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Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.  


Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme. PMID:21853522

Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J



Reducing Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

Blankenbecler, Richard



Floating intake reduces pump damage  

SciTech Connect

The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

Kronig, A.



Reducing Barriers to Environmental Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow progress of environmental education in public schools can be attributed to a set of common barriers that inhibits teachers from conducting environmental education. An in-service workshop was designed and implemented specifically to reduce these barriers and to increase the number of teachers conducting environmental education. The workshop consisted of a variety of presentations and hands-on activities. Evaluation of

Sam H. Ham; Mary H. Rellergert-Taylor; Edwin E. Krumpe



Employee environmental efforts reduce costs  

SciTech Connect

At the same time Sony's San Diego manufacturing center underwent expansion and diversification in the late 1980s, management began pollution prevention and energy conservation programs. Through team programs, engineering strategies to reduce pollution resulted in significant cost savings and environmental benefits. By reducing waste between 1991 to 1993, the company also reduced manufacturing costs by $954,000 through recycling, hazardous waste source reduction and eliminating or reducing chemical usage. Pollution has been reduced, and resources and energy are being used more efficiently. Hazardous waste generation is down more than 56 percent.

Small, M. (Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, CA (United States))



Cleaning Up on Environmental Damages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public entity facing an environmental cleanup can take certain measures to dramatically increase its chance of coverage. Argues that many comprehensive general-liability insurance policies have coverage if the pollution is "sudden and accidental." (MLF)

Berger, Bruce J.



CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage  

E-print Network

CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage in Eleven and is exceeding its ambitious Kyoto commitment. Hence, it is commonly portrayed as a climate-policy success story. Third, researchers on climate policies should more often begin with outcomes, work backward to policies

Qiu, Weigang


Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions  

E-print Network

Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

Maheras, Anastasia Francis



Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

Not Available



Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)



Title: Reducing the earthquake damage to facades and partitions: an integrated low-damage approach  

E-print Network

Title: Reducing the earthquake damage to facades and partitions: an integrated after an earthquake, even when the structural damage is minor. The poor performance of building facades and partitions in recent earthquakes has led

Hickman, Mark


Method to reduce damage to backing plate  


The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)



[Environmental damage assessment: international regulations and revelation to China].  


As the whole society gradually realizes the scarcity of nature resources and environmental value, countries all over the world have evolved and improved the system of environmental damage assessment through the practices of pollution prevention and ecological environmental protection. On one hand, in the research prospective, the practices of environmental damage assessment brought new challenges to environmental law, environmental economics, environmental science, environmental engineering, etc. On the other hand, they constantly promoted and developed relevant laws and regulations, techniques, working mechanism, and guidelines on procedure in practice. On the hasis of comparison and analysis of international practices and experiences from US, EU, and Japan, etc., this article identified relevant concepts, content, and scope of environmental damage assessment, and presented its scientific positioning and development direction. At present, both theory and practice of environmental damage assessment in China are in their infancy period. Considering current environmental situation and socioeconomic development features of China, learning international practices and experiences and raising the orientation of environmental damage assessment have great meaning in exploring the suitable environmental damage assessment system. PMID:23914513

Zhang, Hong-zhen; Cao, Dong; Yu, Fang; Wang, Jin-nan; Qi, Ji; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Tian-zhu; Luo, Yong-ming



The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.  


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health. PMID:20564993

Funk, Paul A



Environmentally friendly cows–reducing our environmental hoof print  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of natural resources impacts the environment in five areas: 1) Energy, 2) Water, 3) Nutrients, 4) Greenhouse gases and 5) Biodiversity. The greatest opportunities for decreasing environmental impacts of the Holstein cow would seem to be enhancing utilization of nutrients and reducing emissio...


Reducing formation damage through two-stage polymer filtration  

SciTech Connect

Formation damage resulting from the use of unfiltered polymers during gravel pack completion operations has been addressed as it relates to HEC completion fluids. However, other filtered polymer systems exhibit properties which, in specific applications, may out perform HEC systems. Thus, the performance characteristics of six commonly used polymer systems, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), clarified xanthan gum (XC), HEC/XC blends, crosslinked carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), and standard xanthan gum (XCD), required additional evaluation. Fluid modelling was employed using a new two-stage filtration process (gel filtration) in which the viscosified fluids were optimally sheared and fine-filtered to improve sand placement efficiency and reduce formation damage. The data obtained from this study establishes mixing and filtration design criteria for optimizing completion techniques such as gravel packing, sand washing, polymer diverting, and lost circulation control.

Houchin, L.R.; Hudson, L.M.; Caothien, S.; Daddazio, G.; Hashemi, R.



A Shift toward Alternative Compensation Mechanisms for Environmental Damage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this book, many shifts in the compensation of environmental damage have been discussed, largely dealing with the choice\\u000a between private and public funding. These contributions dealt especially with the question how, for instance for soil pollution,\\u000a oil pollution damage or nuclear accidents, compensation can be achieved either through private or through public funding.\\u000a In particular, many of these contributions

Michael Faure


Metformin reduces endogenous reactive oxygen species and associated DNA damage.  


Pharmacoepidemiologic studies provide evidence that use of metformin, a drug commonly prescribed for type II diabetes, is associated with a substantial reduction in cancer risk. Experimental models show that metformin inhibits the growth of certain neoplasms by cell autonomous mechanisms such as activation of AMP kinase with secondary inhibition of protein synthesis or by an indirect mechanism involving reduction in gluconeogenesis leading to a decline in insulin levels and reduced proliferation of insulin-responsive cancers. Here, we show that metformin attenuates paraquat-induced elevations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and related DNA damage and mutations, but has no effect on similar changes induced by H(2)0(2), indicating a reduction in endogenous ROS production. Importantly, metformin also inhibited Ras-induced ROS production and DNA damage. Our results reveal previously unrecognized inhibitory effects of metformin on ROS production and somatic cell mutation, providing a novel mechanism for the reduction in cancer risk reported to be associated with exposure to this drug. PMID:22262811

Algire, Carolyn; Moiseeva, Olga; Deschęnes-Simard, Xavier; Amrein, Lilian; Petruccelli, Luca; Birman, Elena; Viollet, Benoit; Ferbeyre, Gerardo; Pollak, Michael N



Sildenafil reduces alcohol-induced gastric damage: just say ‘NO'  

PubMed Central

Although sildenafil (Viagra) and other phosphodiesterase V (PDE V) inhibitors are increasingly recognized for their use in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and perhaps more recently pulmonary artery hypertension, less is known of their potential beneficial effects in other situations. Medeiros et al., in the current issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, report that sildenafil dramatically reduces alcohol-induced gastric damage in rats. The authors provide convincing evidence that such protection not only occurs via the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway, but also involves regulation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Therefore, in addition to exerting anti-impotence efficacy, PDE V inhibitors may provide significant beneficial effects from mucosal injury induced by alcohol. PMID:18084311

Duffin, R; Shaw, C A; Rossi, A G



Sildenafil reduces alcohol-induced gastric damage: just say 'NO'.  


Although sildenafil (Viagra) and other phosphodiesterase V (PDE V) inhibitors are increasingly recognized for their use in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and perhaps more recently pulmonary artery hypertension, less is known of their potential beneficial effects in other situations. Medeiros et al., in the current issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, report that sildenafil dramatically reduces alcohol-induced gastric damage in rats. The authors provide convincing evidence that such protection not only occurs via the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway, but also involves regulation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Therefore, in addition to exerting anti-impotence efficacy, PDE V inhibitors may provide significant beneficial effects from mucosal injury induced by alcohol. PMID:18084311

Duffin, R; Shaw, C A; Rossi, A G



DNA damage as a biological sensor for environmental sunlight.  


Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known as an environmental genotoxic agent that affects ecosystems and the human population, generating concerns and motivating worldwide scientific efforts to better understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, cell death, mutagenesis, and ultimately, carcinogenesis. In this review, general aspects of UV radiation at the Earth's surface are reported, considering measurements by physical and biological sensors that monitor solar UV radiation under different environmental conditions. The formation of DNA photoproducts and other types of DNA damage by different UV wavelengths are compared with the present information on their roles in inducing biological effects. Moreover, the use of DNA-based biological dosimeters is presented as a feasible molecular and cellular tool that is focused on the evaluation of DNA lesions induced by natural sunlight. Clearly, direct environmental measurements demonstrate the biological impact of sunlight in different locations worldwide and reveal how this affects the DNA damage profile at different latitudes. These tools are also valuable for the quantification of photoprotection provided by commercial sunscreens against the induction of DNA damage and cell death, employing DNA repair-deficient cells that are hypersensitive to sunlight. Collectively, the data demonstrate the applicability of DNA-based biosensors as alternative, complementary, and reliable methods for registering variations in the genotoxic impact of solar UV radiation and for determining the level of photoprotection sunscreens provided at the level of DNA damage and cell death. PMID:23525255

Schuch, André Passaglia; Garcia, Camila Carriăo Machado; Makita, Kazuo; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins



Methods for Estimating Economic Damages from Environmental Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

While significant attention has been given to the decrease in property values associated with environmental contamination (i.e., stigma effects), little attention has been given to the stigma impacts on the local community as a whole. In addition, most estimates of stigma damages have been performed within a community, using distance from contamination or comparing contamination and non contamination areas in

David W. Shideler; Michael R. Dicks



Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage  

PubMed Central

Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50–200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca2+ influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru



Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage.  


Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50-200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca(2+) influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

Kashiwagi, Taichi; Yan, Hanxu; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru; Shirahata, Sanetaka



[Hazardous environmental factors causing renal damage in children].  


Hazardous environmental factors invade the body through multiple routes, including ingestion, inhalation and absorption by contact with the skin and mucous membrane. They are from various sources and soil, water, air, building and decorative materials, foods and daily necessities are the main carriers. According to their physical and chemical properties and morphological characteristics, these hazardous factors are classified as metals, inorganic matter, organic matter, radioactive substances, biological toxins, viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and parasites. They cause diseases through blood and urine and also have kidney susceptibility. This article suggests that pediatricians should fully understand the characteristics and seriousness of hazardous environmental factors that cause renal damage, and pay attention to the prevention and control of these factors so as to minimize renal damage in children. PMID:24750822

Xu, Zhi-Quan; Yi, Zhu-Wen



Reducing the environmental impact of uranium in-situ recovery.  

SciTech Connect

This session will explore the current technical approaches to reducing the environmental effects of uranium ISR in comparison to the historical environmental impact of uranium mining to demonstrate advances in this controversial subject.

Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Simmons, Ardyth



Consideration of environmental and operational variability for damage diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Damage diagnosis is a problem that can be addressed at many levels. Stated in its most basic form, the objective is to ascertain simply if damage is present or not. In a statistical pattern recognition paradigm of this problem, the philosophy is to collect baseline signatures from a system to be monitored and to compare subsequent data to see if the new 'pattern' deviates significantly from the baseline data. Unfortunately, matters are seldom as simple as this. In reality, structures will be subjected to changing environmental and operational conditions that will affect measured signals. In this case, there may be a wide range of normal conditions, and it is clearly undesirable to signal damage simply because of a change in the environment. In this paper, a unique combination of time series analysis, neural networks, and statistical inference techniques is developed for damage classification explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indication of true system changes.

Sohn, H. (Hoon); Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)



Investigation of water spray to reduce collateral thermal damage during laser resection of soft tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce unwanted collateral thermal damage to surrounding tissue and organs during laparoscopic laser dissection (cw, wavelength: 1.9?m) of porcine liver water spray was used. Size and amount of the produced water droplets of the water spray were photographed by short time imaging and analyzed by imaging software. At in vivo measurements on fresh porcine liver the depth of thermal damage was reduced by 85 % with water spray and the lateral size of thermal damage at the tissue surface could be reduced by 67%. This results show that especially for laparoscopic laser surgery water spray application might be a useful tool to avoid unwanted collateral thermal damage.

Theisen-Kunde, D.; Wolken, H.; Ellebrecht, D.; Danicke, V.; Wurster, L.; Kleemann, M.; Birngruber, R.



Tissue Plasminogen Activator Reduces Neurological Damage after Cerebral Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator immediately after the injection of numerous small blood clots into the carotid circulation in rabbit embolic stroke model animals caused a significant reduction in neurological damage. In vitro studies indicate that tissue plasminogen activator produced substantial lysis of clots at concentrations comparable to those expected in vivo, suggesting that this may be the mechanism

Justin A. Zivin; Marc Fisher; Umberto Degirolami; Carl C. Hemenway; Joan A. Stashak



Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust  

PubMed Central

Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G.; Mattioli, Flavia




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new lint cleaner equipped with spiked cylinders and multiple saw cylinders was developed to improve fiber quality and reduce fiber waste (patent 6,539,585). The new cleaner consists of a modified cylinder cleaner combined with two lint cleaner saws as well as a secondary saw to prevent fiber lost...


When big trees fall: Damage and carbon export by reduced impact logging in southern Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined carbon export in whole logs and carbon accumulation as coarse woody debris (CWD) produced from forest damage during all phases of the first and second year of a certified reduced impact logging (RIL) timber harvest in southern Amazonia. Our measurements included a 100% survey of roads and log decks, assessment of canopy damage and ground disturbance in skid

Ted R. Feldpausch; Stefan Jirka; Carlos A. M. Passos; Franklin Jasper; Susan J. Riha



Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings.  


Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (E(high)) or low (E(low)) densities of endophytes. The E(high) seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the E(low) treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from E(low) relative to E(high) seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to E(low) plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

Bittleston, L S; Brockmann, F; Wcislo, W; Van Bael, S A



2012 Environmental Performance Index: Environmental Health Objective The 2012 EPI builds on measures relevant to the goal of reducing environmental  

E-print Network

2012 Environmental Performance Index: Environmental Health Objective The 2012 EPI builds on measures relevant to the goal of reducing environmental stresses to human health, which are grouped into one objective category named environmental health. The objective weight is 30% of the overall EPI

Columbia University


Comparison between the environmental damages of two axial air compressors manufactured by the firm Fini Compressori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was performed jointly by ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), Bologna and Florence Universities and the firm FINI COMPRESSORI. A comparison is carried out between the environmental damages of two models (MK10 and MK94) of air axial compressors manufactured by FINI COMPRESSORI, with a volume of intaken air of 226 l/min, a power of 1.8 kW and a maximum pressure of 10 bar. The comparison is obtained by using LCA calculated by SimaPro 3.1 code and two methods: Eco-indicator 95 and a new method obtained by adding to the Eco-indicator 95 method other damage categories such as some raw material depletion, solid and energy. The system boundaries include raw material extraction and the end of life of the components and some special tools for manufacturing such as dies, moulds and shells. All metallic materials have the recycling as waste scenario. For LCA study we have considered the three components crankshaft, crankcase and valve plate for both the models, the air cooling conveyor for the MK94 and the surplus of consumed energy for the MK10. The conveyor decreases the temperature of air and therefore increases the compressor efficiency and reduces the electrical energy consumption during the use. From the LCA results, we can conclude that the introduction of the conveyor reduces the damage of MK10 model of 114.07 mPt and that the other modifications of the design increase the damage of MK10 model of 11 mPt. The damage of air compressor can be diminished by reusing crankshaft and crankcase. A design modification of the blades of the ventilator is proposed to avoid the conveyor.

Neri, Paolo; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldi, Giovanni; Saric, Miroslav; Tani, Giovanni



Proposed definition of environmental damage illustrated by the cases of genetically modified crops and invasive species.  


The introduction of non-native plant species and the release of genetically modified (GM) crops can induce environmental changes at gene to ecosystem levels. Regulatory frameworks such as the Convention on Biological Diversity or the EU Deliberate Release Directive aim to prevent environmental damage but do not define the term. Although ecologists and conservationists often refer to environmental effects of GM crops or invasive species as damage, most authors do not disclose their normative assumptions or explain why some environmental impacts are regarded as detrimental and others are not. Thus far, a concise definition of environmental damage is missing and is necessary for a transparent assessment of environmental effects or risks. Therefore, we suggest defining environmental damage as a significant adverse effect on a biotic or abiotic conservation resource (i.e., a biotic or abiotic natural resource that is protected by conservational or environmental legislation) that has an impact on the value of the conservation resource, the conservation resource as an ecosystem component, or the sustainable use of the conservation resource. This definition relies on three normative assumptions: only concrete effects on a conservation resource can be damages; only adverse effects that lead to a decrease in the value of the conservation resource can be damages; and only significant adverse effects constitute damage to a conservation resource. Applying this definition within the framework of environmental risk assessment requires further normative determinations, for example, selection of a threshold to distinguish between adverse and significant adverse effects and approaches for assessing the environmental value of conservation resources. Such determinations, however, are not part of the definition of environmental damage. Rather they are part of the definition's operationalization through assessment procedures, which must be grounded in a comprehensible definition of environmental damage. PMID:20015260

Bartz, Robert; Heink, Ulrich; Kowarik, Ingo



Environmental Enrichment Protects the Retina from Early Diabetic Damage in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials), retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-?, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-? levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats. PMID:25004165

Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L.; González Fleitas, María Florencia; Chianelli, Mónica S.; Fernandez, Diego C.; Sande, Pablo H.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.



Electrolyzed–Reduced Water Scavenges Active Oxygen Species and Protects DNA from Oxidative Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen

Sanetaka Shirahata; Shigeru Kabayama; Mariko Nakano; Takumi Miura; Kenichi Kusumoto; Miho Gotoh; Hidemitsu Hayashi; Kazumichi Otsubo; Shinkatsu Morisawa; Yoshinori Katakura



Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation  

PubMed Central

A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically-based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically-demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

Fletcher, Quinn E.; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.; Woods, Sarah B.; Seo, Arnold Y.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R.; Humphries, Murray M.



Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation.  


A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

Fletcher, Quinn E; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G; Woods, Sarah B; Seo, Arnold Y; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M



Antioxidant and micronutrient-rich milk formula reduces lead poisoning and related oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice.  


Lead poisoning is a global environmental disease that induces lifelong adverse health effects. The effect of a milk formula consisting of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), vitamin C (Vc), calcium lactate (CaLac), ferrous sulfate (FeSO?) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO?) on the reduction of lead and lead-induced oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice was studied. The lead-reducing effect of milk formula was investigated via a 7-week toxicokinetics study and a tissue distribution level examination. The ameliorating effect of milk formula on lead-induced oxidative damage was investigated. Results demonstrated current milk formula could effectively reduce blood lead levels (BLLs) and lead distribution levels of liver, kidneys, thighbones and brain in mice based on metal ion-mediated antagonism and chelation mechanisms. This milk formula could not only protect lead-susceptible tissues against lead poisoning, but also maintain normal absorption and distribution of essential elements in vivo. Meanwhile, current milk formula could prevent the reduction of ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALAD) activity and enhancement of free erythrocyte protoporphyrins (FEP) levels in blood erythrocytes of mice. Also, this formula could indirectly protect blood cell membranes against lead-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that current optimized milk formula effectively reduces lead poisoning and lead-induced in vivo oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice. PMID:23537597

Zhang, Yu; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Hui; Song, Aihua; Jiao, Jingjing



Toward the development of process plans with reduced environmental impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufacturing process planning serves as a pivotal link between design and manufacturing. Process planning decisions play a critical role in determining the cost and environmental impacts associated with manufacturing. Past efforts to address environmental issues during process planning are briefly reviewed and potential approaches that can achieve reduced environmental impacts are then discussed. A proposed method is presented for environmentally conscious process planning. The method begins with an existing process plan, and then identifies impactful process steps, and associated design features, in terms of manufacturing cost and environmental impact. Alternative processes that can achieve these features are then considered to generate alternative process plans. These alternatives are then evaluated in terms of economic and environmental performance. The results of these evaluations are then used to generate a set of process plans that are non-dominated with respect to manufacturing cost and environmental impact objectives to produce a Pareto frontier. The proposed method is demonstrated using the manufacturing of a prosthetic hip shell as a case study.

Zhao, Fu; Murray, Vance R.; Ramani, Karthik; Sutherland, John W.



Reduced winter snowfall damages the structure and function of wintergreen ferns.  


