Sample records for reducing environmental damage

  1. Reducing Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2006-06-05

    This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

  2. Employee environmental efforts reduce costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    At the same time Sony's San Diego manufacturing center underwent expansion and diversification in the late 1980s, management began pollution prevention and energy conservation programs. Through team programs, engineering strategies to reduce pollution resulted in significant cost savings and environmental benefits. By reducing waste between 1991 to 1993, the company also reduced manufacturing costs by $954,000 through recycling, hazardous waste

  3. Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Toshihiko; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Yasuhara, Hajime; Koide, Ryohei; Dawson, William W

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J/cm(2) energy densities. The values of energy density were measured before the blue filter. Lesions were measured before and at 2 and 30 days after irradiation of a 2.8 mm diameter region within the macular arcade. Measures were fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and long wavelength scanning by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) unit. The lesions, which were produced, were scored and compared to irradiant energy density of the blue LED (NSPB500S, Nichia, Tokushima, Japan). The exposure at the 20 J/cm(2) produced no detectable result at 2 or 30 days. Exposure at 35 J/cm(2) showed definite lesion production without blue filter. With the filter added there was one indication of minor change. At 60 J/cm(2) there was extensive heavy, enduring damage without the filter and with the filter damage was present but was significantly attenuated. These results strongly support the conclusion that the blue filter attenuation reduces the frequency of damage by exposure. This experimental system is a useful model for normal human eye aging and continuous spectrum environment irradiance. PMID:19660452

  4. Title: Reducing the earthquake damage to facades and partitions: an integrated low-damage approach

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Title: Reducing the earthquake damage to facades and partitions: an integrated after an earthquake, even when the structural damage is minor. The poor performance of building facades and partitions in recent earthquakes has led

  5. Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions

    E-print Network

    Maheras, Anastasia Francis

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

  6. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  7. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  8. Hypothermia Reduces Neurological Damage in Asphyxiated Newborn Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Compagnoni; L. Pogliani; G. Lista; F. Castoldi; P. Fontana; F. Mosca

    2002-01-01

    Background: Perinatal asphyxia remains one of the most devastating neurologic processes. There is experimental and clinical evidence that cerebral cooling may suppress the biochemical cascades leading to delayed cerebral damage. Objective: To determine if hypothermia started soon after delivery reduces cerebral damage in term infants. Design\\/Methods: Retrospective chart analysis with historical controls. Ten asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia between October

  9. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management AGENCY: Animal...address the need for a national feral swine damage management program to protect...your comment to Project Managers, Feral Swine EIS, USDA APHIS-WS, 732...

  10. THE ECO-INDICATING OF THE BLACK SEA ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IZMAIL KANTARZHI

    The following EI 99 damage categories are considered: damage to human health, damage to ecosystem quality, resource extraction. Pollution of the Black Sea has to be included to all three categories. Eco-indicator is the single number, showing the environmental load of each studied process and making possible of a comparison between them. It's also possible to use EI for assessment

  11. Reversed scan direction reduces electron beam damage in EBSD maps.

    PubMed

    Kidder, S; Prior, D

    2014-08-01

    The deleterious effects of electron beam damage on high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps of undeformed quartz are significantly reduced by scanning in the direction opposite to that dictated by widely used EBSD acquisition software. Higher quality electron backscatter patterns are produced when the electron beam moves progressively down the sample (the apparent 'up' direction in the resulting maps) for all step sizes where beam damage affects EBSD map quality (? ?0.4 ?m in this study). The relative improvement associated with downward scanning increases as step size is reduced. A comparison of high-resolution maps made in experimentally deformed quartz demonstrates that downward scanning reduces by a factor of ?2 the lower limit in step size relative to maps scanned in the conventional direction. The electron beam damages quartz at its point of entry, forming ?0.1-?m diameter bumps visible in Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Downward scanning produces better results because it minimizes the flux of electrons through these loci of damaged crystal. PMID:24943109

  12. Reducing formation damage through two-stage polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Houchin, L.R.; Hudson, L.M.; Caothien, S.; Daddazio, G.; Hashemi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Formation damage resulting from the use of unfiltered polymers during gravel pack completion operations has been addressed as it relates to HEC completion fluids. However, other filtered polymer systems exhibit properties which, in specific applications, may out perform HEC systems. Thus, the performance characteristics of six commonly used polymer systems, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), clarified xanthan gum (XC), HEC/XC blends, crosslinked carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), and standard xanthan gum (XCD), required additional evaluation. Fluid modelling was employed using a new two-stage filtration process (gel filtration) in which the viscosified fluids were optimally sheared and fine-filtered to improve sand placement efficiency and reduce formation damage. The data obtained from this study establishes mixing and filtration design criteria for optimizing completion techniques such as gravel packing, sand washing, polymer diverting, and lost circulation control.

  13. Investigation of operational and environmental variability effects on damage detection algorithms in a woven composite plate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Kess; D. E. Adams

    2007-01-01

    Variability in structural health monitoring systems can result in reduced reliability by increasing the likelihood of false-positive\\/-negative indications of damage. It is important to understand how sources of operational, environmental, and even computational variability influence damage indicator functions. A sensitivity model-based technique, which focuses on the physical rather than the statistical nature of variability, is described. Each source of static\\/dynamic

  14. Environmentally friendly cows–reducing our environmental hoof print

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of natural resources impacts the environment in five areas: 1) Energy, 2) Water, 3) Nutrients, 4) Greenhouse gases and 5) Biodiversity. The greatest opportunities for decreasing environmental impacts of the Holstein cow would seem to be enhancing utilization of nutrients and reducing emissio...

  15. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  16. The valve location problem: Minimizing environmental damage of a spill in long oil pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Grigoriev; Nadejda V. Grigorieva

    2009-01-01

    A shutoff valve is a control device that blocks oil flow in a pipeline in order to reduce the oil escape. This paper addresses the valve location problem where, given a pipeline network and a number of valves for installation, the task is to find a valve location that minimizes the maximum environmental damage of an oil spill. We present

  17. Methods to reduce lint cleaner waste and damage

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, W.S.

    2000-04-01

    New technology to automatically engage/disengage grid bars in saw-type lint cleaners to reduce fiber waste and associated fiber damage was evaluated in five studies. The number of active grid bars in the studies varied from 0 to 10, and as the number of grid bars increased, fiber loss and damage increased. Typically for a single 5-grid bar lint cleaner, about 50% of the material that was removed was removed by the first two grid bars; for two lint cleaners, about 40% of the material was removed by the first two grid bars. Short fiber content and neps increased over 30% as grid bars increased from 2 to 10, and mill performance was degraded. Material removed from lint by saw-type lint cleaners is strongly related to variety, growing conditions and harvesting, and ranged from 6.1 to 17.5 kg (13.4 to 38.6 lb) per bale when two lint cleaners were used. In a 39,000 bale field study where lint cleaning was optimized by a computerized process control system, fiber loss from two grid bars (3.6 kg or 8 lb/bale) was about 25% of that from five grid bars (13.6 kg or 30 lb/bale).

  18. Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50–200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca2+ influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

  19. Reducing Uncertainty in Damage Growth Properties by Structural Health Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Coppe; Raphael T. Haftka; Nam-Ho Kim; Fuh-Gwo Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Structural health monitoring provides sensor data that monitor fatigue-induced damage growth in service. This information may in turn be used to improve the characterization of the material properties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. These properties are often widely distributed between nominally identical structures because of differences in manufacturing processes and aging effects. The improved accuracy in

  20. [Hazardous environmental factors causing renal damage in children].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Quan; Yi, Zhu-Wen

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous environmental factors invade the body through multiple routes, including ingestion, inhalation and absorption by contact with the skin and mucous membrane. They are from various sources and soil, water, air, building and decorative materials, foods and daily necessities are the main carriers. According to their physical and chemical properties and morphological characteristics, these hazardous factors are classified as metals, inorganic matter, organic matter, radioactive substances, biological toxins, viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and parasites. They cause diseases through blood and urine and also have kidney susceptibility. This article suggests that pediatricians should fully understand the characteristics and seriousness of hazardous environmental factors that cause renal damage, and pay attention to the prevention and control of these factors so as to minimize renal damage in children. PMID:24750822

  1. Dietary fish oil reduces oxidative DNA damage in rat colonocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura K. Bancroft; Joanne R. Lupton; Laurie A. Davidson; Stella S. Taddeo; Mary E. Murphy; Raymond J. Carroll; Robert S. Chapkin

    2003-01-01

    Prolonged generation of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory mediators can induce oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG formation), potentially resulting in intestinal tumorigenesis. Fish oil (FO), compared to corn oil (CO), has been shown to downregulate inflammation and upregulate apoptosis targeted at damaged cells. We hypothesized FO could protect the intestine against 8-oxodG formation during dextran sodium sulfate- (DSS-) induced inflammation. We

  2. Reducing the environmental impact of uranium in-situ recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm Dean Siegel; Ardyth Simmons

    2010-01-01

    This session will explore the current technical approaches to reducing the environmental effects of uranium ISR in comparison to the historical environmental impact of uranium mining to demonstrate advances in this controversial subject.

  3. Consideration of environmental and operational variability for damage diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, H. (Hoon); Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2002-01-01

    Damage diagnosis is a problem that can be addressed at many levels. Stated in its most basic form, the objective is to ascertain simply if damage is present or not. In a statistical pattern recognition paradigm of this problem, the philosophy is to collect baseline signatures from a system to be monitored and to compare subsequent data to see if the new 'pattern' deviates significantly from the baseline data. Unfortunately, matters are seldom as simple as this. In reality, structures will be subjected to changing environmental and operational conditions that will affect measured signals. In this case, there may be a wide range of normal conditions, and it is clearly undesirable to signal damage simply because of a change in the environment. In this paper, a unique combination of time series analysis, neural networks, and statistical inference techniques is developed for damage classification explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indication of true system changes.

  4. Reducing Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide for Schools. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    This videotape describes the nonstructural areas within a school that can be damaged and create hazards for students, teachers, and staff during and after an earthquake; and discusses preventive measures to lower the injury potential from these hazards. It confirms that the best procedure to use during an earthquake to protect oneself from…

  5. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  6. Manganese superoxide dismutase can reduce cellular damage mediated by oxygen radicals in transgenic plants.

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, C; Slooten, L; Vandenbranden, S; De Rycke, R; Botterman, J; Sybesma, C; Van Montagu, M; Inzé, D

    1991-01-01

    In plants, environmental adversity often leads to the formation of highly reactive oxygen radicals. Since resistance to such conditions may be correlated with the activity of enzymes involved in oxygen detoxification, we have generated transgenic tobacco plants which express elevated levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) within their chloroplasts or mitochondria. Leaf discs of these plants have been analyzed in conditions in which oxidative stress was generated preferentially within one or the other organelle. It was found that high level overproduction of MnSOD in the corresponding subcellular location could significantly reduce the amount of cellular damage which would normally occur. In contrast, small increases in MnSOD activity were deleterious under some conditions. A generally applicable model correlating the consequences of SOD with the magnitude of its expression is presented. Images PMID:2050109

  7. Environmental damage and countermeasures in Chinese coal mine areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, B. [China Coal Research Inst., Beijing (China); [SIU, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Cui, Z. [SIU, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses three aspects of the ecological environmental damage in China: ground subsidence due to underground coal mining, pollution of mine refuse from underground, and release of fly ash from power plants within coal mine areas. The paper proposes the comprehensive countermeasures for solving these problems. The author puts forward several ways and applications of disposal which could help alleviate the problems, and introduces the subsidence prediction principle in long wall mining. This technology calculates the subsidence, displacement and deformation at every point according to mining schedule. It provides a very useful tool for subsidence control. Finally, the author provides some suggestions to improve the environment in Chinese coal mine areas.

  8. Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G.; Mattioli, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

  9. Caffeine for reducing bird damage to newly seeded rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Avery; Scott J. Werner; John L. Cummings; John S. Humphrey; Michael P. Milleson; James C. Carlson; Thomas M. Primus; Margaret J. Goodall

    2005-01-01

    The economic impact of blackbirds can be severe to rice producers in the United States. One approach to managing this damage is the application of bird-deterrent chemical to the crop. Previous pilot trials suggested that caffeine offered potential as a safe, economical bird repellent. In this study, cage feeding trials with female red-winged blackbirds and male brown-headed cowbirds confirmed that

  10. Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at

    E-print Network

    Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College Summary selected the mission: "To reduce Dartmouth College's fossil carbon emissions." We believe this mission's responsibility to educate others about how it is reducing its fossil carbon emissions and encourage them to do

  11. Glibenclamide reduces secondary brain damage after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zweckberger, K; Hackenberg, K; Jung, C S; Hertle, D N; Kiening, K L; Unterberg, A W; Sakowitz, O W

    2014-07-11

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) SUR1-regulated NCCa-ATP (SUR1/TRPM4) channels are transcriptionally up-regulated in ischemic astrocytes, neurons, and capillaries. ATP depletion results in depolarization and opening of the channel leading to cytotoxic edema. Glibenclamide is an inhibitor of SUR-1 and, thus, might prevent cytotoxic edema and secondary brain damage following TBI. Anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent parietal craniotomy and were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). Glibenclamide was administered as a bolus injection 15min after CCI injury and continuously via osmotic pumps throughout 7days. In an acute trial (180min) mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, intracranial pressure, encephalographic activity, and cerebral metabolism were monitored. Brain water content was assessed gravimetrically 24h after CCI injury and contusion volumes were measured by MRI scanning technique at 8h, 24h, 72h, and 7d post injury. Throughout the entire time of observation neurological function was quantified using the "beam-walking" test. Glibenclamide-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the development of brain tissue water content(80.47%±0.37% (glibenclamide) vs. 80.83%±0.44% (control); p<0.05; n=14). Contusion sizes increased continuously within 72h following CCI injury, but glibenclamide-treated animals had significantly smaller volumes at any time-points, like 172.53±38.74mm(3) (glibenclamide) vs. 299.20±64.02mm(3) (control) (p<0.01; n=10; 24h) or 211.10±41.03mm(3) (glibenclamide) vs. 309.76±19.45mm(3) (control) (p<0.05; n=10; 72h), respectively. An effect on acute parameters, however, could not be detected, most likely because of the up-regulation of the channel within 3-6h after injury. Furthermore, there was no significant effect on motor function assessed by the beam-walking test throughout 7days. In accordance to these results and the available literature, glibenclamide seems to have promising potency in the treatment of TBI. PMID:24792709

  12. Reducing Rally Car Damage in Forests Partnership-working with the

    E-print Network

    Reducing Rally Car Damage in Forests Partnership-working with the Motor Sport Association shows how years with special stage car rallies attracting top competitors from across the globe. Events range from that changing the pattern of tread on the tyres used by high performance rally cars would reduce the level

  13. Row Covers Reduce Insect Populations and Damage and Improve Early Season Crisphead Lettuce Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djamila Rekika; Katrine A. Stewart; Guy Boivin; Sylvie Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Insect damage on cripshead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) can reduce its marketability and cause significant crop losses. There is increasing interest in using alternative control strategies to replace or reduce pesticide use for this purpose. Crisphead lettuce cv. Ithaca grown under two densities 10 (ARC10) and 17 (ARC17) g\\/m of polypropylene applied as floating covers or low tunnels were compared

  14. Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Quinn E; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G; Woods, Sarah B; Seo, Arnold Y; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M

    2013-05-01

    A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

  15. Solastalgia: living with the environmental damage caused by natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-02-01

    Forced separation from one's home may trigger emotional distress. People who remain in their homes may experience emotional distress due to living in a severely damaged environment. These people experience a type of 'homesickness' similar to nostalgia because the land around them no longer resembles the home they knew and loved. What they lack is solace or comfort from their home; they long for the home environment to be the way it was before. "Solastalgia" is a term created to describe feelings which arise in people when an environment changes so much that it negatively affects an individual's quality of life. Such changed environments may include drought-stricken areas and open-cut mines. The aim of this article is to describe how solastalgia, originally conceptualized as the result of man-made environmental change, can be similarly applied to the survivors of natural disasters. Using volcanic eruptions as a case example, the authors argue that people who experience a natural disaster are likely to suffer from solastalgia for a number of reasons, which may include the loss of housing, livestock and farmland, and the ongoing danger of living in a disaster-prone area. These losses and fears challenge people's established sense of place and identity and can lead to feelings of helplessness and depression. PMID:24438454

  16. Environmentally harmonized CF3I plasma for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samukawa, Seiji; Ichihashi, Yoshinari; Ohtake, Hiroto; Soda, Eiichi; Saito, Shuichi

    2008-03-01

    Low-damage, high-rate, and highly selective low-k etching can be simultaneously satisfied using a plasma with an environmentally harmonized gas chemistry (CF3I). Such a CF3I plasma can drastically reduce the irradiation damage by ultraviolet (UV) photons during low-k etching, because the intensity of UV in CF3I plasma is much lower than that in conventional CF4 plasma. The etching selectivity of SiOCH to a photoresist can be drastically improved by using CF3I plasma because of reducing F radical generation. In addition, pulse-time-modulated CF3I plasma causes a drastic increase in the etching rate because a large amount of negative ions can be generated. These results show that CF3I plasma is a very promising candidate for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching.

  17. N-acetylcysteine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and DNA damage in children with ?-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Zeynep Canan; Koc, Ahmet; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2014-01-01

    There are several reports that increased oxidative stress and DNA damage were found in ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E on total oxidative stress and DNA damage in children with ?-TM. Seventy-five children with transfusion-dependent ?-thalassemia (?-thal) were randomly chosen to receive 10?mg/kg/day of NAC or 10?IU/kg/day of vitamin E or no supplementation; 28 healthy controls were also included in the study. Serum total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured, oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated, and mononuclear DNA damage was assessed by alkaline comet assay; they were determined before treatment and after 3 months of treatment. Total oxydent status, OSI, and DNA damage levels were significantly higher and TAC levels were significantly lower in the thalassemic children than in the healthy controls (p?damage score decreased (p?=?0.001). N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E may be effective in reducing serum oxidative stress and increase pre transfusion Hb levels in children with ?-thal. N-acetylcysteine also can reduce DNA damage. PMID:25222041

  18. Field tests of denatonium benzoate to reduce seedling damage by pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides Rich.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W. Witmer; Michael J. Pipas; John C. Bucher

    1998-01-01

    The repellency of a bitter compound, denatonium benzoate, to reduce pocket gopher damage to conifer seedlings was tested in two independent field trials in Oregon and Idaho. In the Oregon trial (1992 to 1993), treatments included a denatonium benzoate tablet placed in-ground with the seedling roots; a tablet plus denatonium benzoate foliar spray applied to both roots and foliage; and

  19. Integrated management to reduce rodent damage to lowland rice crops in Indonesia

    E-print Network

    Krebs, Charles J.

    to approximately 36 million t, i.e. enough to feed the population of Indonesia (215 million people) for 12 monthsIntegrated management to reduce rodent damage to lowland rice crops in Indonesia Grant R-Subang, 41256 West Java, Indonesia Received 25 November 2003; received in revised form 31 August 2004; accepted

  20. Efficacy of Monitoring Devices in Reducing Damaging Sound Levels in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Efficacy of Monitoring Devices in Reducing Damaging Sound Levels in Neonatal Intensive Care Units in the NICU rooms all affect the efficiency and effectiveness of the acute care delivery systems within a NICU, surfaces, and layouts. In essence, the efforts of delivering lifesaving care to premature infants should

  1. Damage Characterization Method for Structural Health Management Using Reduced Number of Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of validated multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools, technologies, and techniques to enable detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation in the presence of adverse conditions during flight will provide effective solutions to deal with safety related challenges facing next generation aircraft. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage (cracks) due to fatigue and low velocity foreign impacts that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. Hence, development of efficient methodologies to determine the presence, location, and severity of damage in critical structural components is highly important in developing efficient structural health management systems.

  2. Environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in Germany and Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram Krewitt; Thomas Heck; Alfred Trukenmüller; Rainer Friedrich

    1999-01-01

    While studies on external costs of electricity generation generally aim at the calculation of marginal costs for a new increment of power generation, we have applied an extended bottom-up modelling framework to calculate average health and environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in Germany and Europe. Aggregated average damage costs provide helpful complementary information to site and technology specific

  3. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-01-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  4. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-12-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  5. Eculizumab reduces complement activation, inflammation, endothelial damage, thrombosis, and renal injury markers in aHUS

    PubMed Central

    Cofiell, Roxanne; Kukreja, Anjli; Bedard, Krystin; Yan, Yan; Mickle, Angela P.; Ogawa, Masayo; Bedrosian, Camille L.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a genetic, life-threatening disease characterized by uncontrolled complement activation, systemic thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and vital organ damage. We evaluated the effect of terminal complement blockade with the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab on biomarkers of cellular processes involved in TMA in patients with aHUS longitudinally, during up to 1 year of treatment, compared with in healthy volunteers. Biomarker levels were elevated at baseline in most patients, regardless of mutational status, plasma exchange/infusion use, platelet count, or lactate dehydrogenase or haptoglobin levels. Eculizumab reduced terminal complement activation (C5a and sC5b-9) and renal injury markers (clusterin, cystatin-C, ?2-microglobulin, and liver fatty acid binding protein-1) to healthy volunteer levels and reduced inflammation (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1), coagulation (prothrombin fragment F1+2 and d-dimer), and endothelial damage (thrombomodulin) markers to near-normal levels. Alternative pathway activation (Ba) and endothelial activation markers (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) decreased but remained elevated, reflecting ongoing complement activation in aHUS despite complete terminal complement blockade. These results highlight links between terminal complement activation and inflammation, endothelial damage, thrombosis, and renal injury and underscore ongoing risk for systemic TMA and progression to organ damage. Further research regarding underlying complement dysregulation is warranted. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01194973. PMID:25833956

  6. Effect of vegetation management for reducing damage to lodgepole pine seedlings from northern pocket gophers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Engeman; Victor G. Barnes Jr; Richard M. Anthony; Heather W. Krupa

    1997-01-01

    The effects of vegetation management on northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) activity and damage to lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) seedlings were studied using 2,4-D herbicide to alter the habitat. Treatments were applied to a large (8.1 ha) treatment unit and observed effects were compared with an untreated control unit of the same size. The greatly reduced forb and grass cover

  7. Environmental Damage Assessment of Carbon Capture and Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhawna Singh; Anders H. Strømman; Edgar G. Hertwich

    2012-01-01

    An end?point life cycle impact assessment is used to evaluate the damages of electricity generation from fossil fuel?based power plants with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Pulverized coal (PC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants are assessed for carbon dioxide (CO) capture, pipeline transport, and storage in a geological formation. Results

  8. Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibition Reduces Vascular Damage and Modulates Innate Immune Responses in Murine Models of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jason S.; Luo, Wei; O’Dell, Alexander A.; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Zhao, Wenpu; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Guo, Chiao; Grenn, Robert C.; Thompson, Paul R.; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation promotes vascular damage, thrombosis, and activation of interferon-?-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in diseased arteries. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition is a strategy that can decrease in vivo NET formation. Objective To test whether peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition, a novel approach to targeting arterial disease, can reduce vascular damage and inhibit innate immune responses in murine models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Apolipoprotein-E (Apoe)?/? mice demonstrated enhanced NET formation, developed autoantibodies to NETs, and expressed high levels of interferon-? in diseased arteries. Apoe?/? mice were treated for 11 weeks with daily injections of Cl-amidine, a peptidylarginine deiminase inhibitor. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition blocked NET formation, reduced atherosclerotic lesion area, and delayed time to carotid artery thrombosis in a photochemical injury model. Decreases in atherosclerosis burden were accompanied by reduced recruitment of netting neutrophils and macrophages to arteries, as well as by reduced arterial interferon-? expression. Conclusions Pharmacological interventions that block NET formation can reduce atherosclerosis burden and arterial thrombosis in murine systems. These results support a role for aberrant NET formation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through modulation of innate immune responses. PMID:24425713

  9. Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2010-01-01

    Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

  10. 75 FR 17132 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction for South...evaluation of the feasibility of providing hurricane and storm damage reduction (HSDR...the interest of beach erosion control, hurricane protection and related purposes,...

  11. Isoprene and nitric oxide reduce damages in leaves exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Velikova, Violeta; Fares, Silvano; Loreto, Francesco

    2008-12-01

    Isoprene and nitric oxide (NO) are two volatile molecules that are produced in leaves. Both compounds were suggested to have an important protective role against stresses. We tested, in two isoprene-emitting species, Populus nigra and Phragmites australis, whether: (1) NO emission outside leaves is measurable and is affected by oxidative stresses; and (2) isoprene and NO protect leaves against oxidative stresses, both singularly and in combination. The emission of NO was undetectable, and the compensation point was very low in control poplar leaves. Both emission and compensation point increased dramatically in stressed leaves. NO emission was inversely associated with stomatal conductance. More NO was emitted in leaves that were isoprene-inhibited, and more isoprene was emitted when NO was reduced by NO scavenger c-PTIO. Both isoprene and NO reduced oxidative damages. Isoprene-emitting leaves which were also fumigated with NO, or treated with NO donor, showed low damage to photosynthesis, a reduced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and a reduced membrane denaturation. We conclude that measurable amounts of NO are only produced and emitted by stressed leaves, that both isoprene and NO are effective antioxidant molecules and that an additional protection is achieved when both molecules are released. PMID:18811730

  12. Combination treatment of experimental stroke with Niaspan and Simvastatin, reduces axonal damage and improves functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Shehadah, Amjad; Chen, Jieli; Cui, Xu; Roberts, Cynthia; Lu, Mei; Chopp, Michael

    2010-07-15

    In this study we examined the effect of combination treatment of experimental stroke with Niaspan, a prolonged-release formulation of Niacin (vitamin B3), and Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, on functional outcome, axonal damage, axonal density and the of Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia expression in the ischemic brain of rats. Adult male rats were subjected to 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with or without Niaspan alone, Simvastatin alone and combination Niaspan and Simvastatin starting 24 h after MCAo and daily for 14 days. Neurological functional tests were performed. Axonal damage and density were evaluated by Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and Bielschowsky silver, respectively. Nogo66 Receptor (NgR) expression and immunoreactive microglia (Iba-1) were also measured in the ischemic brain. Niaspan and Simvastatin monotherapy and combination treatment significantly promote functional outcome after stroke (p<0.05) compared to MCAo control animals. Combination treatment with Niaspan and Simvastatin induces additive but not synergetic effects when compared to Niaspan or Simvastatin monotherapy groups. Combination treatment significantly decreased APP expression and increased Bielschowsky silver expression. NGR and Iba-1 expression were significantly decreased in the ischemic brain. These data suggest that treatment of experimental stroke with combination of Niaspan and Simvastatin significantly improves functional outcome, reduces axonal damage and increases axonal density. Decreased expression of the NGR and reduced activated microglia may contribute to functional recovery after stroke. PMID:20451219

  13. Soft perches in an aviary system reduce incidence of keel bone damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, Ariane; Fröhlich, Ernst K F; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J; Würbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  14. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  15. Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  16. Plant diversity affects behavior of generalist root herbivores, reduces crop damage, and enhances crop yield.

    PubMed

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Thalinger, Bettina; Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Soil-dwelling pests inflict considerable economic damage in agriculture but are hard to control. A promising strategy to reduce pest pressure on crops is to increase the plant diversity in agroecosystems. This approach, however, demands a sound understanding of species' interactions, which is widely lacking for subterranean herbivore-plant systems. Here, we examine the effects of plant diversification on wireworms, the soil-dwelling larvae of click beetles that threaten crops worldwide. We conducted a field experiment employing plant diversification by adding either wheat or a mix of six associated plants (grasses, legumes, and forbs) between rows of maize to protect it from Agriotes wireworms. Wireworm feeding behavior, dispersal between crop and associated plants, as well as maize damage and yield were examined. The former was assessed combining molecular gut content and stable isotope analysis. The pests were strongly attracted by the associated plants in August, when the crop was most vulnerable, whereas in September, shortly before harvest, this effect occurred only in the plant mix. In maize monoculture, the larvae stayed in the principal crop throughout the season. Larval delta13C signatures revealed that maize feeding was reduced up to sevenfold in wireworms of the vegetationally diversified treatments compared to those of the maize monoculture. These findings were confirmed by molecular analysis, which additionally showed a dietary preference of wireworms for specific plants in the associated plant mix. Compared to the monoculture, maize damage was reduced by 38% and 55% in the wheat and plant mix treatment, which translated into a yield increase of 30% and 38%, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that increasing the plant diversity in agroecosystems provides an effective insurance against soil pests. The underlying mechanisms are the diversion of the pest from the principle crop and a changed feeding behavior. The deployment of diverse mixes of associated plants, tailored to the specific preferences of the soil herbivores, provides a promising strategy for managing subterranean pests while maintaining crop yield. PMID:23967581

  17. Vole-feeding damage and forest plantation protection: Large-scale application of diversionary food to reduce damage to newly planted trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Sullivan; Druscilla S. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Forest and agricultural crops periodically experience feeding damage from herbivorous rodents such as voles of the genera Microtus and Clethrionomys. This problem has a long history, which needs a management solution that is both economically and ecologically viable. This study tested the hypothesis that large-scale (6–16ha) application of diversionary food would reduce vole-feeding damage to newly planted trees. Four overwinter

  18. Reduced plasma-induced damage to near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shanying; Greenspon, Andrew S; Ohno, Kenichi; Myers, Bryan A; Jayich, Ania C Bleszynski; Awschalom, David D; Hu, Evelyn L

    2015-05-13

    Understanding plasma etch damage on near-surface nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is essential for preserving NV emission in photonic structures and magnetometry systems. We have developed a methodology to compare the optical properties of ensemble NV centers initially 70 nm from the surface brought closer to the surface through etching with O2 plasmas in three different reactors. We employ a conventional reactive ion etcher, a barrel etcher, and a downstream etcher. We find that, irrespective of the etcher used, NV luminescence dims steadily as NVs are brought closer to the surface due to optical and surface effects. When NVs are less than 40 nm from the surface, differences in damage from the three different plasma processes affect the NV emission intensity in different ways. Diamond that is etched using the conventional etching method shows a greatly reduced NV luminescence, whereas NVs 15 nm from the surface still survive when the diamond is etched in the downstream reactor. As a result, downstream etching provides a possible alternative method for low damage etching of diamond for preservation of near surface NV properties. PMID:25839083

  19. Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Felipe S; Burton, Ronald S

    2013-09-22

    Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

  20. C1 Esterase Inhibitor Reduces Lower Extremity Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Associated Lung Damage

    PubMed Central

    Duehrkop, Claudia; Banz, Yara; Spirig, Rolf; Miescher, Sylvia; Nolte, Marc W.; Spycher, Martin; Smith, Richard A. G.; Sacks, Steven H.; Rieben, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Methods and Findings Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n?=?6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n?=?4), vehicle (n?=?7), or NaCl (n?=?8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle. Conclusions C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application. PMID:23991040

  1. Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mei; Si, Daoyuan; Zhang, Wenqi; Feng, Zhaohui; He, Min; Yang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. PMID:25371725

  2. Medical malpractice reform: noneconomic damages caps reduced payments 15 percent, with varied effects by specialty.

    PubMed

    Seabury, Seth A; Helland, Eric; Jena, Anupam B

    2014-11-01

    The impact of medical malpractice reforms on the average size of malpractice payments in specific physician specialties is unknown and subject to debate. We analyzed a national sample of malpractice claims for the period 1985-2010, merged with information on state liability reforms, to estimate the impact of state noneconomic damages caps on average malpractice payment size for physicians overall and for ten different specialty categories. We then compared how the effects differed according to the restrictiveness of the cap ($250,000 versus $500,000). We found that, overall, noneconomic damages caps reduced average payments by $42,980 (15 percent), compared to having no cap at all. A more restrictive $250,000 cap reduced average payments by $59,331 (20 percent), and a less restrictive $500,000 cap had no significant effect, compared to no cap at all. The effect of the caps overall varied according to specialty, with the largest impact being on claims involving pediatricians and the smallest on claims involving surgical subspecialties and ophthalmologists. PMID:25339633

  3. Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2015-04-01

    Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05 mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

  4. The selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene, reduces ischemic brain damage in male rat.

    PubMed

    Castelló-Ruiz, María; Torregrosa, Germán; Burguete, María C; Miranda, Francisco J; Centeno, José M; López-Morales, Mikahela A; Gasull, Teresa; Alborch, Enrique

    2014-07-11

    While the estrogen treatment of stroke is under debate, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) arise as a promising alternative. We hypothesize that bazedoxifene (acetate, BZA), a third generation SERM approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, reduces ischemic brain damage in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For comparative purposes, the neuroprotective effect of 17?-estradiol (E2) has also been assessed. Male Wistar rats underwent 60min middle cerebral artery occlusion (intraluminal thread technique), and grouped according to treatment: vehicle-, E2- and BZA-treated rats. Optimal plasma concentrations of E2 (45.6±7.8pg/ml) and BZA (20.7±2.1ng/ml) were achieved 4h after onset of ischemia, and maintained until the end of the procedure (24h). Neurofunctional score and volume of the damaged brain regions were the main end points. At 24h after ischemia-reperfusion, neurofunctional examination of the animals did not show significant differences among the three experimental groups. By contrast, both E2- and BZA-treated groups showed significantly lower total infarct volumes, BZA acting mainly in the cortical region and E2 acting mainly at the subcortical level. Our results demonstrate that: (1) E2 at physiological plasma levels in female rats is neuroprotective in male rats when given at the acute stage of the ischemic challenge and (2) BZA at clinically relevant plasma levels mimics the neuroprotective action of E2 and could be, therefore, a candidate in stroke treatment. PMID:24861515

  5. Syzigium cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Stanely Mainzen Prince, P; Kamalakkannan, N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2003-02-01

    Syzigium cumini commonly known as Jamun, is widely used in different parts of India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of an aqueous Jamun seed extract (JSEt) for 6 weeks caused a significant decrease in lipids, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase in the brain of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of an alcoholic JSEt for 6 weeks brought back all the parameters to near normal. The effect of alcoholic JSEt (100 mg/kg) was better than aqueous JSEt (5 g/kg). The effect of both these extracts was better than glibenclamide (600 microg/kg). Thus, our study shows that S. cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain. PMID:12648817

  6. Photomultiplier circuit including means for rapidly reducing the sensitivity thereof. [and protection from radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A simple, reliable and inexpensive control circuit is described for rapidly reducing the bias voltage across one or more of the dynode stages of a photomultiplier, to substantially decrease its sensitivity to incoming light at those times where excess light intensity might damage the tube. The control circuit comprises a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), coupled between a pair of the electrodes in the tube, preferably the cathode and first dynode, or the first and second dynodes, the switching device operating in response to a trigger pulse applied to its gate to short circuit the two electrodes. To insure the desired reduction in sensitivity, two switching stages, the devices be employed between two of the electrode stages, the devices being operated simultaneously to short circuit both stages.

  7. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bascietto, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US). RCRA/CERCLA Div.; Dunford, R.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (US); Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)

    1993-06-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

  8. The Pilot Trend Environmental Health Objective scores reflect the trend towards reducing environmental stresses to human health over the last

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    and Policy (YCELP)/Yale University, Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESINThe Pilot Trend Environmental Health Objective scores reflect the trend towards reducing environmental stresses to human health over the last decade. Data Source: Yale Center for Environmental Law

  9. Reduced-order modeling for mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia

    2014-12-01

    An efficient method for nonlinear vibration analysis of mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages is presented. The main objective is to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. Firstly, in order to reduce the input information needed for component mode synthesis (CMS), the whole model of an impeller is obtained by rotation transformation based on the finite element model of a sector model. Then, a hybrid-interface method of CMS is employed to generate a reduced-order model (ROM) for the cracked impeller. The degrees of freedom on the crack surfaces are retained in the ROM to simulate the crack breathing effects. A novel approach for computing the inversion of large sparse matrix is proposed to save memory space during model order reduction by partitioning the matrix into many smaller blocks. Moreover, to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the resonant frequencies, the bilinear frequency approximation is used to estimate the resonant frequencies of the mistuned impeller with a crack. Additionally, statistical analysis is performed using the Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of the resonant frequencies versus crack length at different mistuning levels. The results show that the most significant effect of mistuning and cracks on the vibration response is the shift and split of the two resonant frequencies with the same nodal diameters. Finally, potential quantitative indicators for detection of crack of centrifugal impellers are discussed.

  10. Reducing the environmental impact of poultry breeding by genetic selection.

    PubMed

    de Verdal, H; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Bastianelli, D; Même, N; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Narcy, A

    2013-02-01

    Improving the sustainability of poultry production involves limiting its environmental impact and maintaining effectiveness. It has recently been shown that genetic selection on the ability of chickens to digest wheat at 23 d of age can decrease chicken excretion without decreasing BW at this age. The aim of this study was to check whether selection on digestibility modified excretion and growth performance over the whole production cycle. The 2 divergent lines selected for high (D+) and low (D-) apparent metabolizable energy corrected for 0 N balance (AMEn) values were compared with a reference line used at the beginning of the selection experiment (RL) to evaluate the potential excretion improvement that could be expected with such selection. These 3 lines were therefore compared for growth and excretion (raw and relative to feed intake, fresh and dry excreta weights, and moisture content of excreta) from 4 to 53 d. Between 4 and 7 d, 17 and 21 d, and 49 and 53 d, AMEn and N and P excretion rates were also compared between the 3 lines. Furthermore, body composition (breast meat and abdominal fat yields), bone breaking strength, and meat quality traits (lightness, redness, yellowness, and ultimate pH) were compared between lines at 53 d. Over the whole rearing period, D+ birds excreted significantly less fresh and dry excreta (-56 and -61%) than D- and RL birds (-6 and -26%). Similarly, N and P excretion rates of D+ birds were 13% to 30% less than those of D- birds and 12% to 19% less than RL birds, depending on age. These excretion differences may be related to the differential development of the gastrointestinal tract. Differences between lines were already present at 7 d for relative gizzard weight and the weight of the upper to the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract ratio. Anatomic differences were maximum at 23 d for all traits except for relative weight of the duodenum. At slaughter age, BW, breast and fat yields, and meat color did not differ between D+ and RL birds, but D- birds were fatter than D+ and RL birds. Finally, ultimate meat pH was 1% to 2% greater in RL birds than in the D+ and D- lines. In conclusion, this study showed that selection of chickens for AMEn is a possible way to reduce the environmental impact of production over the whole rearing period without a negative impact on growth, body composition, or meat quality. PMID:23243164

  11. Experimental verifications of a structural damage identification technique using reduced order finite-element model

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jann

    finite-element model Rui Lia , Li Zhoua , Jann N. Yangb a MOE Key Lab of Structure Mechanics and Control and to detect the damage when it occurs. Analysis techniques for the damage identification of structures, based is to identify the state of the structure and to detect the damage when it occurs. In this regard, analysis

  12. Reducing Solid WasteLinking Recycling to Environmentally Responsible Consumerism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Ebreo; James Hershey; Joanne Vining

    1999-01-01

    A survey of several communities was conducted to investigate the public’s response to solid waste issues. This study examines the relation between respondents’ beliefs about environmentally responsible consumerism and environmental attitudes, motives, and self-reported recycling behavior. The study addressed (a) the public’s perception of environment-related product attributes; (b) a sociodemographic characterization of environmentally concerned consumers; and (c) the depiction of

  13. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection

    PubMed Central

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ?2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ?$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

  14. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-03-30

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such developments. PMID:25754645

  15. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Mason, Georgia J

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

  16. Relationships between Traumatic Symptoms and Environmental Damage Conditions among Children 8 Months after the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Masahide; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kodaira, Masaki; Watanabe, Kyota; Aoki, Momoko; Katsumi, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kumi; Makino, Kazunori; Iijima, Sonoko; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Ushijima, Hirokage; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate relationships between traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions among children who survived the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Methods The subjects were 12,524 children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, was distributed to the children and a questionnaire regarding environmental damage conditions affecting the children was distributed to their teachers. Of 12,524 questionnaires distributed, an effective response was obtained from 11,692 (93.3%). Results The PTSSC-15 score was significantly higher in females than in males among 4th to 6th grade students in elementary schools and among junior high school students. In terms of traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions, with the exception of kindergartners, children who had their houses damaged or experienced separation from family members had a significantly higher PTSSC-15 score than children who did not experience environmental damage. Except for kindergartners and 4th- to 6th-grade elementary school students, children who experienced evacuation had a significantly higher PTSSC-15 score. Conclusions This study demonstrated relationships between traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions in children who had suffered from the disaster. Factors examined in studying the relationship between environmental damage conditions and traumatic symptoms were gender, age, house damage, evacuation experience, and bereavement experience. It was critical not only to examine the traumatic symptoms of the children but also to collect accurate information about environmental damage conditions. PMID:23209817

  17. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success

    PubMed Central

    Combes, S. A.; Crall, J. D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop–escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival. PMID:20236968

  18. Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitherman, Robert

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide practical information to owners, operators, and occupants of office and commercial buildings on the vulnerabilities posed by earthquake damage to nonstructural items and the means available to deal with these potential problems. Examples of dangerous nonstructural damages that have occurred in past…

  19. The effect of environmental exposure to pyrethroids and DNA damage in human sperm.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Sobala, Wojciech; Piskunowicz, Marta; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with sperm DNA damage. Between January 2008 and April 2011 286 men under 45 years of age with a normal sperm concentration of 15-300?10(6)/ml [WHO 2010] were recruited from an infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland. Participants were interviewed and provided urine, saliva, and semen samples. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA), and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analyzed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm DNA damage was assessed using a flow cytometry based on sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). A positive association was observed between CDCCA >50th percentile and the percentage of medium DNA fragmentation index (M DFI) and percentage of immature sperms (HDS) (p?=?0.04, p?=?0.04 respectively). The level of 3PBA >50th percentile in urine was positively related to the percentage of high DNA fragmentation index (H DFI) (p?=?0.03). The TDCCA, DBCA levels, and the sum of pyrethroid metabolites were not associated with any sperm DNA damage measures. Our results suggest that environmental pyrethroid exposure may affect sperm DNA damage measures index indicated the reproductive effects of pyrethroid exposure on adult men. In view of the importance of human reproductive health and the widespread usage of pyrethroids, it is important to further investigate these correlations. PMID:25376306

  20. REDUCING NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL EXTERNALITIES FROM AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: METHODS, MODELS AND

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The MIT Emissions Predication and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model and provides pathways that can improve the environmental performance of agriculture. Chapter 2 quantified carbon emissions from the production of agricultural goods from a region undergoing rapid agricultural

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on oxidative damage assessed in elderly Danish twins

    PubMed Central

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Henriksen, Trine; Weimann, Allan; Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Jon T; Afzal, Shoaib; Hjelvang, Brian; Roberts, L. Jackson; Vaag, Allan; Poulsen, Pernille; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown association between oxidative stress and various diseases in humans including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease. To what extent this damage is determined by genetic and environmental factors is unknown. In a classical twin study with 198 elderly twins we examined the contribution of genetic versus environmental factors to nucleic acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and dinor, dihydro F2-isoprostane metabolites (F2-IsoP-M) were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The environmental influence on nucleic acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation was predominant leaving only little to influence from genetic factors, as evidenced by no differences in intraclass correlations between monozygotic and dizygotic twins neither for 8-oxodG (rMZ = 0.55, rDZ = 0.47; P = 0.43), F2-IsoP-M (rMZ = 0.33, rDZ = 0.22; P = 0.42) nor 8-oxoGuo (rMZ = 0.45, rDZ = 0.58; P = 0.21). Accordingly, heritability estimates for the three markers of oxidative damage were low (h2 = 0.17 – 0.22). The three urinary markers of oxidative stress were closely correlated (r = 0.60 – 0.84). In conclusion, we demonstrated in a large population of elderly Danish twins that “whole-body” oxidative damage to nucleic acids and lipids is predominantly determined by potentially modifiable non-genetic factors. PMID:21354303

  2. Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.M., E-mail: r.m.mayer@reading.ac.uk [Sciotech Projects, Sciotech Office, Engineering Building, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Poulikakos, L.D., E-mail: lily.poulikakos@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lees, A.R., E-mail: Andy.Lees@dft.gsi.gov.uk [Department for Transport, Statistics Roads Division, Gt. Minster House, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR (United Kingdom); Heutschi, K., E-mail: kurt.heutschi@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kalivoda, M.T., E-mail: kalivoda@psia.at [psiA-Consult GmbH, Lastenstrasse 38/1, A-1230 Vienna (Austria); Soltic, P., E-mail: patrik.soltic@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

  3. Chronic Predation Risk Reduces Escape Speed by Increasing Oxidative Damage: A Deadly Cost of an Adaptive Antipredator Response

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2014-01-01

    Prey organisms evolved a multitude of plastic responses to avoid being eaten by predators. Besides the evolution of plastic morphological responses to escape predation, prey also evolved a set of physiological stress responses to avoid dying because of chronic predator stress per se due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. As physiological stress theory predicts increased energy consumption and the inhibition of essential nonemergency body functions, we tested whether chronic predation risk may increase oxidative damage thereby generating negative effects on escape performance. Specifically, we evaluated whether predation risk reduces escape swimming speed in damselfly larvae and whether this operates through stress-associated increases in oxidative damage. Counterintuitively and in contrast with many empirical studies, chronic predation risk decreased escape performance. This is however entirely consistent with the expectation of it being a long-term cost of responding to predation risk (e.g. by increasing respiration or upregulating the stress protein levels). The decreased swimming speed could be explained by an increased oxidative damage to proteins, thereby providing one of the poorly studied ecological links between oxidative damage and whole-animal performance. This likely widespread, understudied cost of chronic predation risk may provide an important pathway of non-consumptive predator effects on prey population dynamics. Moreover, it could play an evolutionary role by acting as a selective force causing prey organisms to adjust the magnitude of the physiological stress response and should be considered when evaluating life history trade-offs thought to be mediated by oxidative damage. PMID:24968142

  4. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    PubMed

    Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystallization or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T=100?K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions. PMID:21931220

  5. Ginsenoside Rg3 induces DNA damage in human osteosarcoma cells and reduces MNNG-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in normal human cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue-Hui; Li, Hai-Dong; Li, Bo; Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    Panax ginseng is a Chinese medicinal herb. Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components of P. ginseng, and ginsenoside Rg3 is the primary ginsenoside. Ginsenosides can potently kill various types of cancer cells. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 in human osteosarcoma cells and the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg3 with respect to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in a normal human cell line (human fibroblasts). Four human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63, OS732, U-2OS and HOS cells) and a normal human cell line (human fibroblasts) were employed to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenosides Rg3 by MTT assay. Alkaline comet assay and ?H2AX focus staining were used to detect the DNA damage in MG-63 and U-2OS cells. The extent of cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and a DNA ladder assay. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 was dose-dependent in the human osteosarcoma cell lines, and MG-63 and U-2OS cells were the most sensitive to ginsenoside Rg3. As expected, compared to the negative control, ginsenoside Rg3 significantly increased DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. In agreement with the comet assay data, the percentage of ?H2AX-positive MG-63 and U-2OS cells indicated that ginsenoside Rg3 induced DNA double-strand breaks in a concentration-dependent manner. The results also suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 reduces the extent of MNNG-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human fibroblasts. PMID:24337872

  6. A padding method to reduce edge effects for enhanced damage identification using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Lorenzo; Basu, Biswajit; Spagnoli, Andrea; Broderick, Brian M.

