROS, which could improve the microvascular dysfunction associated with various cardiovascular diseases. From a therapeutic perspective, cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NP) hold great anti-oxidant potential, but their in vivo activity is unclear. Due to this potential anti-oxidant action, we hypothesize that injected CeO2 NP would decrease microvascular dysfunction and oxidative stress associated with hypertension. In order to simulate a therapeutic application, spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were intravenously injected with either saline or CeO2 NP (100 μg suspended in saline). Twenty-four hours post-exposure mesenteric arteriolar reactivity was assessed via intravital microscopy. Endothelium-dependent and –independent function was assessed via acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Microvascular oxidative stress was analyzed using fluorescent staining in isolated mesenteric arterioles. Finally, systemic inflammation was examined using a multiplex analysis and venular leukocyte flux was counted. Endothelium-dependent dilation was significantly decreased in the SH rats (29.68 ± 3.28%, maximal response) and this microvascular dysfunction was significantly improved following CeO2 NP exposure (43.76 ± 4.33%, maximal response). There was also an increase in oxidative stress in the SH rats, which was abolished following CeO2 NP treatment. These results provided evidence that CeO2 NP act as an anti-oxidant in vivo. There were also changes in the inflammatory profile in the WKY and SH rats. In WKY rats, IL-10 and TNF-α were increased following CeO2 NP treatment. Finally, leukocyte

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Aflatoxin Control Methods: Economic Incentives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple sectors in U.S. crop industries – growers, elevators, handlers/shellers, processors, distributors, and consumers – are affected by aflatoxin contamination of commodities, and have the potential to control it. Aflatoxin control methods at both preharvest and postharvest levels have been dev...

  1. Aflatoxin management in corn with Afla-Guard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination is a perennial threat to corn production in the southern United States. Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species associated with aflatoxin production;however, not all strains produce the toxin. Two non-aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus were evaluated during 2011 at fi...

  2. Comparative and Functional Genomics in Identifying Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis through Aspergillus flavus genomics has been actively pursued. A. flavus Expressed Sequence Tags (EST’s) and whole genome sequencing have been completed. Groups of genes that are potentially involved in aflatoxin production have been profi...

  3. Sexual Reproduction in Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus nomius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that exhibit carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Aspergillus nomius is a potent producer of aflatoxins and was formerly considered to be strictly asexual in reproduction. In this research, mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were ...

  4. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF PEANUT FOR REDUCTION OF AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through genetic engineering of peanut, we have focused mainly on two levels of protection against aflatoxin contamination: the entry of spores through insect-damaged tissues and the growth of the fungus after entry, although interfering with the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway also is of interest. T...

  5. The dangers of aflatoxin chemical hazards on corn and peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins, toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi, are naturally occurring contaminants of food for human and feed for animals. Although aflatoxins have been a problem throughout history, they have been recognized as significant contaminants within agriculture only since t...

  6. Strategies for the prevention of preharvest aflatoxin contamination of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination of maize by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus poses serious health hazards to humans and animals worldwide. This alarming fact, along with the institution of regulations in many countries to control the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and feed, have stimulate...

  7. Aflatoxins: mechanisms of inhibition by antagonistic plants and microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are a family of toxic fungal secondary metabolites. The rapid expansion in our knowledge about inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis by compounds from plants and microorganisms has enabled us to utilize them as potential biocontrol agents. Substantial efforts have been devoted to identify ...

  8. Preliminary development and evaluation of an appearance-based dissonance induction intervention for reducing UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Chait, Sari R; Thompson, J Kevin; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the feasibility of an appearance-based dissonance induction approach for the modification of tanning and sunscreen use behaviors. Undergraduate female students were randomized to: a healthy lifestyle condition, an appearance-based dissonance condition, or an appearance-based psychoeducation condition. Reports of tanning and sunscreen use were collected immediately before and 1 month following intervention (N=225). Relative to the healthy lifestyle condition, participants in the dissonance condition reported a significant reduction in daily hours spent tanning. Additionally, sunscreen use on the body decreased significantly for the healthy lifestyle group, but did not change for the dissonance group. The psychoeducation condition did not differ from the healthy lifestyle condition on any measure. These findings should encourage additional research into the use of dissonance induction as an appearance-based strategy for promoting reductions in UV exposure. PMID:25462883