• Premise of the study: The full impact of climate change on ecosystems and the humans that depend on them is uncertain. Anthropogenic climate change is resulting in winters with less snow than is historically typical. This deficit may have an impact on wintergreen ferns whose fronds lie prostrate under the snowpack and are thereby protected from frost.• Methods: Frost damage and ecophysiological traits were quantified for three species of wintergreen fern (Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris marginalis, and Polystichum acrostichoides) near Delhi, NY following the winters of 2012 (which had very little snowfall) and 2013 (which had typical snowfall).• Key results: Dryopteris intermedia was the most common species and had the highest percentage of frost-damaged fronds and the highest percentage of its cover damaged in 2012. Frost damage was significantly less in 2013 for all species. Polystichum acrostichoides had the highest vernal photosynthetic rate in undamaged fronds, and all three species had a negative net photosynthetic rate in frost-damaged fronds. The wintergreen fern community lost 36.69 ± 2.80% of its productive surface area to frost damage in 2012. Dryopteris intermedia had the thinnest leaves and this trait may have made it the most susceptible to frost damage.• Conclusions: These results demonstrate that repeated winters of little snow may have a significant impact on the structure and functioning of the wintergreen fern community, and species will respond to a reduced snowpack on an individual basis. PMID:24844709

Tessier, Jack T



Field tests of denatonium benzoate to reduce seedling damage by pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides Rich.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repellency of a bitter compound, denatonium benzoate, to reduce pocket gopher damage to conifer seedlings was tested in two independent field trials in Oregon and Idaho. In the Oregon trial (1992 to 1993), treatments included a denatonium benzoate tablet placed in-ground with the seedling roots; a tablet plus denatonium benzoate foliar spray applied to both roots and foliage; and

Gary W. Witmer; Michael J. Pipas; John C. Bucher



Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.  

PubMed Central

The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G



DNA damage and estrogenic activity induced by the environmental pollutant 2-nitrotoluene and its metabolite  

PubMed Central

Objectives The environmental pollutant 2-nitrotoluene (2-NO2-T) is carcinogenic and reproductively toxic in animals. In this study, we elucidated the mechanisms of its carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. Methods We examined DNA damage induced by 2-NO2-T and its metabolite, 2-nitrosotoluene (2-NO-T), using 32P-5?-end-labeled DNA. We measured 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), an indicator of oxidative DNA damage, in calf thymus DNA and cellular DNA in cultured human leukemia (HL-60) cells treated with 2-NO2-T and 2-NO-T. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) gene expression in HL-60 cells was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We examined estrogenic activity using an E-screen assay and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. Results In experiments with isolated DNA fragments, 2-NO-T induced oxidative DNA damage in the presence of Cu (II) and ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide disodium salt (reduced form) (NADH), while 2-NO2-T did not. 2-NO-T significantly increased levels of 8-oxodG in HL-60 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed upregulation of OGG1 gene expression induced by 2-NO-T. An E-screen assay using the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 revealed that 2-NO2-T induced estrogen-dependent cell proliferation. In contrast, 2-NO-T decreased the cell number and suppressed 17?-estradiol-induced cell proliferation. The data obtained with the SPR sensor using estrogen receptor ? and the estrogen response element supported the results of the E-screen assay. Conclusions Oxidative DNA damage caused by 2-NO-T and estrogen-disrupting effects caused by 2-NO2-T and 2-NO-T may play a role in the reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of these entities. PMID:21432561

Watanabe, Chigusa; Egami, Takashi; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Hiraku, Yusuke; Oikawa, Shinji; Kawanishi, Shosuke



Propofol reduces inflammatory reaction and ischemic brain damage in cerebral ischemia in rats.  


Our previous studies demonstrated that inflammatory reaction and neuronal apoptosis are the most important pathological mechanisms in ischemia-induced brain damage. Propofol has been shown to attenuate ischemic brain damage via inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of propofol on brain damage and inflammatory reaction in rats of focal cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, then received treatment with propofol (10 or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle after 2 h of ischemia. Neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct size and morphological characteristic were measured 24 h after cerebral ischemia. The enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was assessed 24 h after cerebral ischemia. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65 expression in ischemic rat brain was detected by western blot. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in ischemic rat brain was determined by immunohistochemistry. ELISA was performed to detect the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct size and MPO activity were significantly reduced by propofol administration. Furthermore, expression of NF-?B, COX-2 and TNF-? were attenuated by propofol administration. Our results demonstrated that propofol (10 and 50 mg/kg) reduces inflammatory reaction and brain damage in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Propofol exerts neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage, which might be associated with the attenuation of inflammatory reaction and the inhibition of inflammatory genes. PMID:24610527

Shi, Song-sheng; Yang, Wei-zhong; Chen, Ye; Chen, Jian-ping; Tu, Xian-kun



Assessing anchor damage on coral reefs: a case study in selection of environmental indicators.  


Because environmental conservation can remove scarce natural resources from competing uses, it is important to gain support for conservation programs by demonstrating that management actions have been effective in achieving their goals. One way to do this is to show that selected significant environmental variables (indicators) vary between managed and unmanaged areas or change over time following implementation of a management regime. However, identifying indicators that reflect environmental conditions relevant to management practices has proven difficult. This paper focuses on developing a framework for choosing indicators in a coral reef habitat. The framework consisted of three phases: (1) information gathering to identify candidate variables; (2) field-testing candidate variables at sites that differ in intensity of human activity, thus identifying potential indicators; and (3) evaluating potential indicators against a set of feasibility criteria to identify the most useful indicators. To identify indicators suitable to measure the success of a management strategy to reduce anchor damage to a coral reef, 24 candidate variables were identified and evaluated at sites with different intensities of anchoring. In this study, measures that reflected injuries to coral colonies were generally more efficient than traditional measures of coral cover in describing the effects of anchoring. The number of overturned colonies was identified as the single most useful indicator of coral reef condition associated with anchoring intensities. The indicator selection framework developed here has the advantages of being transparent, cost efficient, and readily transferable to other types of human activities and management strategies. PMID:14625652

Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Harriott, Vicki J



Modified otter trawl legs to reduce damage and mortality of benthic organisms in North East Atlantic fisheries (Bay of Biscay)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a consensus about the significant damages to marine benthos and commercial fish stocks induced by mobile fishing gear, the extent and intensity of this practice have currently grown all over the world. The main problems of fisheries management are the capture and killing of juvenile and undersized fish and thus restrictions mainly concern mesh size in cod-end. However another recurrent problem and non-negligible is the by-catch of undersize commercial fish and of non-target species. Hence, regulations to reduce such by-catch have formed a part of fisheries management techniques since the early 20th century. As a consequence, successful developments and technical modification have been used to reduce capture of undersized fish and discards (i.e. mesh size, separator panels, and sorting grids) in the last decades. Technical modification concerning reduction of damage and mortality to benthic communities are less documented. Most of the tentative to replace tickler chain, panels or legs by other systems have failed, while results showed a decrease in non-target catch, and a decrease in commercial catch was observed. This paper presents fishing experiments with modified otter trawl aimed at reducing discard rates and direct mortality of benthic infauna and epifauna without affecting the level of landings (i.e. a comparison of environmental effects caused by a conventional otter trawl compared to a modified otter trawl with enlighten experimental legs). Catch composition, by-catch and short-term effects to macro- and megafauna communities of both fishing gear (conventional and modified) were investigated. Results show that no differences for commercial catch biomass or for benthic communities' structure were observed. Moreover, by-catch analysis showed no difference while significant higher damage and direct mortality were observed for target and non-target species caught by the normal otter trawl compared to those caught by the modified one. Consequently, although limited, the severity of the damage appears to be linked with the type of trawl-legs used. The modified otter trawl permits to decrease damage and mortality to captured and non-captured organism and thus to reduce impacts to exploited marine ecosystems. These results are of interest and appear attractive in the framework of marine ecosystems preservation and conservation, as well as of fisheries management.

Guyonnet, B.; Grall, J.; Vincent, B.



Chemical genoprotection: reducing biological damage to as low as reasonably achievable levels  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances present in the human diet with an antimutagenic protective capacity against genotoxic damage induced by exposure to X-rays in an attempt to reduce biological damage to as low a level as reasonably possible. Methods Ten compounds were assessed using the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome test. The compounds studied were added to human blood at 25 ?M 5 min before exposure to irradiation by 2 Gy of X-rays. Results The protective capacity of the antioxidant substances assessed was from highest to lowest according to the frequency of the MN generated by X-ray exposure: rosmarinic acid = carnosic acid = ?-tocopherol = l-acid ascorbic = apigenin = amifostine (P < 0.001) > green tea extract = diosmine = rutin = dimetylsulfoxide (P < 0.05) > irradiated control. The reduction in genotoxic damage with the radiation doses administered reached 58%, which represents a significant reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage (P < 0.001). This degree of protection is greater than that obtained with amifostine, a radioprotective compound used in radiotherapy and which is characterised by its high toxicity. Conclusion Several antioxidant substances, common components of the human diet and lacking toxicity, offer protection from the biological harm induced by ionizing radiation. Administering these protective substances to patients before radiological exploration should be considered, even in the case of small radiation doses and regardless of the biological damage expected. PMID:21697157

Alcaraz, M; Armero, D; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Fernandez, H; Alcaraz-Saura, M; Canteras, M



Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.  


Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck



Effect of vegetation management for reducing damage to lodgepole pine seedlings from northern pocket gophers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vegetation management on northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) activity and damage to lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) seedlings were studied using 2,4-D herbicide to alter the habitat. Treatments were applied to a large (8.1 ha) treatment unit and observed effects were compared with an untreated control unit of the same size. The greatly reduced forb and grass cover

Richard M. Engeman; Victor G. Barnes Jr; Richard M. Anthony; Heather W. Krupa



Current ideas to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary glands.  


Radiation-induced hyposalivation is still a major problem after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Current and promising new thoughts to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary gland tissue are explored. The main cause underlying radiation-induced hyposalivation is a lack of functional saliva-producing acinar cells resulting from radiation-induced stem cell sterilization. Current methods to prevent that damage are radiation techniques to reduce radiation-injury to salivary gland tissue, surgical techniques to relocate salivary glands to a region receiving a lower cumulative radiation dose, and techniques to make salivary gland cells more resistant to radiation injury. These preventive techniques cannot be applied in all cases, also reduce tumor sensitivity, or do not result in a sufficient amelioration of the dryness-related complaints. Therefore, alternative methods on techniques to salvage salivary glands that are damaged by radiation are explored with promising results, such as stem cell therapies and gene transfer techniques to allow the radiation-injured salivary gland tissue to secrete water. PMID:24581290

Vissink, A; van Luijk, P; Langendijk, Ja; Coppes, Rp



Toxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine triphosphate and to reduce growth under stress.  


Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems perhaps enable cells to reduce their metabolism to weather environmental challenges although there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. Escherichia coli?GhoT/GhoS is a TA system in which toxin GhoT expression is reduced by cleavage of its messenger RNA (mRNA) by antitoxin GhoS, and TA system MqsR/MqsA controls GhoT/GhoS through differential mRNA decay. However, the physiological role of GhoT has not been determined. We show here through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and fluorescent stains that GhoT reduces metabolism by damaging the membrane and that toxin MqsR (a 5'-GCU-specific endoribonuclease) causes membrane damage in a GhoT-dependent manner. This membrane damage results in reduced cellular levels of ATP and the disruption of proton motive force (PMF). Normally, GhoT is localized to the pole and does not cause cell lysis under physiological conditions. Introduction of an F38R substitution results in loss of GhoT toxicity, ghost cell production and membrane damage while retaining the pole localization. Also, deletion of ghoST or ghoT results in significantly greater initial growth in the presence of antimicrobials. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GhoT reduces metabolism by reducing ATP and PMF and that this reduction in metabolism is important for growth with various antimicrobials. PMID:24373067

Cheng, Hsin-Yao; Soo, Valerie W C; Islam, Sabina; McAnulty, Michael J; Benedik, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K



Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions  

SciTech Connect

The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10{sup 6} SM{sup 3}) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment.

Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.



Levodopa therapy reduces DNA damage in peripheral blood cells of patients with Parkinson's disease.  


Oxidative stress seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the dopaminergic neurons are subjected to oxidative stress resulting from reduced levels of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione and high amount of intracellular iron. Levodopa (LD) is widely used for the symptomatic treatment of PD, but its role in oxidative damage control is still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of PD patients, during a washout and a controlled LD dosage and to evaluate the oxidative damage fluctuation after LD intake. The standard and the Fpg-modified version of Comet assay were applied in analyzing DNA damage in PBL from blood samples of nine PD patients and nine matched controls. Due to the limited number of patients we cannot reach definite conclusions even if our data confirm the accumulation of DNA lesions in PD patients; these lesions decrease after LD intake. PMID:18523852

Cornetta, T; Palma, S; Aprile, I; Padua, L; Tonali, P; Testa, A; Cozzi, R



Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.




Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

Not Available



Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.  


The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect. PMID:19477216

Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou



Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod  

PubMed Central

Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

Barreto, Felipe S.; Burton, Ronald S.



The effect of lidocaine on reducing the tracheal mucosal damage following tracheal intubation  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of lidocaine solution in the cuff of the endotracheal tube in reducing mucosal damage following tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial study undertaken in the intensive care unit patients. Participants, who met all eligibility criteria, were randomly assigned to one of two groups of patients, according to whether lidocaine or air was used to fill the tracheal tube cuff. The tracheal mucosa at the site of cuff inflation was inspected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and scored at the 24 h and 48 h after intubation. Results: In all, 51 patients (26 patients in the lidocaine group and 25 patients in the control group) completed the study. After 24 h, erythema and/or edema of tracheal mucosa were seen in 2 patients (7.7%) of lidocaine group and 6 patients (24%) of air group (P = 0.109). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that lidocaine has a significant protective effect against mucosal damage (odds ratio = 0.72, confidence interval = 0.60-0.87). Conclusion: The inflation of the tracheal tube cuff with lidocaine was superior to air in decreasing the incidence of mucosal damage in the 24 h and 48 h post intubation. PMID:24381613

Abbasi, Saeed; Mahjobipoor, Hosein; Kashefi, Parviz; Massumi, Gholamreza; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Sajedi, Parvin



Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation promotes erythrocyte antioxidant defense and reduces protein nitrosative damage in male athletes.  


The aim of this study was to determine the influence of long-term docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on the erythrocyte fatty acid profile and oxidative balance in soccer players after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male athletes (age 20.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to a placebo group that consumed an almond-based beverage (n = 6), or to an experimental group that consumed the same beverage enriched with DHA (n = 9) for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken in resting conditions at the beginning and after 8 weeks of nutritional intervention and training in resting and in post-exercise conditions. Oxidative damage markers (malonyldialdehyde, carbonyl and nitrotyrosine indexes) and the activity and protein level of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase) were assessed. The results showed that training increased antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes. The experimental beverage increased DHA from 34.0 ± 3.6 to 43.0 ± 3.6 nmol/10(9) erythrocytes. DHA supplementation increased the catalytic activity of superoxide dismutase from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 10.5 ± 0.35 pkat/10(9) erythrocytes, and brought about a reduction in peroxidative damage induced by training or exercise. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DHA changed the erythrocyte membrane composition, provided antioxidant defense and reduced protein peroxidative damage in the red blood cells of professional athletes after an 8-week training season and acute exercise. PMID:25503390

Martorell, M; Capó, X; Bibiloni, Mdel M; Sureda, A; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Batle, J M; Llompart, I; Tur, J A; Pons, A



Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.  


Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J




EPA Science Inventory

A coherent methodology for economic valuation of the environmental damage from surface mining is presented in this report. The empirical case study was conducted in the watershed of the North Fork of the Kentucky River, a mountainous region which includes parts of six counties, f...


Transnational Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage: Examining Changing Spatialities of Environmental Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The civil liability regime for ship-source oil pollution stands at the forefront of rule development for transnational environmental compensation, advancing private law remedies to enable national victims of oil spill damage to make financial claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in certain circumstances, the global oil cargo industry. This rule formulation and implementation attests to the significance of

Michael Mason


Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract protects osteoblastic cells from highly reducing sugar-induced oxidative damage.  


In this study, Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract (CZE) was investigated to determine its effects on 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib)-induced oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction in the MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cell line. Osteoblastic cells were treated with the highly reducing sugar, dRib, in the presence or absence of CZE. Cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were subsequently examined. It was observed that dRib reduced cell survival, while it markedly increased the intracellular levels of ROS and apoptosis. However, pre-treatment of the cells with CZE attenuated all the dRib-induced effects. The antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), also prevented dRib-induced oxidative cell damage. In addition, treatment with CZE resulted in a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen content, as well as in the expression of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation [ALP, collagen, osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OC) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2, BMP4 and BMP7]. In mechanistic studies of the antioxidative potential of CZE, we found that CZE reversed the dRib-induced decrease in the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT)1 and AKT2 genes, which are master regulators of survival-related signaling pathways. CZE also upregulated the gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD)2, SOD3 and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), which was inhibited by dRib. Taken together, these results suggest that CZE attenuates dRib-induced cell damage in osteoblastic cells and may be useful for the treatment of diabetes-associated bone disease. PMID:23652775

Suh, Kwang Sik; Rhee, Sang Youl; Jung, Woon Won; Kim, Nam Jae; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Kyoung; Choi, Young Kil; Kim, Young Seol



Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia.  


Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. PMID:25371725

Ding, Mei; Si, Daoyuan; Zhang, Wenqi; Feng, Zhaohui; He, Min; Yang, Ping



A Modified Catheterization Procedure to Reduce Bladder Damage when Collecting Urine Samples from Holstein Cows  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection. PMID:24561376

TAMURA, Tetsuo; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; SATO, Say; SEKI, Makoto; NISHIKI, Hideto



Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

Bascietto, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US). RCRA/CERCLA Div.; Dunford, R.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (US); Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)



Zileuton reduces inflammatory reaction and brain damage following permanent cerebral ischemia in rats.  


5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton has been demonstrated to attenuate ischemic brain damage in rats of permanent focal cerebral ischemia in previous work. To further investigate the mechanism underlying zileuton's neuroprotection, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), then received treatment with zileuton or vehicle after the onset of ischemia. Neurological deficit, cerebral infarction, and morphological characteristic were measured 6 and 24 h after MCAO. The enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was assessed 6 and 24 h after MCAO and the lipid peroxidation levels were evaluated by malondialdehyde assay. Expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 in rat brain was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in rat brain was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Nitric oxide production in rat brain was also measured 24 h after MCAO. The concentration of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in serum were detected by ELISA. Zileuton significantly reduced neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct volume, MPO activity, and the lipid peroxidation levels. It also inhibited the expression of NF-kappaB and decreased the expression and activity of iNOS in rat brain. In addition, zileuton attenuated the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in serum. Our results suggest that zileuton reduces inflammatory reaction and brain damage in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective effect of zileuton in cerebral ischemia might be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory reaction. PMID:20204486

Tu, Xian-kun; Yang, Wei-zhong; Wang, Chun-hua; Shi, Song-sheng; Zhang, Yong-liang; Chen, Chun-mei; Yang, Yi-kun; Jin, Chang-dan; Wen, Shuai



Antioxidant treatment reduces blast-induced cochlear damage and hearing loss.  


Exposure to blast overpressure has become one of the hazards of both military and civilian life in many parts of the world due to war and terrorist activity. Auditory damage is one of the primary sequela of blast trauma, affecting immediate situational awareness and causing permanent hearing loss. Protecting against blast exposure is limited by the inability to anticipate the timing of these exposures, particularly those caused by terrorists. Therefore a therapeutic regimen is desirable that is able to ameliorate auditory damage when administered after a blast exposure has occurred. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of a combination of antioxidants 2,4-disulfonyl ?-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) beginning 1 h after blast exposure could reduce both temporary and permanent hearing loss. To this end, a blast simulator was developed and the operational conditions established for exposing rats to blast overpressures comparable to those encountered in an open-field blast of 14 pounds per square inch (psi). This blast model produced reproducible blast overpressures that resulted in physiological and physical damage to the auditory system that was proportional to the number and amplitude of the blasts. After exposure to 3 consecutive 14 psi blasts 100% of anesthetized rats had permanent hearing loss as determined at 21 days post exposure by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. Animals treated with HPN-07 and NAC after blast exposure showed a significant reduction in ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE level shifts at 2-16 kHz with significant reduction in inner hair cell (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) loss across the 5-36 kHz region of the cochlea compared with control animals. The time course of changes in the auditory system was documented at 3 h, 24 h, 7 day and 21 day after blast exposure. At 3 h after blast exposure the auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were elevated by 60 dB in both treated and control groups. A partial recovery of to 35 dB was observed at 24 h in the controls, indicative of a temporary threshold shift (TTS) and there was essentially no further recovery by 21 days representing a permanent threshold shift (PTS) of about 30 dB. Antioxidant treatment increased the amount of both TTS and PTS recovery relative to controls by 10 and 20 dB respectively. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) reached a maximum level shift of 25-30 dB measured in both control and treated groups at 3 h after blast exposure. These levels did not change by day 21 in the control group but in the treatment group the level shifts began to decline at 24 h until by day 21 they were 10-20 dB below that of the controls. Loss of cochlear hair cells measured at 21 day after blast exposure was mostly in the outer hair cells (OHC) and broadly distributed across the basilar membrane, consistent with the distribution of loss of frequency responses as measured by ABR and DPOAE analysis and typical of blast-induced damage. OHC loss progressively increased after blast exposure reaching an average loss of 32% in the control group and 10% in the treated group at 21 days. These findings provide the first evidence that a combination of antioxidants, HPN-07 and NAC, can both enhance TTS recovery and prevent PTS by reducing damage to the mechanical and neural components of the auditory system when administered shortly after blast exposure. PMID:22326291

Ewert, Donald L; Lu, Jianzhong; Li, Wei; Du, Xiaoping; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard



Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-print Network

on the biophysical environment in the following ways: · Reducing the amount of fossil fuels that are consumed. · Reducing the amount of pollution that is generated from fossil fuel consumption. · Reducing the amount of waste that is created when extracting and consuming fossil fuels. · Reducing Dartmouth College's demand


Inhibition of Ras signalling reduces neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in severe acute pancreatitis.  