    2015-02-01

    Vibration response based structural damage identification by spatial wavelet analysis is widely considered a powerful tool in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). This work deals with the issue of border distortions in wavelet transform that can mask tiny damages close to the boundary of a structure. Since traditional padding methods (e.g., zero-padding, symmetric padding, linear padding) are often not satisfactory, a simple and computationally inexpensive signal extension method, based on fitting polynomial functions and continuity conditions at the extrema, is proposed. The method is applied to analyze noisy mode shapes and static deflection of cracked cantilever and simply supported beams. The effectiveness and the versatility of the method in localizing tiny damages close to clamped, free or hinged beam boundaries is demonstrated. Furthermore, an extensive comparison with the linear padding method and Messina's isomorphism methods is carried out.

  7. 14-3-3? reduces DNA damage by interacting with and stabilizing proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejuan; Dan, Songsong; Xie, Yingying; Qin, Huanhuan; Tang, Donge; Liu, Xiaohui; He, Qing-Yu; Liu, Langxia

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a processivity factor of DNA replication which plays critical roles in the regulation of DNA replication and repair. In this study, we show that PCNA interacts directly in vitro and in cells with 14-3-3?, an adaptor protein that regulates cell growth and response to DNA damage in eukaryotes. The interaction is mediated by at least two PCNA-binding sites on 14-3-3?, one of which is a novel non-canonical PIP (PCNA interacting protein) box. We find that DNA damages induced by UVC irradiation and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) can enhance both the interaction of these two proteins and their co-localization with chromatin. Functional analyses suggest that 14-3-3? stabilizes PCNA possibly by regulating its ubiquitination, which impacts on DNA damage repair and cell viability. PMID:25169136

  8. Reducing the risk of laser damage in a focal plane array using linear pupil-plane phase elements.

    PubMed

    Ruane, Garreth J; Watnik, Abbie T; Swartzlander, Grover A

    2015-01-10

    A compact imaging system with reduced risk of damage owing to intense laser radiation is presented. We find that a pupil phase element may reduce the peak image plane irradiance from an undesirable laser source by two orders of magnitude, thereby protecting the detector from damage. The desired scene is reconstructed in postprocessing. The general image quality equation (GIQE) [Appl. Opt.36, 8322 (1997)10.1364/AO.36.008322APOPAI1559-128X] is used to estimate the interpretability of the resulting images. A localized loss of information caused by laser light is also described. This system may be advantageous over other radiation protection approaches because accurate pointing and nonlinear materials are not required. PMID:25967619

  9. Efficacy of plastic mesh tubes in reducing herbivory damage by the invasive nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an urban restoration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheffels, Trevor R.; Systma, Mark D.; Carter, Jacoby; Taylor, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of stream corridors is becoming an increasingly important component of urban landscape planning, and the high cost of these projects necessitates the need to understand and address potential ecological obstacles to project success. The nutria(Myocastor coypus) is an invasive, semi-aquatic rodent native to South America that causes detrimental ecological impacts in riparian and wetland habitats throughout its introduced range, and techniques are needed to reduce nutria herbivory damage to urban stream restoration projects. We assessed the efficacy of standard Vexar® plastic mesh tubes in reducing nutria herbivory damage to newly established woody plants. The study was conducted in winter-spring 2009 at Delta Ponds, a 60-ha urban waterway in Eugene, Oregon. Woody plants protected by Vexar® tubes demonstrated 100% survival over the 3-month initial establishment period, while only 17% of unprotected plantings survived. Nutria demonstrated a preference for black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp trichocarpa) over red osier dogwood (Cornussericea) and willow (Salix spp). Camera surveillance showed that nutria were more active in unprotected rather than protected treatments. Our results suggest that Vexar® plastic mesh tubing can be an effective short-term herbivory mitigation tool when habitat use by nutria is low. Additionally, planting functionally equivalent woody plant species that are less preferred by nutria, and other herbivores, may be another method for reducing herbivory and improving revegetation success. This study highlights the need to address potential wildlife damage conflicts in the planning process for stream restoration in urban landscapes.

  10. Vegetative environmental buffers for reducing downwind odor and VOCs from tunnel-ventilated swine barn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have investigated methods for reducing odor emissions from livestock buildings for decades, yet few technologies have proven effective. Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEBs), which are specially designed combinations of trees, shrubs and grasses, have shown promise in recent years for ...

  11. Onions showing reduced damage by thrips and iris yellow spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of a USDA SCRI project were to understand better the epidemiology of the virus and to identify onion populations that suffer less damage under severe pressure from thrips and IYSV. Research demonstrated that North American isolates of IYSV were not all identical, indicating that the virus ...

  12. STRUCTURAL DAMAGE DETECTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND MEASURED FRF DATA REDUCED VIA PRINCIPAL COMPONENT PROJECTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Zang; M. Imregun

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with structural damage detection using measured frequency response functions (FRFs) as input data to artificial neural networks (ANNs). A major obstacle, the impracticality of using full-size FRF data with ANNs, was circumvented by applying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based data reduction technique to the measured FRFs. The compressed FRFs, represented by their projection onto the most significant

  13. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  14. The mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate reduces histamine release and status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Valle-Dorado, María Guadalupe; Santana-Gómez, César Emmanuel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra Adela; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-05-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate changes in the histamine release, mast cell number and neuronal damage in hippocampus induced by status epilepticus. We also evaluated if sodium cromoglycate, a stabilizer of mast cells with a possible stabilizing effect on the membrane of neurons, was able to prevent the release of histamine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate during the status epilepticus. During microdialysis experiments, rats were treated with saline (SS-SE) or sodium cromoglycate (CG-SE) and 30 min later received the administration of pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus. Twenty-four hours after the status epilepticus, the brains were used to determine the neuronal damage and the number of mast cells in hippocampus. During the status epilepticus, SS-SE group showed an enhanced release of histamine (138.5%, p = 0.005), GABA (331 ± 91%, p ? 0.001) and glutamate (467%, p ? 0.001), even after diazepam administration. One day after the status epilepticus, SS-SE group demonstrated increased number of mast cells in Stratum pyramidale of CA1 (88%, p < 0.001) and neuronal damage in dentate gyrus, CA1 and CA3. In contrast to SS-SE group, rats from the CG-SE group showed increased latency to the establishment of the status epilepticus (p = 0.048), absence of wet-dog shakes, reduced histamine (but not GABA and glutamate) release, lower number of mast cells (p = 0.008) and reduced neuronal damage in hippocampus. Our data revealed that histamine, possibly from mast cells, is released in hippocampus during the status epilepticus. This effect may be involved in the subsequent neuronal damage and is diminished with sodium cromoglycate pretreatment. PMID:25578265

  15. Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hyunhoe

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

  16. Effect of Temperature on Damage Evolution of Cr25Ni35Nb Alloy Subjected to Combined Mechanical and Environmental Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Limin; Liu, Huansheng; Gong, Jianming; Geng, Luyang

    2015-07-01

    Due to combined mechanical and environmental degradation, i.e. coupled creep and carburization, Cr25Ni35Nb alloy often fails prior to the expected design life. In the present paper, based on the continuum damage mechanics, the constitutive model of coupled multi-damage factors for computing the damage evolution of Cr25Ni35Nb alloy was proposed. The damage prediction was carried out by using finite element method based on ABAQUS code. And then damage evolution processes at different operating temperatures (950 °C and 1050 °C) were simulated and the effect of service temperature on the damage evolution was discussed. The results showed that the rate of damage increased obviously with operating temperature increasing. The location with maximum damage is along the inner surface of tube, which implies that fracture begins along the inner surface of tube under the action of coupled creep and carburization damage and this is coincident with the actual observation of the failure of furnace tube.

  17. Monoacylated Cellular Prion Proteins Reduce Amyloid-?-Induced Activation of Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 and Synapse Damage

    PubMed Central

    West, Ewan; Osborne, Craig; Nolan, William; Bate, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) and the loss of synapses. Aggregation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) by A? oligomers induced synapse damage in cultured neurons. PrPC is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, the composition of which affects protein targeting and cell signaling. Monoacylated PrPC incorporated into neurons bound “natural A?”, sequestering A? outside lipid rafts and preventing its accumulation at synapses. The presence of monoacylated PrPC reduced the A?-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and A?-induced synapse damage. This protective effect was stimulus specific, as treated neurons remained sensitive to ?-synuclein, a protein associated with synapse damage in Parkinson’s disease. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by A? oligomers triggered the formation of a signaling complex containing the cPLA2.a process, disrupted by monoacylated PrPC. We propose that monoacylated PrPC acts as a molecular sponge, binding A? oligomers at the neuronal perikarya without activating cPLA2 or triggering synapse damage. PMID:26043272

  18. Monoacylated Cellular Prion Proteins Reduce Amyloid-?-Induced Activation of Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 and Synapse Damage.

    PubMed

    West, Ewan; Osborne, Craig; Nolan, William; Bate, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) and the loss of synapses. Aggregation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) by A? oligomers induced synapse damage in cultured neurons. PrPC is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, the composition of which affects protein targeting and cell signaling. Monoacylated PrPC incorporated into neurons bound "natural A?", sequestering A? outside lipid rafts and preventing its accumulation at synapses. The presence of monoacylated PrPC reduced the A?-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and A?-induced synapse damage. This protective effect was stimulus specific, as treated neurons remained sensitive to ?-synuclein, a protein associated with synapse damage in Parkinson's disease. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by A? oligomers triggered the formation of a signaling complex containing the cPLA2.a process, disrupted by monoacylated PrPC. We propose that monoacylated PrPC acts as a molecular sponge, binding A? oligomers at the neuronal perikarya without activating cPLA2 or triggering synapse damage. PMID:26043272

  19. A Flexure-Based Steerable Needle: High Curvature With Reduced Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Burgner, Jessica; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    In the quest to design higher curvature bevel-steered needles, kinked bevel-tips have been one of the most successful approaches yet proposed. However, the price to be paid for enhancing steerability in this way has been increased tissue damage, since the prebent tip cuts a local helical path into tissue when axially rotated. This is problematic when closed-loop control is desired, because the controller will typically require the needle to rotate rapidly, and it is particularly problematic when duty cycling (i.e., continual needle spinning) is used to adjust curvature. In this paper, we propose a new flexure-based needle tip design that provides the enhanced steerability of kinked bevel-tip needles, while simultaneously minimizing tissue damage. PMID:23204267

  20. Ozonized sunflower oil reduces oxidative damage induced by indomethacin in rat gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Zamora; R. González; D. Guanche; N. Merino; S. Menéndez; F. Hernández; Y. Alonso; S. Schulz

    2008-01-01

    .\\u000a Objective and design:  This study was carried out in order to investigate the potential cytoprotective effects of ozonized sunflower oil (OSO) in\\u000a the damage of rat gastric mucosa induced by indomethacin and also to elucidate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS),\\u000a lipid peroxidation and some constituents of antioxidant defense such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in these

  1. A quantum mechanical scheme to reduce radiation damage in electron microscopy

    E-print Network

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2015-01-01

    We show that radiation damage to unstained biological specimens is not an intractable problem in electron microscopy. When a structural hypothesis of a specimen is available, quantum mechanical principles allow us to verify the hypothesis with a very low electron dose. Realization of such a concept requires precise control of the electron wave front. Based on a diffractive electron optical implementation, we demonstrate the feasibility of this new method by both experimental and numerical investigations.

  2. Dexibuprofen (S()Isomer Ibuprofen) Reduces Gastric Damage and Improves Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Effects in Rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES G. BOVILL

    We determined the analgesic and antiinflammatory ac- tions and the related acute mucosal gastric damage from the active S()-isomer ibuprofen (dexibuprofen), in comparison with those of the standard racemic for- mulation of ibuprofen in rodents. The antinociception was evaluated by hot-plate and tail-flick methods after IV and oral (PO) administration in mice and after PO administration in rats. S()-Ibuprofen was

  3. Combination treatment of experimental stroke with Niaspan and Simvastatin, reduces axonal damage and improves functional outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amjad Shehadah; Jieli Chen; Xu Cui; Cynthia Roberts; Mei Lu; Michael Chopp

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined the effect of combination treatment of experimental stroke with Niaspan, a prolonged-release formulation of Niacin (vitamin B3), and Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, on functional outcome, axonal damage, axonal density and the of Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia expression in the ischemic brain of rats. Adult male rats were subjected to 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and

  4. Oxidative damage of aromatic dipeptides by the environmental oxidants NO2? and O3.

    PubMed

    Gamon, L F; White, J M; Wille, U

    2014-11-01

    Irreversible oxidative damage at both aromatic side chains and dipeptide linkage occurs in the aromatic N- and C-protected dipeptides 7-11 upon exposure to the environmental pollutants NO2? and O3. The reaction proceeds through initial oxidation of the aromatic ring by in situ generated NO3?, or by NO2?, respectively, which leads to formation of nitroaromatic products. The indole ring in Phe-Trp undergoes oxidative cyclization to a pyrroloindoline. An important reaction pathway for dipeptides with less oxidisable aromatic side chains proceeds through fragmentation of the peptide bond with concomitant acyl migration. This process is likely initiated by an ionic reaction of the amide nitrogen with the NO2? dimer, N2O4. PMID:25207524

  5. Vitamin E attenuates cold-induced rat liver oxidative damage reducing H2O2 mitochondrial release.

    PubMed

    Venditti, P; Bari, A; Di Stefano, L; Di Meo, S

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin E is a major chain-breaking antioxidant which is able to reduce liver oxidative damage without modifying aerobic capacity in T(3)-treated rats. We investigated whether vitamin E has similar effects in hyperthyroid state induced by cold exposure. Cold exposure increased aerobic capacity and O(2) consumption in homogenates and mitochondria and tissue mitochondrial protein content. Vitamin E did not modify aerobic capacity and mitochondrial protein content of cold liver, but increased ADP-stimulated respiration of liver preparations. Succinate-supported H(2)O(2) release rates were increased by cold during basal and stimulated respiration, whereas the pyruvate/malate-supported ones increased only during basal respiration. Vitamin administration to cold-exposed rats decreased H(2)O(2) release rates with both substrates during basal respiration. This effect reduced ROS flow from mitochondria to cytosol, limiting liver oxidative damage. Cold exposure also increased mitochondrial capacity to remove H(2)O(2), which was reduced by vitamin treatment, showing that the antioxidant also lowers H(2)O(2) production rate. The different effects of cold exposure and vitamin treatment on H(2)O(2) generation were also found in the presence of respiration inhibitors. Although this can suggest that the cold and vitamin induce opposite changes in mitochondrial content of autoxidizable electron carriers, it is likely that vitamin effect is due to its capacity to scavenge superoxide radical. Finally, vitamin E reduced mitochondrial oxidative damage and susceptibility to oxidants, and prevented Ca(2+)-induced swelling elicited by cold. In the whole, our results suggest that vitamin E is able to maintain aerobic capacity and attenuate oxidative stress of hepatic tissue in cold-exposed rats modifying mitochondrial population characteristics. PMID:17553729

  6. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D.; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  7. Delayed but not Early Treatment with DNase Reduces Organ Damage and Improves Outcome in a Murine Model of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mai, Safiah H C; Khan, Momina; Dwivedi, Dhruva J; Ross, Catherine A; Zhou, Ji; Gould, Travis J; Gross, Peter L; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Liaw, Patricia C

    2015-08-01

    Sepsis is characterized by systemic activation of coagulation and inflammation in response to microbial infection. Although cell-free DNA (cfDNA) released from activated neutrophils has antimicrobial properties, it may also exert harmful effects by activating coagulation and inflammation. The authors aimed to determine whether deoxyribonuclease (DNase) administration reduces cfDNA levels, attenuates coagulation and inflammation, suppresses organ damage, and improves outcome in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of polymicrobial sepsis. Healthy C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to CLP, a surgical procedure involving two punctures of the ligated cecum, or sham surgery (no ligation/puncture). Mice were given DNase or saline by intraperitoneal injection 2, 4, or 6 h after surgery. Two hours after treatment, organs were harvested and plasma levels of cfDNA, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, lung myeloperoxidase, creatinine, alanine transaminase, and bacterial load were quantified. Survival studies were also performed. The CLP-operated mice had rapid time-dependent elevations in cfDNA that correlated with elevations in IL-6, IL-10, and thrombin-antithrombin complexes and had organ damage in the lungs and kidneys. Administration of DNase at 2 h after CLP resulted in increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and organ damage in the lungs and kidneys. In contrast, DNase administration at 4 or 6 h after CLP resulted in reduced cfDNA and IL-6 levels, increased IL-10, and suppressed organ damage and bacterial dissemination. Deoxyribonuclease administration every 6 h after CLP also rescued mice from death. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that delayed but not early administration of DNase may be protective in experimental sepsis. PMID:26009820

  8. Norepinephrine Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and DNA Damage in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja R; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Theruvathu, Jacob; Mitra, Sankar A; Boldogh, Istvan; Sowers, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the role of norepinephrine (NE) on DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in ovarian surface epithelial cells. Method Non-tumorigenic, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells were treated with NE, bleomycin, and bleomycin followed by NE. The comet assay was performed on each treatment group to determine the amount of single and double-strand breaks induced by treatments. ROS levels for each treatment group were measured using the H2DCF-DA fluorescence assay. Finally, RNA transcripts were measured for each treatment group with regards to the expression of DNA repair and oxidative stress genes. Results The mean tail moment of untreated cells was significantly greater than that of cells treated with NE (p=0.02). The mean tail moment of cells treated with bleomycin was significantly greater than that of cells treated with bleomycin followed by NE (p<0.01). Treatment with NE resulted in significantly less ROS generation than in untreated cells (p<0.01). NE treatment after hydrogen peroxide treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease in ROS generation. Genes associated with oxidative stress were upregulated in cells treated with bleomycin, however this upregulation was blunted when bleomycin-treated cells were treated subsequently with NE. Conclusion NE is associated with decreased DNA damage and ROS production in ovarian surface epithelial cells. This effect is protective in the presence of the oxidative-damaging agent bleomycin. These results suggest an additional physiologic role for the stress hormone NE, in protecting ovarian surface epithelial cells from oxidative stress. PMID:26167254

  9. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.

    PubMed

    Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska. PMID:25376148

  10. Decreased Energy Metabolism Extends Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans Without Reducing Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy Michael; Meng, Yan; Camp, Darius; Yang, Wen; Jia, Xihua; Bénard, Claire; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the free radical and rate of living theories of aging, it has been proposed that decreased metabolism leads to increased longevity through a decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this article, we examine the relationship between mitochondrial energy metabolism and life span by using the Clk mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Clk mutants are characterized by slow physiologic rates, delayed development, and increased life span. This phenotype suggests that increased life span may be achieved by decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we identified six novel Clk mutants in a screen for worms that have slow defecation and slow development and that can be maternally rescued. Interestingly, all 11 Clk mutants have increased life span despite the fact that slow physiologic rates were used as the only screening criterion. Although mitochondrial function is decreased in the Clk mutants, ATP levels are normal or increased, suggesting decreased energy utilization. To determine whether the longevity of the Clk mutants results from decreased production of ROS, we examined sensitivity to oxidative stress and oxidative damage. We found no evidence for systematically increased resistance to oxidative stress or decreased oxidative damage in the Clk mutants despite normal or elevated levels of superoxide dismutases. Overall, our findings suggest that decreased energy metabolism can lead to increased life span without decreased production of ROS. PMID:20382831

  11. Silk lutein extract and its combination with vitamin E reduce UVB-mediated oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aimjongjun, Sathid; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-07-01

    Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein can protect retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from various oxidative insults but its direct protection against UVB has not been reported. This study aimed to demonstrate protective effects of silk lutein extract against UVB-induced oxidative damage to RPE cells and compared with standard lutein and Trolox, a vitamin E analog. ARPE-19 cells were treated with luteins with and without Trolox prior to UVB exposure. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue staining and caspase-3 activity, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase). Levels of lutein remained in culture medium was determined by HPLC. Both luteins reduced cellular ROS levels and lipid peroxidation mediated by UVB, and subsequently increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis. They also restored activities of most tested antioxidant enzymes. Enhancement of lutein antioxidant efficacy was observed in the presence of Trolox. In all these effects, the two lutein preparations had similar effectivenesses. In cell free media, Trolox enhanced the protective effect of lutein probably by reducing its degradation and repairing the oxidized derivatives. Yellow silk cocoon is a potential candidate of lutein for further development as dietary supplement for the prevention of AMD. PMID:23651647

  12. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: a scenario analysis.

    PubMed

    Neto, Belmira; Kroeze, Carolien; Hordijk, Leen; Costa, Carlos; Pulles, Tinus

    2009-02-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze, C., Hordijk, L., Costa, C., 2008. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting company and options for control. Environmental Modelling & Software 23 (2) 147-168] we included the model description and explored the model by applying it to a plant in which no reduction options are assumed to be implemented (so-called zero case, reflecting the current practice in the plant). Here, we perform a systematic analysis of reduction options. We analysed seven types of reduction strategies, assuming the simultaneous implementation of different reduction options. These strategies are analysed with respect to their potential to reduce emissions, environmental impact and costs associated with the implementation of options. These strategies were found to differ largely in their potential to reduce the environmental impact of the plant (10-87%), as well as in the costs associated with the implementation of options (-268 to +277keuro/year). We were able to define 11 strategies, reducing the overall environmental impact by more than 50%. Of these, two have net negative costs, indicating that the company may in fact earn money through their implementation. PMID:18342428

  13. USING THE DNA ALKALINE UNWINDING ASSAY TO DETECT DNA DAMAGE IN LABORATORY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED CELLS AND TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. n preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. ultured mammalian fib...

  14. 'A comparison between the environmental damages of two axial air compressors manufactured by the firm FINI COMPRESSORI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Neri; Giuseppe Bernardic; Patrizia Buttola; Giovanni Naldi; Miroslav Saric; Giovanni Tani

    This study was performed jointly by ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), Bologna and Florence Universities and the firm FINI COMPRESSORI. A comparison is carried out between the environmental damages of two models (MK10 and MK94) of air axial compressors manufactured by FINI COMPRESSORI, with a volume of intaken air of 226 l\\/min, a power of

  15. Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

  16. Partially flexible MEMS neural probe composed of polyimide and sucrose gel for reducing brain damage during and after implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Myounggun; Cho, Jeiwon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Jung, Dahee; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Shin, Sehyun; Cho, Il-Joo

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a flexible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) neural probe that minimizes neuron damage and immune response, suitable for chronic recording applications. MEMS neural probes with various features such as high electrode densities have been actively investigated for neuron stimulation and recording to study brain functions. However, successful recording of neural signals in chronic application using rigid silicon probes still remains challenging because of cell death and macrophages accumulated around the electrodes over time from continuous brain movement. Thus, in this paper, we propose a new flexible MEMS neural probe that consists of two segments: a polyimide-based, flexible segment for connection and a rigid segment composed of thin silicon for insertion. While the flexible connection segment is designed to reduce the long-term chronic neuron damage, the thin insertion segment is designed to minimize the brain damage during the insertion process. The proposed flexible neural probe was successfully fabricated using the MEMS process on a silicon on insulator wafer. For a successful insertion, a biodegradable sucrose gel is coated on the flexible segment to temporarily increase the probe stiffness to prevent buckling. After the insertion, the sucrose gel dissolves inside the brain exposing the polyimide probe. By performing an insertion test, we confirm that the flexible probe has enough stiffness. In addition, by monitoring immune responses and brain histology, we successfully demonstrate that the proposed flexible neural probe incurs fivefold less neural damage than that incurred by a conventional silicon neural probe. Therefore, the presented flexible neural probe is a promising candidate for recording stable neural signals for long-time chronic applications.

  17. Economics of cattail ( Typha spp.) control to reduce blackbird damage to sunflower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Leitch; G. M. Linz; J. F. Baltezore

    1997-01-01

    A benefit\\/cost analysis of cattail (Typha spp.) control to reduce sunflower depredation by blackbirds was conducted to identify trade-offs and to estimate the efficacy of chemical treatment. Although reductions in populations of certain species, such as upland game, may occur with cattail control, populations of other species such as waterfowl, may be enhanced. With all factors considered, both sunflower producers

  18. 1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces several types of UV-induced DNA damage and contributes to photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Song, Eric J; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Cole, Louise; Stern, Harvey; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L; Reeve, Vivienne E; Mason, Rebecca S

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D production requires UVB. In turn, we have shown that vitamin D compounds reduce UV-induced damage, including inflammation, sunburn, thymine dimers, the most frequent type of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, immunosuppression, and photocarcinogenesis. Our previous studies have shown most of the photoprotective effects by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) occurred through the nongenomic pathway because similar protection was seen with an analog, 1?,25-dihydroxylumistrol3 (JN), which has little ability to alter gene expression and also because a nongenomic antagonist of 1,25(OH)2D3 abolished protection. In the current study, we tested whether this photoprotective effect would extend to other types of DNA damage, and whether this could be demonstrated in human ex vivo skin, as this model would be suited to pre-clinical testing of topical formulations for photoprotection. In particular, using skin explants, we examined a time course for thymine dimers (TDs), the most abundant DNA photolesion, as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is a mutagenic DNA base lesion arising from UV-induced oxidative stress, and 8-nitroguanosine (8-NG). Nitric oxide products, known markers for chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis, are also induced by UV. This study showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced TD and 8-NG as early as 30min post UV, and 8-oxodG at 3h post UV, confirming the photoprotective effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 against DNA photoproducts in human skin explants. At least in part, the mechanism of photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D3 is likely to be through the reduction of reactive nitrogen species and the subsequent reduction in oxidative and nitrosative damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23165145

  19. alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

    2009-10-01

    One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention. PMID:19558415

  20. Efforts to reduce mortality to hydroelectric turbine-passed fish: locating and quantifying damaging shear stresses.

    PubMed

    Cada, Glenn; Loar, James; Garrison, Laura; Fisher, Richard; Neitzel, Duane

    2006-06-01

    Severe fluid forces are believed to be a source of injury and mortality to fish that pass through hydroelectric turbines. A process is described by which laboratory bioassays, computational fluid dynamics models, and field studies can be integrated to evaluate the significance of fluid shear stresses that occur in a turbine. Areas containing potentially lethal shear stresses were identified near the stay vanes and wicket gates, runner, and in the draft tube of a large Kaplan turbine. However, under typical operating conditions, computational models estimated that these dangerous areas comprise less than 2% of the flow path through the modeled turbine. The predicted volumes of the damaging shear stress zones did not correlate well with observed fish mortality at a field installation of this turbine, which ranged from less than 1% to nearly 12%. Possible reasons for the poor correlation are discussed. Computational modeling is necessary to develop an understanding of the role of particular fish injury mechanisms, to compare their effects with those of other sources of injury, and to minimize the trial and error previously needed to mitigate those effects. The process we describe is being used to modify the design of hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival. PMID:16485161

  1. Optimization of phytoplankton preservative concentrations to reduce damage during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Das, Subhajit; Bhattacharya, Tanima; De, Minati; Maiti, Tusharkanti; Kumar De, Tarun

    2014-04-01

    A study was performed to establish the optimal concentration of traditional preservatives or fixatives such as formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine, in order to preserve phytoplankton samples for long-term storage without the introduction of artifacts or other physical aberrations. The goal of the study was to avoid any visible morphological changes to the preserved cells, minimizing the errors induced by traditional preservative concentrations, and ensuring better accuracy of ecological analyses. We found that both formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine have adverse effects on the preservation of samples. Trichodesmium erythraeum was found to be most susceptible to the effects of acidic Lugol's iodine, since it displayed the highest degree of chain fragmentation when this preservative was used. However, we found that 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde, 2.5% (v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine, and 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde+2.5%(v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine combined were most promising, with the latter the most effective even after 3 weeks of preservation. This study also revealed that, in general, the centric diatom species were more sensitive to long-term preservation than their pennate counterparts. The present study is significant as it sheds light on the damage endured by phytoplankton cells during long-term preservation, which can lead to erroneous and biased results upon analyses. The optimal concentration of preservative established experimentally from a wide variety of concentrations caused comparatively moderate changes to the cell dimensions as well as effectively prevented microbial contamination. PMID:24749881

  2. Pyruvate reduces DNA damage during hypoxia and after reoxygenation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Roudier, Emilie; Bachelet, Christine; Perrin, Anne

    2007-10-01

    Pyruvate is located at a crucial crossroad of cellular metabolism between the aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Modulation of the fate of pyruvate, in one direction or another, can be important for adaptative response to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. This could alter functioning of the antioxidant system and have protective effects against DNA damage induced by such stress. Transient hypoxia and alterations of pyruvate metabolism are observed in tumors. This could be advantageous for cancer cells in such stressful conditions. However, the effect of pyruvate in tumor cells is poorly documented during hypoxia/reoxygenation. In this study, we showed that cells had a greater need for pyruvate during hypoxia. Pyruvate decreased the number of DNA breaks, and might favor DNA repair. We demonstrated that pyruvate was a precursor for the biosynthesis of glutathione through oxidative metabolism in HepG2 cells. Therefore, glutathione decreased during hypoxia, but was restored after reoxygenation. Pyruvate had beneficial effects on glutathione depletion and DNA breaks induced after reoxygenation. Our results provide more evidence that the alpha-keto acid promotes the adaptive response to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Pyruvate might thus help to protect cancer cells under such stressful conditions, which might be harmful for patients with tumors. PMID:17868379

  3. The Curry Spice Curcumin Reduces Oxidative Damage and Amyloid Pathology in an Alzheimer Transgenic Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giselle P. Lim; Teresa Chu; Fusheng Yang; Walter Beech; Sally A. Frautschy; Greg M. Cole

    2001-01-01

    Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is character- ized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemi- ological studies suggest reduced AD risk associates with long- term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw mouse model (Tg2576), excessive use of NSAIDs targeting cyclooxygenase I can cause gastrointestinal, liver, and

  4. A MODEL OF SPECTRAL FILTERING TO REDUCE PHOTOCHEMICAL DAMAGE IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Sanford M; Ostrovsky, Mikhail A; Bonner, Robert F

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background/Purpose Cumulative sunlight exposure and cataract surgery are reported risk factors for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Laboratory studies suggest that accumulation and photochemical reactions of A2E (N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) and its epoxides, components of lipofuscin, are important in AMD. To relate this data to the clinical setting, we modeled the effects of macular irradiance and spectral filtering on production of A2E and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in pseudophakic eyes with a clear or “yellow” intraocular lens (IOL) and in phakic eyes. Methods We calculated relative changes of macular irradiance as a function of light (390 to 700 nm) intensity, pupil size, age, and lens status, and modeled resulting all-trans-retinal concentration and rates of production of A2E-related photochemicals and photon-induced ROIs in rods and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We compared these photoproducts following cataract surgery and IOL implantation with and without spectral sunglasses to normal age-related nuclear sclerotic lens changes. Results Following cataract and IOL surgery, all-trans-retinal and lipofuscin photochemistry would theoretically increase average generation of 1) A2E-related photochemicals, 2) ROI in rods and 3) ROI in RPE, respectively, 2.6-, 15- and 6.6-fold with a clear IOL, and 2.1-, 4.1- and 2.6 fold with a yellow IOL, but decrease approximately 30-, approximately 20-and 4-fold with a vermillion filter sunglass and clear IOL compared to an average 70 year old phakic eye. Conclusion Sunglasses that strongly decrease both deep blue light and rod photobleaching, while preserving photopic sensitivity and color perception, would provide upstream protection from potential photochemical damage in subjects at risk for AMD progression after cataract surgery. PMID:15747748

  5. Title: Digital Infrastructure: Reducing Energy Cost and Environmental Impacts of Information Processing and Communications Systems

    E-print Network

    Processing and Communications Systems Abstract: Creating a Sustainable Information and CommunicationTitle: Digital Infrastructure: Reducing Energy Cost and Environmental Impacts of Information and electricity. As is the case with any true lifeline, ICI must be reliable, affordable, and sustainable. Meeting

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TEDCHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TO REDUCE THE RISK OF USING INNOVATIVE COATING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papeer discusses the use of environmental technology verification (ETV) to reduce the risk of using innovative coating technologies. It presents key concepts of the ETV program, reviews the scope of the ETV program's coatings and coating equipment pilot (CCEP) and its use of ...

  7. INCREASING SAFETY AND REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE RISK FROM AGING HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding of the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stage...

  8. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Rashid, Mark M.; Williamson, Richard L.

    2005-06-01

    Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material structure combinations that are ductile (Fig. 1). This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure.

  9. Progesterone Reduces Secondary Damage, Preserves White Matter, and Improves Locomotor Outcome after Spinal Cord Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; González, Susana; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Lima, Analía; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; De Nicola, Alejandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Progesterone is an anti-inflammatory and promyelinating agent after spinal cord injury, but its effectiveness on functional recovery is still controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of chronic progesterone administration on tissue preservation and functional recovery in a clinically relevant model of spinal cord lesion (thoracic contusion). Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed that progesterone reduced both volume and rostrocaudal extension of the lesion at 60 days post-injury. In addition, progesterone increased the number of total mature oligodendrocytes, myelin basic protein immunoreactivity, and the number of axonal profiles at the epicenter of the lesion. Further, progesterone treatment significantly improved motor outcome as assessed using the Basso-Bresnahan-Beattie scale for locomotion and CatWalk gait analysis. These data suggest that progesterone could be considered a promising therapeutical candidate for spinal cord injury. PMID:24460450

  10. Glatiramer Acetate administration does not reduce damage after cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Poittevin, Marine; Deroide, Nicolas; Azibani, Feriel; Delcayre, Claude; Giannesini, Claire; Levy, Bernard I; Pocard, Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-01-15

    Inflammation plays a key role in ischemic stroke pathophysiology: microglial/macrophage cells and type-1 helper cells (Th1) seem deleterious, while type-2 helper cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) seem protective. CD4 Th0 differentiation is modulated by microglial cytokine secretion. Glatiramer Acetate (GA) is an immunomodulatory drug that has been approved for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis by means of a number of mechanisms: reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, Th0 differentiation shifting from Th2 to Th2 and Treg with anti-inflammatory cytokine production and increased neurogenesis. We induced permanent (pMCAo) or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) and GA (2 mg) or vehicle was injected subcutaneously immediately after cerebral ischemia. Mice were sacrificed at D3 to measure neurological deficit, infarct volume, microglial cell density and qPCR of TNF? and IL-1? (pro-inflammatory microglial cytokines), IFN? (Th2 cytokine), IL-4 (Th2 cytokine), TGF? and IL-10 (Treg cytokines), and at D7 to evaluate neurological deficit, infarct volume and neurogenesis assessment. We showed that in GA-treated pMCAo mice, infarct volume, microglial cell density and cytokine secretion were not significantly modified at D3, while neurogenesis was enhanced at D7 without significant infarct volume reduction. In GA-treated tMCAo mice, microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF? were significantly decreased without modification of microglial/macrophage cell density, cytokine secretion, neurological deficit or infarct volume at D3, or modification of neurological deficit, neurogenesis or infarct volume at D7. In conclusion, Glatiramer Acetate administered after cerebral ischemia does not reduce infarct volume or improve neurological deficit in mice despite a significant increase in neurogenesis in pMCAo and a microglial pro-inflammatory cytokine reduction in tMCAo. PMID:23026222

  11. Reducing cell membrane n-6 fatty acids attenuate mucosal damage in food-sensitive enteropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Y; Yamashiro, Y; Shimizu, T; Nagata, S; Igarashi, J; Shinohara, K; Oguchi, S; Yabuta, K

    1997-12-01

    Mucosal damage is commonly observed in food-sensitive enteropathy in infants, and the generation of leukotrienes is involved in the pathogenesis of this enteropathy. Because supplementing n-3 fatty acids is known to modify the production of leukotrienes, we investigated whether a change of dietary fatty acid composition affects leukotriene synthesis and food hypersensitivity reactions in the intestine by using a mouse model of food-sensitive enteropathy. The model was prepared by feeding ovalbumin to BALB/c mice after intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide. Diets were prepared from soybean oil (control), perilla oil, lard, corn oil, and 0.125 volume of corn oil (low fat diet) and given to mice for 4 wk. Villous heights, crypt depths, leukotriene B4 and C4 production in the intestine were measured. Crypt hyperplasia and villous atrophy were severer in the corn oil-fed group than those of control group, whereas mucosal damage in the perilla oil and low fat diet groups was minimal. In the corn oil-fed group, red blood cell membrane levels of n-3 fatty acids were lower than the control, and the synthesis of leukotrienes was highest among all groups. In the perilla oil and low fat diet groups, n-6 fatty acids were lower than those of control group and leukotriene production was significantly suppressed. These results indicate that reducing cell membrane levels of n-6 fatty acids by feeding less n-6 fatty acids or supplementing n-3 fatty acids, is important to suppress leukotriene biosynthesis for prevention from mucosal damage in food-sensitive enteropathy. PMID:9396566

  12. Environmental Enrichment Reduces the Likelihood of Alopecia in Adult C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Meagher, Rebecca; Mason, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Barbering (incessant grooming) is an abnormal behavior causing alopecia and commonly affects various strains of laboratory mice, including C57BL/6J. Barbering-induced alopecia is a potential symptom of brain impairment and can indicate a stressful environment. We compared alopecia prevalence and severity in mice housed in enriched or standard cages. Providing an enriched environment delayed the onset and reduced the prevalence and overall severity of alopecia in C57BL/6J mice. Husbandry methods that reduce adult alopecia are likely to promote the wellbeing of the animals. We suggest that environmental enrichment is a simple and economic way to reduce alopecia in mouse colonies. PMID:21439209

  13. Quercetin reduces oxidative damage induced by paraquat via modulating expression of antioxidant genes in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zerin, Tamanna; Kim, Yong-Sik; Hong, Sae-Yong; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative injury can occur in the lung through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via redox cycling owing to intentional or accidental ingestion of paraquat (PQ), a common herbicide. A wide array of phytochemicals has been shown to reduce cellular oxidative damage by modulating cytoprotective genes. Quercetin, a well-known flavonoid, has been reported to display cytoprotective effects by up-regulating certain cytoprotective genes. In this context, we investigated the effect of quercetin on PQ-induced cytotoxicity in alveolar A549 cells, modulation of antioxidant genes, activation of transcription factor-Nrf2 and its target HO-1 expression. Quercetin reduced PQ-induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells that was evaluated by both 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Modulation of antioxidant genes was compared when cells were treated with PQ, quercetin and both using qRT-PCR. Activation of transcription factor-Nrf2 and induction of its target gene, HO-1 was demonstrated by western blot analysis. A remarkable reduction in the ROS level as well as an increase in the total cellular glutathione (GSH) level occurred when PQ-exposed cells were treated with quercetin. Our findings suggest that quercetin may be used to mitigate or minimize oxidative stress via reducing the generation of ROS. PMID:22996356

  14. Seeking Energy System Pathways to Reduce Ozone Damage to Ecosystems through Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, S. L.; Pinder, R. W.; Loughlin, D. H.; Bash, J. O.; Turner, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Percell, P.; Zhao, S.; Russell, M. G.; Hakami, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) affects the productivity of ecosystems in addition to degrading human health. Concentrations of this pollutant are significantly influenced by precursor gas emissions, many of which emanate from energy production and use processes. Energy system optimization models could inform policy decisions that are intended to reduce these harmful effects if the contribution of precursor gas emissions to human health and ecosystem degradation could be elucidated. Nevertheless, determining the degree to which precursor gas emissions harm ecosystems and human health is challenging because of the photochemical production of ozone and the distinct mechanisms by which ozone causes harm to different crops, tree species, and humans. Here, the adjoint of a regional chemical transport model is employed to efficiently calculate the relative influences of ozone precursor gas emissions on ecosystem and human health degradation, which informs an energy system optimization. Specifically, for the summer of 2007 the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model adjoint is used to calculate the location- and sector-specific influences of precursor gas emissions on potential productivity losses for the major crops and sensitive tree species as well as human mortality attributable to chronic ozone exposure in the continental U.S. The atmospheric concentrations are evaluated with 12-km horizontal resolution with crop production and timber biomass data gridded similarly. These location-specific factors inform the energy production and use technologies selected in the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model.