  9. Strengthening Community Capacity to Participate in Making Decisions to Reduce Disproportionate Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

  10. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  11. Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

    2003-04-01

    Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

  12. Short-term hypoxic exposure at rest and during exercise reduces lung water in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Eric M; Beck, Kenneth C; Hulsebus, Minelle L; Breen, Jerome F; Hoffman, Eric A; Johnson, Bruce D

    2006-12-01

    Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise increase pulmonary arterial pressure, cause pulmonary capillary recruitment, and may influence the ability of the lungs to regulate fluid. To examine the influence of hypoxia, alone and combined with exercise, on lung fluid balance, we studied 25 healthy subjects after 17-h exposure to 12.5% inspired oxygen (barometric pressure = 732 mmHg) and sequentially after exercise to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer with 12.5% inspired oxygen. We also studied subjects after a rapid saline infusion (30 ml/kg over 15 min) to demonstrate the sensitivity of our techniques to detect changes in lung water. Pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and alveolar-capillary conductance (D(M)) were determined by measuring the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Lung tissue volume and density were assessed using computed tomography. Lung water was estimated by subtracting measures of Vc from computed tomography lung tissue volume. Pulmonary function [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume after 1 s (FEV(1)), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF(50))] was also assessed. Saline infusion caused an increase in Vc (42%), tissue volume (9%), and lung water (11%), and a decrease in D(M) (11%) and pulmonary function (FVC = -12 +/- 9%, FEV(1) = -17 +/- 10%, FEF(50) = -20 +/- 13%). Hypoxia and hypoxic exercise resulted in increases in Vc (43 +/- 19 and 51 +/- 16%), D(M) (7 +/- 4 and 19 +/- 6%), and pulmonary function (FVC = 9 +/- 6 and 4 +/- 3%, FEV(1) = 5 +/- 2 and 4 +/- 3%, FEF(50) = 4 +/- 2 and 12 +/- 5%) and decreases in lung density and lung water (-84 +/- 24 and -103 +/- 20 ml vs. baseline). These data suggest that 17 h of hypoxic exposure at rest or with exercise resulted in a decrease in lung water in healthy humans. PMID:16902060

  13. Prenatal opiate exposure impairs radial arm maze performance and reduces levels of BDNF precursor following training.

    PubMed

    Schrott, Lisa M; Franklin, La 'Tonya M; Serrano, Peter A

    2008-03-10

    Prenatal exposure to opiates, which is invariably followed by postnatal withdrawal, can affect cognitive performance. To further characterize these effects, we examined radial 8-arm maze performance and expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male rats prenatally exposed to the opiate l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM). Female rats received 1.0 mg/kg/day LAAM or water via daily oral gavage for 28 days prior to breeding, during breeding, and throughout pregnancy. Pups were fostered to non-treated lactating dams at birth and underwent neonatal opiate withdrawal. At 5-6 months, prenatal water- and LAAM-exposed males (n=6 each; non-littermates) received radial arm maze training consisting of ten trials a day for five days and three retention trials on day six. Rats prenatally exposed to LAAM had poorer maze performance, decreased percent correct responding and more reference and working memory errors than prenatal water-treated controls. However, they were able to acquire the task by the end of training. There were no differences between the groups on retention 24 h after testing. Following retention testing, hippocampi were removed and protein extracted from cytosol and synaptic fractions. Western blots were used to measure levels of mature and precursor BDNF protein, as well as the BDNF receptor TrkB. BDNF precursor protein was significantly decreased in the synaptic fraction of trained prenatal LAAM-treated rats compared to prenatal water-treated trained controls. No effects were found for the full-length or truncated TrkB receptor. In untrained rats, prenatal treatment did not affect any of the measures. These data suggest that prenatal opiate exposure and/or postnatal withdrawal compromise expression of proteins involved in the neural plasticity underlying learning. PMID:18262500

  14. Continuous Taurocholic Acid Exposure Promotes Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression Due to Reduced Cell Loss Resulting from Enhanced Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Sho; Yamamoto, Hiroto; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Saito, Shota; Hattori, Takanori; Yamamoto, Gaku; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA) exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression. Methods A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR) was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration. Conclusion Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells. PMID:24551170