Neutrophil recruitment is known to be a rate-limiting step in mediating tissue injury in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the signalling mechanisms controlling inflammation and organ damage in AP remain elusive. Herein, we examined the role of Ras signalling in AP. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a Ras inhibitor (farnesylthiosalicylic acid, FTS) before infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic and lung tissues as well as blood were collected 24h after pancreatitis induction. Pretreatment with FTS decreased serum amylase levels by 82% and significantly attenuated acinar cell necrosis, tissue haemorrhage and oedema formation in taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the inflamed pancreas by 42%. In addition, administration of FTS decreased pancreatic levels of CXC chemokines as well as circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-mobility group box 1 in animals exposed to taurocholate. Moreover, treatment with FTS reduced taurocholate-induced MPO levels in the lung. Inhibition of Ras signalling had no effect on neutrophil expression of Mac-1 in mice with pancreatitis. Moreover, FTS had no direct impact on trypsin activation in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. These results indicate that Ras signalling controls CXC chemokine formation, neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in severe AP. Thus, our findings highlight a new signalling mechanism regulating neutrophil recruitment in the pancreas and suggest that inhibition of Ras signalling might be a useful strategy to attenuate local and systemic inflammation in severe AP. PMID:25460024

Yu, Changhui; Merza, Mohammed; Luo, Lingtao; Thorlacius, Henrik



Reduced-order modeling for mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient method for nonlinear vibration analysis of mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages is presented. The main objective is to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. Firstly, in order to reduce the input information needed for component mode synthesis (CMS), the whole model of an impeller is obtained by rotation transformation based on the finite element model of a sector model. Then, a hybrid-interface method of CMS is employed to generate a reduced-order model (ROM) for the cracked impeller. The degrees of freedom on the crack surfaces are retained in the ROM to simulate the crack breathing effects. A novel approach for computing the inversion of large sparse matrix is proposed to save memory space during model order reduction by partitioning the matrix into many smaller blocks. Moreover, to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the resonant frequencies, the bilinear frequency approximation is used to estimate the resonant frequencies of the mistuned impeller with a crack. Additionally, statistical analysis is performed using the Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of the resonant frequencies versus crack length at different mistuning levels. The results show that the most significant effect of mistuning and cracks on the vibration response is the shift and split of the two resonant frequencies with the same nodal diameters. Finally, potential quantitative indicators for detection of crack of centrifugal impellers are discussed.

Wang, Shuai; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia



Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink  

PubMed Central

Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.



Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.  


Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

Meagher, Rebecca K; Mason, Georgia J



Edaravone reduces mitochondrial damage due to reperfusion injury following leg ischemia in rats  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Free radicals have been implicated in reperfusion injury. It was shown that the free radical scavenger edaravone might suppress reperfusion injury in rat extremities. The present study aimed to elucidate how edaravone suppresses reperfusion injury, focusing on its effect on the mitochondrial structure and glycogen storage in the lower extremity muscles. METHODS: Sixteen male Lewis rats (mean [± SD] weight 497±32 g) were divided into two groups and injected with either 3.0 mg/kg of edaravone (edaravone group, n=8 rats) or the same dose of saline (control group, n=8 rats) into the peritoneal cavity. The rat reperfusion injury models were created by clamping the bilateral common femoral arteries for 5 h, then declamping. The muscles were harvested more than 5 h after the start of reperfusion. The mitochondrial damage, defined as mitochondrial swelling, was examined using a transmission electron microscope at ×30,000 original magnification (n=3 for each rat). Glycogen storage, defined as a positive periodic acid-Schiff stain area, was examined using computerized densitometry (n=5 sections for each rat). RESULTS: The mitochondria in the control group demonstrated marked swelling (mean mitochondrial size = 0.169±0.059 ?m2). However, the mitochondria in the edaravone group had significantly less swelling (mean mitochondrial size = 0.102±0.036 ?m2; P<0.01). The mean percentage of positive periodic acid-Schiff stain was also significantly higher in the edaravone group than in the control group (51.7±6.8% versus 7.3±2.1%; P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The results suggested that edaravone reduces mitochondrial damage due to reperfusion injury, resulting in a high level of glycogen storage. PMID:22479143

Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yuji; Mitsuno, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroe; Ryomoto, Masaaki; Fukui, Shinya; Yoshioka, Yoshiteru



Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection  

PubMed Central

Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ?2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ?$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M



Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection.  


Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3 ) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3 -induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4 ), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23-102 Mt in 2030 - the equivalent of a ~2-8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5-15 billion worldwide (USD2000 ), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ~$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3 -induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 -induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M



Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes.  


Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance. PMID:25071194

Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E; Butterly, Matthew S; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E



Mitochondrial models of pathologies with oxidative stress. Efficiency of alkalization to reduce mitochondrial damage.  


Previously, we developed a method to monitor the development of oxidative stress in isolated liver mitochondria. The method is based on recording of membrane potential changes in response to sequential introduction of low concentrations (5-20 ?M) of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). It allows monitoring of the extent of amplification or attenuation of oxidative stress caused by external influences (changes in incubation conditions, additions of biologically active substances). Based on this method, we created a mitochondrial model for the study and improvement of treatment of pathologies associated with oxidative stress. The following two processes were simulated in the experiments: 1) introduction of desferal for treatment of serious diseases caused by cell overload with iron (high desferal concentrations were shown to suppress mitochondrial energetics); 2) efficiency of alkalization to reduce mitochondrial damage induced by oxidative stress. The experiments have shown that even a small increase in pH (alkalization) increases the amount of tBHP that can be added to mitochondria before the MPTP ("mitochondrial permeability transition pore") is induced. The effect of alkalization was shown to be close to the effect of cyclosporin A in the pH range 7.2-7.8. The mechanism of the similarities of these effects in the organism and in mitochondrial suspensions is explained by the increase in toxic reactive oxygen species in both systems under oxidative stress. PMID:24460944

Fedotcheva, N I; Mokhova, E N



36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...



36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...



36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...



36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...



36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...



Assessment of propfan propulsion systems for reduced environmental impact  

E-print Network

Current aircraft engine designs tend towards higher bypass ratio, low-speed fan designs for improved fuel burn, reduced emissions and noise. Alternative propulsion concepts include counter-rotating propfans (CRPs) which ...

Peters, Andreas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology



Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success  

PubMed Central

Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop–escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival. PMID:20236968

Combes, S. A.; Crall, J. D.; Mukherjee, S.



Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

Mayer, R.M., E-mail: [Sciotech Projects, Sciotech Office, Engineering Building, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Poulikakos, L.D., E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lees, A.R., E-mail: [Department for Transport, Statistics Roads Division, Gt. Minster House, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR (United Kingdom); Heutschi, K., E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kalivoda, M.T., E-mail: [psiA-Consult GmbH, Lastenstrasse 38/1, A-1230 Vienna (Austria); Soltic, P., E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)



Reducing risks to human and environmental health: A case study at Point Lisas Industrial Estate, Trinidad  

SciTech Connect

Waste audits were completed at four industrial plants on the Point Lisas Industrial Estate in Couva, Trinidad to examine the potential for setting up an industrial ecosystem on the estate. There was no legislation in effect to require treatment of any waste materials and, as a consequence, most materials were disposed of into the environment. The objective of this research was to determine possible sources of contamination, the potential effects on human and environmental health and to assess means of reducing the contamination. The four plants produced 50,270,000 tonnes/year of liquid waste, 986,000,000 tonnes/year of gas waste, 5,400,000 tonnes/year of solid waste and 22,000 tonnes/year of sludge waste. Atmospheric emissions were particularly severe at the ammonia/fertilizer and steel producing plants, sufficient to pose a threat to employee health. Liquid wastes, including solvents, were disposed of into the ocean and previous studies had revealed damage to aquatic life. Solid and sludge wastes were either buried on site or sent to landfill. A number of hazardous materials were in use at the plants. Recommendations were made for reducing waste production, reducing the hazardous nature of materials and for treating or co-treating wastes for reuse or recycling on site or for disposal. Unfortunately there appears to be little interest in setting standards for emissions, effluents or waste disposal in Trinidad and further economic data are required to persuade companies that they should consider spending funds on waste management or on establishing an industrial ecosystem.

Boyle, C. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Baetz, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering



Selection of facility location under environmental damage priority and using ELECTRE method.  


In the recent years, the environmental problems have reached to a vital extent, which is pushing the boundaries and far beyond daily evaluations. Industrial plants, the energy sources and uncontrolled release of pollutant gases (SO2, CO2 etc.) in the production stage have the greatest share in the occurrence of unfavorable environmental conditions. For this reason, the dimension of the problems that may arise in the production stage of industrial plants is directly related to the selection of facility location. In this study, geographical regions (a total of 7 regions) of our country have been analyzed in terms of environmental values based on their basins and the unfavorable environmental problems that are currently being experienced. Considered as such, with the directives of an expert group composed of nature scientists, the criteria and alternative areas are determined using the data gathered on ecosystem, basin characteristics, and land types. Since the primary goal is to keep the environmental damages at the minimum level, comprehensive definition of the problem is constructed by consultation of the expert group and the criteria are determined. Considering the fact that it will prevent the drawbacks generated by making decisions depending on certain stereotypes toa great extent, ELECTRE (Elimination and Choice Translating Reality English - Elimination Et Choix Traduisant la Realite) method is used to determine in which geographic region our country's industrial plants should be located. PMID:21882659

Gundogdu, Ceren Erdin



Oral sodium bicarbonate reduces proximal renal tubular peptide catabolism, ammoniogenesis, and tubular damage in renal patients.  


Oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is widely used to treat acidosis in patients with renal failure. However, no data are available in man on the effects on proximal renal tubular protein catabolism or markers of tubular injury. We have developed methods to allow such studies, and both increased tubular catabolism of 99mTc-labelled aprotinin (Apr*), as well as tubular damage were found in association with increased ammonia (NH3) excretion in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria. We now examine the effects of reducing renal ammoniogenesis, without altering proteinuria, using oral NaHCO3 in 11 patients with mild/moderate renal impairment and proteinuria. Renal tubular catabolism of Apr* was measured before and after NaHCO3 by renal imaging (Kidney uptake, K% of dose) and urinary excretion of free 99mTcO4- (metabolism, Met% of dose/h) over 26 h. Fractional degradation (Frac) was calculated from Met/K (/h). Fresh urine was also analyzed for NH3 excretion every fortnight from 6/52 before treatment. Total urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucose-aminidase (NAG) and the more tubulo-specific NAG "A2" were measured. 51CrEDTA clearance and 99mTc-MAG 3 TER were also assessed. After NaHCO3 Met over 26 h was significantly reduced (from 1.3 +/- 0.2% of dose/h to 0.9 +/- 0.1% dose/hr, p < 0.005), as was Frac of Apr* (from 0.06 +/- .006/h to 0.04 +/- 0.005/hr, p < 0.003). NH3 excretion also fell significantly (from 0.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/h to 0.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/h, p < 0.007), as did both total urinary NAG (from 169 mumol/24 h, 74-642 mumol/24 h to 79 mumol/ 24 h, 37-393 mumol/24 h, p < 0.01), and the NAG 'A2' isoenzyme (from 81.5 mumol/24 h, 20-472 mumol/24 h to 35.0 mumol/24 h, 6-388 mumol/24 h, p < 0.001). Proteinuria remained unaltered, and there was no change in blood pressure nor in glomerular haemodynamics. Oral NaHCO3 may thus pro-tect the proximal renal tubule and help delay renal disease progression. PMID:9574465

Rustom, R; Grime, J S; Costigan, M; Maltby, P; Hughes, A; Taylor, W; Shenkin, A; Critchley, M; Bone, J M



Reducing Mechanical Formation Damage by Minimizing Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure in Tight Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tight gas reservoirs incur problems and significant damage caused by low permeability during drilling, completion, stimulation and production. They require advanced improvement techniques to achieve flow gas at optimum rates. Water blocking damage (phase Trapping/retention of fluids) is a form of mechanical formation damage mechanism, which is caused by filtrate invasion in drilling operations mostly in fracturing. Water blocking has a noticeable impact on formation damage in gas reservoirs which tends to decrease relative permeability near the wellbore. Proper evaluation of damage and the factors which influence its severity is essential to optimize well productivity. Reliable data regarding interfacial tension between gas and water is required in order to minimize mechanical formation damage potential and to optimize gas production. This study was based on the laboratory experiments of interfacial tension by rising drop method between gas-brine, gas-condensate and gas-brine. The results showed gas condensate has low interfacial tension value 6 - 11 dynes/cm when compared to gas-brine and gas- diesel which were 44 - 58 dynes/cm and 14 - 19 dynes/cm respectively. In this way, the capillary pressure of brine-gas system was estimated as 0.488 psi, therefore diesel-gas system was noticed about 0.164 psi and 0.098 psi for condensate-gas system. A forecast model was used by using IFT values to predict the phase trapping which shows less severe phase trapping damage in case of condensate than diesel and brine. A reservoir simulation study was also carried out in order to better understand the effect of hysteresis on well productivity and flow efficiency affected due to water blocking damage in tight gas reservoirs.

Ahmed, Arshad; Talib Shuker, Muhannad; Rehman, Khalil; Bahrami, Hassan; Memon, Muhammad Khan



Reducing seed damage by soybean bugs by growing small-seeded soybeans and delaying sowing time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of seed size and planting time on seed damage by soybean bugs in the field over 2 years. Kyushu-143, a small-seeded soybean with many pods, suffered less damage at harvest by soybean bugs than the large-seeded cultivars Fukuyutaka and Sachiyutaka. We attributed the field tolerance of Kyushu-143 to large numbers of “spare” seeds that could compensate

Takashi Wada; Nobuyuki Endo; Masakazu Takahashi



Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.  


Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight. PMID:25152862

Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli



DNA damage and repair in haemolymph cells of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) exposed to environmental contaminants.  


The development of methodologies for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems is of particular relevance in view of the serious problem of aquatic environmental pollution. The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) was chosen to be tested as a biomonitor organism based on its population data and distribution. L. fortunei individuals were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, and in vivo to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), with the aim of standardizing comet assay and micronucleus test methodologies and evaluating the potential of this organism as a biomonitor. Haemolymph cells immobilized in agarose on slides exposed to UV radiation showed a dose-response relationship with maximum damage at 4.2J/m(2). For the chemical tests, individuals were exposed for 2h for the comet assay and 24 and 48h for the micronucleus test. A dose-response relationship was observed for both chemicals. 3x10(-5)M CuSO(4) induced high genotoxicity, also producing some toxicity after 48h of exposure. PCP induced maximum damage in both assays at 150mug/L. Individuals exposed to PCP showed 100% repair 2h after the exposure period, as assessed by the comet assay. Exposure to an environmental sample over 7 days confirmed the mussel sensitivity to water contaminants, detected both by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The results allow us to suggest the golden mussel as a potential biomonitor organism. PMID:16697250

Villela, Izabel Vianna; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, Joăo Antonio Pęgas



Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystalliz­ation or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100?K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions. PMID:21931220

Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.



Chronic Predation Risk Reduces Escape Speed by Increasing Oxidative Damage: A Deadly Cost of an Adaptive Antipredator Response  

PubMed Central

Prey organisms evolved a multitude of plastic responses to avoid being eaten by predators. Besides the evolution of plastic morphological responses to escape predation, prey also evolved a set of physiological stress responses to avoid dying because of chronic predator stress per se due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. As physiological stress theory predicts increased energy consumption and the inhibition of essential nonemergency body functions, we tested whether chronic predation risk may increase oxidative damage thereby generating negative effects on escape performance. Specifically, we evaluated whether predation risk reduces escape swimming speed in damselfly larvae and whether this operates through stress-associated increases in oxidative damage. Counterintuitively and in contrast with many empirical studies, chronic predation risk decreased escape performance. This is however entirely consistent with the expectation of it being a long-term cost of responding to predation risk (e.g. by increasing respiration or upregulating the stress protein levels). The decreased swimming speed could be explained by an increased oxidative damage to proteins, thereby providing one of the poorly studied ecological links between oxidative damage and whole-animal performance. This likely widespread, understudied cost of chronic predation risk may provide an important pathway of non-consumptive predator effects on prey population dynamics. Moreover, it could play an evolutionary role by acting as a selective force causing prey organisms to adjust the magnitude of the physiological stress response and should be considered when evaluating life history trade-offs thought to be mediated by oxidative damage. PMID:24968142

Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby



Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

Bae, Hyunhoe



Environmental Enrichment During Early Stages of Life Reduces the Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Molecular Effects of Cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that negative environmental conditions increase vulnerability to drugs, whereas little is known on whether positive environmental conditions such as enriched environments (EE) have protective effects against addiction. We have previously found that EE consisting of bigger cages containing several toys that were changed once per week reduce cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. Here, we also show that

Marcello Solinas; Nathalie Thiriet; Rana El Rawas; Virginie Lardeux; Mohamed Jaber



A padding method to reduce edge effects for enhanced damage identification using wavelet analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration response based structural damage identification by spatial wavelet analysis is widely considered a powerful tool in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). This work deals with the issue of border distortions in wavelet transform that can mask tiny damages close to the boundary of a structure. Since traditional padding methods (e.g., zero-padding, symmetric padding, linear padding) are often not satisfactory, a simple and computationally inexpensive signal extension method, based on fitting polynomial functions and continuity conditions at the extrema, is proposed. The method is applied to analyze noisy mode shapes and static deflection of cracked cantilever and simply supported beams. The effectiveness and the versatility of the method in localizing tiny damages close to clamped, free or hinged beam boundaries is demonstrated. Furthermore, an extensive comparison with the linear padding method and Messina's isomorphism methods is carried out.

Montanari, Lorenzo; Basu, Biswajit; Spagnoli, Andrea; Broderick, Brian M.



High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad



Spastic paresis after perinatal brain damage in rats is reduced by human cord blood mononuclear cells.  


Brain damage around birth may cause lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. We examined the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells containing multipotent stem cells to facilitate motor recovery after cerebral hypoxic-ischemic damage in neonatal rats. Left carotid artery ligation followed by 8% O(2) inhalation for 80 min was performed on postnatal d 7, succeeded by intraperitoneal transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells on postnatal d 8 in a sham-controlled design. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis on postnatal d 21 revealed that neonates developed severe cerebral damage after the hypoxic-ischemic insult. These animals also suffered from contralateral spastic paresis, as evidenced by their locomotor behavior. After transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells, spastic paresis was largely alleviated, resulting in a normal walking behavior. This "therapeutic" effect was accompanied by the fact that mononuclear cells had entered the brain and were incorporated around the lesion without obvious signs of transdifferentiation. This study demonstrates that intraperitoneal transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells in a rat model of perinatal brain damage leads to both incorporation of these cells in the lesioned brain area and to an alleviation of the neurologic effects of cerebral palsy as assessed by footprint and walking pattern analysis. PMID:16439586

Meier, Carola; Middelanis, Johannes; Wasielewski, Bianca; Neuhoff, Sandra; Roth-Haerer, Astrid; Gantert, Markus; Dinse, Hubert R; Dermietzel, Rolf; Jensen, Arne



Pest tradeoffs in technology: Reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of studies have now reported increased levels of non Bt-targeted secondary pests in Bt crops. We carried out a series of greenhouse and field experiments comparing aphid populations on Bt-and non Bt-cotton that were damaged by the Bt-targeted caterpillar, Heliothis virescens. We found in bo...


Ozone treatment reduces markers of oxidative and endothelial damage in an experimental diabetes model in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has been used as a therapeutical agent and beneficial effects have been observed. However so far only a few biochemical and pharmacodynamic mechanisms have been elucidated. We demonstrate that controlled ozone administration may promote an oxidative preconditioning or adaptation to oxidative stress, preventing the damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taking into account that diabetes is a disorder

Said Mohammed Al-Dalain; Gregorio Mart??nez; Eduardo Candelario-Jalil; Silvia Menéndez; Lamberto Re; Attilia Giuliani; Olga Sonia León



Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry  

PubMed Central

The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of Ł2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D. J.



Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures  


Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)



Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) treatment before knee extensor\\u000a eccentric exercise on indirect markers of muscle damage. Thirty-six healthy men were randomized in LLLT group (n = 18) and placebo group (n = 18). After LLLT or placebo treatment, subjects performed 75 maximal knee extensors eccentric contractions (five sets of\\u000a 15 repetitions;

Bruno Manfredini Baroni; Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior; Thiago De Marchi; André Luiz Lopes; Mirian Salvador; Marco Aurélio Vaz



Pre-treatment with glutamine reduces genetic damage due to cancer treatment with cisplatin.  


Cisplatin is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, it provokes considerable collateral effects, including genotoxic and clastogenic activity. It has been reported that a diet rich in glutamine can help inhibit such collateral effects. We evaluated this activity in 40 Swiss mice, distributed into eight experimental groups: G1 - Control group (PBS 0.1 mL/10 g body weight); G2 - cisplatin group (cisplatin 6 mg/kg intraperitoneally); G3, G4, G5 - glutamine groups (glutamine at 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, respectively; orally); G6, G7, G8 - Pre-treatment groups (glutamine at 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, respectively; orally and cisplatin 6 mg/kg intraperitonially). For the micronucleus assay, samples of blood were collected (before the first use of the drugs at T0, then 24 (T1) and 48 (T2) hours after the first administration). For the comet assay, blood samples were collected only at T2. The damage reduction percentages for the micronucleus assay were 90.0, 47.3, and 37.3% at T1 and 46.0, 38.6, and 34.7% at T2, for G6, G7, and G8 groups, respectively. For the comet assay, the damage reduction percentages were 113.0, 117.4, and 115.0% for G6, G7, and G8, respectively. We conclude that glutamine is able to prevent genotoxic and clastogenic damages caused by cisplatin. PMID:24338398

Oliveira, R J; Sassaki, E S; Monreal, A C D; Monreal, M T F D; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Matuo, R; Silva, A F; Zobiole, N N; Siqueira, J M; Ribeiro, L R; Mantovani, M S




EPA Science Inventory

The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. n preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. ultured mammalian fib...


Silk lutein extract and its combination with vitamin E reduce UVB-mediated oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells.  


Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein can protect retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from various oxidative insults but its direct protection against UVB has not been reported. This study aimed to demonstrate protective effects of silk lutein extract against UVB-induced oxidative damage to RPE cells and compared with standard lutein and Trolox, a vitamin E analog. ARPE-19 cells were treated with luteins with and without Trolox prior to UVB exposure. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue staining and caspase-3 activity, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase). Levels of lutein remained in culture medium was determined by HPLC. Both luteins reduced cellular ROS levels and lipid peroxidation mediated by UVB, and subsequently increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis. They also restored activities of most tested antioxidant enzymes. Enhancement of lutein antioxidant efficacy was observed in the presence of Trolox. In all these effects, the two lutein preparations had similar effectivenesses. In cell free media, Trolox enhanced the protective effect of lutein probably by reducing its degradation and repairing the oxidized derivatives. Yellow silk cocoon is a potential candidate of lutein for further development as dietary supplement for the prevention of AMD. PMID:23651647

Aimjongjun, Sathid; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip



Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.



Hypertonic saline reduces neutrophil-epithelial interactions in vitro and gut tissue damage in a mouse model of colitis  

PubMed Central

Transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) plays a crucial role in inflammatory conditions of the intestine, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Hypertonic saline (HS) exerts various inhibitory effects on PMN function. We hypothesized that HS could inhibit transepithelial migration of PMN and thereby prevent inflammatory events in experimental colitis. Isolated human PMN were treated with HS (40 mM), and their transmigration across a monolayer of T84 epithelial cells was induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Monolayer disruption was assessed by monitoring changes in transepithelial conductance in an Ussing chamber. Colitis in mice was induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Animals were treated with 4 or 8 ml/kg of 7.5% saline intraperitoneally two times daily for 7 days. Controls received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS, n = 6) or no intraperitoneal treatment (DSS, n = 12). The severity of inflammation was evaluated based on disease activity index and histology score. HS treatment of PMN in vitro significantly reduced cell migration and the disruption of T84 monolayers compared with untreated control cells (n = 5, P < 0.05). This effect of HS was dose dependent. HS treatment in vivo also reduced colitis-induced gut tissue damage, as indicated by an improved histology score compared with the NS and DSS groups. We conclude that HS inhibits transepithelial migration of PMN in vitro and gut tissue damage in vivo in a mouse model of colitis. Thus HS may have clinical value to reduce PMN-mediated intestinal damage. PMID:18832091

Tillinger, Wolfgang; McCole, Declan F.; Keely, Stephen J.; Bertelsen, Lone S.; Wolf, Paul L.; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Barrett, Kim E.



Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage: Scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species.  


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause irreversible damage to biological macromolecules, resulting in many diseases. Reduced water (RW) such as hydrogen-rich electrolyzed reduced water and natural reduced waters like Hita Tenryosui water in Japan and Nordenau water in Germany that are known to improve various diseases, could protect a hamster pancreatic beta cell line, HIT-T15 from alloxan-induced cell damage. Alloxan, a diabetogenic compound, is used to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus in animals. Its diabetogenic effect is exerted via the production of ROS. Alloxan-treated HIT-T15 cells exhibited lowered viability, increased intracellular ROS levels, elevated cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration, DNA fragmentation, decreased intracellular ATP levels and lowering of glucose-stimulated release of insulin. RW completely prevented the generation of alloxan-induced ROS, increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, decrease of intracellular ATP level, and lowering of glucose-stimulated insulin release, and strongly blocked DNA fragmentation, partially suppressing the lowering of viability of alloxan-treated cells. Intracellular ATP levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were increased by RW to 2-3.5 times and 2-4 times, respectively, suggesting that RW enhances the glucose-sensitivity and glucose response of beta-cells. The protective activity of RW was stable at 4 degrees C for over a month, but was lost by autoclaving. These results suggest that RW protects pancreatic beta-cells from alloxan-induced cell damage by preventing alloxan-derived ROS generation. RW may be useful in preventing alloxan-induced type 1-diabetes mellitus. PMID:19003114

Li, Yuping; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Teruya, Kiichiro; Maki, Tei; Komatsu, Takaaki; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kashiwagi, Taichi; Kabayama, Shigeru; Shim, Sun-Yup; Katakura, Yoshinori; Osada, Kazuhiro; Kawahara, Takeshi; Otsubo, Kazumichi; Morisawa, Shinkatsu; Ishii, Yoshitoki; Gadek, Zbigniew; Shirahata, Sanetaka



Carnitine reduces testicular damage in rats treated with etoposide in the prepubertal phase.  


Etoposide is a chemotherapeutic agent that induces cell death by blocking topoisomerase II catalytic function. Although etoposide is effective in the treatment of cancer, it also causes the death of normal proliferating cells, including male germ cells. Administration of etoposide during the prepubertal phase causes diturbances in several testicular morphometric parameters and in Sertoli cells. Cytoprotection of the seminiferous epithelium is the only means of preserving potential male reproduction in prepubertal cancer patients. Carnitine, an amino acid naturally present in normal cells, is a promising cryoprotectant as it is concentrated in the epididymis and promotes sperm maturation. We have therefore investigated whether carnitine protects rat testes against etoposide and, thus, improves fertility in adulthood. Our results suggest that carnitine partially protects the testis against damage caused by etoposide, although the mechanism by which it happens remains unknown. PMID:19444474

Okada, Fatima Kazue; Stumpp, Taiza; Miraglia, Sandra Maria



Dexamethasone and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Reduce Oxidative Stress-Related DNA Damage in Differentiating Osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

The process of osteoblast differentiation is regulated by several factors, including RUNX2. Recent reports suggest an involvement of RUNX2 in DNA damage response (DDR), which is important due to association of differentiation with oxidative stress. In the present work we explore the influence of two RUNX2 modifiers, dexamethasone (DEX) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), in DDR in differentiating MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts challenged by oxidative stress. The process of differentiation was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) reduced the rate of differentiation. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of the process of osteoblasts differentiation, increased in a time-dependent manner and TBH further increased this activity. This may indicate that additional oxidative stress, induced by TBH, may accelerate the differentiation process. The cells displayed changes in the sensitivity to TBH in the course of differentiation. DEX increased ALP activity, but 1,25-D3 had no effect on it. These results suggest that DEX might stimulate the process of preosteoblasts differentiation. Finally, we observed a protective effect of DEX and 1,25-D3 against DNA damage induced by TBH, except the day 24 of differentiation, when DEX increased the extent of TBH-induced DNA damage. We conclude that oxidative stress is associated with osteoblasts differentiation and induce DDR, which may be modulated by RUNX2-modifiers, DEX and 1,25-D3. PMID:25244015

Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Wysoki?ski, Daniel; Tokarz, Paulina; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska, Joanna; Blasiak, Janusz



Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : I. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus).  