  15. Clomethiazole (ZENDRA, CMZ) improves hind limb motor function and reduces neuronal damage after severe spinal cord injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Farooque, M; Isaksson, J; Jackson, D M; Olsson, Y

    1999-07-01

    Clomethiazole (CMZ) has a neuroprotective effect in experimental focal and global forebrain ischemia. This neuroprotective effect may depend on its ability to enhance GABA receptor activity. We have studied the effect of pretreatment with CMZ on motor function recovery and nerve cell damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats were randomized and 30 min before SCI they received a single intraperitoneal dose of CMZ (150 mg/kg) or saline. The spinal cord was injured with a 50 g (4.5 g/mm2) load, applied over the exposed dura, through a curved rectangular plate (2.2 x 5.0 mm) for 5 min at T8-9. The animals became paraplegic 1 day after injury. The rats were evaluated for recovery of hind limb motor function. All animals recovered to some extent over the observation period of 12 weeks. However, hind limb motor function was significantly better in the animals pretreated with CMZ. At 12 weeks the rats were killed and perfused/fixed for morphological investigations. Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunostaining was used to stain neurons and dendrites and Luxol-fast blue to stain myelinated tracts of the white matter. The injured segment of the spinal cord showed severe atrophy, distortion, cavitation and necrosis of grey and white matter. Compared to uninjured controls the transverse sectional area was reduced to 32.7 +/- 4% in untreated animals but only to 38.5% +/- 4.1 in CMZ-treated animals. MAP2 staining showed that, compared to uninjured controls, grey matter was reduced to 7.4 +/- 2.7% in saline-treated injured animals and to 22.7 +/- 5.4% in CMZ-treated rats. Our results thus show that in this model CMZ improves hind limb motor function and attenuates the morphological damage to the spinal cord. PMID:10412797

  16. Effects of water-damaged homes after flooding: health status of the residents and the environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Hasegawa, Kenichi; Osawa, Haruki

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the health status of residents and the environmental risk factors of housing after flooding. Questionnaires were distributed to 595 selected households (one adult resident per household) in six areas in Japan which were severely flooded between 2004 and 2010. A total of 379 responses were obtained. Indoor dampness and visible mold growth significantly increased in homes with greater flood damage. The incidence of respiratory, dermal, ocular, and nasal symptoms one week after flooding was significantly higher in flooded homes compared with non-flooded homes, the incidence of psychological disorders was significantly high for six months after flooding, and the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly high six months after flooding. Significant risk factors for respiratory and nasal symptoms included proximity to industrial and waste incineration plants. Our results suggest that rapid action should be taken after flooding to ensure adequate public health and environmental hygiene in the water-damaged homes. PMID:23802658

  17. Environmental Impact of Nuclear Industry and Power Generation in the russian federation: Assessment of contribution to general ecological damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Vetrov

    \\u000a The objective of the study was to assess a relative impact of nuclear industry and power generation on natural resources (consumption\\u000a and detriment) and environmental pollution in the Russian Federation. Both kinds of impact – consumption or detriment of resources\\u000a and contamination – were considered as general ecological damage. The general aim was to provide rationale for the sound strategy

  18. Civil liability for oil pollution damage: examining the evolving scope for environmental compensation in the international regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Mason

    2003-01-01

    The civil liability regime for ship-source oil pollution enables national victims of oil spill damage to make financial claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in certain circumstances, the global oil cargo industry. This paper examines the evolving—and contested—parameters of environmental liability set by the international oil pollution liability conventions, focusing on the admissibility of reinstatement costs and the

  19. Pharmaceuticals in the environment: lessons learned for reducing uncertainties in environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Bryan W; Berninger, Jason P; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Stanley, Jacob K; Valenti, Theodore W

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals in the environment are often present at trace levels (e.g., ng/L) in surface waters and effluents of developed countries, yet represent contaminants of emerging concern. Attributes of many of these substances, such as potency, chirality, and ionization, present challenges to historical environmental risk assessment and management paradigms. In this chapter, we critically examine several important aspects of pharmaceuticals, specifically highlighting some of the lessons we have learned from studying these substances in the environment over the past 15 years. We submit that incorporating such "lessons learned" during environmental risk assessments promises to reduce uncertainties and support more sustainable management efforts. PMID:22974742

  20. White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Liu, Ronghua; Pauls, K Peter; Wood, Geoffrey A; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2015-07-01

    Common beans are a rich source of nondigestible fermentable components and phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the gut-health-promoting potential of kidney beans in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure (via drinking water, 2% DSS w/v, 7 days). C57BL/6 mice were fed one of three isocaloric diets: basal diet control (BD), or BD supplemented with 20% cooked white (WK) or dark red kidney (DK) bean flour for 3 weeks. In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relm?) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response. During colitis, both bean diets reduced (a) disease severity, (b) colonic histological damage and (c) increased mRNA expression of antimicrobial and barrier integrity-promoting genes (Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), MUC1-3, Relm? and Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)) and reduced proinflammatory mediator expression [interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, interferon (IFN)?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], which correlated with reduced colon tissue protein levels. Further, bean diets exerted a systemic anti-inflammatory effect during colitis by reducing serum levels of IL-17A, IFN?, TNF?, IL-1? and IL-6. In conclusion, both WK and DK bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived SCFA metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity. PMID:25841250

  1. Influence of environmental exposure to PAHs on the susceptibility of lymphocytes to DNA-damage induction and on their repair capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonina Cebulska-Wasilewska; Anna Wieche?; Agnieszka Panek; Blanka Binková; Radim J. Šrám; Peter B. Farmer

    2005-01-01

    The influence of occupational exposure to environmental carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) on DNA damage detected in lymphocytes of exposed people (city policemen) was studied. The cellular susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage and the repair capacity of exposed donors are presented in comparison with matched controls. Monitoring was performed and blood samples (164 donors) were collected in

  2. Environmental damage in human lymphocytes: Final report, January 1, 1983-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.

    1986-01-01

    Our overall objectives have been to develop better assays for chromosome damage in human populations and to use these assays in order to gain a deeper understanding of the sources of that damage. Our primary emphasis recently has been on the micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes because it provides a relatively simple, rapid and reliable measure of chromosome damage. Perhaps our most important accomplishments have been to demonstrate that fact, to improve the assay by controlling for cell division, to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the assay, and to apply it to an investigation of theeffects of low level radiation exposure.

  3. Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures

    PubMed Central

    Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkc? or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/ nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures. PMID:22253051

  4. Use of EPO as an adjuvant in PDT of brain tumors to reduce damage to normal brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar

    2004-10-01

    In order to reduce damage to surrounding normal brain in the treatment of brain tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT), we have investigated the use of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) to exploit its well-established role as a neuroprotective agent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that EPO does not confer protection from PDT to rat glioma cells. In vivo testing of the possibility of EPO protecting normal brain tissue was carried out. The normal brains of Lewis rats were treated with Photofrin mediated PDT (6.25 mg/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and the outcome of the treatment compared between animals that received EPO (5000 U/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and controls. This comparison was made based on the volume of necrosis, as measured with the viability stain 2,3,5- Triphenyl tetrazoium chloride (TTC), and incidence of apoptosis, as measured with in situ end labeling assay (ISEL). Western blotting showed that EPO reaches the normal brain and activates the anti-apoptotic protein PKB/AKT1 within the brain cortex. The comparison based on volume of necrosis showed no statistical significance between the two groups. No clear difference was observed in the ISEL staining between the groups. A possible lack of responsivity in the assays that give rise to these results is discussed and future corrections are described.

  5. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles

    PubMed Central

    Rubega, Margaret A.; Sustaita, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles. PMID:25289186

  6. Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kevin

    2014-08-13

    The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

  7. Induced damage in Carrara Marble as a result of long-term low-magnitude environmental stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigtlaender, Anne; Leith, Kerry; Krautblatter, Michael; Walter, Jens M.

    2015-04-01

    Damage of intact rock is commonly driven by the interaction of long-term low-magnitude external environmental stresses in combination with surface chemistry, rather than short-term loading in excess of intact rock strength. In order to determine the contribution of environmental stresses to the propagation of micro- and macroscopic fractures under natural environmental conditions we undertook long-term three-point bending tests on large size Carrara Marble specimens. The interaction of mechanical stresses induced by external loading and corrosive conditions (e.g. the presence of water) at the tip of a pre-existing crack is termed stress corrosion. We investigate stress corrosion below saw cut notches in wet and dry samples of Carrara Marble (M1-5, each 10cm x 10cm x 110cm). These were pre-loaded to about 66% of their assumed ultimate strength (determined by the fracture toughness (Kic) calculated for the crack tip). Two marble beams (M1, M3) were initially loaded to 22% and three (M2, M4, M5) to 55% of Kic. CaC03 saturated water was continuously dripped in the notch of samples --M1-4 to create corrosive conditions, while M5 was kept dry. After a three-week bedding period, loading on sample M1 was increased to 55%, M2 and M5 to 77% and M3 and M4 to 85% of Kic respectively. The tests were interrupted prior to failure of the specimens in order to allow the assessment of the crack-tip structure. During the testing period we used classical strain gages and acoustic emission sensors to measure strain and elastic stress changes through coda wave interferometry. Temperature and humidity were monitored and the outflowing fluid was collected for future analysis, throughout. The effect of induced damage on residual intrinsic stresses was evaluated using neutron diffraction on the SALSA instrument at the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France), while texture measurements were undertaken using the X-ray goniometer at the Geoscience Center, University Göttingen, and optical microscopy. Here we present first results describing induced damage in calcite rocks as a result of imposed environmental stresses. We expect, that our test approach will provide insight into the interaction of environmental stresses and material properties, and their effect on degradation of bedrock exposed to natural environmental conditions.

  8. Amifostine reduces the seminiferous epithelium damage in doxorubicin-treated prepubertal rats without improving the fertility status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Vendramini; Estela Sasso-Cerri; Sandra M Miraglia

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amifostine is an efficient cytoprotector against toxicity caused by some chemotherapeutic drugs. Doxorubicin, a potent anticancer anthracycline, is known to produce spermatogenic damage even in low doses. Although some studies have suggested that amifostine does not confer protection to doxorubicin-induced testicular damage, schedules and age of treatment have different approach depending on the protocol. Thus, we proposed to investigate

  9. Tamoxifen, a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Reduces Ischemic Damage Caused by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in the Ovariectomized Female Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyamal H. Mehta; Krishnan M. Dhandapani; Liesl M. De Sevilla; R. Clinton Webb; Virendra B. Mahesh; Darrell W. Brann

    2003-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that physiological concentrations of 17?-estradiol can protect the female rat brain against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic damage. The present study examined whether therapeutic doses of the clinically relevant selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen, can similarly protect the female rat brain against ischemic stroke damage. Adult female rats were bilaterally ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously

  10. Bioenergetics of sulphate-reducing bacteria in relation to their environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, W A

    1998-01-01

    The cellular physiology of the sulphate-reducing bacteria, and of other sulphidogenic species, is determined by the energetic requirements consequent upon their respiratory mode of metabolism with sulphate and other oxyanions of sulphur as terminal electron acceptors. As a further consequence of their, relatively, restricted catabolic activities and their requirement for conditions of anaerobiosis, sulphidogenic bacteria are almost invariably found in nature as component organisms within microbial consortia. The capacity to generate significant quantities of sulphide influences the overall metabolic activity and species diversity of these consortia, and is the root cause of the environmental impact of the sulphidogenic species: corrosion, pollution and the souring of hydrocarbon reservoirs. PMID:10022064

  11. Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

    Survey results are presented from 65 parents, students over 12 years, teachers, and other school employees using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. It shows the results of years of neglect of infrastructure for children and reveals disturbing new information about the environmental health of school…

  12. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

  13. Advanced Glycation End-Products Reduce Collagen Molecular Sliding to Affect Collagen Fibril Damage Mechanisms but Not Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Fessel, Gion; Li, Yufei; Diederich, Vincent; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Schneider, Philipp; Sell, David R.; Monnier, Vincent M.; Snedeker, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) contribute to age-related connective tissue damage and functional deficit. The documented association between AGE formation on collagens and the correlated progressive stiffening of tissues has widely been presumed causative, despite the lack of mechanistic understanding. The present study investigates precisely how AGEs affect mechanical function of the collagen fibril – the supramolecular functional load-bearing unit within most tissues. We employed synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and carefully controlled mechanical testing after introducing AGEs in explants of rat-tail tendon using the metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO). Mass spectrometry and collagen fluorescence verified substantial formation of AGEs by the treatment. Associated mechanical changes of the tissue (increased stiffness and failure strength, decreased stress relaxation) were consistent with reports from the literature. SAXS analysis revealed clear changes in molecular deformation within MGO treated fibrils. Underlying the associated increase in tissue strength, we infer from the data that MGO modified collagen fibrils supported higher loads to failure by maintaining an intact quarter-staggered conformation to nearly twice the level of fibril strain in controls. This apparent increase in fibril failure resistance was characterized by reduced side-by-side sliding of collagen molecules within fibrils, reflecting lateral molecular interconnectivity by AGEs. Surprisingly, no change in maximum fibril modulus (2.5 GPa) accompanied the changes in fibril failure behavior, strongly contradicting the widespread assumption that tissue stiffening in ageing and diabetes is directly related to AGE increased fibril stiffness. We conclude that AGEs can alter physiologically relevant failure behavior of collagen fibrils, but that tissue level changes in stiffness likely occur at higher levels of tissue architecture. PMID:25364829

  14. Removing of Formation Damage and Enhancement of Formation Productivity Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals 

    E-print Network

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Nasr Eldin

    2012-07-16

    Topography (CT) scans were used to determine the effectiveness of these fluids in stimulation calcite and dolomite cores and removing the damage from sandstone cores. The sandstone cores used in this study contain from 1 to 18 wt percent illite (swellable...

  15. Posttreatment with high-dose albumin reduces histopathological damage and improves neurological deficit following fluid percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Belayev, L; Alonso, O F; Huh, P W; Zhao, W; Busto, R; Ginsberg, M D

    1999-06-01

    We have recently shown that high-dose human serum albumin (HSA) therapy confers marked histological protection in experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with high-dose HSA would protect in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-four hours prior to TBI, the fluid percussion interface was positioned parasagittally over the right cerebral cortex. On the following day, fasted rats were anesthetized with 3% halothane, 70% nitrous oxide, and 30% oxygen and received right parieto-occipital parasagittal fluid-percussion injury (1.5-2.0 atm). Cranial and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the experiment and held at normothermic levels (36.5-37.5 degrees C) by a warming lamp above the animal's head. The agent (25% human serum albumin, HSA) or vehicle (sodium chloride 0.9%) was administered i.v. (1% of body weight) 15 min after trauma. Behavioral function was evaluated in all rats before and after TBI (at 2 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days). Neurological function was graded on a scale of 0-12 (normal score = 0; maximal score = 12). Seven days after TBI, brains were perfusion-fixed, coronal sections at various levels were digitized, and contusion areas in the superficial, middle and deep layers of cortex and in the underlying fimbria were measured. HSA significantly improved the neurological score compared to saline at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after TBI (6.0 +/- 0.6 [albumin] versus 8.4 +/- 0.5 [saline]; 3.6 +/- 0.7 versus 6.8 +/- 1.0; and 2.6 +/- 0.6 versus 5.7 +/- 0.8, respectively; p < 0.05). HSA therapy also significantly reduced total contusion area (0.89 +/- 0.2 versus 1.82 +/- 0.3 mm2; p = 0.02). Our findings document that high-concentration albumin therapy instituted 15 min after trauma significantly improves the neurological score and reduces histological damage. We believe that this pharmacological agent may have promising potential for the clinical treatment of brain injury. PMID:10391362

  16. Genetic Deletion and Pharmacological Inhibition of PI3K? Reduces Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation and Lung Damage in Mice with Cystic Fibrosis-Like Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzo, Maria; Ciraolo, Elisa; Lucattelli, Monica; Hoxha, Eriola; Ulrich, Martina; Campa, Carlo Cosimo; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Doring, Gerd; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe; Mall, Marcus; Hirsch, Emilio; De Rose, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation is a key feature of progressive lung damage in cystic fibrosis (CF). Thus, reducing airway inflammation is a major goal to prevent lung damage in CF. However, current anti-inflammatory drugs have shown several limits. PI3K? plays a pivotal role in leukocyte recruitment and activation; in the present study we determined the effects of genetic deletion and pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K? on airway inflammation and structural lung damage in a mouse model of CF lung disease. Methods. ?ENaC overexpressing mice (?ENaC-Tg) were backcrossed with PI3K?-deficient (PI3K?KO) mice. Tissue damage was assessed by histology and morphometry and inflammatory cell number was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, we assessed the effect of a specific PI3K? inhibitor (AS-605240) on inflammatory cell number in BALF. Results. Genetic deletion of PI3K? decreased neutrophil numbers in BALF of PI3K?KO/?ENaC-Tg mice, and this was associated with reduced emphysematous changes. Treatment with the PI3K? inhibitor AS-605240 decreased the number of neutrophils in BALF of ?ENaC-Tg mice, reproducing the effect observed with genetic deletion of the enzyme. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the biological efficacy of both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of PI3K? in reducing chronic neutrophilic inflammation in CF-like lung disease in vivo. PMID:26185363

  17. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area. PMID:22754580

  18. Reduced carbon intensity in highly developed countries: environmental kuznets curves for carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornhuber, Kai; Rybski, Diego; Costa, Luis; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) postulates that pollution increases with the income per capita up to a maximum, above which it decreases with the further increase in income per capita, i.e. following an inverse U-shape in the pollution vs. income per capita. It is commonly believed that EKC occurs for "local" pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, but does not hold for CO2 emissions. This is attributed to the fact that while "local" pollutants cause a visible environmental damage on the local/regional scale (which authorities/governments seek to avoid), the consequences of CO2 emission have no immediate attributable local/regional consequences. We review EKC for CO2 exploring its relation between CO2 per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI) between 1990 and 2010 obtained from the World Bank database. We find evidence for a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita in highly developed countries. We propose a model according to which the emissions per capita of a country are composed of a component related to the actual state of development and a component related to the change of development. The model leads to four distinct cases of which two have EKC shape and two imply saturation. This outcome is in line with previously suggested qualitative relations. Our analysis indicates that the EKC shaped cases better describes the empirical values. We explore the less extreme version corresponding to the so-called conventional EKC and study the maximum of the fitted curve, providing a threshold-value for the HDI and a typical maximum value for the emissions per capita. We find that approx. 5 countries have crossed the CO2-HDI maximum, corresponding to approx. 1.5% of the world population.

  19. Evaluation of Flight Control™ and Mesurol ® as repellents to reduce horned lark ( Eremophila alpestris) damage to lettuce seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryl L York; John L Cummings; Richard M. Engeman; James E Davis

    2000-01-01

    We conducted enclosure trials near Huron, CA in the San Joaquin Valley from 12 to 23 January 1999 to determine the efficacy of Flight Control™ (50% anthraquinone) and Mesurol® (75% methiocarb) in preventing horned lark damage to lettuce seedlings. Flight Control™ (FC) and Mesurol® were evaluated as foliar sprays at application rates of 2.79 and 2.27kgha?1, respectively. Horned lark damage

  20. Unilateral nephrectomy 24 hours after bilateral kidney irradiation reduces damage to the function and structure of the remaining kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. X. Liao; E. L. Travis

    1994-01-01

    The effect of unilateral nephrectomy 24 h after irradiation on renal function and death with renal insufficiency as well as histopathological changes in the kidney was assessed. Single doses totaling 8-18 Gy were given bilaterally to unanesthetized female and male C3Hf\\/Kam mice. Renal function damage was assayed by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and hematocrit (Hct). Histological damage was quantified by

  1. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule. Workshop summary; interim notification policy: Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups.

  2. Health effects and optimal environmental taxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberton C. Williams III

    2003-01-01

    The literature on environmental taxation in the presence of pre-existing distortionary taxes has shown that interactions with these distortions tend to raise the cost of an environmental tax, and thus that the optimal environmental tax is less than marginal environmental damages. A recent paper by Schwartz and Repetto (2000) challenges this finding, arguing that the health benefits from reduced pollution

  3. Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.

  4. One Year Monitoring of the Z24Bridge: Environmental Influences Versus Damage Events, #268

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Peeters; G. de Roeck

    2000-01-01

    When using the analysis of vibration measurements as a tool for health monitoring of bridges, the problem arises of separating abnormal changes from normal changes in the dynamic behaviour. Normal changes are caused by varying environmental conditions such as humidity, wind and most important, temperature. The temperature may have an impact on the boundary conditions (frozen soil) and the Young's

  5. Environmental enrichment reduces attribution of incentive salience to a food-associated stimulus.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Joshua S; Bardo, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Animals reared in an enriched environment are less vulnerable to abuse-like behavior and exhibit less persistent drug seeking, perhaps due to a decrease in the incentive value of stimuli associated with reward. The present study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on Pavlovian conditioned approach (PCA) performance, a measure of incentive salience attribution. Rats were first reared from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 51 in either an enriched environment with large cages, social cohorts and novel objects, or in an isolated environment with small, hanging cages, no social cohorts and no novel objects. Rats were then trained on a PCA task for 5 consecutive days, where a retractable lever was predictive of a food reward. Isolated rats predominantly exhibited sign-tracking responses directed toward the reward-predicted lever (indicative of incentive salience attribution), while enriched rats predominantly exhibited goal-tracking responses directed toward the location of food delivery. Both groups learned their respective response type at equal rates. The results indicate that environmental enrichment reduces the readiness to attribute incentive value to reward-associated cues, which may explain the enrichment-induced protection against addiction-like behaviors. PMID:21945300

  6. Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions

    E-print Network

    Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological ...

  7. Long-Term Effects of Chromatin Remodeling and DNA Damage in Stem Cells Induced by Environmental and Dietary Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bariar, Bhawana; Vestal, C. Greer; Richardson, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The presence of histones acts as a barrier to protein access; thus chromatin remodeling must occur for essential processes such as transcription and replication. In conjunction with histone modifications, DNA methylation plays critical roles in gene silencing through chromatin remodeling. Chromatin remodeling is also interconnected with the DNA damage response, maintenance of stem cell properties, and cell differentiation programs. Chromatin modifications have increasingly been shown to produce long-lasting alterations in chromatin structure and transcription. Recent studies have shown environmental exposures in utero have the potential to alter normal developmental signaling networks, physiologic responses, and disease susceptibility later in life during a process known as developmental reprogramming. In this review we discuss the long-term impact of exposure to environmental compounds, the chromatin modifications that they induce, and the differentiation and developmental programs of multiple stem and progenitor cell types altered by exposure. The main focus is to highlight agents present in the human lifestyle that have the potential to promote epigenetic changes that impact developmental programs of specific cell types, may promote tumorigenesis through altering epigenetic marks, and may be transgenerational, for example, those able to be transmitted through multiple cell divisions. PMID:24579784

  8. Eliminating bistability and reducing sample damage through frequency and amplitude modulation in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago D Solares

    2007-01-01

    Since its invention, amplitude-modulation tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) has rapidly developed into a common high-resolution surface characterization tool. However, despite the technical advances, imaging bistability caused by the coexistence of the so-called attractive and repulsive imaging regimes, and potential sample damage in the repulsive regime (often critical in biological and other soft-sample applications) still remain as fundamental barriers which

  9. Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Kolodziejczyk; Beata Olas; Barbara Wachowicz; Barbara Szajwaj; Anna Stochmal; Wieslaw Oleszek

    Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This\\u000a in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts\\u000a of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO?). Carbonyl groups and

  10. DNA damage-inducible genes as biomarkers for exposures to environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.; Carpenter, T.R.; Jaramillo, R.J.; Liberati, T.A. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A biodosimetric approach to determine alpha-particle dose to the respiratory tract epithelium from known exposures to radon has been developed in the rat. Cytotoxicity assays have been used to obtain dose-conversion factors for cumulative exposures typical of those encountered by underground uranium miners. However, this approach is not sensitive enough to derive close-conversion factors for indoor radon exposures. The expression of DNA damage-inducible genes is being investigated as a biomarker of exposure to radon progeny. Exposure of cultures of A549 cells to alpha particles resulted in an increase in the protein levels of the DNA damage-inducible genes, p53, Cip 1, and Gadd45. These protein changes were associated with a transient arrest of cells passing through the cell cycle. This arrest was typified by an increase in the number of cells in the G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} phases and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. The effect of inhaled alpha particles (radon progeny) in rats was examined in the epithelial cells of the lateral wall of the anterior nasal cavity. Exposures to radon progeny resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in the G{sub 1} phase and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. These cell-cycle changes were concomitant with an increase in the number of cells containing DNA strand breaks. In addition to ionizing radiation, A549 cells were exposed to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, methyl methanesulphonate, crocidolite asbestos, and glass microfiber. These studies showed that physical and chemical agents induce different expression patterns of p53, Cip 1, and Gadd153 proteins and they could be used to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic materials such as asbestos and glass microfiber. The measurement of gene expression in A549 cells may provide a means to identify a broad spectrum of physical and chemical toxicants encountered in the environment. 9 figs., 42 refs.

  11. The ecophysiology of sulfur isotope fractionation by sulfate reducing bacteria in response to variable environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, W.; Bradley, A. S.; Johnston, D. T.; Pereira, I. A. C.; Venceslau, S.; Wallace, C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur relative to sulfate. The magnitude of discrimination (fractionation) depends on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR, Kaplan & Rittenberg (1964) Can. J. Microbio.; Chambers et al. (1975) Can. J. Microbio; Sim et al. (2011) GCA; Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS), ii) the ambient sulfate concentration (Harrison & Thode (1958) Research; Habicht et al. (2002) Science; Bradley et al. in review), iii) both sulfate and electron donor availability, or iv) an intrinsic physiological limitation (e.g. cellular division rate). When neither sulfate nor electron donor limits csSRR a more complex function relates the magnitude of isotope fractionation to cell physiology and environmental conditions. In recent and on-going work we have examined the importance of enzyme-specific fractionation factors, as well as the influence of electron donor or electron acceptor availability under carefully controlled culture conditions (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). In light of recent advances in MSR genetics and biochemistry we utilize well-characterized mutant strains, along with a continuous-culture methodology (Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS) to further probe the fractionation capacity of this metabolism under controlled physiological conditions. We present our latest findings on the magnitude of S and D/H isotope fractionation in both wild type and mutant strains. We will discuss these in light of recent theoretical advances (Wing & Halevy (2014) PNAS), examining the mode and relevance of MSR isotope fractionation in the laboratory to modern and ancient environmental settings, particularly anoxic marine sediments.

  12. Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-? oligomers in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-? (A?) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble A? oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain A? oligomers and increased synthesis of the A?-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

  13. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia through prevention of blood-brain barrier disruption and endothelial damage.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Chung, Sung Phil; Kwon, Sung Won; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-02-01

    Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) is the leading cause of a poor prognosis even after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Therapeutic induction of hypothermia (TH) is the only proven therapy-and current standard care-for GCI after cardiac arrest; however, its application has been significantly limited owing to technical difficulties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to suppress neuronal death after cerebral ischemia. The prevention of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has not been suggested as a mechanism of MSC treatment but has for TH. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of MSC administration on BBB disruption and neutrophil infiltration after GCI. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MSC treatment, rats were subjected to 7 minutes of transient GCI and treated with MSCs immediately after reperfusion. Hippocampal neuronal death was evaluated at 7 days after ischemia using Fluoro-Jade B (FJB). BBB disruption, endothelial damage, and neutrophil infiltration were evaluated at 7 days after ischemia by immunostaining for IgG leakage, Rat endothelial antigen-1, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Rats treated with MSCs showed a significantly reduced FJB(+) neuron count compared with the control group. They also showed reduced IgG leakage, endothelial damage, and MPO(+) cell counts. The present study demonstrated that administration of MSCs after transient GCI provides a dramatic protective effect against hippocampal neuronal death. We hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of MSC treatment might be associated with the prevention of BBB disruption and endothelial damage and a decrease in neutrophil infiltration. PMID:25548390

  14. The use of compression stockings during a marathon competition to reduce exercise-induced muscle damage: are they really useful?

    PubMed

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan José; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Lledó, María; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Study Design Case-control study; ecological study. Objectives To examine the efficacy of wearing compression stockings to prevent muscle damage and to maintain running performance during a marathon competition. Background Exercise-induced muscle damage has been identified as one of the main causes of the progressive decrease in running and muscular performance found during marathon races. Methods Thirty-four experienced runners were pair-matched for age, anthropometric data, and best race time in the marathon, and randomly assigned to a control group (n = 17) of runners who wore conventional socks or to a group of runners who wore foot-to-knee graduated compression stockings (n = 17). Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained, and jump height and leg muscle power were measured during a countermovement jump. Serum myoglobin and creatine kinase concentrations were determined as blood markers of muscle fiber damage. Results Total race time was not different between the control group and the compression stockings group (210 ± 23 and 214 ± 22 minutes, respectively; P = .58). Between the control group and the compression stockings group, postrace reductions in leg muscle power (-19.8% ± 17.7% versus -24.8% ± 18.4%, respectively; P = .37) and jump height (-25.3% ± 14.1% versus -32.5% . 20.4%, respectively; P = .27) were similar. At the end of the race, there were no differences between the control group and the compression stockings group in serum myoglobin (568 ± 347 ng·mL(-1) versus 573 ± 270 ng·mL(-1), respectively; P = .97) and creatine kinase concentration (390 ± 166 U·L(-1) versus 487 ± 227 U·L(-1), respectively; P = .16). Conclusion The use of compression stockings did not improve running pace and did not prevent exercise-induced muscle damage during the marathon. Wearing compression stockings during long-distance running events is an ineffective strategy to avoid the deleterious effects of muscle damage on running performance. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(6):462-470. Epub 21 Apr 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5863. PMID:25899215

  15. Environmental stress causes oxidative damage to plant mitochondria leading to inhibition of glycine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicolas L; Day, David A; Millar, A Harvey

    2002-11-01

    A cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), rapidly inhibited glycine, malate/pyruvate, and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent O2 consumption by pea leaf mitochondria. Dose- and time-dependence of inhibition showed that glycine oxidation was the most severely affected with a K(0.5) of 30 microm. Several mitochondrial proteins containing lipoic acid moieties differentially lost their reactivity to a lipoic acid antibody following HNE treatment. The most dramatic loss of antigenicity was seen with the 17-kDa glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) H-protein, which was correlated with the loss of glycine-dependent O2 consumption. Paraquat treatment of pea seedlings induced lipid peroxidation, which resulted in the rapid loss of glycine-dependent respiration and loss of H-protein reactivity with lipoic acid antibodies. Pea plants exposed to chilling and water deficit responded similarly. In contrast, the damage to other lipoic acid-containing mitochondrial enzymes was minor under these conditions. The implication of the acute sensitivity of glycine decarboxylase complex H-protein to lipid peroxidation products is discussed in the context of photorespiration and potential repair mechanisms in plant mitochondria. PMID:12213810

  16. Early remote laser detection of vegetation damage caused by certain environmental stress factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Mcmurtrey, James E., III

    1989-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra of plants excited with a pulsed nitrogen laser beam emitting at 337 nm were found to be related to plant type, as well as with changes in the physiology of the plant as the result of various kinds of environmental stress. The plant types which were studied included herbaceous dicots, monocots, hardwoods, and conifers. These plant types could be identified on the basis of differences in either the number of fluorescent bands, or the relative intensity of the bands. The dicots and monocots had fluorescent maxima at 440, 685, and 740 nm. The monocots could be distinguished from the dicots by virtue of having a much higher 440 nm/685 nm ratio. Hardwoods and conifers had an additional fluorescence band at 525 nm, but healthy conifers did not have a band at 685 nm.

  17. A Randomized, Controlled Community-Wide Intervention to Reduce Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use in low- to middle-income countries is a major public health concern for both smokers and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Egypt has made important strides in controlling tobacco use, but smoking and ETS remain highly prevalent. This randomized intervention sought to improve the target population’s knowledge regarding the hazards of smoking and ETS and to change attitudes and smoking behaviors within the community and the household. Methods: In this 2005–2006 study in Egypt’s Qalyubia governorate, trained professionals visited schools, households, mosques, and health care centers in rural villages randomly selected for the intervention to discuss the adverse effects of smoking and ETS exposure and ways to reduce one’s ETS exposure. Data collected in interviewer-facilitated surveys before and after the intervention period were analyzed in pairwise comparisons with data from control villages to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in achieving its aims. Results: The intervention group showed a greater increase in understanding the dangers associated with smoking cigarettes and waterpipes and became more proactive in limiting ETS exposure by asking smokers to stop, avoiding areas with ETS, and enacting smoking bans in the home. However, the intervention had little to no impact on the number of smokers and the amount of tobacco smoked. Conclusions: Results are consistent with previous studies showing that changing smokers’ behavior can be difficult, but community-wide efforts to reduce ETS exposure through smoking bans, education, and empowering people to ask smokers to stop are effective. The method can be generalized to other settings. PMID:23328881

  18. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P < 0.01). A series of preference tests indicated that the taste of CaCl2 was not the factor affecting consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. PMID:25981784

  19. Do carbon-based defences reduce foliar damage? Habitat-related effects on tree seedling performance in a temperate rainforest of Chiloé Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Paulina; Armesto, Juan J

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs), such as phenols or tannins, have been considered as one of the most important and general chemical barriers of woody plants against a diverse array of herbivores. Herbivory has been described as a critical factor affecting the growth and survival of newly established tree seedlings or juveniles then, the presence of secondary metabolites as defences against herbivores should be a primary strategy to reduce foliar damage. We examined whether light-induced changes in leaf phenolic chemistry affected insect herbivory on seedlings of two rainforest tree species, Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) and Gevuina avellana (Proteaceae). Seedlings of both species were planted under closed canopy and in a canopy gap within a large remnant forest patch. Half of the seedlings in each habitat were disinfected with a wide-spectrum systemic insecticide and the other half were used as controls. Seedling growth, survival, and foliar damage (estimated by an herbivory index) due to insect herbivores were monitored over a period of 16 months (December 2001-April 2003). The total leaf content of phenols and condensed tannins were assessed in seedlings from both habitats. As expected, access to light induced a greater production of CBSCs in seedlings of both tree species, but these compounds did not seem to play a significant defensive role, as seedlings grown in gaps suffered greater leaf damage than those planted in forest interior. In addition, in both habitats, seedlings without insecticide treatment suffered a greater foliar damage than those with insecticide, especially 16 months after the beginning of the experiment. Canopy openness and herbivory had positive and negative effects, respectively, on seedling growth and survival in both tree species. In conclusion, despite the higher levels of defence in tree-fall gap, the higher densities of herbivore override this and lead to higher damage levels. PMID:16170562

  20. Dual home screening and tailored environmental feedback to reduce radon and secondhand smoke: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E; Adkins, Sarah M; Wright, Ashton Potter; Robertson, Heather E; Rinker, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    Combined exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and radon increases lung cancer risk 10-fold. The authors assessed the feasibility and impact of a brief home screening and environmental feedback intervention to reduce radon and SHS (Freedom from Radon and Smoking in the Home [FRESH]) and measured perceived risk of lung cancer and synergistic risk perception (SHS x radon). Participants (N = 50) received home radon and SHS kits and completed baseline surveys. Test results were shared using an intervention guided by the Teachable Moment Model. Half of the participants completed online surveys two months later. Most (76%) returned the radon test kits; 48% returned SHS kits. Of the returned radon test kits, 26% were >4.0 pCi/L. Of the returned SHS kits, 38% had nicotine > .1 microg/m3. Of those with high radon, more than half had contacted a mitigation specialist or planned contact. Of those with positive air nicotine, 75% had adopted smoke-free homes. A significant increase occurred in perceived risk for lung cancer and synergistic risk perception after FRESH. PMID:24645427

  1. How inhibiting nitrification affects nitrogen cycle and reduces environmental impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen input.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chunlian; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Shuijin; Compton, Jana E; Greaver, Tara L; Li, Quanlin

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities, and in particular the use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer, have doubled global annual reactive N inputs in the past 50-100 years, causing deleterious effects on the environment through increased N leaching and nitrous oxide (N2 O) and ammonia (NH3 ) emissions. Leaching and gaseous losses of N are greatly controlled by the net rate of microbial nitrification. Extensive experiments have been conducted to develop ways to inhibit this process through use of nitrification inhibitors (NI) in combination with fertilizers. Yet, no study has comprehensively assessed how inhibiting nitrification affects both hydrologic and gaseous losses of N and plant nitrogen use efficiency. We synthesized the results of 62 NI field studies and evaluated how NI application altered N cycle and ecosystem services in N-enriched systems. Our results showed that inhibiting nitrification by NI application increased NH3 emission (mean: 20%, 95% confidential interval: 33-67%), but reduced dissolved inorganic N leaching (-48%, -56% to -38%), N2 O emission (-44%, -48% to -39%) and NO emission (-24%, -38% to -8%). This amounted to a net reduction of 16.5% in the total N release to the environment. Inhibiting nitrification also increased plant N recovery (58%, 34-93%) and productivity of grain (9%, 6-13%), straw (15%, 12-18%), vegetable (5%, 0-10%) and pasture hay (14%, 8-20%). The cost and benefit analysis showed that the economic benefit of reducing N's environmental impacts offsets the cost of NI application. Applying NI along with N fertilizer could bring additional revenues of $163 ha(-1)  yr(-1) for a maize farm, equivalent to 8.95% increase in revenues. Our findings showed that NIs could create a win-win scenario that reduces the negative impact of N leaching and greenhouse gas production, while increases the agricultural output. However, NI's potential negative impacts, such as increase in NH3 emission and the risk of NI contamination, should be fully considered before large-scale application. PMID:25380547

  2. Enalapril and moexipril protect from free radical-induced neuronal damage in vitro and reduce ischemic brain injury in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Ravati, A; Junker, V; Kouklei, M; Ahlemeyer, B; Culmsee, C; Krieglstein, J

    1999-05-28

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been demonstrated to protect spontaneously hypertensive rats from cerebral ischemia. The present study investigated the protective effect of enalapril and moexipril in models of permanent focal cerebral ischemia in normotensive mice and rats. To elucidate the mechanism of neuroprotection the influence of these angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on glutamate-, staurosporine- or Fe2+/3+-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and neuronal cell death in primary cultures from chick embryo telencephalons was studied. Treatment with moexipril or enalapril dose-dependently reduced the percentage of damaged neurons, as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation induced by glutamate, staurosporine or Fe2+/3+. Furthermore, moexipril and enalapril attenuated staurosporine-induced neuronal apoptosis as determined by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258. In mice, 1 h pretreatment with enalapril (0.03 mg/kg) or moexipril (0.3 mg/kg) significantly reduced brain damage after focal ischemia as compared to control animals. Additionally, moexipril (0.01 mg/kg) was able to reduce the infarct volume in the rat model after focal cerebral ischemia. The results of the present study indicate that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors enalapril and moexipril promote neuronal survival due to radical scavenging properties. PMID:10408248

  3. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for effective measures can be taken to prevent clinical nephropathies.

  4. Economic and environmental impacts of conventional and reduced-impact logging in Tropical South America: a comparative review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick Boltz; Thomas P. Holmes; Douglas R. Carter

    2003-01-01

    Indicators of environmental impact and financial performance are compared for case studies of tropical forest logging from the Brazilian Amazon, Guyana, and Ecuador. Each case study presents parameters obtained from monitoring initial harvest entries into primary forests for planned, reduced-impact logging (RIL) and unplanned, conventional logging (CL) operations. Differences in cost definitions and data collection protocols complicate the comparative analysis,

  5. Overview of Mercury Methylation Capacities among Anaerobic Bacteria Including Representatives of the Sulphate-Reducers: Implications for Environmental Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ranchou-Peyruse; M. Monperrus; R. Bridou; R. Duran; D. Amouroux; J. C. Salvado; R. Guyoneaud

    2009-01-01

    Mercury methylation has been extensively reported in the literature among “Firmicutes” and “Proteobacteria.” Nevertheless, results are hardly comparable because of differences in initial inorganic mercury concentrations used. The use of stable isotopic tracers now permits to study mercury transformations at concentrations close to environmental levels. Here, several strains, including strict fermentative and sulphate-reducing bacteria, were tested for their mercury methylation

  6. GENUS- AND GROUP-SPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION PROBES FOR DETERMINATIVE AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of six oligonucleotides, complementary to conserved tracts of 16S rRNA from phylogenetically-defined groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was characterized for use as hybridization probes in determinative and environmental microbiology. our probes were genus specific and id...

  7. Vegetative environmental buffers and exhaust fan deflectors for reducing downwind odor and VOCs from tunnel-ventilated swine barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have investigated methods for reducing odor emissions from livestock buildings for decades, yet few technologies have proven effective. Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEB), which are specially designed combinations of trees, shrubs and grasses, have shown promise in recent years for r...

  8. The relationship between environmental exposures to phthalates and DNA damage in human sperm using the neutral comet assay.