  15. Inhibition of ebselen on aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, C F; Liu, J; Wasser, S; Shen, H M; Tan, C E; Ong, C N

    2000-12-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a potent hepatocarcinogen, enhances ROS formation and causes oxidative DNA damage, which may play a role in its carcinogenicity. We have demonstrated recently that ebselen, an organic selenium compound, protects against the cytotoxicity of AFB(1) through its antioxidant capability. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ebselen on AFB(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in an animal model. Fischer 344 rats were first treated with either deionized water or ebselen (5 mg/kg, 5 days/week) via gavage for 4 weeks, then given AFB(1) (0.4 mg/kg, gavage, once a week) or AFB(1) plus ebselen (5 mg/kg, 5 days/week) for another 24 weeks. The results showed that the hepatocarcinogenicity of AFB(1) in rats was significantly reduced by ebselen treatment as indicated by a decrease in: (i) serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity; (ii) expression of mRNAs of liver alpha-fetoprotein and the placental form of glutathione S-transferase (GST-P); and (iii) the area and mean density of staining of liver GST-P foci. Ebselen treatment significantly reduced the formation of hepatic AFB(1)-DNA adducts and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine caused by AFB(1) exposure. These findings suggest that ebselen can inhibit the carcinogenicity of AFB(1). In addition to the reduction of AFB(1)-DNA adduct formation, the protective effect of ebselen against AFB(1)-induced oxidative DNA damage may also, at least in part, contribute to its anticarcinogenic property. PMID:11133813

  16. Perspectives of Mothers in Farmworker Households on Reducing the Take-Home Pathway of Pesticide Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Larkin L.; Starks, Helene E.; Meischke, Hendrika; Thompson, Beti

    2009-01-01

    Farmworkers carry pesticide residue home on their clothing, boots, and skin, placing other household members at risk, particularly children. Specific precautions are recommended to reduce this take-home pathway, yet few studies have examined the perspectives of farmworkers and other household members regarding these behaviors and the reasons for…

  17. Scanning proton beam therapy reduces normal tissue exposure in pelvic radiotherapy for anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Anand, Aman; Bues, Martin; Rule, William G; Keole, Sameer R; Beltran, Chris J; Yin, Jun; Haddock, Michael G; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Miller, Robert C; Ashman, Jonathan B

    2015-12-01

    An inter-comparison planning study between photon beam therapy (IMRT) and scanning proton beam therapy (SPBT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is presented. SPBT plans offer significant reduction (>50%, P=0.008) in doses to small bowel, and bone marrow thereby offering the potential to reduce bowel and hemotoxicities. PMID:26597231

  18. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. PMID:26996984

  19. Aflatoxin in raw walnut kernels marketed in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Imani Nejad, M; Farahani, A D

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of aflatoxin in 35 samples of raw walnuts, which were randomly collected from Iranian supermarkets in Tehran, was examined. Analysis of aflatoxin was performed by solvent extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up followed by determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Limits of detection (LOD) for the aflatoxins were 0.03-0.25 ng g⁻¹. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.12-0.80 ng g⁻¹. Total aflatoxin concentrations in the samples ranged from 0 to 112.8 ng g⁻¹. About 74.3% of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, of which 20.0% exceeded the maximum tolerable limit of 15 ng g⁻¹ set by Codex. PMID:24779688

  20. Occurrence of aflatoxins in human foodstuffs in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Loetter, L.H.; Kroehm, H.J.

    1988-02-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of Aspergillus spp and have been reported as contaminants in a number of foodstuffs, namely corn, rice, peanuts, and cereals. In the Republic of South Africa, aflatoxin levels in human foodstuffs are limited to a maximum of 10 ..mu..g/kg for the total and 5 ..mu..g/kg for aflatoxin B/sub 1/. During 1985 and 1986, samples of sorghum beer, sorghum cereal, peanuts, peanut butter and maize meal were purchased from supermarkets in Johannesburg and analyzed for aflatoxins. A total of 414 samples were analyzed during the survey. In 1985, roughly a third of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, with no levels in excess of the legal limit. In 1986 the percentage of contaminated samples rose significantly, but the levels of contamination remained low, with only one sample exceeding the legal maximum.