    PubMed Central

    Duty, Susan M; Singh, Narendra P; Silva, Manori J; Barr, Dana B; Brock, John W; Ryan, Louise; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C; Hauser, Russ

    2003-01-01

    Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laboratory provided a semen and a urine sample. Eight phthalate metabolites were measured in urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; data were corrected for urine dilution by adjusting for specific gravity. The neutral single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used to measure DNA integrity in sperm. VisComet image analysis software was used to measure comet extent, a measure of total comet length (micrometers); percent DNA in tail (tail%), a measure of the proportion of total DNA present in the comet tail; and tail distributed moment (TDM), an integrated measure of length and intensity (micrometers). For an interquartile range increase in specific gravity-adjusted monoethyl phthalate (MEP) level, the comet extent increased significantly by 3.6 micro m [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.74-6.47]; the TDM also increased 1.2 micro m (95% CI, -0.05 to 2.38) but was of borderline significance. Monobutyl, monobenzyl, monomethyl, and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalates were not significantly associated with comet assay parameters. In conclusion, this study represents the first human data to demonstrate that urinary MEP, at environmental levels, is associated with increased DNA damage in sperm. PMID:12842768

  9. Accelerated Repair and Reduced Mutagenicity of DNA Damage Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Human Bronchial Cells Transfected with E.coli Formamidopyrimidine DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Foresta, Mara; Izzotti, Alberto; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Poggi, Alessandro; Vecchio, Donatella; Frosina, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP). Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na+K+-ATPase locus (ouar) were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells’ capacity to repair damaged DNA. PMID:24498234

  10. Reduced red blood cell membrane damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats supplemented with roselle (UKMR-2) calyx extract.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, J; Wen, H K; Idris, M H M; Zainalabidin, S; Budin, S B

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of roselle on the membrane composition of red blood cells. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250 g) were divided randomly into four groups. Diabetic rats were induced streptozotocin (45 mg kg(-1), i.v). The normal and diabetes groups were administrated with distilled water. The other normal and diabetes group were administrated with roselle aqueous extracts (100 mg kg(-1)). After 28 days, the blood was drawn by sinus orbital for biochemical tests including membrane total protein, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine and morphology of red blood cells was carried out through light microscope. In diabetic rats, the result showed the weight of rat, membrane total protein and Phosphatidylcholine (PCh) were significantly lower (p<0.05), while blood glucose and membrane cholesterol showed significantly higher (p<0.05) than control rats. In diabetic rats demonstrated with roselle, the result showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in weight and blood glucose compared to diabetic rats. The membrane total protein and PCh were significantly higher (p<0.05) than diabetic rats, whereas membrane cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to diabetic rats. The observation red blood cells morphology that showed echinocytes, schistocytes and Heinz body in diabetic rats was caused by oxidative stress damage. The morphology of red blood cells in diabetic rats supplemented with roselle is normal. Aqueous extract of roselle showed potential protective effects on membrane composition of damaged red blood cells. PMID:26031001

  11. Unilateral nephrectomy 24 hours after bilateral kidney irradiation reduces damage to the function and structure of the remaining kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Z.X.; Travis, E.L. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The effect of unilateral nephrectomy 24 h after irradiation on renal function and death with renal insufficiency as well as histopathological changes in the kidney was assessed. Single doses totaling 8-18 Gy were given bilaterally to unanesthetized female and male C3Hf/Kam mice. Renal function damage was assayed by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and hematocrit (Hct). Histological damage was quantified by two parameters: kidney area and number of surviving tubule cells along the renal capsule. The number of glomeruli was scored as an indication of the number of nephrons. Changes in the two functional parameters did not appear sooner after irradiation in the nephrectomized mice than in the non-nephrectomized mice. Rather, less impairment of function was measured by both parameters in the nephrectomized mice but only after radiation doses greater than 12 Gy. The LD{sub 50} at 424 days after irradiation was also higher in the nephrectomized mice than in the mice receiving only irradiation, 13.98 Gy (95% confidence limits = 12.03, 15.93) and 11.71 Gy (95% confidence limits = 10.4, 13.1), respectively, in agreement with the data on function. Unilateral nephrectomy alone induced a 10% increase in size of the contralateral kidney. The dose-response curve for the kidney area from nephrectomized mice was parallel to and displaced above that for non-nephrectomized mice, indicating that the increase in renal mass occurred independent of and was not compromised by radiation. Unilateral nephrectomy alone induced no increase in the number of proximal tubules in the contralateral kidney. 30 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Inefficient replication reduces RecA-mediated repair of UV-damaged plasmids introduced into competent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jeiranian, H A; Courcelle, C T; Courcelle, J

    2012-09-01

    Transformation of Escherichia coli with purified plasmids containing DNA damage is frequently used as a tool to characterize repair pathways that operate on chromosomes. In this study, we used an assay that allowed us to quantify plasmid survival and to compare how efficiently various repair pathways operate on plasmid DNA introduced into cells relative to their efficiency on chromosomal DNA. We observed distinct differences between the mechanisms operating on the transforming plasmid DNA and the chromosome. An average of one UV-induced lesion was sufficient to inactivate ColE1-based plasmids introduced into nucleotide excision repair mutants, suggesting an essential role for repair on newly introduced plasmid DNA. By contrast, the absence of RecA, RecF, RecBC, RecG, or RuvAB had a minimal effect on the survival of the transforming plasmid DNA containing UV-induced damage. Neither the presence of an endogenous homologous plasmid nor the induction of the SOS response enhanced the survival of transforming plasmids. Using two-dimensional agarose-gel analysis, both replication- and RecA-dependent structures that were observed on established, endogenous plasmids following UV-irradiation, failed to form on UV-irradiated plasmids introduced into E. coli. We interpret these observations to suggest that the lack of RecA-mediated survival is likely to be due to inefficient replication that occurs when plasmids are initially introduced into cells, rather than to the plasmid's size, the absence of homologous sequences, or levels of recA expression. PMID:22542622

  13. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave, risk of mortality was higher in the black community, and in those living in certain types of low-income and multi-tenant housing. Interventions in the built environment to promote urban heat island mitigation can reduce ambient temperatures, potentially reducing heat-related mortality rates in vulnerable populations, electricity consumption and air pollutant emissions, and slow ozone formation, an important health stressor. These mitigation measures may also serve as adaptive responses for a range of potential future climate conditions. Here we review current research that assesses the health, air quality, and energy conservation benefits in cities from these interventions in the built environment, and discuss the techniques and research objectives of a new pilot community-based project to mitigate the heat island effect in the South Bronx, New York City through implementation of vegetated and high albedo roofing on residential and institutional buildings. Recent studies use mesoscale climate models and a variety of land-use and land-cover scenarios to project the effects of increasing vegetative fraction and albedo within metropolitan regions and to evaluate the impacts of measures that may serve both as adaptive responses to current conditions and mitigation for future climate variability. Through this perspective, we address the questions: What urban design approaches make for resilient cities in a changing environment? What costs and benefits may be expected by the adoption of heat island mitigation techniques within the New York metropolitan region?

  14. Application of drag-reducing polymer solutions as test fluids for in vitro evaluation of potential blood damage in blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V

    2010-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood. PMID:20019596

  15. Reduced ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human skin with topical application of a photolyase-containing DNA repair enzyme cream: clues to skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, Enzo; Bertona, Marco; Altabas, Karmela; Altabas, Velimir; Emanuele, Enzo

    2012-02-01

    The exposure of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in the formation of DNA photolesions that give rise to photoaging, mutations, cell death and the onset of carcinogenic events. Photolyase (EC 4.1.99.3) is a DNA repair enzyme that reverses damage caused by exposure to UVR. We sought to investigate whether addition of photolyase enhances the protection provided by a traditional sunscreen (SS), by reducing the in vivo formation of cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and UVR-induced apoptosis in human skin. Ten volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin type II) were exposed to solar-simulated (ss) UVR at a three times minimal erythema dose for 4 consecutive days. Thirty minutes prior to each exposure, the test materials [vehicle, SS (sun protection factor 50) alone, and SS plus photolyase from Anacystis nidulans] were applied topically to three different sites. One additional site was left untreated and one received ssUVR only. Biopsy specimens were taken 72 h after the last irradiation. The amount of CPDs and the extent of apoptosis were measured by ELISA. Photolyase plus SS was superior to SS alone in reducing both the formation of CPDs and apoptotic cell death (both P<0.001). In conclusion, the addition of photolyase to a traditional SS contributes significantly to the prevention of UVR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis when applied topically to human skin. PMID:22086236

  16. From rum jungle to Wismut-reducing the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Zuk; R. A. Jeffree; D. M. Levins

    1994-01-01

    Australia has a long history of uranium mining. In the early days, little attention was given to environmental matters and considerable pollution occurred. Ansto has been involved in rehabilitation of a number of the early uranium mining sites, from Rum Jungle in Australia`s Northern Territory to Wismut in Germany, and is working with current producers to minimise the environmental impact

  17. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  18. Melatonin prevents oxidative damage induced by maternal ethanol administration and reduces homocysteine in the cerebellum of rat pups.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Farzaneh; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcoholism leads to elevated plasma and brain homocysteine (Hcy) levels, as demonstrated by animal experiments. This study was designed to evaluate the alterations in offspring rat cerebellum following increase of plasma Hcy level induced by maternal exposure to ethanol and to investigate the possible protective role of melatonin administration upon cerebellar ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. The adult female rats were divided randomly into 4 groups, including one control and three experimental groups, after vaginal plagues. Group I received normal saline, group II received ethanol (4g/kg), group III received ethanol+melatonin (10mg/kg) and group IV received melatonin on day 6 of gestation until weaning. 21 days after birth, plasma Hcy level, level of lipid peroxidation, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and levels of bcl-2 and bax mRNA expression in cerebellum were determined. Our results demonstrated that ethanol could induce lipid peroxidation, and decrease antioxidants activities and increase plasma total Hcy level. We also observed that ethanol impaired performance on the rotarod and locomotor activities of rats. However, treatment with melatonin significantly attenuated motoric impairment, the lipid peroxidation process and restored the levels of antioxidant activities and significantly reduced plasma total Hcy levels. Moreover, melatonin reduced bax/bcl-2 ratio in the presence of ethanol. We conclude that these results provide evidence that ethanol neurotoxicity in part is related to increase of plasma Hcy levels and melatonin with reducing of plasma Hcy level has neuroprotective effects against ethanol toxicity in cerebellum. PMID:25797213

  19. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Bitumen Extraction with ES-SAGD Process 

    E-print Network

    Mukhametshina, Albina

    2013-11-08

    Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is a proven enhanced oil recovery technique for oil sand extraction. However, the environmental and economic challenges associated with excessive greenhouse gas emissions due to the combustion of significant...

  20. Olive oil reduces oxidative damage in a 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like rat model.

    PubMed

    Tasset, I; Pontes, A J; Hinojosa, A J; de la Torre, R; Túnez, I

    2011-05-01

    Free radicals contribute to altered neuronal functions in neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging, by producing lipid- and other molecule-dependent modifications. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of neurodegenerative disease. This study sought to verify whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) exerted a brain antioxidant effect, protecting the brain against the oxidative stress caused by 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP). 3NP was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight over four consecutive days. EVOO (representing 10% of calorie intake in the total standard daily diet of rats) and hydroxytyrosol (HT; 2.5 mg/kg body weight) were administered for 14 days. In all studied samples, 3NP caused a rise in lipid peroxides (LPO) and a reduction in glutathione (GSH) content. While the results showed that EVOO and HT reduces lipid peroxidation product levels and blocks the GSH depletion prompted by 3NP in both striatum and rest of the brain in Wistar rats. In addition, EVOO blocks and reverses the effect of 3NP on succinate dehydrogenase activity. In brief, the data obtained indicate that EVOO and HT act as a powerful brain antioxidant. PMID:21756531

  1. False Recall Is Reduced by Damage to the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex: Implications for Understanding the Neural Correlates of Schematic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Samuel H.; Duff, Melissa C.; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the “false memory effect” of the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

  2. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Deletion Leads to Progressive Hypertension, Associated Organ Damage, and Reduced Survival: Novel Model for Human Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Holditch, Sara J; Schreiber, Claire A; Nini, Ryan; Tonne, Jason M; Peng, Kah-Whye; Geurts, Aron; Jacob, Howard J; Burnett, John C; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Altered myocardial structure and function, secondary to chronically elevated blood pressure, are leading causes of heart failure and death. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a guanylyl cyclase A agonist, is a cardiac hormone integral to cardiovascular regulation. Studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between reduced production or impaired BNP release and the development of human hypertension. However, the consequences of BNP insufficiency on blood pressure and hypertension-associated complications remain poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create and characterize a novel model of BNP deficiency to investigate the effects of BNP absence on cardiac and renal structure, function, and survival. Genetic BNP deletion was generated in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Compared with age-matched controls, BNP knockout rats demonstrated adult-onset hypertension. Increased left ventricular mass with hypertrophy and substantially augmented hypertrophy signaling pathway genes, developed in young adult knockout rats, which preceded hypertension. Prolonged hypertension led to increased cardiac stiffness, cardiac fibrosis, and thrombi formation. Significant elongation of the QT interval was detected at 9 months in knockout rats. Progressive nephropathy was also noted with proteinuria, fibrosis, and glomerular alterations in BNP knockout rats. End-organ damage contributed to a significant decline in overall survival. Systemic BNP overexpression reversed the phenotype of genetic BNP deletion. Our results demonstrate the critical role of BNP defect in the development of systemic hypertension and associated end-organ damage in adulthood. PMID:26063669

  3. The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways

    PubMed Central

    Goti?, Marijan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution. PMID:24822073

  4. Role of controlled cardiac reoxygenation in reducing nitric oxide production and cardiac oxidant damage in cyanotic infantile hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, K; Ihnken, K; Buckberg, G D; Sherman, M P; Young, H H; Ignarro, L J

    1994-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used increasingly to correct cyanotic heart defects during early infancy, but myocardial dysfunction is often seen after surgical repair. This study evaluates whether starting CPB at a conventional, hyperoxic pO2 causes an "unintentional" reoxygenation (ReO2) injury. We subjected 2-wk-old piglets to ventilator hypoxemia (FIO2 approximately 0.06, pO2 approximately 25 mmHg) followed by 5 min of ReO2 on CPB before instituting cardioplegia. CPB was begun in hypoxemic piglets by either abrupt ReO2 at a pO2 of 400 mmHg (standard clinical practice) or by maintaining pO2 approximately 25 mmHg on CPB until controlling ReO2 with blood cardioplegic arrest. The effects of abrupt vs. gradual ReO2 without surgical ischemia (blood cardioplegia) were also compared. Myocardial nitric oxide (NO) production (chemiluminescence measurements of NO2- + NO3-) and conjugated diene (CD) generation (spectrophotometric A233 measurements of lipid extracts) using aortic and coronary sinus blood samples were assessed during cardioplegic induction. 30 min after CPB, left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees, catheter conductance method) was used to determine cardiac function. CPB and blood cardioplegic arrest caused no functional or biochemical change in normoxic (control) hearts. Abrupt ReO2 caused a depression of myocardial function (Ees = 25 +/- 5% of control). Functional depression was relatively unaffected by gradual ReO2 without blood cardioplegia (34% recovery of Ees), and abrupt ReO2 immediately before blood cardioplegia caused a 10-fold rise in cardiac NO and CD production, with subsequent depression of myocardial function (Ees 21 +/- 2% of control). In contrast, controlled cardiac ReO2 reduced NO production 94%, CD did not rise, and Ees was 83 +/- 8% of normal. We conclude ReO2 injury is related to increased NO production during abrupt ReO2, nullifies the cardioprotective effects of blood cardioplegia, and that controlled cardiac ReO2 when starting CPB to correct cyanotic heart defects may reduce NO production and improve myocardial status postoperatively. Images PMID:8201004

  5. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) reduces urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Janaína P; Pereira, Denyson S; Matos, Alexandre S; Santana, Danielle G; Santos, Cliomar A; Estevam, Charles S; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100-400?mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100-400?mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100?mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400?mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  6. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400?mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx? were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400?mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx? induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100?mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400?mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  7. The Xerophyta viscosa aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) confers enhanced drought and salinity tolerance to transgenic tobacco plants by scavenging methylglyoxal and reducing the membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Preeti; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Hohn, Thomas; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2013-06-01

    We report the efficacy of an aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) enzyme from Xerophyta viscosa Baker in enhancing the prospects of plant's survival under abiotic stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing ALDRXV4 cDNA showed alleviation of NaCl and mannitol-induced abiotic stress. The transgenic plants survived longer periods of water deficiency and salinity stress and exhibited improved recovery after rehydration as compared to the wild type plants. The increased synthesis of aldose reductase in transgenic plants correlated with reduced methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde accumulation and an elevated level of sorbitol under stress conditions. In addition, the transgenic lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency, less electrolyte damage, greater water retention, higher proline accumulation, and favorable ionic balance under stress conditions. Together, these findings suggest the potential of engineering aldose reductase levels for better performance of crop plants growing under drought and salt stress conditions. PMID:22678928

  8. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor-1 Antagonism Reduces Oxidative Damage in an Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cheng; Kuo, Ching-Chang; Moghadam, Setareh H.; Monte, Louise; Rice, Kenner C.; Rissman, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Reports from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker work have shown a strong link between oxidative stress and AD neuropathology. The nonenzymatic antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), plays a crucial role in defense against reactive oxygen species and maintenance of GSH redox homeostasis. In particular, our previous studies on GSH redox imbalance have implicated oxidative stress induced by excessive reactive oxygen species as a major mediator of AD-like events, with the presence of S-glutathionylated proteins (Pr-SSG) appearing prior to overt AD neuropathology. Furthermore, evidence suggests that oxidative stress may be associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to activation of inflammatory pathways and increased production of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Therefore, to investigate whether oxidative insults can be attenuated by reduction of central CRF signaling, we administered the type-1 CRF receptor (CRFR1) selective antagonist, R121919, to AD-transgenic mice beginning in the preclinical/prepathologic period (30-day-old) for 150 days, a timepoint where behavioral impairments and pathologic progression should be measureable. Our results indicate that R121919 treatment can significantly reduce Pr-SSG levels and increase glutathione peroxide activity, suggesting that interference of CRFR1 signaling may be useful as a preventative therapy for combating oxidative stress in AD. PMID:25649650

  9. Accumulation of DNA damage and reduced levels of nicotine adenine dinucleotide in the brains of Atm-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Stern, Nora; Hochman, Ayala; Zemach, Naty; Weizman, Nir; Hammel, Ilan; Shiloh, Yosef; Rotman, Galit; Barzilai, Ari

    2002-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a human genetic disorder caused by mutational inactivation of the ATM gene. A-T patients display a pleiotropic phenotype, in which a major neurological feature is progressive ataxia due to degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje and granule neurons. Disruption of the mouse Atm locus creates a murine model of A-T that exhibits most of the clinical and cellular features of the human disease, but the neurological phenotype is barely expressed. We present evidence for the accumulation of DNA strand breaks in the brains of Atm(-/-), supporting the notion that ATM plays a major role in maintaining genomic stability. We also show a perturbation of the steady state levels of pyridine nucleotides. There is a significant decrease in both the reduced and the oxidized forms of NAD and in the total levels of NADP(T) and NADP(+) in the brains of Atm(-/-) mice. The changes in NAD(T), NADH, NAD(+), NADP(T), and NADP(+) were progressive and observed primarily in the cerebellum of 4-month-old Atm(-/-) mice. Higher rates of mitochondrial respiration were also recorded in 4-month-old Atm(-/-) cerebella. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that absence of functional ATM results in continuous stress, which may be an important cause of the degeneration of cerebellar neurons in A-T. PMID:11679583

  10. Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions: Environmental Factors Characterization and Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Ruiz, Melany; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and is referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. An Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium named A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, has been identified as being responsible for the Feammox process(1, 2) Feammox process was noted in riparian wetland soils in New Jersey(1,3), in tropical rainforest soils in Puerto Rico (4) and in paddy soils in China (5). In addition to these published locations, Feammox process was also found in samples collected from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments in New Jersey, river sediments from South Carolina, and forested soils near an acid mine drainage (Dabaoshan, Guangdong province) in China. Using primers acm342f - 439r (2), Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in samples where Feammox was observed, after strictly anaerobic incubations. According to a canonical correspondence analysis with environmental characteristics and soil microbial communities, the species-environment relationship indicated that pH and Fe oxides content were the primary factors controlling Feammox process. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. No correlation was found between the distributions of Feammox bacteria and other NH4+ oxidation bacteria. Pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain was isolated in an autotrophic medium, from an active Feammox membrane reactor (A6 was enriched to 65.8% of the total bacteria). A 13C labeled CO2 amendment was conducted, and the 13C in cells of A6 increased from 1.80% to 10.3% after 14 days incubation. In a separate incubation, 15NH4Cl was added with a final concentration of 0.5 mmol L-1, and 0.133 mmol L-1 of 15NO2- was detected, while no 15NO3- was produced. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 were then grown in Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs). While being gently shaken, with a voltage input of 0.7V and a 10? resistance between the anode and cathode, the MECs produce currents, increasing from 0.1?A up to ~35?A while NH4+ was available in the medium. Up to 105 copies of DNA/ml have been detected in liquid medium after 3 weeks of operation. Hence, MECs represent an alternative, iron-free form, for optimized biomass production of pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6. References 1. Clement J.C., Shrestha J., Ehrenfeld J.G., Jaffé P.R., 2005. Soil Biol Biochem 37:2323-2328. 2. Huang S., and Jaffé P.R., 2014. Biogeosciences Discussions 11, 12295-12321 3. Shrestha J., Rich J., Ehrenfeld J., Jaffé P.R., 2009. Soil Sci. 174:156-164. 4. Yang W.H., Weber K.A., Silver W.L., 2012. Nat Geosc 5: 538-541. 5. Ding L.J., An X.L., Li S., Zhang G.L., Zhu Y.G., 2014. Environ Sci Technol. 48:10641-7

  11. Reduced cancer rates in agricultural workers: a benefit of environmental and occupational endotoxin exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Lange

    2000-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested reduced cancer rates in workers employed in agricultural industries. Traditionally, these observations have been attributed to low tobacco consumption and the healthy worker effect(s). Recent investigations have suggested that endotoxin may be responsible for reducing lung cancer rates in various occupational groups. Endotoxin anticancer properties are believed to be mediated through immunological mechanisms. This paper

  12. Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : IV. Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T P; Crump, D R; Sullivan, D S

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the major anal-gland compounds from the stoat (Mustela erminea) and ferret (M. putorius) in generating an avoidance response by northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) in tree fruit orchards in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada. A secondary objective assessed the impact of additional predator odors on gopher avoidance behavior in laboratory bioassays. In field bioassays, a 1: 1 mixture of 2-propylthietane and 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane, as well as 3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dithiolane, placed in gopher burrows did not reduce the number of gophers colonizing treatment versus control grids in orchard blocks. However, these predator gophers did dramatically alter the distribution of gophers. Significantly more gophers were captured at perimeter than nonperimeter trap stations on treatment versus control grids in two of three orchards. In all orchards, significantly more gophers were captured at perimeter stations after the predator odors had been placed in burrows than prior to the start of the experiment. Gophers clearly avoided 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a component of fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces, but did not avoid 2,2-dimethylthietane from the mink (M. vison) or 3-methyl-3-butenyl methyl sulfide from fox urine in laboratory bioassays. Poor avoidance was also recorded for 3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dithiolane, although this may be due to the state of polymerization of this compound. An improved formulation is required to dispense these semiochemicals in controlled-release devices within orchards and other forest-agricultural areas. PMID:24277016

  13. Environmental Fiscal Reform in Namibia – a potential approach to reduce poverty?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Sahlén

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the likely effects of an environmental fiscal reform in Namibia are examined using a Computable General Equilibrium model. Namibia is a natural resource rich country with poverty alleviation as one important target on the policy agenda. One way for the government of simultaneously ensuring both a sustainable use of the resources and a less skewed income distribution

  14. Consumer acceptability of cucumber pickles produced by fermentation in calcium chloride brine for reduced environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride brine is proposed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products will be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumb...

  15. Limitations on the effectiveness of environmental improvement in reducing stereotypic behaviour in bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Cooper; Frank Ödberg; Christine J. Nicol

    1996-01-01

    Bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from three age groups were transferred from conditions in which stereotypic behaviour reliably developed to conditions in which stereotypies rarely developed, to test if environmentally induced stereotypies become independent of their causal factors. Forty-eight voles were used, aged 2 months (Young: n = 18); 6 months (Mid: n = 14); and 14 months (Old; n =

  16. Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, David; Wallinga, David

    2004-01-01

    Animal agriculture in the United States for the most part has industrialized, with negative consequences for air and water quality and antibiotic use. We consider health and environmental impacts of current US swine production and give an overview of current federal, state, and local strategies being used to address them. PMID:15451736

  17. FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: REDUCING WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COST IN THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents the economics of wastewater reduction and materials recovery technologies in the electroplating industry. t serves as a companion publication to the Environmental Regulations and Technology document covering the same industry (625/10-85/001a). apital and op...

  19. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham D. Fairhurst; Matthew D. Frey; James F. Reichert; Izabela Szelest; Debbie M. Kelly; Gary R. Bortolotti; Peter Csermely

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be

  20. Management technologies can reduce the environmental risk of pesticides in agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide use in agriculture, the potential risk posed by pesticides when they are transported beyond the intended target, and their effects on human and environmental health have been of public concern for many years. We utilized 5 years of field data, quantifying pesticide transport with runoff fr...

  1. Continuous hemodiafiltration therapy reduces damage of multi-organs by ameliorating of HMGB1/TLR4/NF?B in a dog sepsis model

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Shi, Shaolan; Wang, Qun; Yu, Kezhou; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether CVVH can reduce HMGB1, TLR4, NF-?B and other serum cytokine levels, preventing organ injury in a dog sepsis model. A total of 10 dogs were injected with LPS and treated with either CVVH group (n = 5) or nothing (Control, n = 5) for 24 h. EILSA was used for examining the concentration of TNF-?, IL-6, HMGB 1 and TLR4. The histological change of lung, liver and kidney tissues was determined. The mRNA expression of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF-?B was examined by RT-PCR. The protein of HMGB1 and phosphated NF-?B was examined by Western-blot. The levels of serum HMGB1 came to the peak at 8 h, 16 h and then declined. The LPS-induced increase in HMGB1 level was suppressed by CVVH compared with Control. Likewise, serum TNF-? and IL-6 levels decreased with CVVH along with a significant improvement in the function of main organs. Histologic examination revealed significant reduction in inflammation in lung; liver and kidney tissues harvested 24 h after CVVH compared with Control. The mRNA of HMGB1, TLR4 and NF-?B in the kidney was expressed at high level after LPS administration, which was significantly decreased by CVVH. The increased protein expression of HMGB1 and phosphated NF-?B was reduced after CVVH compared with control. CVVH by reducing the level of HMGB1, TLR4, NF-?B and other cytokines could weaken the cascade of cytokines and restore the immune system, and reduce the damage of important organs in sepsis. PMID:25973040

  2. An Effective, Economical Method of Reducing Environmental Noise in the Vivarium

    PubMed Central

    Young, Maggie T; French, Alan L; Clymer, Jeffrey W

    2011-01-01

    High levels of ambient noise can have detrimental effects on laboratory animal wellbeing and may affect experimental results. In addition, excessive noise can reduce technician comfort and performance. This study was performed to determine whether inexpensive, passive acoustic noise abatement measures could meaningfully reduce noise levels. Sound level measurements for various activities were obtained in the incoming processing room for pigs before and after installing gypsum acoustic paneling, covering metal-to-metal contact points with strips of adhesive-backed rubber, and replacing hard plastic wheels on transport carts with neoprene wheels. The modifications reduced the overall average noise level by 8.1 dB. Average noise levels for each activity were all less than 85 dB after the modifications. Average noise levels can be reduced effectively and economically with passive abatement methods. Intermittent spikes in noise are more difficult to control and may require attention to the individual activity. PMID:21838981

  3. Surf City and North Topsail Beach North Carolina, Coastal Storm Damage Reduction; Integrated Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement FINAL USACE Response to Independent External Peer Review Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement. The Final Report from IEPR was issued 16 April 2010

  4. Biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Amazon region - the situation of contemporary period and strategies for reduce these environmental changes

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Aquino, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.

    1997-12-31

    The forest removal is a major contributor to local, regional and global environmental changes. Many of the tropical`s species are gravely threatened Numerous studies suggest that from 1970 to 1990 between 5 and 20 percent of the tropical`s species were committed to extinction. In 1995, the deforested lands in Brazilian Amazon account an amount Superior to 470,000 Km{sup 2}, old deforestation included, for a total surface of tropical`s rain forest of 3.4 and 3.8 million square kilometres. In 1990`s, the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere (as CO{sub 2}) from Brazilian Amazon deforestation was 3.5 % to 4.9 % and 250 % to 360 % of the World and Brazilian annual emission from fossil fuels, respectively. On the other hand, if deforestation is stopped and replaced with a rational forest management, a reuse of degraded lands for agro-forestry and biomass production for energy and industrial purposes, we can reduce the pressure on forests lands and the net carbon flux will be reversed. In this paper, we discuss the relations with biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region in the last thirty years and find suggest the principal`s strategies to reduce this environmental`s destruction.

  5. Xanthohumol, a main prenylated chalcone from hops, reduces liver damage and modulates oxidative reaction and apoptosis in hepatitis C virus infected Tupaia belangeri.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingbo; Li, Na; Li, Fang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Xi; Han, Qunying; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Cuiling; Liu, Zhengwen

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tupaia belangeri (Tupaia) represents an important model of HCV infection. Xanthohumol (XN), a major prenylated chalcone from hops, has various biological activities including hepatopreventive and anti-viral activities. In this study, Tupaias infected with HCV RNA positive serum were used to evaluate the effects of XN on liver damage, oxidative reaction, apoptosis and viral protein expression in liver tissues. The Tupaias inoculated with HCV positive serum had elevated serum aminotransferase levels and inflammation, especially hepatic steatosis, and HCV core protein expression in liver tissue. In the animals inoculated with HCV positive serum, XN significantly decreased aminotransferase levels, histological activity index, hepatic steatosis score and transforming growth factor ?1 expression in liver tissue compared with the animals without XN intervention. XN reduced HCV core protein expression in liver tissue compared with those without XN intervention but the difference was not significant. XN significantly decreased malondialdehyde, potentiated superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced Bax expression, promoted Bcl-xL and inhibited caspase 3 activity in liver tissues compared with the animals without XN intervention. These results indicate that XN may effectively improve hepatic inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis induced by HCV in Tupaias primarily through inhibition of oxidative reaction and regulation of apoptosis and possible suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation. The anti-HCV potential of XN needs further investigation. PMID:23669332

  6. Children’s health benefits of reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure: evidence from parents who smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Agee; Thomas D. Crocker

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 1991 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey to estimate propositions derived from a model\\u000a of intrahousehold allocation, wherein parents engage in a consumption activity (smoking) that produces own utility, while\\u000a generating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) that harms their children’s health. We find a statistically significant negative\\u000a association between sample mothers‘ assessed health of their

  7. Reduced Antimicrobial Potencies of Oxytetracycline, Tylosin, Sulfadiazin, Streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin, and Olaquindox Due to Environmental Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Halling-Sørensen; G. Sengeløv; F. Ingerslev; L. B. Jensen

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox\\u000a (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds\\u000a were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST, and CF) and anaerobic experiments (OTC, TYL, and O) using analytical measurements\\u000a (UV spectrophotometry or HPLC) combined with a

  8. Evaluation of distributed environmental control systems for improving IAQ and reducing energy consumption in office buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dustin W. Demetriou; H. Ezzat Khalifa

    2009-01-01

    Conventional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are incapable of providing control over individual\\u000a environments or adjusting fresh air supply based on the dynamic occupancy of individual rooms in an office building. This\\u000a paper introduces the concept of distributed environmental control systems (DECS) and shows that improvement in indoor air\\u000a quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency can be achieved by

  9. Environmental control in tea fields to reduce infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, T; Nonaka, T; Nishi, Y; Arai, K

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial shoot blight (BSB) disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae, is a major bacterial disease of tea plants in Japan. BSB mainly occurs in the low-temperature season, and lesion formation by P. syringae pv. theae is enhanced by both low temperature and the presence of ice nucleation-active Xanthomonas campestris (INAX), which catalyzes ice formation at -2 to -4 degrees C and is frequently co-isolated with P. syringae pv. theae from tea plants. Low temperature is thus the most important environmental factor influencing the incidence of BSB; however, the effects of low temperature on infection of the host by P. syringae pv. theae and of environmental controls in fields on the occurrence of the disease are poorly understood. In this study, we show that ice formation on tea leaves by INAX enhanced P. syringae pv. theae invasion into leaf tissue. The natural incidence of BSB in the field was closely related to early autumn frost. Frost protection in late autumn, which prevented ice formation on tea plants, significantly decreased the incidence of BSB, and frost protection combined with bactericide application held the incidence under the economic threshold level. Our data indicate that environmental control in the field based on microbial interactions in the host offers a new strategy for plant disease control. PMID:19159313

  10. Roles of MgO release from polyethylene glycol 6000-based solid dispersions on microenvironmental pH, enhanced dissolution and reduced gastrointestinal damage of telmisartan.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Lee, Seung Aeon; Nho, Vo Hong; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2011-05-01

    The roles of magnesium oxide (MgO) release from solid dispersions (SDs) in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and water were investigated to elucidate the enhanced dissolution and reduced intestinal damages of telmisartan as a model drug. The polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used to prepare the SDs. Three SDs were prepared: SD1 (PEG, MgO, TEL), SD2 (PEG 6000, TEL), SD3 (MgO, TEL). The physical mixture (PM) consisting of SD2 and MgO was also prepared. A binary SD without MgO (SD2) was also prepared for comparison in microenvironmental pH (pH(M)) modulation. The faster MgO released, the less control of pH(M) and the less enhanced dissolution of TEL were in consequences. SD3 increased dissolution in SIF and water (about 67%). Interestingly, ternary SD1 showed almost complete dissolution in all three media but dissolution of PM was the lowest due to the fast release of MgO and poor modulation of pH(M). MgO did not change the drug crystallinity but did have a strong molecular interaction with the drug. Additionally, the SD3-bearing tablet quickly increased pH(M) but then gradually decreased due to faster release of MgO while the SD1-bearing tablet gradually increased pH(M) at all fractional dimensions of the tablet by the MgO slowly released. The pH(M) of PM-bearing tablets was not varied as a function of time. Thus, the MgO-bearing SD1 also minimized gastrointestinal tissue damage caused by the model drug. PMID:21656360

  11. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yingchun

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of the schematic method is validated by comparing its benchmark results on 104 chemicals with that from the conventional Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. This dissertation concludes with discussions on environmental impact assessment of nanotechnologies and sustainability management of nano-particles. As nano-manufacturing is emerging for wide industrial applications, improvement and expansion of the system approach would be valuable for use in the environmental management of nano-manufacturing and in the risk control of nano-particles in the interests of public health and the environment.

  12. DNA and chromosomal damage induced in fish (Anguilla anguilla L.) by aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)--the major environmental breakdown product of glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S; Santos, M A; Gaivão, I; Pacheco, M

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the direct impact of breakdown products of pesticide components on aquatic wildlife is ecotoxicologically relevant, but frequently disregarded. In this context, the evaluation of the genotoxic hazard posed by aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA--the major natural degradation product of glyphosate) to fish emerges as a critical but unexplored issue. Hence, the main goal of the present research was to assess the AMPA genotoxic potential to fish following short-term exposures (1 and 3 days) to environmentally realistic concentrations (11.8 and 23.6 ?g L(-1)), using the comet and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) assays, as reflecting different levels of damage, i.e. DNA and chromosomal damage, respectively. Overall, the present findings pointed out the genotoxic hazard of AMPA to fish and, subsequently, the importance of including it in future studies concerning the risk assessment of glyphosate-based herbicides in the water systems. PMID:24696215

  13. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insecticide levels and application costs supplied by 31 entomological experts, plus estimates of the other costs involved with various insect control strategies, indicate that many insect control strategies that may significantly reduce insecticide use on cotton and corn may be m...

  14. Reducing the Environmental Risk of Pesticides: Implications of Management Practices in Agricultural Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common management practice for the production of fresh-market vegetables uses polyethylene (plastic) mulch to increase soil temperature, maintain soil moisture and reduce weed pressure. However, multiple applications of fungicides and insecticides are required, and rain events afford more runoff ...

  15. Particle film mechanisms of action that reduce environmental stress in 'Empire' apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress is a limiting factor of plant productivity throughout the world, and kaolin-based particle films (PF) have demonstrated that the reflective nature of the resulting plant surface can increase plant productivity primarily by reducing temperature in fruit, leaf, and canopy. The purpose of ...

  16. Crystal Structure of Venus, a Yellow Fluorescent Protein with Improved Maturation and Reduced Environmental Sensitivity*

    E-print Network

    Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    Crystal Structure of Venus, a Yellow Fluorescent Protein with Improved Maturation and Reduced necessitated further mutagenesis studies of these proteins. Venus, a new variant with improved maturation the crystal structure of Venus at 2.2 Å resolution, which enabled us to correlate its novel features

  17. COULOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SULFUR AND REDUCED INORGANIC SULFUR FRACTIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of the solid-phase partitioning of sulfur is frequently an important analytical component of risk assessments at hazardous waste sites because minerals containing reduced-sulfur can significantly affect the transport and fate of organic and inorganic contaminants in na...

  18. Does environmental enrichment reduce stress? An integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers provides a novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Frey, Matthew D; Reichert, James F; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  19. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  20. Monsanto: Taking the next environmental step; New technologies are key in reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-08-03

    In meeting a 1988 pledge to reduce its worldwide air emissions 90% by the end of 1992, Monsanto completed one of the industry`s most ambitious-and costly-voluntary pollution reduction programs. After $130 million in expenditures and the completion of 250 emission reduction projects, the company had cut its worldwide air emissions 92%, to 5 million lbs, and its U.S. emissions 85%, to 2.7 million lbs. Now Monsanto is looking to take the next step by slashing emission levels of all pollutants. Monsanto has scheduled another round of deadlines that go far beyound regulatory compliance. The company plans on making further reductions, including eliminating the release of waste to underground injection wells, which will likely involve fundamental changes in technology. The company`s goal is to reduce its worldwide toxic chemical releases and transfers to less that 100 million lbs/year by 1995, down 240 million lbs for 1990`s 337 million lbs. Many of Monsanto`s efforts since it made its 1988 pledge have focused on reducing air emissions, because those emissions were the highest. While Monsanto reports about half of its air reductions come from shutdowns of inefficient processes, the 1995 reduction efforts will require increased capital investment for new processes.

  1. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  2. Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

    2003-04-01

    Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

  3. Environmental Education in Small Business: The Owner-Manager's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, environmental education has been aimed at the community or in primary schools and governmental pressure to reduce environmental damage has focussed on large businesses. More recently, the role and importance of small business and how to engage them in the environmental debate has come under scrutiny. Researchers have identified…

  4. ABSTRACT: The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hartwell

    2007-02-28

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies. Finally, the CEMP provides training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs, which help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  5. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise-management program handbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, T.D.; Shekell, T.K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  6. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R

    2011-08-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the US Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in seven isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of ?H2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis. PMID:21538559

  7. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N.; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P.; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the U.S. Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in 7 isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of ?H2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis. PMID:21538559

  8. Impairment of vitamin D metabolism due to environmental cadmium exposure, and possible relevance to sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuritani, Ikiko; Honda, Ryumon; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamada, Yuichi (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)); Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji (Chiba Univ. (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    To determine whether depleted serum 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) concentrations are associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced renal damage, the relationships between four indices of renal function and two indicators of bone metabolism, that is, serum VD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, were analyzed in 30 male and 44 female subjects exposed to environmental Cd. Also, these associations were compared in male and female subjects to evaluate sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage observed in Cd-exposed persons. Serum VD decreased significantly with declines in creatinine clearance and percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and with increases in serum creatinine and serum [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]m) concentrations in the female subjects exposed to Cd, but not in the male subjects. The correlation between serum VD and PTH levels was also significant only in the females. Correlation coefficients between serum [beta][sub 2]m and VD and those between serum PTH and VD in both sexes were significantly different. These results suggest that renal damage due to Cd exposure leads to the decreases in the serum VD level and increases in serum PTH level, and that the more marked changes in serum VD and PTH in the women may play a role in the development of sex-related differences in Cd-induced bone injury.

  9. Updated estimates of earnings benefits from reduced exposure of children to environmental lead

    SciTech Connect

    Salkever, D.S. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The recent and important study by Schwartz found that almost three-fourths of the benefits of reduced lead exposure in children are in the form of earnings gains (earnings losses avoided). New data on recent trends in returns to education and cognitive skills in the labor market suggest a need to revise this estimate upward. Based on an analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the present study estimates that an upward revision of at least 50% (or $2.5 billion per annual birth cohort) is indicated. The study also finds evidence that percentage earnings gains are considerably larger for females than for males. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Damage from dissection is associated with reduced neuro-musclar transmission and gap junction coupling between circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum, in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Simona E.; Wattchow, David A.; Spencer, Nick J.; Hibberd, Timothy J.; Brookes, Simon J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials of circular smooth muscle cells in guinea pig ileum and colon are suppressed 30–90 min after setting up in vitro preparations. We have previously shown this “unresponsive” period is associated with a transient loss of dye coupling between smooth muscle cells, which subsequently recovers over the ensuing 30–90 min; junction potentials recover in parallel with dye coupling (Carbone et al., 2012). Here, we investigated which components of dissection trigger the initial loss of coupling. Intracellular recordings were made from circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum with micropipettes containing 5% carboxyfluorescein. After allowing 90–120 min for junction potentials to reach full amplitude, we re-cut all 4 edges of the preparation more than 1 mm from the recording sites. This caused a reduction in the amplitude of IJPs from 17.2 ± 0.7 mV to 9.5 ± 1.5 mV (P < 0.001, n = 12) and a significant reduction in dye coupling. Both recovered within 60 min. We repeated this experiment (n = 4), recording both 1 and 4 mm from the cut edge: both sites were equally affected by re-cutting the sides of the preparation. Equilibrated preparations were stretched to 150% of their original length, this had no significant effect on junction potentials or dye coupling. Setting up preparations in low calcium solution did not prevent the initial suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. Application of 3 ?M indomethacin (n = 3), 10 ?M ketotifen (n = 4) or 10 ?M forskolin during dissection did not prevent the suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. If dissection damage was reduced, by leaving the mucosa and submucosa attached to the circular muscle, IJPs showed less initial suppression than in preparations where the layers were dissected off. We conclude that physical damage to the gut wall triggers loss of gap junction coupling and neuromuscular transmission, this is not due to stretch, influx of calcium ions, release of prostaglandins or mast cell degranulation. The mechanisms underlying this potent effect remain to be determined. PMID:25202280

  11. Environmentally enriched rearing environments reduce repetitive perseveration in caged mink, but increase spontaneous alternation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dana L M; Dallaire, Jamie A; Mason, Georgia J

    2013-02-15

    Studies spanning 15 species (including American mink, Neovison vison) demonstrate that within similarly-housed populations, individuals displaying high levels of stereotypic behaviour (SB) typically show perseverative responding (e.g. during set-shifting, or reversal/extinction learning). Similar correlations in autism and schizophrenia suggest this indicates captivity-induced cortico-striatal circuit dysfunction. However, this pattern does not prove developmental impairment: SB, perseveration and their inter-correlations also occur in normal humans. We therefore differentially-reared enriched versus non-enriched mink to investigate whether treatments that exacerbate SB correspondingly increase perseveration (Study 1). Enriched-rearing did reduce SB and perseverative response repetition (in two-choice guessing tasks), while increasing spontaneous alternation: a strategy yielding more rewards, and suggesting enhanced hippocampal development. This complements previous research demonstrating cortical/hippocampal impairments and reduced behavioural flexibility in non-enriched animals, with implications for research animals and wild animals captive-raised for reintroduction into nature. Consistent with previous data, highly stereotypic subjects repeated guessing task responses most rapidly, suggesting disinhibition during repetition. However, unexpectedly, SB and perseveration did not co-vary across individuals. We therefore suggest that behavioural changes manifest as increased perseveration are important but do not fully explain captive animals' SBs, possible reasons including the contributory role of differential motivations for underlying source behaviours. Re-analyses of old data (Study 2) confirmed that spontaneous alternation is profitable; and demonstrated that the precise methods used for quantifying perseveration and SB can modify the strength of apparent relationships between them, as can statistically controlling for feeding motivation: as predicted, partialling out motivational effects increased the variance in SB predicted by perseveration. PMID:23159704

  12. Multi-scale path planning for reduced environmental impact of aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Scot Edward

    A future air traffic management system capable of rerouting aircraft trajectories in real-time in response to transient and evolving events would result in increased aircraft efficiency, better utilization of the airspace, and decreased environmental impact. Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is used within a receding horizon framework to form aircraft trajectories which mitigate persistent contrail formation, avoid areas of convective weather, and seek a minimum fuel solution. Areas conducive to persistent contrail formation and areas of convective weather occur at disparate temporal and spatial scales, and thereby require the receding horizon controller to be adaptable to multi-scale events. In response, a novel adaptable receding horizon controller was developed to account for multi-scale disturbances, as well as generate trajectories using both a penalty function approach for obstacle penetration and hard obstacle avoidance constraints. A realistic aircraft fuel burn model based on aircraft data and engine performance simulations is used to form the cost function in the MILP optimization. The performance of the receding horizon algorithm is tested through simulation. A scalability analysis of the algorithm is conducted to ensure the tractability of the path planner. The adaptable receding horizon algorithm is shown to successfully negotiate multi-scale environments with performance exceeding static receding horizon solutions. The path planner is applied to realistic scenarios involving real atmospheric data. A single flight example for persistent contrail mitigation shows that fuel burn increases 1.48% when approximately 50% of persistent contrails are avoided, but 6.19% when 100% of persistent contrails are avoided. Persistent contrail mitigating trajectories are generated for multiple days of data, and the research shows that 58% of persistent contrails are avoided with a 0.48% increase in fuel consumption when averaged over a year.

  13. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Rida; Yrjälä, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 ?gmL?1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology. PMID:25242944

  14. Environmentally relevant concentrations of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) induced oxidative and genetic damage in Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Traversi, Irene; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-03-21

    Synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) are extensively used as fragrances in several personal care products and have been recognized as emerging aquatic pollutants. Among SMCs, galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) are extensively used and have been measured in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. However, their potential risk to organisms remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 21-day exposures to HHCB and AHTN concentrations frequently measured in aquatic ecosystems can induce oxidative and genetic damage in Dreissena polymorpha. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were measured as oxidative stress indexes, while the DNA precipitation assay and the micronucleus test (MN test) were applied to investigate genetic injuries. HHCB induced significant increases in LPO and PCC levels, while AHTN enhanced only protein carbonylation. Moreover, significant increases in DNA strand breaks were caused by exposure to the highest concentrations of HHCB and AHTN tested in the present study, but no fixed genetic damage was observed. PMID:25462865

  15. An efficient Foxtail mosaic virus vector system with reduced environmental risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant viral vectors offer high-yield expression of pharmaceutical and commercially important proteins with a minimum of cost and preparation time. The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been introduced to deliver the viral vector as a transgene to each plant cell via a simple, nonsterile infiltration technique called "agroinoculation". With agroinoculation, a full length, systemically moving virus is no longer necessary for excellent protein yield, since the viral transgene is transcribed and replicates in every infiltrated cell. Viral genes may therefore be deleted to decrease the potential for accidental spread and persistence of the viral vector in the environment. Results In this study, both the coat protein (CP) and triple gene block (TGB) genetic segments were eliminated from Foxtail mosaic virus to create the "FECT" vector series, comprising a deletion of 29% of the genome. This viral vector is highly crippled and expresses little or no marker gene within the inoculated leaf. However, when co-agroinoculated with a silencing suppressor (p19 or HcPro), FECT expressed GFP at 40% total soluble protein in the tobacco host, Nicotiana benthamiana. The modified FoMV vector retained the full-length replicase ORF, the TGB1 subgenomic RNA leader sequence and either 0, 22 or 40 bases of TGB1 ORF (in vectors FECT0, FECT22 and FECT40, respectively). As well as N. benthamiana, infection of legumes was demonstrated. Despite many attempts, expression of GFP via syringe agroinoculation of various grass species was very low, reflecting the low Agrobacterium-mediated transformation rate of monocots. Conclusions The FECT/40 vector expresses foreign genes at a very high level, and yet has a greatly reduced biohazard potential. It can form no virions and can effectively replicate only in a plant with suppressed silencing. PMID:21162736

  16. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

    2013-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 ?M), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (?-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (?-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants. PMID:23479061

  17. Reduced mitochondrial ROS, enhanced antioxidant defense, and distinct age-related changes in oxidative damage in muscles of long-lived Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Pulliam, Daniel A; Liu, Yuhong; Hamilton, Ryan T; Jernigan, Amanda L; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sloane, Lauren B; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Ungvari, Zoltan; Austad, Steven N; Van Remmen, Holly

    2013-03-01

    Comparing biological processes in closely related species with divergent life spans is a powerful approach to study mechanisms of aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that longer-lived species would have lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and/or an increased antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced oxidative damage with age than in shorter-lived species. In this study, we measured ROS generation in the young adult animals of the long-lived white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (maximal life span potential, MLSP = 8 yr) and the common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus (C57BL/6J strain; MLSP = 3.5 yr). Consistent with the hypothesis, our results show that skeletal muscle mitochondria from adult P. leucopus produce less ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) compared with M. musculus. Additionally, P. leucopus has an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 1 at young age. P. leucopus compared with M. musculus display low levels of lipid peroxidation (isoprostanes) throughout life; however, P. leucopus although having elevated protein carbonyls at a young age, the accrual of protein oxidation with age is minimal in contrast to the linear increase in M. musculus. Altogether, the results from young animals are in agreement with the predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging with the exception of protein carbonyls. Nonetheless, the age-dependent increase in protein carbonyls is more pronounced in short-lived M. musculus, which supports enhanced protein homeostasis in long-lived P. leucopus. PMID:23325454

  18. Environmental Adaptation: Genomic Analysis of the Piezotolerant and Psychrotolerant Deep-Sea Iron Reducing Bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Huahua; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengkang; Wang, Feng; Zeng, Xiaowei; Gao, Lei; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Xiao, Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Shewanella species are widespread in various environments. Here, the genome sequence of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, a piezotolerant and psychrotolerant iron reducing bacterium from deep-sea sediment was determined with related functional analysis to study its environmental adaptation mechanisms. The genome of WP3 consists of 5,396,476 base pairs (bp) with 4,944 open reading frames (ORFs). It possesses numerous genes or gene clusters which help it to cope with extreme living conditions such as genes for two sets of flagellum systems, structural RNA modification, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) biosynthesis and osmolyte transport and synthesis. And WP3 contains 55 open reading frames encoding putative c-type cytochromes which are substantial to its wide environmental adaptation ability. The mtr-omc gene cluster involved in the insoluble metal reduction in the Shewanella genus was identified and compared. The two sets of flagellum systems were found to be differentially regulated under low temperature and high pressure; the lateral flagellum system was found essential for its motility and living at low temperature. PMID:18398463

  19. Exogenous sodium nitroprusside and glutathione alleviate copper toxicity by reducing copper uptake and oxidative damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Seraj, Zeba Islam; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) regulate a variety of physiological processes and stress responses; however, their involvement in mitigating Cu toxicity in plants has not been extensively studied. This study investigated the interactive effect of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and GSH on Cu homeostasis and Cu-induced oxidative damage in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 12-day-old seedlings were subjected to 100 ?M CuSO4 alone and in combination with 200 ?M SNP (an NO donor) and 200 ?M GSH. Cu exposure for 48 h resulted in toxicity symptoms such as stunted growth, chlorosis, and rolling in leaves. Cu toxicity was also manifested by a sharp increase in lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), proline (Pro) content, and rapid reductions in biomass, chlorophyll (Chl), and relative water content (RWC). Cu-caused oxidative stress was evident by overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide (O2 (•-)) and H2O2). Ascorbate (AsA) content decreased while GSH and phytochelatin (PC) content increased significantly in Cu-stressed seedlings. Exogenous SNP, GSH, or SNP?+?GSH decreased toxicity symptoms and diminished a Cu-induced increase in LOX activity, O2 (•-), H2O2, MDA, and Pro content. They also counteracted a Cu-induced increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II activities, which paralleled changes in ROS and MDA levels. These seedlings also showed a significant increase in catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and AsA and PC content compared with the seedlings stressed with Cu alone. Cu analysis revealed that SNP and GSH restricted the accumulation of Cu in the roots and leaves of Cu-stressed seedlings. Our results suggest that Cu exposure provoked an oxidative burden while reduced Cu uptake and modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems by adding SNP and GSH play an important role in alleviating Cu toxicity. Furthermore, the protective action of GSH and SNP?+?GSH was more efficient than SNP alone. PMID:24752795

  20. Base Damage within Single-Strand DNA Underlies In Vivo Hypermutability Induced by a Ubiquitous Environmental Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kin; Sterling, Joan F.; Roberts, Steven A.; Bhagwat, Ashok S.; Resnick, Michael A.; Gordenin, Dmitry A.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA must be in single-strand form for important transactions such as replication, transcription, and recombination to occur. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA) is more prone to damage than double-strand DNA (dsDNA), due to greater exposure of chemically reactive moieties in the nitrogenous bases. Thus, there can be agents that damage regions of ssDNA in vivo while being inert toward dsDNA. To assess the potential hazard posed by such agents, we devised an ssDNA–specific mutagenesis reporter system in budding yeast. The reporter strains bear the cdc13-1 temperature-sensitive mutation, such that shifting to 37°C results in telomere uncapping and ensuing 5? to 3? enzymatic resection. This exposes the reporter region, containing three closely-spaced reporter genes, as a long 3? ssDNA overhang. We validated the ability of the system to detect mutagenic damage within ssDNA by expressing a modified human single-strand specific cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G induced a high density of substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in frequent, simultaneous inactivation of two reporter genes. We then examined the mutagenicity of sulfites, a class of reactive sulfur oxides to which humans are exposed frequently via respiration and food intake. Sulfites, at a concentration similar to that found in some foods, induced a high density of mutations, almost always as substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in simultaneous inactivation of at least two reporter genes. Furthermore, sulfites formed a long-lived adducted 2?-deoxyuracil intermediate in DNA that was resistant to excision by uracil–DNA N-glycosylase. This intermediate was bypassed by error-prone translesion DNA synthesis, frequently involving Pol ?, during repair synthesis. Our results suggest that sulfite-induced lesions in DNA can be particularly deleterious, since cells might not possess the means to repair or bypass such lesions accurately. PMID:23271983

  1. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  2. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work w...

  3. REDUCING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF HIGH-DENSITY FISH PRODUCTION: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO SOLIDS TREATMENT FOR RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS USING EXPANDABLE GRANULAR BIOFILTERS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Golz; Shulin Chen; Ronald F. Malone

    Over the past decade, the environmental impact of wastes discharged from high-density flow-through fish-production systems has been viewed with increasing concern. Recirculating aquaculture systems are gaining wider acceptance because of their ability to reduce waste discharges, improve quality control, and reduce costs. The crucial processes that must be addressed in treating recirculating water are solids capture, biofiltration, aeration, degasification, and

  4. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Jr. Roush; D. E. Beaver

    1998-01-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these

  5. EVALUATION OF IMMOBILIZED REDOX INDICATORS AS REVERSIBLE, IN SITU REDOX SENSORS FOR DETERMINING FE(III)-REDUCING CONDITIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. (R828772)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in situ methodology based on immobilized redox indicators has been developed to determine when Fe(III)-reducing conditions exist in environmental systems. The redox indicators thionine (Thi, formal potential at pH 7 ( E 70') equals 66 mV), tol...

  6. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    SciTech Connect

    Roush, D.E. Jr. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beaver, D.E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Coll. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  7. Inhibitory effects of silk protein, sericin on UVB-induced acute damage and tumor promotion by reducing oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siqin Zhaorigetu; Noriyuki Yanaka; Masahiro Sasaki; Hiromitsu Watanabe; Norihisa Kato

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess protective effect of an antioxidant protein, sericin, on UVB-induced acute damage and tumor promotion in mouse skin. In experiment 1, HR-1 hairless mice were treated with 180 mJ\\/cm2 of ultraviolet B light (UVB) once daily for 1 and 7 days. The treatment for 7 days caused red sunburn lesions of the skin. The intensity

  8. Anti-apoptotic PI3K\\/Akt signaling by sodium\\/glucose transporter 1 reduces epithelial barrier damage and bacterial translocation in intestinal ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Ying Huang; Jong-Kai Hsiao; Yen-Zhen Lu; Tsung-Chun Lee; Linda C-H Yu

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) causes mucosal barrier damage and bacterial translocation (BT), leading to septic complications. Previous in vitro studies showed that activation of sodium\\/glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) prevented the epithelial apoptosis and permeability rise induced by microbial products. Our aim was to investigate whether luminal glucose uptake by SGLT1 protects against ischemia-induced epithelial cell death and barrier dysfunction, and to

  9. Indigowood root extract protects hematopoietic cells, reduces tissue damage and modulates inflammatory cytokines after total-body irradiation: Does Indirubin play a role in radioprotection?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weir Chiang You; Wen Chuan Lin; Jia Tsz Huang; Chang Chi Hsieh

    2009-01-01

    Radix of Isatis indigotica (indigowood root, IR) has been used in traditional medicine for its potential anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study is to investigate the radioprotective effects of radiation caused damages in hematopoietic system and normal tissues in mice. A total of 57 BALB\\/c mice were randomized into six treatment groups: control, IR treatment (0.195, 0.585 and 1.170g\\/kg,

  10. Using expert knowledge to increase realism in environmental system models can dramatically reduce the need for calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2013-12-01

    Conceptual environmental systems models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of model for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, strategies for better parameter identification were developed in the past, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding regarding how a catchment works into the process of parameterizing a conceptual model has still not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effect of imposing semi-quantitative, relational expert knowledge into the model development and parameter selection, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e. wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simplicity to complexity, three model set-ups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC have been developed based on these functional units. While FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC introduce increasingly more complexity by distinguishing 2 and 3 functional units, respectively. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters as well as states and fluxes of their different functional units to each other. Based on these comparisons, expert knowledge based, semi-quantitative relational constraints have been imposed on three models structures. More complexity of models allows more imposed constraints. It was shown that a constrained but uncalibrated semi-distributed model, FLEXC, can predict runoff with similar performance than a calibrated lumped model, FLEXA. In addition, when constrained and calibrated, the semi-distributed model FLEXC exhibits not only higher performance but also reduced uncertainty for prediction, compared to the calibrated, lumped FLEXA model.

  11. ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John

    2013-08-28

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (P¼0·004, d ¼ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (P¼0·005, d ¼ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P¼0·08, d ¼ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

  12. Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kosko, Nancy [US Army Environmental Command (United States); Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie [CALIBRE Systems, Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

  13. Brassica oleracea L. Var. costata DC and Pieris brassicae L. aqueous extracts reduce methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage in V79 hamster lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Carla; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Rodrigues, António Sebastião; Coelho, Marta; Teixeira, João P; Silva, Susana; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-05-30

    Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC leaves and Pieris brassicae L. larvae aqueous extracts were assayed for their potential to prevent/induce DNA damage. None of them was mutagenic at the tested concentrations in the Ames test reversion assay using Salmonella His(+) TA98 strains, with and without metabolic activation. In the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase mutation assay using mammalian V79 fibroblast cell line, extracts at 500 ?g/mL neither induced mutations nor protected against the mutagenicity caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). In the comet assay, none of the extracts revealed to be genotoxic by itself, and both afforded protection, more pronounced for larvae extracts, against MMS-induced genotoxicity. As genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects of Brassica vegetables are commonly attributed to isothiocyanates, the extracts were screened for these compounds by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No sulfur compound was detected. These findings demonstrate that both extracts could be useful against damage caused by genotoxic compounds, the larvae extract being the most promising. PMID:22582708

  14. Partial loss of the DNA repair scaffolding protein, Xrcc1, results in increased brain damage and reduced recovery from ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Canugovi, Chandrika; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Wilson, David M; Croteau, Deborah L; Mattson, Mark P; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair (BER). Previously, our laboratory showed that mice lacking the BER glycosylases 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) or nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1) recover more poorly from focal ischemic stroke than wild-type mice. Here, a mouse model was used to investigate whether loss of 1 of the 2 alleles of X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (Xrcc1), which encodes a nonenzymatic scaffold protein required for BER, alters recovery from stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion caused higher brain damage and lower functional recovery in Xrcc1(+/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Additionally, a greater percentage of Xrcc1(+/-) mice died as a result of the stroke. Brain samples from human individuals who died of stroke and individuals who died of non-neurological causes were assayed for various steps of BER. Significant losses of thymine glycol incision, abasic endonuclease incision, and single nucleotide incorporation activities were identified, as well as lower expression of XRCC1 and NEIL1 proteins in stroke brains compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that impaired BER is a risk factor in ischemic brain injury and contributes to its recovery. PMID:25971543

  15. Aircraft conceptual design study of the canard and threesurface unconventional configurations for the purposes of reducing environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desharnais, Olivier

    With a constant increase in the demand for air transport and today's high fuel price, the aerospace industry is actively searching for new operation methods and technologies to improve efficiency and to reduce the impact it has on the environment. Aircraft manufacturers are exploring many different ways of designing and building better airplanes. One of the considered methods is the use of unconventional aircraft configurations. The objective of this research is to study two configurations, the canard and three-surface, by applying them into a typical high-speed jet aircraft using the conceptual design tools for conventional aircraft available at Bombardier Aerospace (some of them have been modified and validated for the two configurations of interest). This included a weight estimation of the foreplane, an extensive validation of the aerodynamic tool, AVL, and a modification of a physics-based tail-sizing tool. The last tool was found necessary for an accurate foreplane/tailplane sizing, aircraft balancing, establishing the CG envelope and for the assessment of all stability and control requirements. Then, a canard aircraft comparable to the Bombardier research platform aircraft was designed. Final solutions were not obtained from a complete optimization because of some limitations in the design process. The preliminary results show an increase of fuel burn of 10%, leading to an increase of the environmental impacts. The theoretical advantage of not generating any download lift is clearly overwhelmed by the poor effectiveness of the high-lift system. The incapacity to reach a level of high-lift performance close to the one of conventional high-speed aircrafts mostly explains why the canard configuration was found to have no true benefits in this application. Even if no final solution of a three-surface aircraft was obtained in this research, this configuration was identified as being better than the canard case according to the information found in the literature. Some past studies concluded that there's a small improvement in fuel burn over the conventional configuration depending on the application. This unconventional configuration is recognized to have lower trim drag and the capability to fly at minimum drag for all CGs. For this reason, it's worth continuing the work started in this project to see if a three-surface high-speed jet aircraft could eventually be more efficient.

  16. Structural damage detection based on stochastic subspace identification and statistical pattern recognition: I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, W. X.; Lin, Y. Q.; Fang, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    One of the key issues in vibration-based structural health monitoring is to extract the damage-sensitive but environment-insensitive features from sampled dynamic response measurements and to carry out the statistical analysis of these features for structural damage detection. A new damage feature is proposed in this paper by using the system matrices of the forward innovation model based on the covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification of a vibrating system. To overcome the variations of the system matrices, a non-singularity transposition matrix is introduced so that the system matrices are normalized to their standard forms. For reducing the effects of modeling errors, noise and environmental variations on measured structural responses, a statistical pattern recognition paradigm is incorporated into the proposed method. The Mahalanobis and Euclidean distance decision functions of the damage feature vector are adopted by defining a statistics-based damage index. The proposed structural damage detection method is verified against one numerical signal and two numerical beams. It is demonstrated that the proposed statistics-based damage index is sensitive to damage and shows some robustness to the noise and false estimation of the system ranks. The method is capable of locating damage of the beam structures under different types of excitations. The robustness of the proposed damage detection method to the variations in environmental temperature is further validated in a companion paper by a reinforced concrete beam tested in the laboratory and a full-scale arch bridge tested in the field.

  17. Environmental enrichment reduces the function of D1 dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Del Arco; G. Segovia; J. J. Canales; P. Garrido; M. de Blas; J. M. García-Verdugo; F. Mora

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  Environmental enrichment produces changes in spontaneous and psychostimulant-induced motor activity. Dopamine in the prefrontal\\u000a cortex (PFC), through the activation of D1 receptors, has been suggested to play a role in modulating motor activity. The\\u000a present study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spontaneous motor activity, prefrontal acetylcholine\\u000a release following local D1 receptor stimulation and D1 receptor expression in the

  18. Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce environmental health disparities in american Indian and alaska native communities.

    PubMed

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K; Doyle, John T; Eggers, Margaret J; Ford, Tim E; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  19. Delayed mTOR Inhibition with Low Dose of Everolimus Reduces TGF? Expression, Attenuates Proteinuria and Renal Damage in the Renal Mass Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Kurdián, Melania; Herrero-Fresneda, Inmaculada; Lloberas, Nuria; Gimenez-Bonafe, Pepita; Coria, Virginia; Grande, María T.; Boggia, José; Malacrida, Leonel; Torras, Joan; Arévalo, Miguel A.; González-Martínez, Francisco; López-Novoa, José M.; Grinyó, Josep; Noboa, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Background The immunosuppressive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are widely used in solid organ transplantation, but their effect on kidney disease progression is controversial. mTOR has emerged as one of the main pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed inhibition of mTOR pathway with low dose of everolimus on progression of renal disease and TGF? expression in the 5/6 nephrectomy model in Wistar rats. Methods This study evaluated the effects of everolimus (0.3 mg/k/day) introduced 15 days after surgical procedure on renal function, proteinuria, renal histology and mechanisms of fibrosis and proliferation. Results Everolimus treated group (EveG) showed significantly less proteinuria and albuminuria, less glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis, fibroblast activation cell proliferation, when compared with control group (CG), even though the EveG remained with high blood pressure. Treatment with everolimus also diminished glomerular hypertrophy. Everolimus effectively inhibited the increase of mTOR developed in 5/6 nephrectomy animals, without changes in AKT mRNA or protein abundance, but with an increase in the pAKT/AKT ratio. Associated with this inhibition, everolimus blunted the increased expression of TGF? observed in the remnant kidney model. Conclusion Delayed mTOR inhibition with low dose of everolimus significantly prevented progressive renal damage and protected the remnant kidney. mTOR and TGF? mRNA reduction can partially explain this anti fibrotic effect. mTOR can be a new target to attenuate the progression of chronic kidney disease even in those nephropathies of non-immunologic origin. PMID:22427849

  20. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College

    PubMed Central

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747

  1. Tornado Damage!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about tornadoes, the damage they cause, and how to rate tornadoes. Specifically, students investigate the Enhanced Fujita Damage Scale of tornado intensity, and use it to complete a mock engineering analysis of damage caused by a tornado. Additional consideration is given to tornado warning systems and how these systems can be improved to be safer. Lastly, students learn basic tornado safety procedures.

  2. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  3. Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anderson E S; Grillo, Renato; Mello, Nathalie F S; Rosa, Andre H; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2014-03-15

    Nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) containing the herbicide atrazine were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in terms of their herbicidal activity and genotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of three months, considering the variables: size, polydispersion index, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. Tests on plants were performed with target (Brassica sp.) and non-target (Zea mays) organisms, and the nanoparticle formulations were shown to be effective for the control of the target species. Experiments using soil columns revealed that the use of nanoparticles reduced the mobility of atrazine in the soil. Application of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay demonstrated that the nanoparticle systems were able to reduce the genotoxicity of the herbicide. The formulations developed offer a useful means of controlling agricultural weeds, while at the same time reducing the risk of harm to the environment and human health. PMID:24508945

  4. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  5. Increasing Adoption of Reduced Risk Practices In the Production of Woody Ornamentals Final Report for the Environmental Protection Agency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman C. Leppla; Thomas A. Green; Daniel J. Sonke; Barbra C. Larson

    A. Summary Our two-year project achieved the goal of significantly increasing the number of woody ornamental plant producers who can use an integrated pest management (IPM) assessment program to encourage reduced risk practices and products. A diverse workgroup comprised of producers, buyers, researchers, extension specialists and agents, and other stakeholders have created a reduced-risk practice assessment. This assessment will be

  6. Reduction in fiber damage thresholds due to static fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setchell, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    Damage mechanisms may occur during the transmission of Q-switched, Nd/YAG laser pulses through fused silica fibers. Fiber end-face characteristics, laser characteristics, and aspects of the laser-to-fiber injection typically determine dominant damage mechanisms. However, an additional damage process has been observed at internal sites where fibers were experiencing significant local stresses due to fixturing or bends in the fiber path. A transmission reduction prior to damage was typically not measurable at these sites. Damage would not always occur during initial testing, but sometimes occurred later in time at laser levels that previously had been transmitted without damage. In these cases the time at stress appeared to be more important than the number of transmitted shots prior to damage. A possible relation between internal damage thresholds at stressed sites and the total time under stress is suggested by the fact that silica fibers experience static fatigue processes. These processes involve the slow growth of local defects under tensile stress at rates that depend upon environmental conditions. Defects reaching sufficient size and having appropriate location could be sites for reduced laser-induced damage thresholds. The present work looks into the possibility that static fatigue processes can affect damage thresholds. The experiments used a laser injection and fiber routing configuration that produced significantly elevated fluences within fiber core regions under tensile stress. In order to establish initial strength and fatigue properties for these fibers, a number of samples were used to generate time-to-failure data at various stress levels. Other fiber samples were subjected to conditions that greatly accelerated fatigue processes. Internal damage thresholds were then measured in these fibers and compared to thresholds measured in fresh fibers. Conclusive comparisons were frustrated by sample-to-sample and lot-to-lot variations in fiber defects.

  7. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...

  8. Ginsenoside Rbeta1 reduces neurologic damage, is anti-apoptotic, and down-regulates p53 and BAX in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingbo; Tang, Jiping; Khatibi, Nikan H; Zhu, Mei; Chen, Di; Zheng, Weiping; Wang, Shali

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury following SAH but none have reached the level of effectiveness needed to clinically reduce mortality. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of the Chinese traditional medicine Panax Ginseng, has been shown to reduce ischemic brain injury and myocardial injury via anti-apoptotic pathways. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 on SAH induced brain injury in rats. Four groups were used: sham, vehicle (SAH), low dose treatment (SAH+ 5mg/kg GRb1), and high dose treatment (SAH+ 20mg/kg GRb1). Post assessment included wall thickness and mean cross-section area of basilar artery were measured for evaluating cerebral vasospasm, Evans blue extravasations to assess blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis looking for specific pro-apoptotic markers, and tunnel staining for cell death assessment. In addition, mortality, neurological function and brain edema were investigated. The results showed that high dose GRb1 treatment significantly enlarged mean cross-sectional area and decreased wall thickness of basilar artery, reduced neurological deficits, brain edema, BBB disruption, and TUNEL positive cell expression. Same time, we found that the proteins expression of P53, Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of bcl-2 was up-regulated in Rb1 treatment. The results of this study suggest that GRb1 could relieve cerebral vasospasm and potentially provide neuroprotection in SAH victims. The underlying mechanisms may be partly related to inhibition of P53 and Bax dependent proapoptosis pathway. More studies will be needed to confirm these results and determine its potential as a long term agent. PMID:20353383

  9. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of plant communities to environmental change, and to clarify the relative importance of biotic interactions as a driver of such responses. PMID:25914601

  10. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jqin710@vip.sina.com; Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy.

  11. 77 FR 42487 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement To Reduce Avian Predation on Juvenile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...consumed are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Managing cormorants to reduce predation on salmonids would complement other recovery efforts to address the threats that caused these fish to be listed under the ESA and would contribute to...

  12. Development of Resistance to the Atypical Retinoid, ST1926, in the Lung Carcinoma Cell Line H460 Is Associated with Reduced Formation of DNA Strand Breaks and a Defective DNA Damage Response1

    PubMed Central

    Zuco, Valentina; Zanchi, Chiara; Lanzi, Cinzia; Beretta, Giovanni L; Supino, Rosanna; Pisano, Claudio; Barbarino, Marcella; Zanier, Romina; Bucci, Federica; Aulicino, Concetta; Carminati, Paolo; Zunino, Franco

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Atypical retinoids are potent inducers of apoptosis, but activation of the apoptotic pathway seems to be independent of retinoid receptors. Previous studies with a novel adamantyl retinoid, ST1926, have shown that apoptosis induction is associated with an early genotoxic stress. To better understand the relevance of these events, we have selected a subline of the H460 lung carcinoma cell line resistant to ST1926. Resistant cells exhibited cross-resistance to a related molecule, CD437, but not cross-resistance to agents with different mechanisms of action. In spite of a lack of defects in intracellular drug accumulation, induction of DNA strand breaks in resistant cells required exposure to a substantially higher concentration, which was consistent with the degree of resistance. At drug concentrations causing a similar antiproliferative effect (IC80) and a comparable extent of DNA lesions in sensitive and resistant cells, the apoptotic response was a delayed and less marked event in resistant cells, thus indicating a reduced susceptibility to apoptosis. In spite of recognition of DNA lesions in resistant cells, as supported by phosphorylation of p53 and histone H2AX, resistant cells exhibited no activation of the mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis. Following exposure to equitoxic drug concentrations, only sensitive cells exhibited a typical stress/DNA damage response, with activation of the S-phase checkpoint. The cellular resistance to ST1926 reflects alterations responsible for a reduced generation of DNA lesions and for an enhanced tolerance of the genotoxic stress, resulting in lack of activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The defective DNA damage response, accompanied by a reduced susceptibility to apoptosis in resistant cells, provides further support to the involvement of genotoxic stress as a critical event in mediating apoptosis induction by ST1926. PMID:16026646

  13. Adverse effects of reduced oxygen tension on the proliferative capacity of rat kidney and insulin-secreting cell lines involve DNA damage and stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jianhua [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jhc36@cam.ac.uk; Jones, R. Huw; Tarry-Adkins, Jane; Smith, Noel H.; Ozanne, Susan E. [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    Standard cell culture conditions do not reflect the physiological environment in terms of oxygen tension (20% vs 3%). The effects of lowering oxygen tension on cell proliferation in culture can be beneficial as well as detrimental depending on the cell line studied, but the molecular mechanism underlying such effects is not fully understood. We observed that the proliferative capacity of the rat cell lines NRK and INS-1 was inhibited when cultured under 3% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen. Suppression of proliferation in NRK cells was accompanied by induction of DNA double strand breaks whereas in INS-1 cells it was accompanied by up-regulation of p53 and p27. Although Sirt1 was up-regulated in both cell lines by 3% oxygen the effects on antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, CuZnSOD and catalase) were cell line specific. Marked up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected in both NRK and INS-1 cells when cultured in 3% oxygen. HO-1 expression can be readily induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide in culture. These results suggest that reduced oxygen tension suppresses the proliferative capacity of these two cell lines through a stress response that is similar to an oxidative stress response but the molecular events that lead to the reduced cell proliferation are cell line specific.

  14. Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

  15. Indomethacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules reduce the damage triggered by A?1-42 in Alzheimer’s disease models

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Andressa; Frozza, Rudimar L; Meneghetti, André; Hoppe, Juliana B; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Sílvia S; Salbego, Christianne G

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation, characterized by the accumulation of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes, is believed to modulate the development and/or progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Epidemiological studies suggesting that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk of developing AD have encouraged further studies elucidating the role of inflammation in AD. Nanoparticles have become an important focus of neurotherapeutic research because they are an especially effective form of drug delivery. Here, we investigate the potential protective effect of indomethacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (IndOH-LNCs) against cell damage and neuroinflammation induced by amyloid beta (A?)1-42 in AD models. Our results show that IndOH-LNCs attenuated A?-induced cell death and were able to block the neuroinflammation triggered by A?1-42 in organotypic hippocampal cultures. Additionally, IndOH-LNC treatment was able to increase interleukin-10 release and decrease glial activation and c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation. As a model of A?-induced neurotoxicity in vivo, animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of A?1-42 (1 nmol/site), and 1 day after A?1-42 infusion, they were administered either free IndOH or IndOH-LNCs (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 14 days. Only the treatment with IndOH-LNCs significantly attenuated the impairment of this behavior triggered by intracerebroventricular injection of A?1-42. Further, treatment with IndOH-LNCs was able to block the decreased synaptophysin levels induced by A?1-42 and suppress glial and microglial activation. These findings might be explained by the increase of IndOH concentration in brain tissue attained using drug-loaded lipid-core NCs. All these findings support the idea that blockage of neuroinflammation triggered by A? is involved in the neuroprotective effects of IndOH-LNCs. These data provide strong evidence that IndOH-LNC treatment may represent a promising approach for treating AD. PMID:23028221

  16. [Hypothermia after perinatal asphyxia reduces the risk of brain damage. But it's too early to recommend the method for routine treatment].

    PubMed

    Hellström-Westas, Lena

    Two randomised controlled trials evaluating intervention with moderate hypothermia after perinatal asphyxia will probably be published this year. The first study, evaluating head cooling with a "cool cap" is already published, and preliminary data from the other study evaluating body cooling earlier have been presented. Both studies indicate that moderate hypothermia, initiated within 6 h after birth, for 72 h reduces mortality and survival with severe brain injury. Several issues must, however, be solved before postasphyctic cooling can be recommended as clinical routine. There are no data on optimal duration, degree of cooling, best method, or if methods and degree of cooling should be adapted to type of brain injury. Continued research with randomised controlled trials is recommended. PMID:16294526

  17. Cisplatin resistance induced in germ cell tumour cells is due to reduced susceptibility towards cell death but not to altered DNA damage induction or repair.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Annabelle E; Glaesener, Stephanie; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Thomale, Juergen; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Honecker, Friedemann; Dartsch, Dorothee C

    2012-11-28

    To identify factors involved in cisplatin (CDDP) resistance of germ cell tumours (GCTs), we exposed NTERA-2 cells, and the platinum-adapted subline NTERA-2R to CDDP and compared their response. While both cell lines showed comparable proliferation, NTERA-2R cells were clearly more resistant to the drug than the parental NTERA-2 cell line. Interestingly, the two lines showed identical extent of DNA adduct formation and elimination, indicating that neither changes in CDDP uptake, nor altered drug efflux, DNA binding, or repair caused the difference in resistance. Similarly, no difference occurred in the time-course of ?H2AX formation, which was not linked to 53BP1 accumulation. In contrast, NTERA-2R cells showed a more pronounced dose-dependent S phase delay, a transient G(2)/M-block, and subsequent release into immediate cell death. We thus conclude that the enhanced resistance against CDDP is linked to reduced susceptibility to cell death rather than to an altered DNA adduct formation or adduct removal. PMID:22613583

  18. Impact damage in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chung-Yue; Yew, Ching H.

    1990-01-01

    A low-velocity impact-damage model for quasi-symmetric graphite-fiber composite plates is presented. The distribution of damage in each layer of the plate was calculated by employing Di Sciuva's composite laminate theory together with Hashin's failure criterion for fiber-reinforced composites. The dynamic deformation of the target plate was represented by the lower vibrational modes of the plate. The principle of virtual work was applied in the formulation of the problem. In the analysis, the material was regarded as 'damaged' when its designed strength was reduced by the failure of its constituents. The constituent failures consisted of matrix crackings, fiber breakages, and delamination between layers. According to damage modes, the moduli of material in the damaged zone were reduced according to the failure criteria. The interaction between layers and its role in damage propagation were also studied.

  19. Evaluation of alternative planting strategies to reduce wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) damage to spring wheat in the northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Beres, B L; Cárcamo, H A; Bremer, E

    2009-12-01

    Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., producers are often reluctant to use solid-stemmed wheat cultivars resistant to wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), due to concerns regarding yield, efficacy or market opportunities. We evaluated the impact of several planting strategies on wheat yield and quality and wheat stem sawfly infestation at two locations over a three-year period. Experimental units consisted of large plots (50 by 200 m) located on commercial farms adjacent to wheat stem sawfly-infested fields. Compared with a monoculture of a hollow-stemmed cultivar ('AC Barrie'), planting a monoculture of a solid-stemmed cultivar ('AC Eatonia') increased yield by an average of 16% (0.4 mg ha(-1)) and increased the grade of wheat by one unit at the two most heavily infested site-years. Planting a 1:1 blend of AC Eatonia and AC Barrie increased yield by an average of 11%, whereas planting 20- or 40-m plot margins to AC Eatonia increased yield by an average of 8%. High wheat stem sawfly pressure limited the effectiveness of using resistant cultivars in field margins because plants were often infested beyond the plot margin, with uniform infestation down the length of the plots at the two most heavily infested site-years. The effectiveness of AC Eatonia to reduce wheat stem sawfly survivorship was modest in this study, probably due to weather-related factors influencing pith expression and to the high abundance of wheat stem sawfly. Greater benefits from planting field margins to resistant cultivars or planting a blend of resistant and susceptible cultivars might be achievable under lower wheat stem sawfly pressure. PMID:20069842

  20. TLR5 activation induces secretory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra) and reduces inflammasome-associated tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F A; Aitken, J D; Gewirtz, A T; Vijay-Kumar, M

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5)-mediated detection of flagellin induces nuclear factor (NF)-?B-mediated transcription of host defense gene expression, whereas recognition of intracellular flagellin by interleukin (IL)-1-converting enzyme protease-activation factor (IPAF) results in maturation/secretion of the inflammasome cytokine IL-1?. The potent effects of IL-1? are counter-regulated by secretory IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra). We studied the roles of flagellin receptors in regulating the expression of IL-1? and sIL-1Ra and their subsequent roles in inflammation. Flagellin induced sIL-1Ra in intestinal epithelia and macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas IL-1? was only induced in macrophages. In vivo, flagellin-induced sIL-1Ra, but not IL-1?, was absolutely dependent upon TLR5 expressed on non-hemopioetic cells. Thus, loss of TLR5 increased the IL-1?/sIL-1Ra ratio on flagellin treatment, which correlated with increased inflammatory pathology in response to this product. Furthermore, the flagellin/TLR5 interaction was important for the induction of sIL-1Ra and limiting inflammatory pathology on Salmonella infection. Finally, reduced sIL-1Ra levels in TLR5KO mice correlated with spontaneous colitis. Taken together, we demonstrate that intestinal epithelia, despite not expressing IL-1?, secrete sIL-1Ra in a TLR5-dependent manner suggesting that loss of TLR5 may promote inflammation by increasing IL-1? activity. Thus, optimizing the balance between inflammasome cytokines and their endogenous inhibitors might prove a useful strategy to treat inflammatory disorders. PMID:20844479

  1. Vertebrate POLQ and POL? Cooperate in Base Excision Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Michio; Kohzaki, Masaoki; Nakamura, Jun; Asagoshi, Kenjiro; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Hou, Esther; Prasad, Rajendra; Wilson, Samuel H.; Tano, Keizo; Yasui, Akira; Lan, Li; Seki, Mineaki; Wood, Richard D.; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Hochegger, Helfrid; Okada, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Takeda, Shunichi

    2007-01-01

    Summary Base excision repair (BER) plays an essential role in protecting cells from mutagenic base damage caused by oxidative stress, hydrolysis, and environmental factors. POLQ is a DNA polymerase, which appears to be involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) past base damage. We disrupted POLQ, and its homologs HEL308 and POLN in chicken DT40 cells, and also created polq/hel308 and polq/poln double mutants. We found that POLQ-deficient mutants exhibit hypersensitivity to oxidative base damage induced by H2O2, but not to UV or cisplatin. Surprisingly, this phenotype was synergistically increased by concomitant deletion of the major BER polymerase, POL?. Moreover, extracts from a polq null mutant cell line show reduced BER activity, and POLQ, like POL?, accumulated rapidly at sites of base damage. Accordingly, POLQ and POL? share an overlapping function in the repair of oxidative base damage. Taken together, these results suggest a role for vertebrate POLQ in BER. PMID:17018297

  2. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917-derived factors reduce cell death and late apoptosis and increase transepithelial electrical resistance in a model of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hanru; Bastian, Susan EP; Cheah, Ker Y; Lawrence, Andrew; Howarth, Gordon S

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the capacity for supernatants (SNs) derived from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN), cultured under different growth conditions, to prevent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage. EcN was cultured in: Luria Bertani (LB) broth, tryptone soya broth (TSB), de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth, and M17 broth supplemented with 10% (v/v) lactose solution (M17). Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were treated with the following EcN SNs: LB+, TSB+, MRS+, and M17+ in the presence and absence of 5-FU (1.5 or 5 ?M). Cell viability, apoptotic activity and cell monolayer permeability were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), flow cytometry, and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) assays, respectively. 5-FU significantly reduced cell viability (P < 0.05) at both 24 and 48 h. However, only EcN SN produced from LB and M17 growth media significantly decreased cell death induced by 5-FU (by approximately 10% after 24 and 48 h; and 10% after 24 h, respectively [P < 0.05]). When measured by flow cytometry all EcN SNs in the presence of 5-FU increased the proportion of viable cells (by 3–5% for 24 h, 3–7% for 48 h, P < 0.05) and reduced late-apoptotic cells after 24 and 48 h, compared with 5-FU control. Moreover, all EcN SNs significantly reduced the disruption of IEC-6 cell barrier function induced by 5-FU by 7–10% (P < 0.05), compared with DMEM control. We conclude that EcN derived factors could potentially reduce the severity of intestinal mucositis. PMID:24556751

  3. Gas chromatography for in situ analysis of a cometary nucleus V. Study of capillary columns' robustness submitted to long-term reduced environmental pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Szopa, C; Sternberg, R; Coscia, D; Goesmann, F; Gomes, R; Legrand, S; Jerome, M; Meierhenrich, U J; Raulin, F

    2014-11-14

    With the European Space Agency's Rosetta space mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a gas chromatograph, part of the COmetary Sampling And Composition (COSAC) experiment, travelled for about 10 years in the interplanetary medium before operating at the surface of the cometary nucleus in November 2014. During its journey in space, the instrument was exposed to the constraining conditions of the interplanetary medium, including reduced environmental pressures. In order to estimate the potential influence of this severe condition on the chromatographic capillary columns, their stationary phase and the subsequent separation capability, a set of flight spare columns were kept under reduced environmental pressure in the laboratory for the same duration as the probe sent to the comet. The columns' analytical performances were evaluated recently and compared to the original ones obtained just before the launch of the Rosetta probe. The results presented here show that the chromatographic performances of the spare chromatographic columns were not altered in time. From this result, it can be expected that the flight instrument will perform nominally for the analysis of the first cometary nucleus sample to be collected ever, and that the preparation of the interpretation of the data to be taken at the cometary surface nucleus can be done through calibration of these spare columns, and other spare components of the instrument. PMID:25441355

  4. Environmental exposure to combustion-derived air pollution is associated with reduced functional capacity in apparently healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Steinvil, Arie; Shmueli, Hezzy; Ben-Assa, Eyal; Leshem-Rubinow, Eran; Shapira, Itzhak; Berliner, Shlomo; Kordova-Biezuner, Levana; Rogowski, Ori

    2013-08-01

    Prior toxicological exposure reports demonstrated the decremental effect of several air pollutants on the metabolic equivalents achieved during exercise testing (METs). There are no prior large scale epidemiological reports about the effect of environmental air pollution exposure on those parameters. We analyzed a cohort of apparently healthy individuals attending a screening survey program held between 2003 and 2009. Participants were included if residing within an 11 km radius from the nearest air pollution monitoring station. Linear regression models were fitted for the metabolic equivalents and adjusted to short- and long-term air pollutant exposure (particulate matter under 10 micron, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone). The models were adjusted for possible confounders that affect air pollution and stress testing measurements. The study population comprised 6,612 individuals (4,201 males and 2,411 females). We found a statistically significant short- and long-term negative correlation between air pollutants, mainly CO and NO2 and between the metabolic equivalents achieved. A similar short-term effect was found for SO2. We conclude that exposure to combustion-derived air pollutants has a short- and long-term decremental effect on cardiorespiratory fitness as measured by exercise stress testing. Our epidemiological data support previous toxicological reports. PMID:23619759

  5. Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J

    2011-10-31

    We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation. PMID:21466825

  6. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas. As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and its Consequences for Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    How mitochondria process DNA damage and whether a change in the steady-state level of mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction are questions that fuel burgeoning areas of research into aging and disease pathogenesis. Over the past decade, researchers have identified and measured various forms of endogenous and environmental mtDNA damage and have elucidated mtDNA repair pathways. Interestingly, mitochondria do not appear to contain the full range of DNA repair mechanisms that operate in the nucleus, although mtDNA contains types of damage that are targets of each nuclear DNA repair pathway. The reduced repair capacity may, in part, explain the high mutation frequency of the mitochondrial chromosome. Since mtDNA replication is dependent on transcription, mtDNA damage may alter mitochondrial gene expression at three levels: by causing DNA polymerase ? nucleotide incorporation errors leading to mutations, by interfering with the priming of mtDNA replication by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, or by inducing transcriptional mutagenesis or premature transcript termination. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA damage, its repair, and its effects on mtDNA integrity and gene expression. PMID:22728831

  8. Economic and environmental impacts of back-to-contour reclamation of surface coal mines in Central Appalachia. [Including externalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bohm

    1977-01-01

    Back-to-contour reclamation is intended to represent a method for both protecting the environment and simultaneously recovering valuable and needed coal. To what extent, therefore, will back-to-contour reclamation succeed in reducing the environmental damages that have been shown to result from surface mining on steep slopes. These environmental damages represent the external costs of surface coal production that historically have not

  9. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  10. Environmental Economics Glossary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kenneth Acks, publisher of the Environmental Damage Valuation Cost Benefit News, authors this glossary of environmental economics terms. In addition to concise definitions, the site also includes links to other glossaries and learning sites of interest to resource economists.

  11. DAMAGE DETECTION BASED ON REDUCED MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Baruch

    1998-01-01

    Missing measurements of a structure can be calculated by using the connection between the unmeasured quantities and the measured ones through the iterative process of identification of the tested structure. New connections are proposed. The missing quantities, and to some extent the measured ones, are treated as hidden functions of the parameters of the structure. This makes the Euclidean norm

  12. A School-Based Environmental Intervention to Reduce Smoking among High School Students: The Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Webber, Larry S.; Boris, Neil W.; He, Hao; Brewer, Dixye

    2009-01-01

    A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control) in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline = 25%) was followed over four years for 30-day smoking prevalence with the school as the unit of analysis. Although prevalence decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools in Year 2 the significant difference between the two groups at baseline was not overcome by the intervention and increases in prevalence were observed in both groups in Years 3 and 4. The higher the percentage of white students in a school the higher the prevalence rates regardless of intervention/control status. Boys’ and girls’ smoking rates were similar. These outcome data, student feedback and process evaluation provide a basis for continuing to create more innovative adolescent tobacco control programs. PMID:19440519

  13. HGA-based Autotuning of Peltier coolers in PAIS project: New environmental monitoring and early wildfire detection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Giliberti; Giuseppe Lorusso; Giuseppe C. Marano; Giuseppe L. Cascella

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the PAIS system which is an innovative WSN (wireless sensor network) for the environmental monitoring. The main goal of the PAIS system is to reduce the wildfire damages with early detection and suppression. Moreover, each PAIS node can integrate a number of heterogeneous sensors in order to operate a complete environmental monitoring. Usually the sensor nodes are

  14. Environmental benefits of biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding and improving environmental quality by reducing soil nutrient leaching losses, reducing bioavailability of environmental contaminants, sequestering C, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and enhancing crop productivity in highly weathered or degraded soils, has been the goal of agroecos...

  15. Damage analysis in asphalt concrete mixtures based on parameter relationships 

    E-print Network

    Song, Injun

    2004-11-15

    Asphalt pavements experience damage due to traffic loading under various environmental conditions. Damage can be caused by viscopl microcracks, fracture due to fatigue cracking, or fracture due to thermal cracking. Asphalt ...

  16. Reduction in fiber damage thresholds due to static fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setchell, Robert E.

    1995-07-01

    For a number of years we have been investigating laser-induced damage mechanisms that can occur during the transmission of Q-switched, Nd/YAG laser pulses through fused silica fibers. We have found that fiber end-face characteristics, laser characteristics, and aspects of the laser-to-fiber injection typically determine dominant damage mechanisms. However, an additional damage process has been observed occasionally at internal sites where fibers were experiencing significant local stresses due to fixturing or to bends in the fiber path. A transmission reduction prior to damage was typically not measureable at these sites. Damage would not always occur during initial testing, but sometimes occurred later in time at laser levels that previously had been transmitted without damage. In these cases the time at stress appeared to be more important than the number of transmitted shots prior to damage. A possible relation between internal damage thresholds at stressed sites and the total time under stress is suggested by the fact that silica fibers experience static fatigue processes. These processes involve the slow growth of local defects under tensile stress at rates that depend upon environmental conditions. Defects reaching sufficient size and having appropriate location could be sites for reduced laser-induced damage thresholds. This possibility could have important implications for high-power fiber transmission systems that must satisfy extended lifetime requirements. The needs of the telecommunications industry have motivated extensive studies into initial fiber defect characteristics and their likely growth mechanisms. The present work used the understanding developed in these studies to guide a preliminary experimental investigation into the possibility that static fatigue processes can affect damage thresholds. The experiments used a laser injection and fiber routing configuration that produced significantly elevated fluences within fiber core regions under tensile stress. In one set of experiments, internal damage thresholds were determined in available fiber samples that had been assembled in stress-imposing fixtures for periods up to 24 months. A decline in mean thresholds with time was observed, although measured values showed significant scatter. In order to establish initial strength and fatigue properties for these fibers, a number of additional samples were used to generate time-to-failure data at various stress levels. Based on these results, other fiber samples were subjected to conditions that greatly accelerated fatigue processes. Internal damage thresholds were then measured in these fibers and compared to thresholds measured in fresh fibers. Conclusive comparisons were frustrated by sample-to-sample and lot-to-lot variations in fiber defects.

  17. Effect of cumulative seismic damage and corrosion on life-cycle cost of reinforced concrete bridges 

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ramesh

    2009-05-15

    reinforced concrete (RC) bridges in earthquake prone regions. The approach is developed by combining cumulative seismic damage and damage associated to corrosion due to environmental conditions. Cumulative seismic damage is obtained from a low-cycle fatigue...

  18. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    SciTech Connect

    Mirasgedis, S. [Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nimfon, Thission, 11810 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: seba@meteo.noa.gr; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P. [Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nimfon, Thission, 11810 Athens (Greece); Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A. [EPEM S.A., Acharnon 141 B, 10446 Athens (Greece); Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K. [LDK-ECO S.A., Thivaidos 21, 14564 Kifissia, Athens (Greece); Mavrotas, G. [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytexneiou 9, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2008-01-15

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM{sub 10} emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO{sub 2} emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector.

  19. Lack of an association between environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'DDE and DNA damage in human sperm measured using the neutral comet assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hauser; N. P. Singh; Z. Chen; L. Pothier; L. Altshul

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorinated organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, the most stable daugh- ter compound of DDT) are persistent lipophilic compounds found in a large portion of the general population. To explore the hypothesis that environmental exposure to these compounds is associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, a study

  20. 5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Marcy B.; Singh, Vijay K.; Rhee, Juong G.; Jackson, William E.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body ?- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:22843381

  1. Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kim H.; Schultz, Irv; Nagler, James J.

    2007-11-01

    Exposure of ?shes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, ?sh were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, ?sh have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Signi?cant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was signi?cantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a signi?cant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a signi?cant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these ?sh exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

  2. Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

    2002-12-27

    The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

  3. Early life exposure to environmental levels of the aromatase inhibitor tributyltin causes masculinisation and irreversible sperm damage in zebrafish ( Danio rerio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. McAllister; David E. Kime

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether early life exposure to tributyltin (TBT), an aromatase inhibitor, impaired reproductive function in fish, Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally realistic levels (0.01–100ngl?1) of TBT from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 0 to 70 days post-hatch, and the sex ratio and sperm motility of the adults examined 3–5 months after cessation of exposure. Fish exposed

  4. SEPARATION METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES - SPECIAL ISSUE: MEMBRANES AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...

  5. Management Strategy to Reduce Tastes and Odors In Phoenix's Water Supply Lawrence A. Baker (Water Resources Center, U. of Minnesota), Paul Westerhoff (Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ASU),

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Management Strategy to Reduce Tastes and Odors In Phoenix's Water Supply Lawrence A. Baker (Water Resources Center, U. of Minnesota), Paul Westerhoff (Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ASU and odors" (T&O) in drinking water. Removing T&Os within a water treatment plant is very expensive. In 1999

  6. Environmental enrichment modulates glucocorticoid receptor expression and reduces anxiety in Indian field male mouse Mus booduga through up-regulation of microRNA-124a.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Ragu Varman; Koilmani, Emmanuvel Rajan

    2014-04-01

    Enriched environmental condition (EC) has been known to reduce anxiety. In this study, we examined whether an EC could enhance anxiolytic behavior in the Indian field mouse Mus booduga by down-regulating the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) through microRNA-124a. Wild individuals were captured at agricultural field, and then housed at standard conditions (SC) for 7days. After short-term at standard condition (STSC), on 8th day they were divided into three groups as those: (i) STSC mice tested on light/dark box on the same day and then euthanized to examine gene expression, (ii) maintained at long-term in standard condition (LTSC) and (iii) transferred to EC. After 30days, both the LTSC and EC groups were tested on the light/dark box and then euthanized to examine gene expression in amygdala region of brain. EC group preferred to stay at light chamber and exhibited less anxiety-like behavioral components when compared to STSC and LTSC groups. However, between the two groups the STSC mice showed lesser anxiety-like behavior than LTSC mice. The expression of Dicer, Ago-2 and microRNA-124a (miR-124a) was more significantly up regulated in EC mice than in STSC and LTSC mice. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that miR-124a binds with 3'UTR of GR, and subsequently we detected a more decreased level of GR in EC than in STSC, LTSC mice. The results suggest that one of the action of EC could be a GR fine tuning through miR-124a, but there is no demonstration that it could be the only involved molecular mechanism. PMID:24457250

  7. Damaged Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop, that protected it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows the exterior skin of the workshop discolored by solar radiation. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  8. Structural Damage Assessment under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Martinez, Israel

    Structural damage assessment has applications in the majority of engineering structures and mechanical systems ranging from aerospace vehicles to manufacturing equipment. The primary goals of any structural damage assessment and health monitoring systems are to ascertain the condition of a structure and to provide an evaluation of changes as a function of time as well as providing an early-warning of an unsafe condition. There are many structural heath monitoring and assessment techniques developed for research using numerical simulations and scaled structural experiments. However, the transition from research to real-world structures has been rather slow. One major reason for this slow-progress is the existence of uncertainty in every step of the damage assessment process. This dissertation research involved the experimental and numerical investigation of uncertainty in vibration-based structural health monitoring and development of robust detection and localization methods. The basic premise of vibration-based structural health monitoring is that changes in structural characteristics, such as stiffness, mass and damping, will affect the global vibration response of the structure. The diagnostic performance of vibration-based monitoring system is affected by uncertainty sources such as measurement errors, environmental disturbances and parametric modeling uncertainties. To address diagnostic errors due to irreducible uncertainty, a pattern recognition framework for damage detection has been developed to be used for continuous monitoring of structures. The robust damage detection approach developed is based on the ensemble of dimensional reduction algorithms for improved damage-sensitive feature extraction. For damage localization, the determination of an experimental structural model was performed based on output-only modal analysis. An experimental model correlation technique is developed in which the discrepancies between the undamaged and damaged modal data are isolated based on the integration of sensitivity analysis and statistical sampling, which minimizes the occurrence of false-damage indication due to uncertainty. To perform diagnostic decision-making under uncertainty, an evidential reasoning approach for damage assessment is developed for addressing the possible imprecision in the damage localization results. The newly developed damage detection and localization techniques are applied and validated through both vibration test data from literature and in house laboratory experiments.

  9. Bleomycin-related lung damage: CT evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, E.A.; Husband, J.E.; Blaquiere, R.M.; Law, M.R.

    1985-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) examinations of the chest were evaluated in 100 patients treated with bleomycin. The CT findings were compared with those of conventional chest radiographs and lung-function tests. Lung damage due to bleomycin was detected in 38% of patients by CT, while damage was detected in only 15% by radiography. Changes in appearance seen on CT scans due to bleomycin damage were compared with measurements of lung volume and gas transfer per unit lung volume. There was good correlation between severity of damage shown on CT scans and changes in lung volume. Gas transfer capabilities were reduced in most patients regardless of changes observed on CT scans. Sequential CT studies showed that complete resolution of bleomycin damage may occur within 9 months in patients with minor or moderate damage. Residual abnormalities were seen in all patients with severe damage.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOBIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental aquatic photobiology is most commonly known for its links to global climate change. Ozone depletion is, however, not the only factor that alters the effects of ultraviolet radiation on biological systems. Alterations in water clarity, by acidification, reduced disso...

  11. Environmental Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environment Canada has developed a set of environmental indicators that are easily measurable and provide useful clues on the state of the environment. This Web site provides a listing of those indicators that Environment Canada monitors. For each indicator, there is a detailed description of the environmental indicator, how it relates to larger environmental problems, and what is being done to reduce the threat. A number of Web links are provided for further information on each indicator.

  12. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32ppt), to brackish water (20ppt and 10ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20mg/L ?1.18mM representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12h, 48h, 84h and 180h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Biochemical responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea excretion rate, plasma ammonia, urea and lactate, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) and osmolality, muscle water content (MWC) and liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and ion- osmoregulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. During HEA, Jamm was inhibited in fasted fish at 10ppt, while fed fish were still able to excrete efficiently. At 2.5ppt, both feeding groups subjected to HEA experienced severe reductions and eventually a reversion in Jamm. Overall, the build-up of plasma ammonia in HEA exposed fed fish was much lower than fasted ones. Unlike fasted fish, fed fish acclimated to lower salinities (10ppt-2.5ppt) could maintain plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and MWC during HEA exposure. Thus fed fish were able to sustain ion-osmotic homeostasis which was associated with a more pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity. At 2.5ppt both feeding groups activated H(+)-ATPase. The expression of NKCC1 was down-regulated at lower salinities in both fed and fasted fish, but was upregulated within each salinity after a few days of HEA exposure. Though an increment in plasma lactate content and a decline in energy stores were noted for both feeding regimes, the effect was more severe in feed deprived fish. Overall, several different physiological processes were disturbed in fasted sea bass during HEA exposure while feeding alleviated adverse effects of high ammonia and salinity challenge. This suggests that low food availability can render fish more vulnerable to external ammonia, especially at reduced seawater salinities. PMID:25625520

  13. Satellite data analysis for earthquake damage assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Gamba; Andrea Marazzi; Eugenio Costamagna

    1997-01-01

    This paper moves from the results of RADATT (rapid damage assessment telematic tool), a project funded by the European Commission -- DG XIII. The final goal of the developed system architecture was to sensibly reduce the effects of a devastating seismic event by providing the responsible agencies a rapid and reliable damage detection and estimation of the extent and location

  14. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations

    E-print Network

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    is exposed to a series of fluids and operations that can reduce its productive capacity. Any process that causes a loss in the productivity of an oil-, gas-, or water-saturated formation has a damaging effect on the reservoir. These damage mechanisms...

  15. Damage and fatigue described by a fractional derivative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Michele; Fabrizio, Mauro

    2015-07-01

    As in [1], damage is associated with fatigue that a material undergoes. In this paper, because we work with viscoelastic solids represented by a fractional model, damage is described by the order of the fractional derivative, which represents the phase field satisfying Ginzburg-Landau equation, which describes the evolution of damage. Finally, in our model, damage is caused, not only by fatigue, but also directly by a source related to environmental factors and described by a positive time function.

  16. Benchmark Dose Estimation for Cadmium-Induced Renal Tubular Damage among Environmental Cadmium-Exposed Women Aged 35–54 Years in Two Counties of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jia; Li, Mei; Han, Tian-xu; Chen, Jian-wei; Ye, Lin-xiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yi-kai

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of factors, including gender, age, smoking habits, and occupational exposure, affect the levels of urinary cadmium. Few studies have considered these influences when calculating the benchmark dose (BMD) of cadmium. In the present study, we aimed to calculate BMDs and their 95% lower confidence bounds (BMDLs) for cadmium-induced renal tubular effects in an age-specific population in south-central China. Methods In this study, urinary cadmium, ?2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels were measured in morning urine samples from 490 randomly selected non-smoking women aged 35–54 years. Participants were selected using stratified cluster sampling in two counties (counties A and B) in China. Multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the dose-response relationship between urinary cadmium levels and tubular effects. BMDs/BMDLs corresponding to an additional risk (benchmark response) of 5% and 10% were calculated with assumed cut-off values of the 84th and 90th percentile of urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels of the controls. Results Urinary levels of ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase increased significantly with increasing levels of urinary cadmium. Age was not associated with urinary cadmium levels, possibly because of the narrow age range included in this study. Based on urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase, BMDs and BMDLs of urinary cadmium ranged from 2.08 to 3.80 (1.41–2.18) µg/g cr for subjects in county A and from 0.99 to 3.34 (0.74–1.91) µg/g cr for those in county B. The predetermined benchmark response of 0.05 and the 90th percentiles of urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels of the subjects not exposed to cadmium (i.e., the control group) served as cut-off values. Conclusions The obtained BMDs of urinary cadmium were similar to the reference point of 1 µg/g cr, as suggested by the European Food Safety Authority, indicating that cadmium exposure must be reduced to protect human health. PMID:25536107

  17. Damage detection in sandwich composite materials using laser vibrometry in conjunction with nonlinear system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Sara; Koester, David; Adams, Douglas E.

    2009-03-01

    Fiberglass sandwich panels are tested to study a vibration-based method for locating damage in composite materials. This method does not rely on a direct comparison of the natural frequencies, mode shapes, or residues in the forced vibration response data. Specifically, a nonlinear system identification based method for damage detection is sought that reduces the sensitivity of damage detection results to changes in vibration measurements due to variations in boundary conditions, environmental conditions, and material properties of the panel. Damage mechanisms considered include a disbond between the core and face sheet and a crack within the core. A panel is excited by a skewed piezoelectric actuator over a broad frequency range while a three-dimensional scanning laser vibrometer measures the surface velocity of the panel along three orthogonal axes. The forced frequency response data measured using the scanning laser vibrometer at multiple excitation amplitudes is processed to identify areas of the panel that exhibit significant nonlinear response characteristics. It is demonstrated that these localized nonlinearities in the panel coincide with the damaged areas of the composite material. Because changes in the measured frequency response functions due to nonlinear distortions associated with the damage can be identified without comparing the vibration data to a reference (baseline) signature of the undamaged material, this vibration technique for damage detection in composite materials exhibits less sensitivity to variations in the underlying linear characteristics than traditional methods. It is also demonstrated that the damage at a given location can be classified as either due to a disbond or core crack because these two types of damage produce difference signatures when comparing the multi-amplitude frequency response functions.

  18. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in reducing soil nutrient loss.

    PubMed

    Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Bender, S Franz; Asghari, Hamid R; Heijden, Marcel G A van der

    2015-05-01

    Substantial amounts of nutrients are lost from soils via leaching and as gaseous emissions. These losses can be environmentally damaging and expensive in terms of lost agricultural production. Plants have evolved many traits to optimize nutrient acquisition, including the formation of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), associations of plant roots with fungi that acquire soil nutrients. There is emerging evidence that AM have the ability to reduce nutrient loss from soils by enlarging the nutrient interception zone and preventing nutrient loss after rain-induced leaching events. Until recently, this important ecosystem service of AM had been largely overlooked. Here we review the role of AM in reducing nutrient loss and conclude that this role cannot be ignored if we are to increase global food production in an environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25840500

  19. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Urban Runoff: Use of Management Practices to Mitigate Pesticide and Nutrient Transport with Runoff from Fairway Turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The detection of pesticides and excess nutrients in surface waters of urban watersheds has lead to increased environmental concern and suspect of contaminant contributions from residential, urban, and recreational sources. An estimated 25% of pesticides used in the United States result from nonagric...

  20. Radiation Damage Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The availability of data regarding the radiation behavior of GaAs and silicon solar cells is discussed as well as efforts to provide sufficient information. Other materials are considered too immature for reasonable radiation evaluation. The lack of concern over the possible catastrophic radiation degradation in cascade cells is a potentially serious problem. Lithium counterdoping shows potential for removing damage in irradiated P-type material, although initial efficiencies are not comparable to current state of the art. The possibility of refining the lithium doping method to maintain high initial efficiencies and combining it with radiation tolerant structures such as thin BSF cells or vertical junction cells could provide a substantial improvement in EOL efficiencies. Laser annealing of junctions, either those formed ion implantation or diffusion, may not only improve initial cell performance but might also reduce the radiation degradation rate.

  1. Tensile damage response from discrete element virtual testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Delaplace

    2009-01-01

    Depending on the loading conditions on brittle materials, damage can generally not be reduced to a simple scalar. Microcrack orientation affects the stiffness in a preferential direction perpendicular to the crack lips. Taking into account the damage anisotropy in phenomenological models is a possible option, but the identification of the corresponding models with respect to damage anisotropy is not an

  2. Environmental costs of electricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Ottinger; D. R. Wooley; N. A. Robinson; D. R. Hodas; S. E. Babb; S. C. Buchanan; P. L. Chernick; E. Caverhill; A. Krupnick; W. Harrington; S. Radin; U. Fritsche

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews studies that quantify the externality costs of environmental damage caused by electric power sources.It surveys how state regulatory commissions have required or encouraged incorporation of these environmental externality costs in electric utility planning, bid evaluation and other resource selection procedures. Separate abstracts were prepared for 7 chapters and 13 sections. The conclusion presents a call to action

  3. Economic measurement of environment damages

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  4. Oxidative damage in various tissues of rats exposed to radon.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ji-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Hai; Liu, Xing; Wu, Yan-Wen; Li, Ji-Xiang; Cao, Yi; Hei, Tom K; Tong, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage can be induced by many environmental stressors. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been used as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed to radon gas at a concentration of 100,000Bq/m(3) for 12 h/d for 30, 60, and 120 d, equivalent to cumulative doses of 60, 120, and 240 working level months (WLM), respectively. Changes in levels of 8-OHdG, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant (T-AOC), as well as expressions of some DNA repair enzymes such as 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and MutT homolog 1 (oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase, MTH1), were determined in rat urine, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and lung after exposure to radon. The results revealed an increase in 8-OHdG and ROS levels, a decrease in T-AOC levels, and reduced OGG1 and MTH1 expression levels. The elevated amount of 8-OHdG in urine or lymphocytes was positively correlated with the cumulative exposure dose, whereas OGG1 and MHT1 expression levels in lung were inversely correlated with cumulative exposure dose. These findings indicate that oxidative damage induced by radon may be involved in radon-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:22757673

  5. Genotoxic stress in plants: shedding light on DNA damage, repair and DNA repair helicases.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Panda, Brahma B; Tuteja, Renu

    2009-01-01

    Plant cells are constantly exposed to environmental agents and endogenous processes that inflict damage to DNA and cause genotoxic stress, which can reduce plant genome stability, growth and productivity. Plants are most affected by solar UV-B radiation, which damage the DNA by inducing the formation of two main UV photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also generated extra- or intra-cellularly, which constitute yet another source of genotoxic stress. As a result of this stress, the cellular DNA-damage responses (DDR) are activated, which transiently arrest the cell cycle and allow cells to repair DNA before proceeding into mitosis. DDR requires the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Rad3-related (ATR) genes, which regulate the cell cycle and transmit the damage signals to downstream effectors of cell-cycle progression. Since genomic protection and stability are fundamental to ensure and sustain plant diversity and productivity, therefore, repair of DNA damages is essential. In plants the bulky DNA lesions, CPDs and 6-4PPs, are repaired by a simple and error-free mechanism: photoreactivation, which is a light-dependent mechanism and requires CPD or 6-4PP specific photolyases. In addition to this direct repair process, the plants also have sophisticated light-independent general repair mechanisms, such as the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER). The completed plant genome sequences reveal that most of the genes involved in NER and BER are present in higher plants, which suggests that the network of in-built DNA-damage repair mechanisms is conserved. This article describes the insight underlying the DNA damage and repair pathways in plants. The comet assay to measure the DNA damage and the role of DNA repair helicases such as XPD and XPB are also covered. PMID:18652913

  6. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, D. G.

    1980-02-01

    Progress on each of the following topics is outlined: (1) rotating target neutron source, (2) fusion materials irradiation test facility, (3) environmental characterization, (4) damage production, and (5) damage microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior. (MOW)

  7. Significance of "high probability/low damage" versus "low probability/high damage" flood events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, B.; Elmer, F.; Thieken, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    The need for an efficient use of limited resources fosters the application of risk-oriented design in flood mitigation. Flood defence measures reduce future damage. Traditionally, this benefit is quantified via the expected annual damage. We analyse the contribution of "high probability/low damage" floods versus the contribution of "low probability/high damage" events to the expected annual damage. For three case studies, i.e. actual flood situations in flood-prone communities in Germany, it is shown that the expected annual damage is dominated by "high probability/low damage" events. Extreme events play a minor role, even though they cause high damage. Using typical values for flood frequency behaviour, flood plain morphology, distribution of assets and vulnerability, it is shown that this also holds for the general case of river floods in Germany. This result is compared to the significance of extreme events in the public perception. "Low probability/high damage" events are more important in the societal view than it is expressed by the expected annual damage. We conclude that the expected annual damage should be used with care since it is not in agreement with societal priorities. Further, risk aversion functions that penalise events with disastrous consequences are introduced in the appraisal of risk mitigation options. It is shown that risk aversion may have substantial implications for decision-making. Different flood mitigation decisions are probable, when risk aversion is taken into account.

  8. Results of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study (NCICAS) environmental intervention to reduce cockroach allergen exposure in inner-city homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Gergen; Kathleen M. Mortimer; Peyton A. Eggleston; David Rosenstreich; Herman Mitchell; Dennis Ownby; Meyer Kattan; Dean Baker; Elizabeth C. Wright; Raymond Slavin; Floyd Malveaux

    1999-01-01

    Background: Cockroach allergen is important in asthma. Practical methods to reduce exposure are needed. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of house cleaning and professional extermination on lowering cockroach antigen levels in inner-city dwellings. Methods: As part of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study intervention, 265 of 331 families with asthmatic children who had positive skin test responses to

  9. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - SUPPLEMENT 2: PROCEDURES USED IN SETTING UP THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The procedures used in setting up the agricultural production model used in a study of alternatives for reducing insecticides on cotton and corn are described. The major analytical tool used is a spatial equilibrium model of U.S. agriculture. This is a linear programming model th...

  10. Iterative Damage Index Method for Structural Health Monitoring

    E-print Network

    You, Taesun

    2011-02-22

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an effective alternative to conventional inspections which are time-consuming and subjective. SHM can detect damage early and reduce maintenance cost and thereby help reduce the likelihood of catastrophic...

  11. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.

    2009-07-15

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

  12. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500...MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the...e) Establishing appropriate time limits for the environmental...

  13. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500...MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the...e) Establishing appropriate time limits for the environmental...

  14. Pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus

    2005-01-01

    The links between environmental agents, environmental conditions, and disease and disability among children are receiving increasing attention. Evidence abounds that children are more susceptible than adults to the damaging effects of environmental agents and conditions. This evidence is illuminated by the much-publicized and expanding research agenda on the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and treatment of environmentally related disease in the pediatric population. Encouragingly, advances in molecular biology and other sciences are providing important tools to aid pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in meeting the environmental health needs of children. PMID:15712790

  15. The Effects of Mothers' Educational Levels on University Students' Environmental Protection Commitments and Environmental Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraçli, Sinan; Yilmaz, Veysel; Arslan, Talha

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The damage caused by recent environmental problems has led to increased environmental concerns and the development of environment-friendly consumption behaviours in almost every society. Environment-friendly consumption involves the consideration of environmental benefits by minimizing any damage done to the environment at all…

  16. Rapid Disaster Damage Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, T. T.

    2012-07-01

    The experiences from recent disaster events showed that detailed information derived from high-resolution satellite images could accommodate the requirements from damage analysts and disaster management practitioners. Richer information contained in such high-resolution images, however, increases the complexity of image analysis. As a result, few image analysis solutions can be practically used under time pressure in the context of post-disaster and emergency responses. To fill the gap in employment of remote sensing in disaster response, this research develops a rapid high-resolution satellite mapping solution built upon a dual-scale contextual framework to support damage estimation after a catastrophe. The target objects are building (or building blocks) and their condition. On the coarse processing level, statistical region merging deployed to group pixels into a number of coarse clusters. Based on majority rule of vegetation index, water and shadow index, it is possible to eliminate the irrelevant clusters. The remaining clusters likely consist of building structures and others. On the fine processing level details, within each considering clusters, smaller objects are formed using morphological analysis. Numerous indicators including spectral, textural and shape indices are computed to be used in a rule-based object classification. Computation time of raster-based analysis highly depends on the image size or number of processed pixels in order words. Breaking into 2 level processing helps to reduce the processed number of pixels and the redundancy of processing irrelevant information. In addition, it allows a data- and tasks- based parallel implementation. The performance is demonstrated with QuickBird images captured a disaster-affected area of Phanga, Thailand by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami are used for demonstration of the performance. The developed solution will be implemented in different platforms as well as a web processing service for operational uses.

  17. Modeling laser damage to the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Clifton D.

    This dissertation presents recent progress in several areas related to modeling laser damage to the retina. In Chapter 3, we consider the consequences of using the Arrhenius damage model to predict the damage thresholds of multiple pulse, or repetitive pulse, exposures. We have identified a few fundamental trends associated with the multiple pulse damage predictions made by the Arrhenius model. These trends differ from what would be expected by non-thermal mechanisms, and could prove useful in differentiating thermal and non-thermal damage. Chapter 4 presents a new rate equation damage model hypothesized to describe photochemical damage. The model adds a temperature dependent term to the simple rate equation implied by the principle of reciprocity that is characteristic of photochemical damage thresholds. A recent damage threshold study, conducted in-vitro, has revealed a very sharp transition between thermal and photochemical damage threshold trends. For the wavelength used in the experiment (413 nm), thermal damage thresholds were observed at exposure levels that were twice the expected photochemical damage threshold, based on the traditional understanding of photochemical damage. Our model accounts for this observed trend by introducing a temperature dependent quenching, or repair, rate to the photochemical damage rate. For long exposures that give a very small temperature rise, the model reduces to the principle of reciprocity. Near the transition region between thermal and photochemical damage, the model allows the damage threshold to be set by thermal mechanisms, even at exposure above the reciprocity exposure. In Chapter 5, we describe a retina damage model that includes thermal lensing in the eye by coupling beam propagation and heat transfer models together. Thermal lensing has recently been suggested as a contributing factor to the large increase in measured retinal damage thresholds in the near infrared. The transmission of the vitreous decreases significantly for wavelengths in the near infrared due to an increase in the absorption coefficient for these long wavelengths. This means that less energy actually reaches the retina, but it also means that more energy is absorbed by the vitreous which can lead to significant temperature rises. The refractive index of water is known to depend on temperature, and the vitreous has very similar optical properties to water, so temperature gradients in the vitreous lead to refractive index gradients that act as a lens. Since the refractive index of water decreases with an increase in temperature, the overall effect is to establish a negative lens that defocuses a beam inside the eye during a laser exposure. This effect is a potential protection mechanism for the retina, as it would limit the time for which a laser can be sharply focused on the retina. Our model agrees well with thermal lensing measurements that have been conducted in water and we have used it to predict the retinal damage threshold as a function of exposure duration for 1318 nm exposures at various beam diameters. The model predicts that the damage threshold remains constant after some exposure time, which depends on the beam diameter. This is due mainly to the fact the retinal temperature rise is limited by the thermal lens and reaches a peak value in a relatively short time (on the order of 10 ms), which limits the amount of time that a laser exposure can cause damage. Finally, in Chapter 6 we describe the first steps we have taken in building a comprehensive short pulse retina damage model. Currently, no model capable of predicting retinal damage outcome based on the exposure parameters at the cornea exists. Models of possible damage mechanisms do exist (the damage mechanism for pulses less than about 1 mus are non-thermal), but these models assume that the exposure parameters are known at the absorption site (the retina). We have constructed a configurable, linear short pulse propagation model, that is capable of predicting the exposure to the retina from a pulse incident on the cornea. The model incl

  18. Reverse Sample Genome Probing, a New Technique for Identification of Bacteria in Environmental Samples by DNA Hybridization, and Its Application to the Identification of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, Gerrit; Voordouw, Johanna K.; Karkhoff-Schweizer, Roxann R.; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Westlake, Donald W. S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for the identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization is presented. It is based on the fact that, even within a genus, the genomes of different bacteria may have little overall sequence homology. This allows the use of the labeled genomic DNA of a given bacterium (referred to as a “standard”) to probe for its presence and that of bacteria with highly homologous genomes in total DNA obtained from an environmental sample. Alternatively, total DNA extracted from the sample can be labeled and used to probe filters on which denatured chromosomal DNA from relevant bacterial standards has been spotted. The latter technique is referred to as reverse sample genome probing, since it is the reverse of the usual practice of deriving probes from reference bacteria for analyzing a DNA sample. Reverse sample genome probing allows identification of bacteria in a sample in a single step once a master filter with suitable standards has been developed. Application of reverse sample genome probing to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in 31 samples obtained primarily from oil fields in the province of Alberta has indicated that there are at least 20 genotypically different sulfate-reducing bacteria in these samples. Images PMID:16348574

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy February 2013 The University of Leeds is responsible international class research activity. In carrying out these services this University will contribute to reflect best environmental practice, implement an environmental management system to pursue sustainability

  20. Reducing the Social Costs of Road Traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfried Puwein

    1992-01-01

    The competitive strength of motor car traffic vis-à-vis other means of transport is partly due to the fact that the society as a whole bears some of the costs of transportation, accidents and environmental pollution. In order to remove such distortions to competition and to limit physical and environmental damage the social costs of motor car traffic should be neutralized

  1. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China) [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tao, Shasha [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lian, Fangru [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chau, Binh T. [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)] [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fang, Deyu [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States) [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Zhang, Donna D., E-mail: dzhang@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ? Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ? Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ? Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ? Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  2. Frequency response function interpolation for damage detection under changing environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Limongelli

    2010-01-01

    Damage detection can be carried out based on measured dynamic characteristics of the monitored structure. Several experimental investigations have shown that structural parameters are affected by environmental conditions. This circumstance can lead to erroneous conclusions if damage detection methods based on variations of global structural parameters are applied without properly taking into account this influence. In this paper the sensitivity

  3. Damage detection in reinforced concrete structures by dynamic system identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maeck; M. Abdel Wahab; G. De Roeck

    1998-01-01

    Service loads, environmental and accidental actions may cause damage to constructions. Regular inspection and condition assessment of engineering structures are necessary so that early detection of any defect can be made and structure's remaining safety and reliability can be determined. When the structural damage is small or it is in the interior of the system, its detection cannot be done

  4. Estimating Surface Damage of Composite Panels with Inverse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayanan Ramanujam; Toshio Nakamura

    2007-01-01

    When composite structures are exposed to harsh environmental conditions or impacted by foreign objects, their surfaces may degrade or damage. Damage evaluations of composite panels often demand expensive tools and time-consuming processes. The aim of this work is to introduce a versatile inverse analysis based method that requires less measurement efforts than those of conventional techniques. In this procedure, first,

  5. DNA Damages as a Depolymerization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz; Wulkow, Michael

    The damage of DNA chains by environmental factors like radiation or chemical pollutants is a topic that has been frequently explored from an experimental and a theoretical perspective. Such damages, like the damage of the strands of a DNA chain, are toxic for the cell and can induce mutagenesis or apoptosis. Several models make strong assumptions for the distribution of damages; for instance a frequent supposition is that these damages are Poisson distributed. [L. Ma, J. J. Wagner, W. Hu, A. J. Levine and G. A. Stolovitzki, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.PNAS 102, 14266 (2005).] Only few models describe in detail the damage and the mechanisms associated to the formation and evolution of this damage distribution [H. Nikjoo, P. O'neill and D. T. Goodhead, Radiat. Res. 156, 577 (2001).] Nevertheless, such models do not include the repair processes which are continuously active inside the cell. In this work we present a novel model, based on a depolymerization process, describing the distribution of damages on DNA chains coupled to the dynamics associated to its repair processes. The central aim is not to give a final and comprehensive model, but a hint to represent in more detail the complex dynamics involved in the damage and repair of DNA. We show that there are critical parameters associated to this repair process, in particular we show how critical doses can be relevant in deciding whether the cell continues its repair process or starts apoptosis. We also find out that the damage concentration is related to the dose via a power law relation.

  6. Stability of U(VI)- and Tc(VII) reducing microbial communities to environmental perturbation: a thermodynamic network model and intermediate-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, James P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Istok, Jack; Krumholz, Lee

    2006-06-01

    The project is a collaborative task with a larger project headed by Jack Istok at Oregon State University, which is conducted under the same title. The project was conceptualized as follows. A ''geochemical'' model of microbial communities was hypothesized, in which microbes were characterized as mineral species according to the chemical transformations they used for metabolic function. The iron-reducing bacteria, for example, would be represented by the iron reducing chemical reaction, including a specific electron donor, the fraction of the consumed donor used for biomass maintenance or growth, and a free energy for the reaction. The pseudomineral species would then be included in a standard geochemical model, and community succession could be calculated according to the thermodynamically favored microbially mediated reactions under progressive consumption of electron donors and receptors, and evolving geochemical conditions. The project includes relatively minor participation by the University of Oklahoma and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, with the major component at OSU. The PNNL project was funded to provide assistance to Dr. Istok in formulating the appropriate modeling approach and geochemical constraints on the modeling effort.

  7. Short dysfunctional telomeres impair the repair of arsenite-induced oxidative damage in mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jennifer P A; Banerjee, Birendranath; Fang, Wanru; Poonepalli, Anuradha; Balakrishnan, Lakshmidevi; Low, Grace Kah Mun; Bhattacharjee, Rabindra N; Akira, Shizuo; Jayapal, Manikandan; Melendez, Alirio J; Baskar, Rajamanickam; Lee, Han-Woong; Hande, M Prakash

    2008-03-01

    Telomeres and telomerase appear to participate in the repair of broken DNA ends produced by oxidative damage. Arsenite is an environmental contaminant and a potent human carcinogen, which induces oxidative stress on cells via the generation of reactive oxygen species affecting cell viability and chromosome stability. It promotes telomere attrition and reduces cell survival by apoptosis. In this study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from mice lacking telomerase RNA component (mTERC(-/-) mice) with long (early passage or EP) and short (late passage or LP) telomeres to investigate the extent of oxidative damage by comparing the differences in DNA damage, chromosome instability, and cell survival at 24 and 48 h of exposure to sodium arsenite (As3+; NaAsO2). There was significantly high level of DNA damage in mTERC(-/-) cells with short telomeres as determined by alkaline comet assay. Consistent with elevated DNA damage, increased micronuclei (MN) induction reflecting gross genomic instability was also observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that increasing doses of arsenite augmented the chromosome aberrations, which contributes to genomic instability leading to possibly apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest. Microarray analysis has revealed that As3+ treatment altered the expression of 456 genes of which 20% of them have known functions in cell cycle and DNA damage signaling and response, cell growth, and/or maintenance. Results from our studies imply that short dysfunctional telomeres impair the repair of oxidative damage caused by arsenite. The results will have implications in risk estimation as well as cancer chemotherapy. PMID:17849448

  8. Detection of insect damage in almonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soowon; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Pinhole insect damage in natural almonds is very difficult to detect on-line. Further, evidence exists relating insect damage to aflatoxin contamination. Hence, for quality and health reasons, methods to detect and remove such damaged nuts are of great importance in this study, we explored the possibility of using x-ray imaging to detect pinhole damage in almonds by insects. X-ray film images of about 2000 almonds and x-ray linescan images of only 522 pinhole damaged almonds were obtained. The pinhole damaged region appeared slightly darker than non-damaged region in x-ray negative images. A machine recognition algorithm was developed to detect these darker regions. The algorithm used the first order and the second order information to identify the damaged region. To reduce the possibility of false positive results due to germ region in high resolution images, germ detection and removal routines were also included. With film images, the algorithm showed approximately an 81 percent correct recognition ratio with only 1 percent false positives whereas line scan images correctly recognized 65 percent of pinholes with about 9 percent false positives. The algorithms was very fast and efficient requiring only minimal computation time. If implemented on line, theoretical throughput of this recognition system would be 66 nuts/second.

  9. Environmental Pollutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing animal production systems to reduce environmental impacts is most difficult for air quality. Water and soil quality responses to animal production can be managed through planning and understanding the risk of spills, overapplication, or improper use of manure. Escape of gaseous or particula...

  10. A food store-based environmental intervention is associated with reduced BMI and improved psychosocial factors and food-related behaviors on the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Elizabeth M; He, Siran; Pardilla, Marla

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher among American Indians (AIs) and is associated with increased rates of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. We implemented a 14-mo intervention trial (Navajo Healthy Stores) on the Navajo Nation that sought to increase availability of healthier foods in local food stores and to promote these foods at the point of purchase and through community media. We divided the Navajo Nation into 10 store regions, half of which were randomized to intervention and half to comparison. We evaluated the program by using a pre-post sample of systematically sampled adult Navajo consumers (baseline, n = 276; postintervention, n = 145). Intervention impact was examined by analyzing pre-post differences by intervention group and by intervention exposure level. When intervention and comparison groups were compared, only body mass index (BMI) showed a trend toward impact of the intervention (P = 0.06). However, greater exposure to the intervention was associated with significantly reduced BMI (P ? 0.05) and improved healthy food intentions (P ? 0.01), healthy cooking methods (P ? 0.05), and healthy food getting (P ? 0.01). With increasing exposure, the odds of improving overweight or obese status was 5.02 (95% CI: 1.48, 16.99; P ? 0.01) times the odds of maintaining or worsening overweight or obese status. In summary, a food store intervention was associated with reduced overweight/obesity and improved obesity-related psychosocial and behavioral factors among those persons most exposed to the intervention on an AI reservation. PMID:23864511

  11. A Food Store–Based Environmental Intervention Is Associated with Reduced BMI and Improved Psychosocial Factors and Food-Related Behaviors on the Navajo Nation123

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Elizabeth M.; He, Siran; Pardilla, Marla

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher among American Indians (AIs) and is associated with increased rates of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. We implemented a 14-mo intervention trial (Navajo Healthy Stores) on the Navajo Nation that sought to increase availability of healthier foods in local food stores and to promote these foods at the point of purchase and through community media. We divided the Navajo Nation into 10 store regions, half of which were randomized to intervention and half to comparison. We evaluated the program by using a pre-post sample of systematically sampled adult Navajo consumers (baseline, n = 276; postintervention, n = 145). Intervention impact was examined by analyzing pre-post differences by intervention group and by intervention exposure level. When intervention and comparison groups were compared, only body mass index (BMI) showed a trend toward impact of the intervention (P = 0.06). However, greater exposure to the intervention was associated with significantly reduced BMI (P ? 0.05) and improved healthy food intentions (P ? 0.01), healthy cooking methods (P ? 0.05), and healthy food getting (P ? 0.01). With increasing exposure, the odds of improving overweight or obese status was 5.02 (95% CI: 1.48, 16.99; P ? 0.01) times the odds of maintaining or worsening overweight or obese status. In summary, a food store intervention was associated with reduced overweight/obesity and improved obesity-related psychosocial and behavioral factors among those persons most exposed to the intervention on an AI reservation. PMID:23864511

  12. Space shuttle solid rocket booster main parachute damage reduction team report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Watts

    1993-01-01

    This report gives the findings of the space shuttle solid rocket booster main parachute damage reduction team. The purpose of the team was to investigate the causes of main parachute deployment damage and to recommend methods to eliminate or substantially reduce the damage. The team concluded that the two primary causes of significant damage during deployment are vent entanglement and

  13. Community organizing goes to college: A practice-based model of community organizing to implement environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking on college campuses

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lentz, Ashley W.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Community organizing is a successful method to leverage resources and build community capacity to identify and intervene upon health issues. However, published accounts documenting the systematic facilitation of the process are limited. This qualitative analysis explored community organizing using data collected as part of the Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC), a randomized community trial of 10 North Carolina colleges focused on reducing consequences of high-risk drinking among college students. We sought to develop and confirm use of a community-organizing model, based in practice, illustrating an authentic process of organizing campus and community stakeholders for public health change. Using the grounded theory approach, we analyzed and interpreted data from three waves of individual interviews with full-time community organizers on five SPARC intervention campuses. A five-phase community-organizing model was developed and its use was confirmed. This model may serve as a practical guide for public health interventions utilizing community-organizing approaches. PMID:20530638

  14. Using market-based dispatching with environmental price signals to reduce emissions and water use at power plants in the Texas grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajeri, Nawaf S.; Donohoo, Pearl; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; King, Carey W.; Webster, Mort D.; Webber, Michael E.; Allen, David T.

    2011-10-01

    The possibility of using electricity dispatching strategies to achieve a 50% nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reduction from electricity generating units was examined using the grid of the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas as a case study. Simulations of a hypothetical policy demonstrate that imposing higher NOx prices induces a switch from some coal-fired generation to natural gas generation, lowering NOx emissions. The simulation is for a day with relatively high electricity demand and accounts for transmission constraints. In addition to the lowering of the NOx emissions, there are co-benefits of the redispatching of generation from coal to natural gas, including reductions in the emissions of sulfur oxides (24%-71%), Hg (16%-82%) and CO2 (8.8%-22%). Water consumption was also decreased, by 4.4%-8.7%. Substantial reductions of NOx emissions can be achieved for an increased generation cost of 4-13%, which is due to the higher fuel price of gas relative to coal (assuming a price of 3.87 per MMBTU (MMBTU: million British thermal units) for natural gas, and 1.89 per MMBTU for coal). However, once the system has reduced NOx emissions by approximately 50%, there is little incremental reduction in emissions due to further increases in NOx prices.

  15. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  16. Seismic Radiation from Material Damage During Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Recent theoretical results on seismic representation from regions undergoing rapid material damage indicate that changes of elastic moduli can produce radiation that may be, in some cases, a significant portion of (or even larger than) the radiation from the standard moment source (Ben-Zion and Ampuero, 2009). The additional radiation is associated with a “damage-related source term” involving the product of the changes in the elasticity tensor and the total elastic strain tensor. The damage source term is non-zero in a certain volume where brittle damage occurs. The generated seismic motion can be computed, as for the classical moment source, by a convolution of the damage density in the affected volume with the spatial derivative of a Green’s functions for an earth model. Here we attempt to provide estimates of the amount and types (isotropic and deviatoric) of the damage related radiation for explosion scenarios. Using both analytic solutions and three-dimensional elastic finite difference calculations, we compute and compare the waves generated by the classical moment and damage related source terms in a full space. We assume a purely isotropic explosion of size corresponding to low-yield nuclear explosions, a granite (hard-rock) whole-space, and that the damage occurs instantaneously. Using a simple iterative approach, we adjust the strain ?ij where it exceeds the yield strength of the rock ?ij_c and reduce the local elastic moduli in proportion to the difference (?ij - ?ij_c). The calculated adjustments to the strain and reduction of elastic moduli are used to estimate the additional moment contribution due to excess strain (?ij - ?ij_c) and the associated damage source term in the yielding region. Finally, the seismic radiation from the brittle damage process is computed and compared to the radiation generated by the moment of the explosion source and the additional inelastic relaxation in the yielding region.

  17. DNA damage in Fabry patients: An investigation of oxidative damage and repair.

    PubMed

    Biancini, Giovana Brondani; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Manini, Paula Regina; Faverzani, Jéssica Lamberty; Netto, Cristina Brinckmann Oliveira; Deon, Marion; Giugliani, Roberto; Saffi, Jenifer; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with loss of activity of the enzyme ?-galactosidase A. In addition to accumulation of ?-galactosidase A substrates, other mechanisms may be involved in FD pathophysiology, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher levels of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in Fabry patients were previously reported. However, DNA damage by oxidative species in FD has not yet been studied. We investigated basal DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair capacity, and reactive species generation in Fabry patients and controls. To measure oxidative damage to purines and pyrimidines, the alkaline version of the comet assay was used with two endonucleases, formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (EndoIII). To evaluate DNA repair, a challenge assay with hydrogen peroxide was performed. Patients presented significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage and oxidative damage to purines. Oxidative DNA damage was induced in both DNA bases by H2O2 in patients. Fabry patients presented efficient DNA repair in both assays (with and without endonucleases) as well as significantly higher levels of oxidative species (measured by dichlorofluorescein content). Even if DNA repair be induced in Fabry patients (as a consequence of continuous exposure to oxidative species), the repair is not sufficient to reduce DNA damage to control levels. PMID:26046974

  18. Interrogation of thermo-mechanical damage in field-deployed electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Lall; Mahendra Harsha; Kai Goebel; Jim Jones

    2012-01-01

    Field deployed electronics may accrue damage due to environmental exposure and usage after finite period of service but may not often have any macro-indicators of failure such as cracks or delamination. A method to interrogate the damage state of field deployed electronics in the pre-failure space may allow insight into the damage initiation, progression, and remaining useful life of the

  19. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level...

  20. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level...

  1. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level...

  2. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level...

  3. Testing and evaluation of damaged tubular jacket braces

    E-print Network

    Moehlman, Scott Alan

    1990-01-01

    to provide data on the strength of damaged tubular members. Types of damage on the specimens included corrosion, dents, cracks, holes, and/or initial out-of-straightness. In addition, ultrasonic testing was performed to determine the wall thickness... of reduced cross section caused by corrosion 1. V damage. Since the most severe corrosion was often on the inside surface of the member, severely corroded regions were difficult to locate using only visual and ultrasonic testing. The ultrasonic wall...

  4. DNA Damage Response: Three Levels of DNA Repair Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sirbu, Bianca M.; Cortez, David

    2013-01-01

    Genome integrity is challenged by DNA damage from both endogenous and environmental sources. This damage must be repaired to allow both RNA and DNA polymerases to accurately read and duplicate the information in the genome. Multiple repair enzymes scan the DNA for problems, remove the offending damage, and restore the DNA duplex. These repair mechanisms are regulated by DNA damage response kinases including DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR that are activated at DNA lesions. These kinases improve the efficiency of DNA repair by directly phosphorylating repair proteins to modify their activities, by initiating a complex series of changes in the local chromatin structure near the damage site, and by altering the overall cellular environment to make it more conducive to repair. In this review, we focus on these three levels of regulation to illustrate how the DNA damage kinases promote efficient repair to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. PMID:23813586

  5. Laser Damage Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Optical Damage Threshold Testing Instrumentation at NASA Langley Research Center. This work was sanctioned and funded by Code Q, R, & AE to develop a new standard for damage testing various types of optical materials and coatings. Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing is a destructive test procedure to determine the minimum applied laser energy level that will result in damage and is referred to as the damage threshold. The damage threshold is often the critical limitation in the section of optical materials for use in high-energy laser systems.The test station consists of diagnostic equipment, beam conditioning optical elements, an inspection microscope and three lasers: a high energy pulsed ND: Yag, which develops 650mJ at 10 hz and outputs three wavelengths which include 1.06m, 532nm and 355 nm; a Ti:sapphire laser which produces a continuum of laser output from 790nm to 900nm; and a alignment HeNe, which looks yellow when mixed with the 2nd harmonic ND:Yag laser. Laser sources are used to perform damage threshold testing at the specific wavelength of interest.

  6. DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damage can occur at any time on any genomic location, a specialized spatio-temporal orchestration of this defense apparatus is required. PMID:20980439

  7. Societal Responses to Environmental Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Susan L.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the increasing hazardousness of places as a consequence of natural disasters, technological failures, and chronic environmental degradation on a global scale. Describes the trends and impacts of environmental hazards, including their frequency, magnitude and damage on both a regional and international scale. (MJP)

  8. Aerodynamic Devices for Mitigation of Wind Damage Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. X. Lin; P. R. Montpellier; C. W. Tillman; W. I. Riker

    Different from a conventional wisdom of damage risk mitigation by increasing structural resistance capacity, an aerodynamic approach seeks to mitigate damage risk at the source by reducing the load demand generated by wind. A recent such example is a series of patented aerodynamic roof edge devices designed to minimize uplifts generated by edge vortices. They are being evaluated by full-scale

  9. Effects of Neurological Damage on Production of Formulaic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidtis, Diana; Canterucci, Gina; Katsnelson, Dora

    2009-01-01

    Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous…

  10. Distributed optical-fiber-based damage detection in composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian P. Giles; Michael Mondanos; Rodney A. Badcock; Peter A. Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    Composite materials are vulnerable to damage, and this can result in conservatism in design and increased maintenance costs. One way of reducing these costs is by integrating a system into the composite material which can sense the damage condition and provide an assessment of its size, location and significance. This is a difficult task, and one of the main challenges

  11. Postnatal Effects of Sperm Chromatin Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Pérez-Crespo; Raúl Fernández-González; Miguel Ángel Ramírez; Eva Pericuesta; Alexandra Calle; Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán

    \\u000a The use of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA has been linked to ­developmental and postnatal effects in animal models. Environmental\\u000a and toxic factors such as radiation, heat stress, air pollution, chemotherapeutic agents, etc. are known to have detrimental\\u000a effects on sperm chromatin. Sperm chromatin damage has also been observed following sperm manipulation techniques (freeze–thawing\\u000a without cryoprotectants, freeze-drying, preincubation under different conditions,

  12. Energy taxation as a policy instrument to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions: A net benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)] [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Krutilla, K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)] [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Viscusi, W.K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits of energy taxation as a policy instrument to conserve energy and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study combines economic cost estimates generated with a CGE model and monetary estimates of environmental damages in a comprehensive cost/benefit framework. We find that optimal CO{sub 2} emissions reductions range from 5 to 38%, depending on different assumptions about energy substitution elasticities and environmental damages. CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of between 8 and 64% can be attained at no additional welfare cost relative to a policy of not undertaking any action to control CO{sub 2} emissions. 33 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Advances in understanding damage by salt crystallization.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M; Scherer, George W

    2010-06-15

    The single most important cause of the deterioration of monuments in the Mediterranean basin, and elsewhere around the world, is the crystallization of salt within the pores of the stone. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms responsible for salt damage. As a result, new methods of treatment are being proposed that offer the possibility of attacking the cause of the problem, rather than simply treating the symptoms. In this Account, we review the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization, then examine how a range of technological innovations have been applied experimentally to further the current understanding of in-pore crystallization. We close with a discussion of how computer modeling now provides particularly valuable insight, including quantitative estimates of both the interaction forces between the mineral and the crystal and the stresses induced in the material. Analyzing the kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal growth within the pores of a stone requires sensitive tools used in combination. For example, calorimetry quantifies the amount of salt that precipitates in the pores of a stone during cooling, and dilatometric measurements on a companion sample reveal the stress exerted by the salt. Synchrotron X-rays can penetrate the stone and identify the metastable phases that often appear in the first stages of crystallization. Atomic force microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy permit study of the nanometric liquid film that typically lies between salt and stone; this film controls the magnitude of the pressure exerted and the kinetics of relaxation of the stress. These experimental advances provide validation for increasingly advanced simulations, using continuum models of reactive transport on a macroscopic scale and molecular dynamics on the atomic scale. Because of the fundamental understanding of the damage mechanisms that is beginning to emerge, it is possible to devise methods for protecting monuments and sculptures. For example, chemical modification of the stone can alter the repulsive forces that stabilize the liquid film between the salt and mineral surfaces, thereby reducing the stress that the salt can generate. Alternatively, molecules can be introduced into the pores of the stone that inhibit the nucleation or growth of salt crystals. Many challenges remain, however, particularly in understanding the complex interactions between salts, the role of metastable phases, the mechanism of crack initiation and growth, and the role of biofilms. PMID:20214404

  14. Controlling Opossum Damage 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-05-23

    damage; however, their pelts can be sold only during the furbearer season and with the proper licenses. Other furbearers include beaver, otter, mink, nutria, ringtailed cat, badger, skunk, weasel, raccoon, muskrat, fox and civet cat. Homeowners...

  15. LSD and Genetic Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  16. Controlling Beaver Damage

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    Damage Controlling BEAVER B eavers (Castor canadensis) are the largest rodents in North America. Their range includes most of North America, from the northern parts of Canada and Alaska to northern Mexico. Beavers are aquatic rodents which live...

  17. Court Disallows Damage Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomson, Bernard; Coplan, Norman

    1976-01-01

    In rejecting claims for damages, the Court finds that contract's "increase or decrease of cost" language is not applicable to added overhead costs and loss of labor efficiency resulting from delays over which the contractor has no control. (Author)

  18. DAMAGING AGENTS AND PROTECTION

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    limit the longevity of individual oaks. People who manage oak trees or woodlands are concerned of the ecological relationships between oaks and damaging agents. Oaks evolved under the challenge of various

  19. Controlling Woodpecker Damage 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Damage Management Service

    2008-04-15

    Several species of woodpeckers, flickers and sapsuckers live in Texas. They can be destructive when they drill holes in wooden structures. This publication discusses various controls and alternative methods for eliminating noise and damage....

  20. Controlling Armadillo Damage 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    Armadillos are beneficial because they eat insects and other invertebrates, but they can damage lawns, gardens and structural foundations. They also are believed to transmit leprosy to humans. This leaflet focuses on control methods such as trapping...

  1. Northridge, CA Earthquake Damage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The person in this image was a USGS employee at the time this was taken. Collection of USGS still images taken after the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake highlighting the damage to buildings and infrastructure....

  2. Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  3. Controlling Feral Hog Damage 

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2008-04-15

    This publication discusses the distribution of feral hogs as well as their habitats, food habits and reproduction. Feral hogs can damage crops and kill lambs and kid goats. Methods of control are also explained....

  4. Ontogenetic contingency of tolerance mechanisms in response to apical damage

    PubMed Central

    Gruntman, Michal; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are able to tolerate tissue loss through vigorous branching which is often triggered by release from apical dominance and activation of lateral meristems. However, damage-induced branching might not be a mere physiological outcome of released apical dominance, but an adaptive response to environmental signals, such as damage timing and intensity. Here, branching responses to both factors were examined in the annual plant Medicago truncatula. Methods Branching patterns and allocation to reproductive traits were examined in response to variable clipping intensities and timings in M. truncatula plants from two populations that vary in the onset of reproduction. Phenotypic selection analysis was used to evaluate the strength and direction of selection on branching under the damage treatments. Key Results Plants of both populations exhibited an ontogenetic shift in tolerance mechanisms: while early damage induced greater meristem activation, late damage elicited investment in late-determined traits, including mean pod and seed biomass, and supported greater germination rates. Severe damage mostly elicited simultaneous development of multiple-order lateral branches, but this response was limited to early damage. Selection analyses revealed positive directional selection on branching in plants under early- compared with late- or no-damage treatments. Conclusions The results demonstrate that damage-induced meristem activation is an adaptive response that could be modified according to the plant's developmental stage, severity of tissue loss and their interaction, stressing the importance of considering these effects when studying plastic responses to apical damage. PMID:21873259

  5. Rate Tornado Damage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tornadoes can produce damage that ranges from broken tree limbs to a block of houses swept from their foundations. They can inflict utter devastation across a wide swath of land or, destroy one house and leave others on either side largely untouched. In this interactive feature from NOVA Online, sudents examine a series of photos of tornado damage and assign intensity ratings (on the Fulita scale) based on what they see.

  6. Rate Tornado Damage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lexi Krock

    An interactive Flash animation that educates students about the Fujita scale for rating tornado wind speeds and the damage caused by tornados. After being presented with photographs of tornado damage, students are challenged to assign the tornado a rating on the F-scale. The interactive explains the different levels of the F-scale and provides instant feedback on whether or not the correct category was assigned to the tornado.

  7. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems. Dropping…

  8. Assessing and repairing damage on hydro wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Spicher, T. (Hydro Y.E.S., Ferndale, WA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Cavitation, corrosion, and erosion can all cause significant damage to hydro-turbine runners or pump impellers. It's important to assess damage to identify all possible problems, and then select the most effective repair solution. The runners on hydroturbines or the impellers on pumps are major components of hydro plants. If these parts of the hydro unit are experiencing problems, the efficient operation of the entire plant can be affected. Runners and impellers degrade, suffer local damage, and may be forced into less than full-range operation. Consequently, operations and maintenance staff at hydro plants should continually monitor runner or impeller performance, analyze how damage is occurring, and assess what can be done to relieve future similar (or worse) problems. When damage to a runner or impeller becomes evident, the most effective maintenance plan is a simple two-step approach: (1) complete a careful assessment of the damage; and (2) choose the most effective method of repair or modification, and proceed. The ultimate goal of this two-step assessment and repair process is to reduce maintenance to a minimum routine, acceptable level.

  9. Biological effects of underground nuclear testing on marine organisms. I. Review of documented shock effects, discussion of mechanisms of damage, and predictions of Amchitka test effects

    SciTech Connect

    Simenstad, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    From conference on the environmental effects of explosives and explosions; White Oak, Maryland, USA (30 May 1973). The potential mechanisms of biological damage to fish resulting from a nuclear-induced shock wave appear to involve mechanical damage from bottom acceleration and rockspall; the synergistic effect of compression to decompression producing the mechanical expansion of gas spaces within the organism; effects of cavitation; and possibly the alteration of blood constituents. The indirect effects of the shock wave should also be considered in a truly ecological approach. Loss of fish or other marine organisms may reduce food resources for other species and place an unusual stress upon the community's food web and increased predation created by the influx of a formerly minor constituent may also be a real consideration. The determinants of biological damage involve the anatomical morphology, the ecological characteristics of the various members of the fish community, and the physical characteristics of the environment as produced by the introduced shock wave. (auth)

  10. MMH fluids reduce formation damage in horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, L. (Dowell Fluids Services, Houston, TX (United States)); Williamson, D. (Dowell Fluids Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Haydel, S. (Ambar Inc., LaFayette, LA (United States))

    1994-02-01

    It has been more than 3 years since a mixed metal hydroxide fluid was used by Texaco to drill the Gulf of Mexico's first horizontal hole. Since, the fluid has been used to drill dozens of horizontal sections worldwide, including Australia, Indonesia, CIS, UAE, UK, and in North an South America. Due to Texaco's drilling success on the first Gulf of Mexico horizontal well in 1990, several horizontal wells were drilled in the Gulf's shallow gas sands. Fluids were weighted exclusively with ground marble. The marble, with measured grind size distributions similar to commercial barite, is used as a combination weighting and bridging material and is about 99% acid soluble. Completions were carried out by running a slotted liner, displacing the mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluid with calcium chloride brine, and running prepacked screens. Clean-up times where short and production rates equaled or exceeded expectations. Since the technique was relatively new, no comparisons could be made. One operator, however, achieved success during 18 months of production. During this period, the fluid was also used to drill a horizontal section through the Cardium Sandstone at Lodgepole in Alberta, Canada. The fluid out-performed other in return permeability tests on cores from the reservoir. Its performance was enhanced by addition of propylene glycol. High field production rates supported laboratory findings.

  11. Capturing the externalities: National and watershed scale damages from release of reactive nitrogen beyond the farm, factory, tailpipe and table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, J.; Sobota, D. J.; McCrackin, M. L.; Harrison, J.

    2014-12-01

    Human demand for food, fuel, and industrial products results in the release of 61% of the newly fixed anthropogenic N to the environment in the US each year. This 15.8 Tg N yr-1 input to air, land and water has important social, economic and environmental consequences, yet little research clearly links this N release to the full suite of effects. Here we connect the biogeochemical fluxes of N with existing data on N-associated damages in order to quantify the externalities of N release related to human health, ecosystems and climate regulation for the US at national and watershed scales. Release of N to the environment was estimated circa 2000 with models describing N inputs by source, nutrient uptake efficiency, leaching losses, and gaseous emissions at the scale of 8-digit US Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUC8s). Potential damages or benefits of anthropogenic N leaked to the environment were calculated by scaling specific N fluxes with the costs associated with human health, agriculture, ecosystems, and the climate system. For the US, annual damage costs of anthropogenic N leaked to the environment in 2000 totaled 289 billion USD. Approximately 57% of the total damages were associated with fossil fuel combustion, driven by the human respiratory health impacts of NOx as a precursor of ozone and a component of particulates. Another 37% of the damage costs were associated with agricultural N. Damages associated with agriculture were 85.5 billion, largely through eutrophication and harmful effects on aquatic habitat. Through aggressive but tangible improvements in atmospheric emissions, agricultural N use and wastewater treatment, we could reduce N export to the coast by nearly 25% within 30 years. These improvements would reduce the externalities associated with the leakage of N beyond its intended uses in agriculture, transportation and energy with minimal impact to these sectors dependent on anthropogenic N fixation.

  12. A constitutively expressed, truncated umuDC operon regulates the recA-dependent DNA damage induction of a gene in Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1.

    PubMed

    Hare, Janelle M; Perkins, Sara N; Gregg-Jolly, Leslie A

    2006-06-01

    In response to environmentally caused DNA damage, SOS genes are up-regulated due to RecA-mediated relief of LexA repression. In Escherichia coli, the SOS umuDC operon is required for DNA damage checkpoint functions and for replicating damaged DNA in the error-prone process called SOS mutagenesis. In the model soil bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, however, the content, regulation, and function of the umuDC operon are unusual. The umuC gene is incomplete, and a remnant of an ISEhe3-like transposase has replaced the middle 57% of the umuC coding region. The umuD open reading frame is intact, but it is 1.5 times the size of other umuD genes and has an extra 5' region that lacks homology to known umuD genes. Analysis of a umuD::lacZ fusion showed that umuD was expressed at very high levels in both the absence and presence of mitomycin C and that this expression was not affected in a recA-deficient background. The umuD mutation did not affect the growth rate or survival after UV-induced DNA damage. However, the UmuD-like protein found in ADP1 (UmuDAb) was required for induction of an adjacent DNA damage-inducible gene, ddrR. The umuD mutation specifically reduced the DNA damage induction of the RecA-dependent DNA damage-inducible ddrR locus by 83% (from 12.9-fold to 2.3-fold induction), but it did not affect the 33.9-fold induction of benA, an unrelated benzoate degradation gene. These data suggest that the response of the ADP1 umuDC operon to DNA damage is unusual and that UmuDAb specifically regulates the expression of at least one DNA damage-inducible gene. PMID:16751513

  13. Environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies. PMID:22332111

  14. Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordasky, Matthew D.

    An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the same geometry (19mm diameter) and surface finish. A peak absorbed energy for perforation of 34.5J was identied regardless of the projectile density. The effect of composite panel manufacturing methods on the impact damage and energy absorption of the panel was also investigated. Specifically, damage related to pre-cured facesheets is compared to the co-cured facesheets used throughout the study.

  15. Damage Prediction in Sheet Metal Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Saanouni, Khemais; Badreddine, Houssem [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Mechanics of Materials, ICD/LASMIS, FRE 2848 CNRS, University of Technology of Troyes, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2007-05-17

    Ductile (or plastic) damage often occurs during sheet metal forming processes due to the large plastic flow localization. Accordingly, it is crucial for numerical tools, used in the simulation of that processes, to use fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for both hardening and damage. This can be used in both cases, namely to overcome the damage initiation during some sheet metal forming processes as deep drawing, ... or to enhance the damage initiation and growth as in sheet metal cutting. In this paper, a fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for combined isotropic and kinematic hardening as well as the ductile damage is implemented into the general purpose Finite Element code for metal forming simulation. First, the fully coupled anisotropic constitutive equations in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics are presented. Attention is paid to the strong coupling between the main mechanical fields as elasto-viscoplasticity, mixed hardening, ductile isotropic damage and contact with friction. The anisotropy of the plastic flow is taken into account using various kinds of quadratic or non quadratic yield criteria in the framework of non associative finite plasticity theory with two types of normality rules. The associated numerical aspects concerning both the local integration of the coupled constitutive equations as well as the (global) equilibrium integration schemes are presented. The local integration is outlined thanks to the Newton iterative scheme applied to a reduced system of 2 equations. For the global resolution of the initial and boundary value problem, the classical dynamic explicit (DE) scheme with an adaptive time step control is used. The numerical implementation of the damage is made in such a manner that calculations can be executed with or without damage effect, i.e. fully coupled or uncoupled calculations. For the 2D processes an advanced adaptive meshing procedure is used in order to enhance the numerical solution and to kill the fully damaged elements in order to describe the macroscopic crack propagation. Various 2D and 3D examples are given in order to show the capability of the methodology to predict the damage initiation and growth during various sheet metal forming processes.

  16. Spill Sleuths: An Interdisciplinary Environmental Health Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeff Whidden

    2005-02-01

    An environmental health mystery can help teach students many aspects of environmental health and crisis management in the context of their own community. Students use skills from several disciplines to pinpoint, assess, and address the environmental damage and health threat posed by a fictitious pesticide spill they uncovered.

  17. 7 CFR 3575.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...by the Agency's environmental review for the purpose...or reducing adverse environmental impacts of construction...take no actions (for example, initiation of...during the Agency's environmental review process...

  18. 7 CFR 3575.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...by the Agency's environmental review for the purpose...or reducing adverse environmental impacts of construction...take no actions (for example, initiation of...during the Agency's environmental review process...

  19. 7 CFR 3575.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...by the Agency's environmental review for the purpose...or reducing adverse environmental impacts of construction...take no actions (for example, initiation of...during the Agency's environmental review process...

  20. 7 CFR 3575.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...by the Agency's environmental review for the purpose...or reducing adverse environmental impacts of construction...take no actions (for example, initiation of...during the Agency's environmental review process...

  1. Damage Evolution On Mechanical Parts Under Cyclic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestriez, P.; Bogard, F.; Shan, J. L.; Guo, Y. Q.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a fatigue damage model, based on the continuum damage mechanics and general thermodynamic theory, proposed by Lemaitre and Chaboche, for rolling bearings under very numerous loading cycles. A flow surface of fatigue using the Sines criterion is adopted. The coupling between the hardening plasticity and damage effects is considered in the constitutive equations. An explicit algorithm of weak coupling leads to a calculation very fast. This fatigue damage model is implemented into Abaqus/Explicit using a Vumat user's subroutine. Moreover, the damage variable in function of time is transformed into a function of number of cycles. An algorithm of cycle jump, with a criterion for choosing the number increment of cycles, is proposed, which allows to largely reduce the CPU time. The present damage simulation allows to determine the lifetime of mechanical parts under cyclic loading.

  2. Some Examples of the Relations Between Processing and Damage Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2012-01-01

    Most structures made of laminated polymer matrix composites (PMCs) must be designed to some damage tolerance requirement that includes foreign object impact damage. Thus from the beginning of a part s life, impact damage is assumed to exist in the material and the part is designed to carry the required load with the prescribed impact damage present. By doing this, some processing defects may automatically be accounted for in the reduced design allowable due to these impacts. This paper will present examples of how a given level of impact damage and certain processing defects affect the compression strength of a laminate that contains both. Knowledge of the impact damage tolerance requirements, before processing begins, can broaden material options and processing techniques since the structure is not being designed to pristine properties.

  3. Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014

  4. Electric arc discharge damage to ion thruster grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, D. D.; Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Arcs representative of those occurring between the grids of a mercury ion thruster were simulated. Parameters affecting an arc and the resulting damage were studied. The parameters investigated were arc energy, arc duration, and grid geometry. Arc attenuation techniques were also investigated. Potentially serious damage occurred at all energy levels representative of actual thruster operating conditions. Of the grids tested, the lowest open-area configuration sustained the least damage for given conditions. At a fixed energy level a long duration discharge caused greater damage than a short discharge. Attenuation of arc current using various impedances proved to be effective in reducing arc damage. Faults were also deliberately caused using chips of sputtered materials formed during the operation of an actual thruster. These faults were cleared with no serious grid damage resulting using the principles and methods developed in this study.

  5. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  6. A study of pump cavitation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brophy, M. C.; Stinebring, D. R.; Billet, M. L.

    1983-11-01

    The cavitation assessment for the space shuttle main engine high pressure oxidizer turbopump is documented. A model of the flow through the pump was developed. Initially, a computational procedure was used to analyze the flow through the inlet casing including the prediction of wakes downstream of the casing vanes. From these flow calculations, cavitation patterns on the inducer blades were approximated and the damage rate estimated. The model correlates the heavy damage on the housing and over the inducer with unsteady blade surface cavitation. The unsteady blade surface cavitation is due to the large incidence changes caused by the wakes of the upstream vanes. Very high cavitation damage rates are associated with this type of cavitation. Design recommendations for reducing the unsteady cavitation include removing the set of vanes closest to the inducer and modifying the remaining vanes.

  7. Stochastic damage evolution in textile laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzenis, Yuris A.; Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic model utilizing random material characteristics to predict damage evolution in textile laminates is presented. Model is based on a division of each ply into two sublaminas consisting of cells. The probability of cell failure is calculated using stochastic function theory and maximal strain failure criterion. Three modes of failure, i.e. fiber breakage, matrix failure in transverse direction, as well as matrix or interface shear cracking, are taken into account. Computed failure probabilities are utilized in reducing cell stiffness based on the mesovolume concept. A numerical algorithm is developed predicting the damage evolution and deformation history of textile laminates. Effect of scatter of fiber orientation on cell properties is discussed. Weave influence on damage accumulation is illustrated with the help of an example of a Kevlar/epoxy laminate.

  8. Remedial measures to reduce air pollution losses in horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Kender, W.J.; Forsline, P.L.

    1983-10-01

    Since air pollution injury to horticulture plants has not been controlled by reduction at the source, other methods of protection must, therefore, be considered. Factors influencing air pollution injury to plants are discussed. Several environmental, soil, and physiological factors influence plant response to air pollutants. Regulation of these factors may lead to the ability to reduce the plant's sensitivity to injurious gases. The effects of nutrients on the response of plants of air pollutants are described, especially the effects of nitrogen. Cultural practices, chemical protectants, cultivar sensitivity and plant breeding, all of which affect the damage caused by gaseous air pollutants, are described. Detailed and complete economic studies are needed to document losses caused by air pollutants to assess their impacts on horticulture.

  9. Airblast damage from small asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, J. G.; Goda, M. P.

    1992-06-01

    The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its cross sections from aerodynamic braking and energy dissipation. At a typical impact velocity of 22 km/s, the atmosphere absorbs more than half the kinetic energy of stony meteoroids with diameters, DM less than 250 meters and iron meteoroids with DM less than 60 meters. Most of this energy dissipation occurs in a fraction of a scale height, which causes large meteoroids to appear to 'explode' or 'flare' at the end of their visible paths. The dissipation of energy in the atmosphere reduces the damage due to direct impacts (e.g., craters and tsunamis), but it produces a blast wave than can cause considerable damage to structures on the ground. The area of destruction around the impact point in which the over pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 pounds/inch2 = 2.8x105 dynes/cm3, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings, increases rapidly from zero for chondritic asteroids less than 50 meters in diameter (9 megatons) to about 2000 square km for those 80 meters in diameter (40 megatons), the approximate diameter of the Tunguska impactor of 1908. The area of destruction produced by the blast wave from the impact of stony asteroids between 70 meters and 200 meters in diameter is up to twice as great as it would be without fragmentation.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering enve.cornell.edu 2013-2014 #12;Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 1 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT

  11. Environmental Degradation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2008-09-30

    Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals that enter the atmosphere, intensive farming and fishing, and consuming fossil fuels have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Although the land, atmosphere, and the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes and recycle materials naturally, humans have disrupted these natural cycles. Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and most industrial processes. Overuse and pollution of rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater reduces the availability and suitability of these resources for all organisms. Technology used in the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels needed to meet the growing human demand has increased the depletion of nonrenewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and degraded or altered the environment, both locally and globally. Learning Outcomes: Compare and contrast ways in which different technologies have impacted the environmental system. Differentiate between examples of renewable resources and non-renewable (finite) resources. Summarize how the burning of fossil fuels is affecting the environment. Assess both local and global environmental impacts when given examples of human resource use. Identify ways in which one human-based environmental change can have a domino-effect on the rest of the ecosystem (when given a scenario).

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the environmental sampling completed by EPA in southeastern Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina caused major catastrophic damage. Presentation also describes EPA's Environmental Unit activities in Baton Rouge and New Orleans, LA, and Dallas, TX....

  13. Damage Control Orthopaedics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Keller; Andrew N. Pollak

    \\u000a University of Maryland School of Medicine\\u000a \\u000a Julie M. Keller MD, Andrew N. Pollak MD\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In damage control for trauma patients, the main tenets are to perform temporary operative procedures to provide time for physiologic\\u000a stabilization before definitive surgical care. There are four distinct phases of the damage control philosophy: the first\\u000a is recognition of the at risk patient; next, temporizing

  14. Viscoelastic damage modeling of sinkhole formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Eyal; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    The sinkholes along the Dead Sea coast are observed in two main sedimentary environments: alluvial fan sinkholes, which usually form abruptly as deep (˜20 m) and narrow (˜3 m) sinkholes, and mud-flat sinkholes, which usually form as shallow (a few centimeters) and wide (>5 m) sinkholes and deepen later. The mechanical collapse of all sinkholes is triggered by cavities created by the dissolution of an underlying salt layer by relatively fresh groundwater. The processes attributed to the mechanical formation of the sinkholes are viscous flow and brittle fracture failure. We use a two-dimensional viscoelastic damage rheology numerical model to quantitatively explain the brittle and ductile aspects of collapsed sinkholes. Three cases of the rheology of the collapsed sediments are simulated, 1) damage controlled failure, 2) viscoelastic controlled failure, and 3) an intermediate damage-viscoelastic case. Results show that viscoelasticity cannot be the sole process acting on the deformed layer because all sinkholes are characterized by sharp boundaries. The damage accumulation progresses until arched cavities are created in the soil layer. Because of the geometric heterogeneity of the layer (represented by the heterogeneity of the mesh) smaller blocks continue to fall after the first breakup into the cavity, advancing the arched cavity upwards. This propagation finally stops when the cavity is shallow enough to hold the irregular arch. The combination of these two processes creates competition within the stress reduction mechanism that may lead to either magnified or reduced deformation. The deformation is magnified in high shear stress locations, where the dispersion of the viscous flow spreads damage failure, and it is reduced in low shear stress locations where viscous flow disperses shear stress before the onset of damage.

  15. Evaluation of plasma induced damage of HDP FSG and USG in deep sub-micron technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ang Ting Cheong; Loong Sang Yee; Ong Puay Ing; Tse Man Siu; John Sudijono

    2000-01-01

    We studied and compared the extent of plasma induced damage from high density plasma (HDP) undoped silicate glass (USG) and fluorinated silicate glass (FSG) deposition on 0.18 ?m transistors. Our results show that the plasma-induced damage from HDP FSG is greater than that from HDP USG. We have developed a novel integration scheme that is effective in reducing the damage

  16. Effects of blood glucose levels on aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Macdonald; J. B. Dekanski; S. Gottfried; D. V. Parke; P. Sacra

    1977-01-01

    In female rats aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage was increased and glycoprotein synthesis decreased by fasting and by insulin administration. Glucose added to the drinking water during the fasting period reduced mucosal damage and increased glycoprotein synthesis to control levels. Alloxan diabetes did not affect mucosal damage or glycoprotein synthesis. Alloxan diabetes plus insulin restored blood glucose levels to normal, and

  17. Damage detection in sandwich composite materials using laser vibrometry in conjunction with nonlinear system identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Underwood; David Koester; Douglas E. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Fiberglass sandwich panels are tested to study a vibration-based method for locating damage in composite materials. This method does not rely on a direct comparison of the natural frequencies, mode shapes, or residues in the forced vibration response data. Specifically, a nonlinear system identification based method for damage detection is sought that reduces the sensitivity of damage detection results to

  18. Damage detection of an in-service condensation pipeline joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, Julie; Rezaei, Davood; Taheri, Farid

    2010-04-01

    The early detection of damage in structural or mechanical systems is of vital importance. With early detection, the damage may be repaired before the integrity of the system is jeopardized, resulting in monetary losses, loss of life or limb, and environmental impacts. Among the various types of structural health monitoring techniques, vibration-based methods are of significant interest since the damage location does not need to be known beforehand, making it a more versatile approach. The non-destructive damage detection method used for the experiments herein is a novel vibration-based method which uses an index called the EMD Energy Damage Index, developed with the aim of providing improved qualitative results compared to those methods currently available. As part of an effort to establish the integrity and limitation of this novel damage detection method, field testing was completed on a mechanical pipe joint on a condensation line, located in the physical plant of Dalhousie University. Piezoceramic sensors, placed at various locations around the joint were used to monitor the free vibration of the pipe imposed through the use of an impulse hammer. Multiple damage progression scenarios were completed, each having a healthy state and multiple damage cases. Subsequently, the recorded signals from the healthy and damaged joint were processed through the EMD Energy Damage Index developed in-house in an effort to detect the inflicted damage. The proposed methodology successfully detected the inflicted damages. In this paper, the effects of impact location, sensor location, frequency bandwidth, intrinsic mode functions, and boundary conditions are discussed.

  19. Antioxidants Reduce Oxidative Stress in Claudicants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. W. A. Wijnen; S. A. J. Coolen; H. L. Vader; J. C. Reijenga; F. A. Huf; R. M. H. Roumen

    2001-01-01

    Background. Low-grade ischemia–reperfusion in claudicants leads to damage of local tissues and remote organs. Since this damage is partly caused by oxygen-derived free radicals (ODFR), scavenging these ODFR could reduce the local and remote injury.Methods. Using a new method by which a free radical reaction product (ortho-APOH) of the exogenous marker antipyrine is measured to quantify the oxidative stress, 16

  20. Experimental verification for detection of damage of sensor-arrayed truss domes using a focusing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, T.

    2005-06-01

    A damage detection scheme using a focusing strategy, developed for the purpose of maintaining structural integrity of truss domes during their service life, that estimates the location and extent of damage on the basis of vibration monitoring and system identification is presented. The main idea of the focusing strategy is to reduce the number of unknown physical parameters as much as possible by shifting from global to local damage detection gradually. The scheme is divided into three stages: global, intermediate and local damage detection. In the global damage detection, the central concern is whether the damage occurs in the superstructure or substructure. In the intermediate damage detection, possible damaged regions are located in the superstructure. In the local damage detection, damaged members or joints are located in the damaged regions. Finally, the extent of member, joint or support damage is quantified in terms of member stiffness reduction ratios. Depending on the damage detection levels, different probing forces are used and different damage indices are defined. To verify the overall damage detection scheme, a series of shaking table, vibration generator and impact hammer tests have been carried out for a small-scale experimental model. On the basis of the damage identification results, the effectiveness and limitations of the proposed scheme are discussed.

  1. Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to physical and chemical agents; nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious agents.

  2. Damaged Hospital Wing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This two story hospital wing in Cauquenes, Chile suffered severe damage to the wall of the first floor as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. This building must be torn down. All patients were successfully evacuated at 3:34 AM after the earthquake shaking started....

  3. Perinatal Brain Damage Causation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Dammann; Alan Leviton

    2007-01-01

    The search for causes of perinatal brain damage needs a solid theoretical foundation. Current theory apparently does not offer a unanimously accepted view of what constitutes a cause, and how it can be identified. We discuss nine potential theoretical misconceptions: (1) too narrow a view of what is a cause (causal production vs. facilitation), (2) extrapolating from possibility to fact

  4. Earthquake Damage Slide Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This slide show presents examples of various types of damage caused by earthquakes. Photos include structural failures in bridges and buildings, landshifts, landslides, liquefaction, fires, tsunamis, and human impacts. Supplemental notes are provided to aid instructors about the photos presented on each slide.

  5. Coping with brain damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waring, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two neurological disorders, cerebral palsy, and traumatic brain damage as from an accident, are considered. The discussion covers the incidence of disabilities, their characteristics, and what is now being done to deal with them, particularly in reference to areas in which the capabilities of the engineer can be effectively applied.

  6. Courtside: A Damaging Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2004-01-01

    This case presents a costly lesson for teachers and for districts that include a liquidated, or stipulated, damages clause in their teacher employment contracts. Although the court enforced the clause in this case, in this well-reasoned recent decision and in most of the much older, canvassed case law from other jurisdictions, the answer to the…

  7. Damage mechanics in engineering materials

    SciTech Connect

    Voyiadjis, G.Z. [ed.] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Woody Ju, J.W. [ed.] [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Chaboche, J.L. [ed.] [ONERA, Resistance des Structures, Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    This book contains thirty peer-reviewed papers that are based on the presentations made at the symposium on Damage Mechanics in Engineering Materials on the occasion of the Joint ASME/ASCE/SES Mechanics Conference (McNU97), held in Evanston, Illinois, June 28--July 2, 1997. The key area of discussion was on the constitutive modeling of damage mechanics in engineering materials encompassing the following topics: macromechanics/micromechanical constitutive modeling, experimental procedures, numerical modeling, inelastic behavior, interfaces, damage, fracture, failure, computational methods. The book is divided into six parts: study of damage mechanics; localization and damage; damage in brittle materials; damage in metals and metal matrix composites; computational aspects of damage models; damage in polymers and elastomers.

  8. Damage evolution in acetabular reconstructs under physiological testing in a saline environment.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, G; Lupton, C; Heaton-Adegbile, P; Tong, J

    2012-01-10

    Damage development in cemented acetabular reconstructs has been studied under a combined cyclic loading block representative of routine activities in a saline environment. A custom-made environmental chamber was designed and installed on the Portsmouth hip simulator to allow testing of acetabular reconstructs in a wet condition for the first time. Damage was monitored and detected by scanning at selected loading intervals using micro-focus computed tomography (?CT). The preliminary results show that, although, as in dry cases, debonding at the bone-cement interface defined the failure of the cement fixation, the combination of mechanical loading and saline environment significantly affected the damage initiation and development, with drastically reduced survival lives of the reconstructs. Debonding was found to be initiated at the bone-cement interface near the rim of the acetabular cup, or DeLee zone I, in wet condition, as opposed to initiation in DeLee zone II near the dome region in dry cases. The survival time of the reconstruct in wet condition is less than 10% of that in dry condition under a given applied hip contact force. PMID:22018582

  9. Anti-genotoxic role of eicosapentaenoic acid against imazalil-induced DNA damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Turkez, Hasan; Aydin, Elanur

    2013-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid and is essential to the health of mammals. Recent data show that EPA can act as anti-mutagenic agent. On the other hand, pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. Imazalil (IMA), a commonly used fungicide in both agricultural and clinical domains is suspected to produce very serious toxic effects in vertebrates. The present study investigated the anti-genotoxic effect of EPA against the genotoxic damage induced by IMA on cultured human lymphocytes using chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests as cytogenetic endpoints. Peripheral blood cells were treated in vitro with varying concentrations of EPA (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 ?g/ml), tested in combination with IMA (336 ?g/ml). Our results revealed that the rates of CAs and MNs in lymphocytes were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by IMA as compared to the controls. The results also showed that EPA alone was not genotoxic. Moreover, when combined with IMA treatment, EPA reduced the frequencies of CAs and MNs. A clear dose-dependent decrease in the genotoxic damage of IMA was observed, suggesting a genoprotective role of EPA. In conclusion, our data may have an important application for the protection of cultured human lymphocyte from the genetic damage and repercussions induced by agricultural and industrial chemicals hazardous in people. PMID:22317822

  10. Improved Sizing of Impact Damage in Composites Based on Thermographic Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Howell Patricia A.; Leckey, Cara A.; Rogge, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Impact damage in thin carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites often results in a relatively small region of damage at the front surface, with increasing damage near the back surface. Conventional methods for reducing the pulsed thermographic responses of the composite tend to underestimate the size of the back surface damage, since the smaller near surface damage gives the largest thermographic indication. A method is presented for reducing the thermographic data to produce an estimated size for the impact damage that is much closer to the size of the damage estimated from other NDE techniques such as microfocus x-ray computed tomography and pulse echo ultrasonics. Examples of the application of the technique to experimental data acquired on specimens with impact damage are presented. The method is also applied to the results of thermographic simulations to investigate the limitations of the technique.

  11. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidance for selecting a plan to tomposite environmental or biological samples is provided in the form of models, equations, tables, and criteria. Composite sampling procedures can increase sensitivity, reduce sampling variance, and dramatically reduce analytical costs, depending...

  12. General design basis for a final optics assembly to decrease filamentary damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Xing-Qiang; Lü, Feng-Nian; Zhang, Guo-Wen; Zhang, Zhen; Yin, Xian-Hua; Fan, Dian-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    The high-power laser beam in the final optics assembly of high-power laser facilities is often modulated by contamination particles, which may cause local high light intensity, thereby increasing the filamentary damage probability for optical components. To study the general design basis for a final optics assembly to decrease the risk of filamentary damage, different-sized contamination particles deposited on a component surface are simulated to modulate a 351-nm laser beam based on the optical transmission theory, and the corresponding simulation results are analyzed statistically in terms of the propagation characteristic and the light field intensity distribution of the modulated laser beam. The statistical results show that component thickness and distance between components can to some extent be optimized to reduce the appearance of local high light intensity, and the general design basis of component thickness and arrangement are given for different control levels of particle sizes. Moreover, the statistical results can also predict the laser beam quality approximately under the existing optics design and environmental cleanliness. The optimized design for final optics assembly based on environmental cleanliness level is useful to prolong the lifetime of optics and enhance the output power of high-power laser facilities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 60707019).

  13. Yield Reduction and Root Damage to Cotton Induced by Belonolaimus longicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Dickson, D. W.; Weingartner, D. P.; McSorley, R.; Miller, G. L.

    2000-01-01

    Sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) is recognized as a pathogen of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), but the expected damage from a given population density of this nematode has not been determined. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of increasing initial population densities (Pi) of B. longicaudatus on cotton yield and root mass. In a field plot study, nematicide application and cropping history were used to obtain a wide range of Pi values. Cotton yields were regressed on Pi density of B. longicaudatus to quantify yield losses in the field. In controlled environmental chambers, cotton was grown in soil infested with increasing Pi's of B. longicaudatus. After 40 days, root systems were collected, scanned on a desktop scanner, and root lengths were measured. Root lengths were regressed on inoculation density of B. longicaudatus to quantify reductions in the root systems. In the field, high Pi's (>100 nematodes/130 cm³ of soil) reduced yields to near zero. In controlled environmental chamber studies, as few as 10 B. longicaudatus/130 cm³ of soil caused a 39% reduction in fine cotton roots, and 60 B. longicaudatus/130 cm³ of soil caused a 70% reduction. These results suggest that B. longicaudatus can cause significant damage to cotton at low population densities, whereas at higher densities crop failure can result. PMID:19270967

  14. Nondestructive damage detection and evaluation technique for seismically damaged structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yukio; Unjoh, Shigeki; Kondoh, Masuo; Ohsumi, Michio

    1999-02-01

    The development of quantitative damage detection and evaluation technique, and damage detection technique for invisible damages of structures are required according to the lessons from the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. In this study, two quantitative damage sensing techniques for highway bridge structures are proposed. One method is to measure the change of vibration characteristics of the bridge structure. According to the damage detection test for damaged bridge column by shaking table test, this method can successfully detect the vibration characteristic change caused by damage progress due to increment excitations. The other method is to use self-diagnosis intelligent materials. According to the reinforced concrete beam specimen test, the second method can detect the damage by rupture of intelligent sensors, such as optical fiber or carbon fiber reinforced plastic rod.

  15. Environmental liability assessments at PTS facilities

    SciTech Connect

    McNeish, J.A. [INTERA, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Pipeline, Terminal and Storage (PTS) facilities have inherent environmental liabilities due to the handling and use of hazardous materials and the potential for release to the environment. Defining the potential cost of the environmental liability for a PTS facility requires assessment of the activities, events, and facilities which may contribute to environmental damage. Such environmental liability assessments contain significant uncertainty. The extent of contamination, potential for a spill, probable environmental damage from a spill, or remediation cost of existing contamination may not be known. Including the uncertainty in such assessments provides a more realistic portrayal of the potential environmental liability of a PTS facility than a simple deterministic assessment. The environmental liabilities which may be associated with PTS facilities are presented in Section 2. An approach to cost risk assessment of environmental liabilities is discussed in Section 3, followed by an example cost risk analysis in Section 4 and a brief summary in Section 5.

  16. Interaction Between Dynamic Rupture And Off-fault Brittle Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Ampuero, J.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Lyakhovsky, V.

    2008-12-01

    The high stress concentration at the front of a dynamic rupture is expected to produce rock damage (reduction of elastic moduli) in the material surrounding the main fault plane. Off-fault yielding and energy absorption in the damage process should reduce the amplitude of the ground motion. However, the reduced elastic moduli in the damaged zone can amplify locally the motion and create a waveguide that may allow the motion to propagate with little geometric attenuation. In addition, the asymmetric damage generated in the in- plane rupture mode may produce bimaterial interfaces that can reduce the frictional dissipation and increase the radiation efficiency. Previous studies incorporated plastic yielding in simulations of dynamic rupture (Andrews, 1975, 2005; Ben- Zion and Shi, 2005; Templeton et al., 2008) while keeping the elastic moduli unchanged. In this work we examine the dynamics of ruptures and generated motion in a model consisting of a frictional fault in a medium governed by a continuum damage rheology that accounts for the evolution of elastic moduli (e.g. Lyakhovsky and Ben-Zion, 2008). We perform numerical simulations based on the Spectral Element Method to study how the parameters of the friction law, damage rheology and background stress control the rate of growth of the off-fault damage zone, the rupture speed, the energy partition to various components, and the maximum slip rate and ground motion. We compare the peak motion generated with our damage model to results of analogous simulations using Coulomb plastic yielding. Off-fault damage is of special importance for ruptures along faults that separate rocks of different elastic properties, because they can generate asymmetric patterns of material degradation that might be observable in the field. We plan to perform simulations involving velocity-weakening friction and off-fault damage associated with pre-existing bimaterial faults.

  17. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  18. Environmental Health and Safety Global Harmonization System

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    ­ skin corrosion/burns, eye damage, and corrosion to metals · Toxic Category 1-3 ­ acute toxicity (fatal flammable, non-flammable, oxidizing gases) #12;Environmental Health and Safety GHS Pictograms · Corrosive

  19. DAMAGE DIAGNOSIS CONSIDERING CHANGING EVNIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    H. SOHN; K. WORDER; C. FARRAR

    2001-05-01

    The primary objective of novelty detection is to examine a system's dynamic response to determine if the system significantly deviates from an initial baseline condition. In reality, the system is often subject to changing environmental and operation conditions that affect its dynamic characteristics. Such variations include changes in loading, boundary conditions, temperature, and moisture. Most damage diagnosis techniques, however, generally neglect the effects of these changing ambient conditions. Here, a novelty detection technique is developed explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indications of true system changes. Auto-associative neural networks are employed to discriminate system changes of interest such as structural deterioration and damage from the natural variations of the system.

  20. Environmental Accounting for Pollution in the United States Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Z. Muller; Robert Mendelsohn; William Nordhaus

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a framework to include environmental externalities into a system of national accounts. The paper estimates the air pollution damages for each industry in the United States. An integrated-assessment model quantifies the marginal damages of air pollution emissions for the US which are multiplied times the quantity of emissions by industry to compute gross damages. Solid waste combustion,

  1. Damage response involves mechanisms conserved across plants, animals and fungi.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Oñate, M A; Herrera-Estrella, A

    2015-08-01

    All organisms are constantly exposed to adverse environmental conditions including mechanical damage, which may alter various physiological aspects of growth, development and reproduction. In plant and animal systems, the damage response mechanism has been widely studied. Both systems posses a conserved and sophisticated mechanism that in general is aimed at repairing and preventing future damage, and causes dramatic changes in their transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes. These damage-induced changes are mediated by elaborate signaling networks, which include receptors/sensors, calcium (Ca(2+)) influx, ATP release, kinase cascades, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxylipin signaling pathways. In contrast, our current knowledge of how fungi respond to injury is limited, even though various reports indicate that mechanical damage triggers reproductive processes. In fungi, the damage response mechanism has been studied more in depth in Trichoderma atroviride. Interestingly, these studies indicate that the mechanical damage response involves ROS, Ca(2+), kinase cascades, and lipid signaling pathways. Here we compare the response to mechanical damage in plants, animals and fungi and provide evidence that they appear to share signaling molecules and pathways, suggesting evolutionary conservation across the three kingdoms. PMID:25572693

  2. Quantification of fretting damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siegfried Fouvry; Philippe Kapsa; Leo Vincent

    1996-01-01

    The fretting behaviour of high speed steel SC 6-5-2 uncoated and coated with a TiN coating against an alumina ball was studied based on a fretting map approach.Cracking and material loss were observed depending on the contract loading. To quantify the damage, a methodology is proposed based on an elastic Hertzian-Mindlin contact description. The sliding regimes are clearly defined, applying

  3. Tornado damage risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, T.A.; Ellingwood, B.

    1982-09-01

    Several proposed models were evaluated for predicting tornado wind speed probabilities at nuclear plant sites as part of a program to develop statistical data on tornadoes needed for probability-based load combination analysis. A unified model was developed which synthesized the desired aspects of tornado occurrence and damage potential. The sensitivity of wind speed probability estimates to various tornado modeling assumptions are examined, and the probability distributions of tornado wind speed that are needed for load combination studies are presented.

  4. Archeological/Environmental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Landsat/Seasat remote sensing was used by Ames Research Center to evaluate environmental influence on ancient Mayan civilization. Over 35 archeological sites were imaged and valuable information concerning Maya settlement patterns, environment, and resource usage resulted. The imagery was also used by Mexican authorities to develop coastal management plans, establish Biosphere Reserves and assess damage from the 1988 Hurricane Gilbert. Imagery showed evidence of ancient coastlines, changes in sea level, an ancient river plain and Mayan canal systems. Previously unknown Mayan reservoirs were discovered. The project is considered a pioneering effort combining remote sensing, environmental studies and archeology.

  5. Remedying CERCLA`s natural resource damages provision: Incorporation of the public trust doctrine into natural resource damage actions

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, A.R.

    1992-12-31

    When Congress enacted the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), it ushered in a sweeping approach to controlling the environmental effects of improper hazardous waste disposal. CERCLA`s cleanup provisions, which focus on removal and remediation of hazardous substances from inactive hazardous waste sites, have progressed through more than a decade of litigation and a great deal of public debate. However, CERCLA`s natural resource damage provisions have not shared this same degree of progress.

  6. Sensing Mercury for Biomedical and Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Selid, Paul D.; Xu, Hanying; Collins, E. Michael; Face-Collins, Marla Striped; Zhao, Julia Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    Mercury is a very toxic element that is widely spread in the atmosphere, lithosphere, and surface water. Concentrated mercury poses serious problems to human health, as bioaccumulation of mercury within the brain and kidneys ultimately leads to neurological diseases. To control mercury pollution and reduce mercury damage to human health, sensitive determination of mercury is important. This article summarizes some current sensors for the determination of both abiotic and biotic mercury. A wide array of sensors for monitoring mercury is described, including biosensors and chemical sensors, while piezoelectric and microcantilever sensors are also described. Additionally, newly developed nanomaterials offer great potential for fabricating novel mercury sensors. Some of the functional fluorescent nanosensors for the determination of mercury are covered. Afterwards, the in vivo determination of mercury and the characterization of different forms of mercury are discussed. Finally, the future direction for mercury detection is outlined, suggesting that nanomaterials may provide revolutionary tools in biomedical and environmental monitoring of mercury. PMID:22346707

  7. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance: (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb; (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve; and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters.

  8. Quantification of biologically effective environmental UV irradiance.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G

    2000-01-01

    To determine the impact of environmental UV radiation on human health and ecosystems demands monitoring systems that weight the spectral irradiance according to the biological responses under consideration. In general, there are three different approaches to quantify a biologically effective solar irradiance. (i) weighted spectroradiometry where the biologically weighted radiometric quantities are derived from spectral data by multiplication with an action spectrum of a relevant photobiological reaction, e.g. erythema, DNA damage, skin cancer, reduced productivity of terrestrial plants and aquatic foodweb, (ii) wavelength integrating chemical-based or physical dosimetric systems with spectral sensitivities similar to a biological response curve, and (iii) biological dosimeters that directly weight the incident UV components of sunlight in relation to the effectiveness of the different wavelengths and to interactions between them. Most biological dosimeters, such as bacteria, bacteriophages, or biomolecules, are based on the UV sensitivity of DNA. If precisely characterized, biological dosimeters are applicable as field and personal dosimeters. PMID:12038484

  9. Photochemical Damage of the Retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangmei Wu; Stefan Seregard; Peep V. Algvere

    2006-01-01

    Visual perception occurs when radiation with a wavelength between 400 and 760 nm reaches the retina. The retina has evolved to capture photons efficiently and initiate visual transduction. The retina, however, is vulnerable to damage by light, a vulnerability that has long been recognized. Photochemical damage has been widely studied, because it can cause retinal damage within the intensity range

  10. Protective Effect of Tropical Highland Blackberry Juice (Rubus adenotrichos Schltdl.) Against UVB-Mediated Damage in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes and in a Reconstituted Skin Equivalent Model

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Castro, Laura; Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean C.; Vilela, Fernanda M. P.; Pérez, Ana M.; Vaillant, Fabrice; Rojas, Miguel; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB (280–320 nm) spectrum, is the primary environmental stimulus leading to skin carcinogenesis. Several botanical species with antioxidant properties have shown photochemopreventive effects against UVB damage. Costa Rica’s tropical highland blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) contains important levels of phenolic compounds, mainly ellagitannins and anthocyanins, with strong antioxidant properties. In this study, we examined the photochemopreventive effect of R. adenotrichos blackberry juice (BBJ) on UVB-mediated responses in human epidermal keratinocytes and in a three-dimensional (3D) reconstituted normal human skin equivalent (SE). Pretreatment (2 h) and posttreatment (24 h) of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) with BBJ reduced UVB (25 mJ cm?2)-mediated (1) cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (2) 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) formation. Furthermore, treatment of NHEKs with BBJ increased UVB-mediated (1) poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and (2) activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9. Thus, BBJ seems to alleviate UVB-induced effects by reducing DNA damage and increasing apoptosis of damaged cells. To establish the in vivo significance of these findings to human skin, immunohistochemistry studies were performed in a 3D SE model, where BBJ was also found to decrease CPDs formation. These data suggest that BBJ may be developed as an agent to ameliorate UV-induced skin damage. PMID:23711186

  11. General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Differences in terminology and language can be major barriers to effective international collaborations -- such as in the development of (often delicate) environmental protection agreements. To reduce these barriers, several European and US environmental agencies have joined forces to develop a common terminology system, called GEMET. This General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET) is "a vocabulary of more than 6,500 controlled terms (keywords), representing broad environmentally significant concepts." This Website serves as a gateway into GEMET. Here users will find the various components of the thesaurus, including the impressive multilingual list of descriptors. GEMET 2.0 was edited in British and American English, with equivalents in ten European languages.

  12. Regeneration in fringe mangrove forests damaged by Hurricane Andrew

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Baldwin; Michael Egnotovich; Mark Ford; William Platt

    2001-01-01

    Mangrove forests along many tropical coastlines are frequently andseverely damaged by hurricanes. The ability of mangrove forests to regeneratefollowing hurricanes has been noted, but changes that occur in vegetationfollowing disturbance by hurricane winds and storm tides have not been studied.We measured changes in plant community structure and environmental variables intwo fringe mangrove forests in south Florida, USA that experienced high

  13. The role of ClpXP-mediated proteolysis in resculpting the proteome after DNA damage

    E-print Network

    Neher, Saskia B. (Saskia Byerly)

    2005-01-01

    When faced with environmental assaults, E. coli can take extreme measures to survive. For example, starving bacteria consume their own proteins, and bacteria with severe DNA damage introduce mutations into their genomes. ...

  14. Genetic damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Q.; Cheng, L.; Li, D. [U.T.M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Lung cancer is the paradigm of carcinogen-induced disease. A chemical carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene, commonly found in tobacco, is both mutagenic and carcinogenic. It is hypothesized that individuals have varying responses to exposure to environmental carcinogens. In this study, we used benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) as the test mutagen to investigate three in-vitro susceptibility markers in lymphocytes from 51 patients with lung cancer and 172 cancer-free controls. These markers were: BPDE-induced chromosomal aberrations, BPDE-induced DNA adducts, and DNA repair capacity using host cell reactivation assay with BPDE-damaged plasmid. Using the medians of the controls as the cutoff values, increased risk of lung cancer was associated with increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations (OR=6.53; 95% confidence interval (C.I.), 3.74-11.4), increased BPDE-DNA adduct level (odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% C.I., 1.2-18.5), and reduced DNA repair capacity (OR=5.7; 95% C.I., 2.1-15.7). In correlation analyses, cellular ability to repair BPDE-induced DNA damage was found to be inversely correlated with the levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts (n=34; r=0.34; p=0.048) and the levels of BPDE-DNA adducts correlated significantly with the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (n=62; r=0.42; p=0.001). However, cellular ability to repair BPDE-induced DNA damage was not correlated significantly with the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (n=47; r=0.06; p=0.677). These biomarkers have differing sensitivities in measuring repair of damage induced by chemical carcinogens; therefore, the complementary use of these assays should increase the probability of identifying individuals with susceptibility to smoking-related cancers.

  15. Multiaxial and thermomechanical fatigue considerations in damage tolerant design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leese, G. E.; Bill, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    In considering damage tolerant design concepts for gas turbine hot section components, several challenging concerns arise: Complex multiaxial loading situations are encountered; Thermomechanical fatigue loading involving very wide temperature ranges is imposed on components; Some hot section materials are extremely anisotropic; and coatings and environmental interactions play an important role in crack propagation. The effects of multiaxiality and thermomechanical fatigue are considered from the standpoint of their impact on damage tolerant design concepts. Recently obtained research results as well as results from the open literature are examined and their implications for damage tolerant design are discussed. Three important needs required to advance analytical capabilities in support of damage tolerant design become readily apparent: (1) a theoretical basis to account for the effect of nonproportional loading (mechanical and mechanical/thermal); (2) the development of practical crack growth parameters that are applicable to thermomechanical fatigue situations; and (3) the development of crack growth models that address multiple crack failures.

  16. Influence of fundamental material properties and air void structure on moisture damage of asphalt mixes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Arambula Mercado

    2007-01-01

    Moisture damage in asphalt mixes refers to the loss of serviceability due to the presence of moisture. The extent of moisture damage, also called moisture susceptibility, depends on internal and external factors. The internal factors relate to the properties of the materials and the microstructure distribution, while the external factors include the environmental conditions, production and construction practices, pavement design,

  17. The effects of water on heat-styling damage.

    PubMed

    Christian, Paul; Winsey, Nigel; Whatmough, Marie; Cornwell, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Heated styling appliances, such as straightening irons, have grown in popularity in recent years, as have hair products such as heat-protection sprays. In this study we investigate whether the water in a heat-protection spray can affect the level of damage caused by heat styling. Tryptophan damage from heat styling was measured using fluorescence spectroscopy, and structural damage was investigated using light microscopy and single-fiber tensile testing. Hair samples were heat treated with straightening irons, following treatment with either a water-based, "wet," heat-protection spray or an ethanol-based, "dry," spray. Results showed that, as expected, tryptophan damage was reduced by repeated applications of both the "wet" and "dry" heat-protection sprays. However, no differences were seen between the "wet" versus the "dry" product. Light microscopy studies showed greater structural damage to hair treated with water and the "wet" spray. Tensile tests confirmed that there was greater damage to hair treated with the "wet" spray. Decreases in Young's modulus were greater in the presence of the "wet" spray. The results of this study suggest that the type of damage caused by heat treatments is different in wet versus dry hair. In dry hair, thermal treatments cause chemical damage and some structural damage. However, in wet hair, thermal treatments cause the same chemical damage, but considerably more structural damage, which causes significant changes in the physical properties of the hair. It is likely that the rapid evaporation of water from the hair is the main causal factor. Our experiments suggest that the effectiveness of commercial heat-protection sprays can be improved by the removal of water and by the use of volatile ingredients, such as ethanol, as base solvents. PMID:21443842

  18. Valuing natural assets: The economics of natural resource damage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, R.J.; Smith, V.K. (eds.)

    1993-01-01

    In this collection of papers-originally prepared for a conference held by Resources for the Future in 1988 but rewritten since then in response to rapidly changing developments-the editors and other contributors examine the complex and evolving interactions among economic research on assessing natural resource damages, legislation (such as Superfund) establishing liability for such damages, and the litigation and regulatory processes affecting implementation of damage assessments. Recent court decisions have suggested that among the injuries to publicly owned natural resources for which liability may be claimed are losses of the nonmarket services of the resources; as Kopp and Smith explain, such injuries are seen to diminish people's valuation of these services, and the diminished value is a measure of the economic damage. The challenge to economists-which is the focus of this book-is how to measure such nonmarket values in the context of litigation, regulations, and the damage assessment provisions of Superfund. Contributors reveal that although existing nonmarket valuation methods, such as contingent valuation, have been used to assess natural resource damages, the damage assessment process itself has dramatically changed the context for applying these methods and has had a major influence on economic research associated with nonmarket valuation of environmental resources. In that context, for example, valuation of nonmarket measures takes place largely in the courtroom rather than in agencies, and the procedure itself changes how the measures are presented, received, and defended.

  19. Recycled-PET fibre based panels for building thermal insulation: environmental impact and improvement potential assessment for a greener production.

    PubMed

    Ingrao, Carlo; Lo Giudice, Agata; Tricase, Caterina; Rana, Roberto; Mbohwa, Charles; Siracusa, Valentina

    2014-09-15

    A screening of Life Cycle Assessment for the evaluation of the damage arising from the production of 1 kg of recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (RPET) fibre-based panel for building heat insulation was carried out according to the ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. All data used were collected on site based on observations during site visits, review of documents and interviews with technical personnel and management. These data were processed by using SimaPro 7.3.3, accessing the Ecoinvent v.2.2 database and using the Impact 2002+ method. The study showed damage to be equal to 0.000299 points mostly due to the: 1) PET thermo-bonding fibre supply from China by means of a freight-equipped intercontinental aircraft; 2) production of bottle-grade granulate PET; 3) medium voltage electricity consumption during the manufacturing of RPET fibre panel. It was also highlighted that there were environmental benefits due to recycling through mainly avoiding significant emissions and reduced resource consumption. An improvement assessment was carried out to find solutions aimed at reducing the damage coming from the most impacting phases. Furthermore, the environmental impacts due to the production of the analysed RPET fibre-based panel were compared to other materials with the same insulating function, such as polystyrene foam, rock wool and cork slab. Finally, the environmental benefits of the recycling of PET bottles for flake production were highlighted compared to other treatment scenarios such as landfill and municipal incineration. PMID:25006757

  20. Damaged Skylab Micrometeoroid Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows the damaged meteoroid shield being held by a thin aluminum strap entangled with green-hued remnants of the lost heat shield. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  1. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  2. Expansive soil crack depth under cumulative damage.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

    2014-01-01

    The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

  3. Ion Implantation Damage in Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaulay-Newcombe, R. G.

    This thesis is a report on a series of measurements of ion-bombardment effects on alpha -quartz crystals. Damage was produced in alpha -quartz (single-crystal SiO_2) by bombarding with ions of ^4He ^+ to ^{209} Bi^{++} in the energy range of 15-200 keV, at both 300 K and <=50 K. The samples were analysed in-situ with Rutherford backscattering/channeling, using 1-2 MeV ^4He^+ ions; data was obtained from both the oxygen and silicon peaks, so that damage stoichiometry could be calculated. At low ion fluences (~10^ {10}-10^{11} ions/mm^2) the apparent damage level increases linearly with fluence, but at rates of about 3-19 times greater than predicted by the modified Kinchin-Pease equation. At higher fluences (~ 10^{11}-10 ^{12} ions/mm^2 ) the rate of damage increases with fluence for elastic energy deposition rates of less than ~ 0.08 eV/atom, but remains constant for greater elastic energy deposition rates. At even higher ion fluences saturation of the damage occurs. It has been observed that the analysis beam creates damage at a rate dependent on the level of damage already present in the crystal; furthermore, the damage created by the analysis ions appears to be predominantly due to the inelastically deposited energy. Strain effects seem to greatly exaggerate the level of damage indicated by simple channeling calculations. A simple model is proposed to explain both the high rates of damage production and the non-stoichiometry of the damage. The model indicates that the effects of elastic energy deposition, inelastic energy deposition, strain produced by damage, and lattice relaxation into a "quasi-amorphous" state, all contribute to the apparent damage levels synergistically.

  4. Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams 

    E-print Network

    Dincal, Selcuk

    2010-12-08

    Figure 4.11 Damage Localization Result for Damage Case SB 1 Using EB Direct j? ......................................................................................... 78 Figure 4.12 Damage Extent and Severity Estimate for Damage Case SB 1... Using EB Direct j? ......................................................................................... 79 Figure 4.13 Damage Localization Result for Damage Case SB 2 Using EB Direct j...

  5. Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P-Y; Xu, X; Li, X-C

    2014-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries under oxidative stress is related to oxidative changes of low density lipoproteins (LDL). The antioxidants prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. Perhaps more than one mechanism is involved in the atherosclerosis disease where LDL is oxidized in all the cells of arterial wall during the development of this disease. The oxidation of LDL produces lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostans from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from cholesterol, hydroxyl fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. The lipid peroxidation bioassay can serve as a marker for the risk of cardiovascular. An in vivo test of levels of oxidative lipid damage is an early prediction of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is correlated to severity of the coronary artery disease. The antioxidants level in the serum and serum paraoxonase activity provides information for the risk of CVD. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is responsible for dismutation of superoxide, a free radical chain initiator. The subcellular changes in the equilibrium in favor of free radicals can cause increase in the oxidative stress which leads to cardiomyopathy, heart attack or cardiac dysfunction. The oxidative damage and defense of heart disease has been reported where dietary antioxidants protect the free radical damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. The ascorbic acid, vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and high vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by inhibition of atherogenic forms of oxidized LDL. The vitamin A and beta-carotene protect lipid peroxidation and provitamin-A activity. It has been recently suggested that the protection of oxidative damage and related CVD is best served by antioxidants found in the fruits and vegetables. The oxidative damage and antioxidant protection of CVD have been described here. PMID:25392110

  6. Material damage due to air pollutants: design of a field monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Stankunas, A.R.; McCarthy, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    The recognition of the role of air pollutants in the deterioration of irreplaceable structures and monuments of profound historical importance as well as other commonly used materials exposed outdoors coupled with the recent emphasis on converting to coal from oil has led to a renewed concern of the effects of local increases in SO/sub 2/ emissions and, consequently, potential damage to these structures and materials. The damage to materials by air pollutants is not a single cause and effect process. Many natural environmental factors have a strong influence on the process. Since the natural environment itself causes material damage, it is often difficult or impossible to determine the incremental damage due to air pollutants alone. In addition, pollutants can act synergistically with natural environmental factors or each other which complicates the analysis even more. To quantify the actual damage and provide indication of potential impacts in the future, a materials damage monitoring plan was developed to assess the effects of specific sources. The materials damage monitoring plan recommended here provides a variety of relatively inexpensive techniques not only to adequately identify and assess damage caused by increased SO/sub 2/ emissions but also to determine if significant damage occurs at all. Highly detailed photography, the use of samples of standard building materials, and specially prepared sensitive material samples as short-term preliminary indicators of potential problems provide the necessary information to determine potential effects and allow the performance of mitigative measures before the damage causes irreplaceable losses to our cultural heritage.

  7. Estimating the costs of landslide damage in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Robert W.; Taylor, Fred A.

    1980-01-01

    Landslide damages are one of the most costly natural disasters in the United States. A recent estimate of the total annual cost of landslide damage is in excess of $1 billion {Schuster, 1978}. The damages can be significantly reduced, however, through the combined action of technical experts, government, and the public. Before they can be expected to take action, local governments need to have an appreciation of costs of damage in their areas of responsibility and of the reductions in losses that can be achieved. Where studies of cost of landslide damages have been conducted, it is apparent that {1} costs to the public and private sectors of our economy due to landslide damage are much larger than anticipated; {2} taxpayers and public officials generally are unaware of the magnitude of the cost, owing perhaps to the lack of any centralization of data; and {3} incomplete records and unavailability of records result in lower reported costs than actually were incurred. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a method to estimate the cost of landslide damages in regional and local areas and has applied the method in three urban areas and one rural area. Costs are for different periods and are unadjusted for inflation; therefore, strict comparisons of data from different years should be avoided. Estimates of the average annual cost of landslide damage for the urban areas studied are $5,900,000 in the San Francisco Bay area; $4,000,000 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5,170,000 in Hamilton County, Ohio. Adjusting these figures for the population of each area, the annual cost of damages per capita are $1.30 in the nine-county San Francisco Bay region; $2.50 in Allegheny County, Pa.; and $5.80 in Hamilton County, Ohio. On the basis of data from other sources, the estimated annual damages on a per capita basis for the City of Los Angeles, Calif., are about $1.60. If the costs were available for the damages from landslides in Los Angeles in 1977-78 and 1979-80, the annual per capita costs probably would be much larger. The landslide near the rural community of Manti, Utah, caused an expenditure of about $1,800,000 or about $1,000 per person during the period 1974-76. Because a recurrence for such a landslide cannot be established, it is not possible to develop a meaningful estimate of annual per capita damages. Communities are urged to examine their costs of landslide damage and to evaluate the feasibility of several alternative programs that, for a modest investment, could significantly reduce these losses.

  8. Environmental concerns and future oil and gas developments in Coastal Wetlands of Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Groat, C.G. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that much oil and natural gas have been overlooked and increases in future recoverable reserves will come from drilling in these areas. Increased production will result from identifying unexploited compartmentalized reservoirs, new infield reservoirs, and bypassed reservoirs, and by using enhanced recovery technologies for hydrocarbon recovery in incompletely drained reservoirs previously left unproduced for economic reasons. Most of southern Louisiana's hydrocarbon reserves underlie coastal wetland areas of the state. Major environmental concerns associated with the future development of existing reserves are canal dredging and destruction of wildlife habitat, use and disposal of oil-based muds, mitigation for wetland damage, and the recent emerging issue of surface contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials with potential liabilities and future remedial regulation. To reduce wetland environmental damage caused by access canals to drilling sites, the Coastal Management Division of the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources instituted a geologic reviews program to review drilling permit application in the coastal wetlands. This process provides a mechanism for state and federal agencies to comment on the requested drilling permit. As a result of this process, the total average wetland disturbed area has been reduced from 767 ac per year in 1982 to approximately 76 ac per year in 1991. Average lengths of access canals also have been reduced by approximately 78% during the period. Oil and gas companies are becoming increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of drilling in wetlands and are considering them in planning for development activities. In the current climate of increasing public consciousness about the environment, addressing environmental concerns in the planning state will go a long way in helping alleviate future environmental problems.

  9. Environmental Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area Environmental Allergies ?? Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... diagnose, treat, and prevent environmental allergies. Understanding Environmental Allergies Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Immunotherapy Last Updated April ...

  10. Environmental Management System `We are implementing an

    E-print Network

    an Environmental Management System (EMS) which addresses all of the aspects of our business which have an impact in our Environmental Policy Statement. Specifically we will: · Comply with relevant environmental that impact on the environment. · Taking actions to reduce environmental impacts, and monitoring the results

  11. DNA damage and repair after high LET radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis; Anderson, Jennifer

    Predictions from biophysical models of interactions of radiation tracks with cellular DNA indicate that clustered DNA damage sites, defined as two or more lesions formed within one or two helical turns of the DNA by passage of a single radiation track, are formed in mammalian cells. These complex DNA damage sites are regarded as a signature of ionizing radiation exposure particularly as the likelihood of clustered damage sites arising endogenously is low. For instance, it was predicted from biophysical modelling that 30-40% of low LET-induced double strand breaks (DSB), a form of clustered damage, are complex with the yield increasing to >90% for high LET radiation, consistent with the reduced reparability of DSB with increasing ionization density of the radiation. The question arises whether the increased biological effects such as mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and lethality is in part related to DNA damage complexity and/or spatial distribution of the damage sites, which may lead to small DNA fragments. With particle radiation it is also important to consider not only delta-rays which may cause clustered damaged sites and may be highly mutagenic but the non-random spatial distribution of DSB which may lead to deletions. In this overview I will concentrate on the molecular aspects of the variation of the complexity of DNA damage on radiation quality and the challenges this complexity presents the DNA damage repair pathways. I will draw on data from micro-irradiations which indicate that the repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining is highly regulated with pathway choice and kinetics of repair dependent on the chemical complexity of the DSB. In summary the aim is to emphasis the link between the spatial distribution of energy deposition events related to the track, the molecular products formed and the consequence of damage complexity contributing to biological effects and to present some of the outstanding molecular challenges with particle radiation.

  12. Feral swine damage and damage management in forested ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler A. Campbell; David B. Long

    2009-01-01

    Invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa) cause deleterious impacts to ecosystem processes and functioning throughout their worldwide distribution, including forested ecosystems in the United States. Unfortunately, many feral swine damage management programs are conducted in a piecemeal fashion, are not adequately funded, and lack clearly stated or realistic objectives. This review paper identifies damage caused by feral swine to forest resources

  13. Multiplexed extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensor system for in-situ strain and impact damage detection in composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongyu Liu; M. Wu; Gerard F. Fernando; Yun Jiang Rao; David A. Jackson

    1997-01-01

    The detection of impact damage in fiber reinforced composites is of significant concern because such damage can reduce the load-bearing ability of the composite. A number of factors can influence the nature and extent of impact damage development in composites including: (1) the type of reinforcing fiber and resin system; (2) the magnitude of the residual (fabrication) stresses; (3) the

  14. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yuanqin [Cancer Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Yao, Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Luo, Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY (United States); Gao, Ning [Department of Pharmacognos, College of Pharmacy, 3rd Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States); Zhang, Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  15. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  16. Water availability limits tolerance of apical damage in the Chilean tarweed Madia sativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzáles, Wilfredo L.; Suárez, Lorena H.; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    Plant tolerance is the ability to reduce the negative impact of herbivory on plant fitness. Numerous studies have shown that plant tolerance is affected by nutrient availability, but the effect of soil moisture has received less attention. We evaluated tolerance of apical damage (clipping that mimicked insect damage) under two watering regimes (control watering and drought) in the tarweed Madia sativa (Asteraceae). We recorded number of heads with seeds and total number of heads as traits related to fitness. Net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, number of branches, shoot biomass, and the root:shoot biomass ratio were measured as traits potentially related to tolerance via compensatory responses to damage. In the drought treatment, damaged plants showed ?43% reduction in reproductive fitness components in comparison with undamaged plants. In contrast, there was no significant difference in reproductive fitness between undamaged and damaged plants in the control watering treatment. Shoot biomass was not affected by apical damage. The number of branches increased after damage in both water treatments but this increase was limited by drought stress. Net photosynthetic rate increased in damaged plants only in the control watering treatment. Water use efficiency increased with drought stress and, in plants regularly watered, also increased after damage. Root:shoot ratio was higher in the low water treatment and damaged plants tended to reduce root:shoot ratio only in this water treatment. It is concluded that water availability limits tolerance to apical damage in M. sativa, and that putative compensatory mechanisms are differentially affected by water availability.

  17. Salvaging and Conserving Water Damaged Photographic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryuji

    Degradation of water damaged photographic materials is discussed; the most vulnerable elements are gelatin layers and silver image. A simple and inexpensive chemical treatment is proposed, consisting of a bath containing a gelatin-protecting biocide and a silver image protecting agent. These ingredients were selected among those used in manufacturing of silver halide photographic emulsions or processing chemicals. Experiments confirmed that this treatment significantly reduced oxidative attacks to silver image and bacterial degradation of gelatin layers. The treated material was also stable under intense light fading test. Method of hardening gelatin to suppress swelling is also discussed.

  18. Laser induced damage in optical materials: 7th ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1976-06-01

    The Seventh ERDA-ASTM-ONR-NBS Symposium on Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, on 29-31 July 1975. These Symposia are held as part of the activities in ASTM Subcommittee II on Lasers and Laser Materials, which is charged with the responsibilities of formulating standards and test procedures for laser materials, components, and devices. The Chairman of Subcommittee II is Haynes Lee, of Owens-Illinois, Inc. Co-chairmen for the Damage Symposia are Arthur Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory and Alexander J. Glass of Law-rence Livermore Laboratory. Over 150 attendees at the Symposium heard forty-five papers on topics relating fabrication procedures to laser induced damage in optical materials; on metal mirrors; in ir window materials; the multipulse, wavelength, and pulse length dependence of damage thresholds; damage in dielectric films and at exposed surfaces; as well as theoretical discussions on avalanche ionization and multiphoton processes of importance at shorter wavelengths. Of particular importance were the scaling relations developed from several parametric studies relating fundamental properties (refractive index, surface roughness etc.) to the damage threshold. This year many of the extrinsic influences tending to reduce a materials damage resistance were isolated such that measures of their egregious nature could be quantified. Much still needs to be accomplished to improve processing and fabrication procedures to allow a measurable approach to a materials intrinsic strength to be demonstrated. PMID:20165214

  19. Thermal damage quantification from tissue birefringence image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurray, Tom J.; Han, Andre; Pearce, John A.

    1993-07-01

    Decreased collagen or cardiac muscle birefringence in transmission polarizing microscopy is an observable measure of damaged tissue concentration. Accordingly, monochrome images of thermally damaged tissue exhibiting decreased birefringence provide important information about the tissue thermal history, which is often extremely difficult to measure globally during an experiment. Thus, a damage quantification algorithm based on monochrome tissue images exhibiting decreased values corresponding to estimated temperature distributions. The algorithm consists of initially time-averaging several video frames of the microscopic tissue image to reduce additive noise components and an additional multiplicative correction for optical nonuniformities. Subsequently, morphological close-opening and mean filtering of the tissue image is performed using a unit gain arbitrarily-sized square template, followed by background subtraction and scaling, producing the components required for the damage computation according to the volume fraction kinetic damage model. The algorithm has been applied to tissue images derived from an experimental protocol generating approximately linear thermal gradients along the axis perpendicular to the tissue surface plane and constant temperatures in the plane parallel to the tissue surface. The resulting thermally exposed tissue specimens exhibit decreased birefringence in damaged regions which is quantified and delineated automatically by this algorithm. Give the damage value at a specified tissue position, the temperature was also estimated. These temperature estimates approximate finite difference method numerical models of the experiment.

  20. MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839