The effectiveness of predator odors (fecal, urine, and anal scent gland) in suppressing feeding damage by snowshoe hares was investigated in pen bioassays at the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. A total of 28 bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on hare consumption of willow browse and coniferous seedlings. Lynx and bobcat feces, weasel anal gland secretion, and lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, fox, and wolverine urines resulted in the most effective suppression of hare feeding damage. Novel odors of domestic dog urine and 2-methylbutyric acid did not reduce feeding. A field bioassay with lodgepole pine seedlings and weasel scent provided significant results comparable to the pen bioassays. The short-term (up to seven days) effectiveness of these treatments was more likely due to evaporative loss of the active repellent components of a given odor than habituation of hares to the stimulus. Predator odors as repellents have a biological basis compared with the anthropomorphic origins of commercial repellents. When encapsulated in weather-proof controlled-release devices, these odors could provide long-term protection for forestry plantations and agricultural crops which experience hare/rabbit feeding damage. PMID:24310275

Sullivan, T P; Nordstrom, L O; Sullivan, D S



Conversion of NO2 to NO by reduced coenzyme F420 protects mycobacteria from nitrosative damage  

PubMed Central

In mycobacteria, F420, a deazaflavin derivative, acts as a hydride transfer coenzyme for an F420-specific glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Fgd). Physiologically relevant reactions in the mycobacteria that use Fgd-generated reduced F420 (F420H2) are unknown. In this work, F420H2 was found to be oxidized by NO only in the presence of oxygen. Further analysis demonstrated that NO2, produced from NO and O2, was the oxidant. UV-visible spectroscopic and NO-sensor-based analyses proved that F420H2 reduced NO2 to NO. This reaction could serve as a defense system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is more sensitive to NO2 than NO under aerobic conditions. Activated macrophages produce NO, which in acidified phagosomes is converted to NO2. Hence, by converting NO2 back to NO with F420H2, M. tuberculosis could decrease the effectiveness of antibacterial action of macrophages; such defense would correspond to active tuberculosis conditions where the bacterium grows aerobically. This hypothesis was consistent with the observation that a mutant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a nonpathogenic relative of M. tuberculosis, which either did not produce or could not reduce F420, was ?4-fold more sensitive to NO2 than the wild-type strain. The phenomenon is reminiscent of the anticancer activity of ?-tocopherol, which reduces NO2 to NO and protects human cells from NO2-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:19325122

Purwantini, Endang; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup



Partially flexible MEMS neural probe composed of polyimide and sucrose gel for reducing brain damage during and after implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a flexible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) neural probe that minimizes neuron damage and immune response, suitable for chronic recording applications. MEMS neural probes with various features such as high electrode densities have been actively investigated for neuron stimulation and recording to study brain functions. However, successful recording of neural signals in chronic application using rigid silicon probes still remains challenging because of cell death and macrophages accumulated around the electrodes over time from continuous brain movement. Thus, in this paper, we propose a new flexible MEMS neural probe that consists of two segments: a polyimide-based, flexible segment for connection and a rigid segment composed of thin silicon for insertion. While the flexible connection segment is designed to reduce the long-term chronic neuron damage, the thin insertion segment is designed to minimize the brain damage during the insertion process. The proposed flexible neural probe was successfully fabricated using the MEMS process on a silicon on insulator wafer. For a successful insertion, a biodegradable sucrose gel is coated on the flexible segment to temporarily increase the probe stiffness to prevent buckling. After the insertion, the sucrose gel dissolves inside the brain exposing the polyimide probe. By performing an insertion test, we confirm that the flexible probe has enough stiffness. In addition, by monitoring immune responses and brain histology, we successfully demonstrate that the proposed flexible neural probe incurs fivefold less neural damage than that incurred by a conventional silicon neural probe. Therefore, the presented flexible neural probe is a promising candidate for recording stable neural signals for long-time chronic applications.

Jeon, Myounggun; Cho, Jeiwon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Jung, Dahee; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Shin, Sehyun; Cho, Il-Joo



Neural stem cell grafts reduce the extent of neuronal damage in a mouse model of global ischaemia.  


The therapeutic potential of neural stem cell transplantation has been well demonstrated in many models of focal brain damage. However, few studies have sought to determine whether neural stem cells are therapeutic in models of diffuse brain injury, such as observed in Alzheimer's disease and global ischaemia. The present study investigated the effects of transplanted MHP36 neural stem cells on the extent of ischaemic damage in a mouse model of global ischaemia and the effects of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA). C57Bl/6J mice received an intrastriatal graft of MHP36 neural stem cells 3 days after selective neuronal damage had been induced by global ischaemia. The experimental group was subdivided into CsA or saline controls. We discovered that grafts of MHP36 neural stem cells were able to differentiate into neurons and reduce the extent of ischaemic neuronal damage. This reduction was particularly apparent at 4 week post-transplantation and is independent of CsA immunosuppression. MHP36 cells survived robustly in host ischaemic brain and migrated away from the injection tract towards the caudate nucleus and corpus callosum. Although MHP36 grafts were associated with an acute inflammatory response from reactive astrocytes and microglia at 1 week post-transplantation, this decreased markedly by 4 weeks post-transplantation even in the absence of CsA immunosuppression. This is the first study showing a therapeutic benefit of neural stem cells in a highly diffuse brain injury, further highlighting the possibilities of stem cell transplantation for all types of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:16289485

Wong, Andrew M; Hodges, Helen; Horsburgh, Karen



Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.  


A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1-14. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:25376148

Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline



Study of genetic damage in the Japanese oyster induced by an environmentally-relevant exposure to diuron: evidence of vertical transmission of DNA damage.  


Pesticides represent a major proportion of the chemical pollutants detected in French coastal waters and hence a significant environmental risk with regards to marine organisms. Commercially-raised bivalves are particularly exposed to pollutants, among them pesticides, as shellfish farming zones are subject to considerable pressure from agricultural activities on the mainland. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the genotoxic effects of diuron exposure on oyster genitors and (2) the possible transmission of damaged DNA to offspring and its repercussions on oyster fitness. To investigate these points, oysters were exposed to concentrations of diuron close to those detected in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (two 7-day exposure pulses at 0.4 and 0.6 ?g L(-1)) during the gametogenesis period. Genomic abnormalities were characterized using two complementary approaches. The Comet assay was applied for the measurement of early and reversible primary DNA damage, whereas flow cytometry was used to assess the clastogenic and aneugenic effect of diuron exposure. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were used in exposed and assay tanks to confirm the waterborne concentration of diuron reached during the experiment. The results obtained by the Comet assay clearly showed a higher level of DNA strand breaks in both the hemocytes and spermatozoa of diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of damaged genetic material to gamete cells could be responsible for the genetic damage measured in offspring. Indeed, flow cytometry analyses showed the presence of DNA breakage and a significant decrease in DNA content in spat from diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of DNA damage to the offspring could be involved in the negative effects observed on offspring development (decrease in hatching rate, higher level of larval abnormalities, delay in metamorphosis) and growth. In this study, the vertical transmission of DNA damage was so highlighted by subjecting oyster genitors to short exposures to diuron at medium environmental concentrations. The analysis of POCIS showed that oysters were exposed to integrated concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 ?g L(-1), emphasizing the relevance of the results obtained and the risk associated to chemical contamination for oyster recruitment and fitness. PMID:24291084

Barranger, A; Akcha, F; Rouxel, J; Brizard, R; Maurouard, E; Pallud, M; Menard, D; Tapie, N; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Benabdelmouna, A



Optimization of phytoplankton preservative concentrations to reduce damage during long-term storage.  


A study was performed to establish the optimal concentration of traditional preservatives or fixatives such as formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine, in order to preserve phytoplankton samples for long-term storage without the introduction of artifacts or other physical aberrations. The goal of the study was to avoid any visible morphological changes to the preserved cells, minimizing the errors induced by traditional preservative concentrations, and ensuring better accuracy of ecological analyses. We found that both formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine have adverse effects on the preservation of samples. Trichodesmium erythraeum was found to be most susceptible to the effects of acidic Lugol's iodine, since it displayed the highest degree of chain fragmentation when this preservative was used. However, we found that 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde, 2.5% (v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine, and 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde+2.5%(v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine combined were most promising, with the latter the most effective even after 3 weeks of preservation. This study also revealed that, in general, the centric diatom species were more sensitive to long-term preservation than their pennate counterparts. The present study is significant as it sheds light on the damage endured by phytoplankton cells during long-term preservation, which can lead to erroneous and biased results upon analyses. The optimal concentration of preservative established experimentally from a wide variety of concentrations caused comparatively moderate changes to the cell dimensions as well as effectively prevented microbial contamination. PMID:24749881

Mukherjee, Abhishek; Das, Subhajit; Bhattacharya, Tanima; De, Minati; Maiti, Tusharkanti; Kumar De, Tarun



Reduced 5-HT2A receptor signaling following selective bilateral amygdala damage  

PubMed Central

Neurobiological evidence implicates the amygdala as well as serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) signaling via postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors as essential substrates of anxiety behaviors. Assuming a functional interdependence of these substrates, we hypothesized that a low-fear behavioral phenotype due to bilateral lesion of the amygdala would be associated with significant 5-HT2A receptor changes. Thus, we used [18F]altanserin positron emission tomography (PET) referenced to radioligand plasma levels and corrected for partial volume effects to quantify the spatial distribution of 5-HT2A receptor binding potential (BPP) in a rare patient with Urbach–Wiethe disease and selective bilateral amygdala calcification damage relative to 10 healthy control subjects. Consistent with our a priori hypothesis, we observed a 70% global decrease in 5-HT2A receptor BPP in the Urbach–Wiethe patient relative to controls. Thus, brain abnormalities in this patient are not restricted to the amygdala, but extend to overall 5-HT neurotransmission via 5-HT2A receptors. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular architecture of human anxiety behaviors and suggest the 5-HT2A receptor as a promising pharmacological target to control pathological anxiety. PMID:19015089

Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Matusch, Andreas; Reich, Harald; Shah, Nadim J.; Zilles, Karl; Maier, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas



Immunobiotic lactobacilli reduce viral-associated pulmonary damage through the modulation of inflammation-coagulation interactions.  


The exacerbated disease due to immune- and coagulative-mediated pulmonary injury during acute respiratory viruses infection results in severe morbidity and mortality. Identifying novel approaches to modulate virus-induced inflammation-coagulation interactions could be important alternatives for treating acute respiratory viruses infections. In this study we investigated the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 on lung TLR3-mediated inflammation, and its ability to modulate inflammation-coagulation interaction during respiratory viral infection. Our findings reveal for the first time that a probiotic bacterium is able to influence lung immune-coagulative reaction triggered by TLR3 activation, by modulating the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as expression of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in the lung. We also demonstrated that the preventive treatment with the probiotic bacteria beneficially modulates the fine tune balance between clearing respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus) and controlling immune-coagulative responses in the lung, allowing normal lung function to be maintained in the face of a viral attack. Our data also pinpoint a crucial role for IL-10 in the immune protection induced by L. rhamnosus CRL1505 during respiratory viral infections. These observations might be helpful to propose new preventive or therapeutic approaches to better control virus-inflammatory lung damage using probiotic functional foods. PMID:24394565

Zelaya, Hortensia; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Chiba, Eriko; Marranzino, Gabriela; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Agüero, Graciela; Villena, Julio



Carnitine reduces the lipoperoxidative damage of the membrane and apoptosis after induction of cell stress in experimental glaucoma.  


The pathological damage caused by glaucoma is associated to a high intraocular pressure. The ocular hypertone is most likely due to a defective efflux of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye. Ocular hypertension causes apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells and overexpression of molecular markers typical of cell stress response and apoptosis. In this work, we report on the neuroprotective, antiapoptotic and antioxidant action of a natural substance, -carnitine. This compound is known for its ability to improve the mitochondrial performance. We analyze a number of cellular and molecular markers, typical of ocular hypertension and, in general, of the cell stress response. In particular, L-carnitine reduces the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, ubiquitin and caspase 3 typical markers of cell stress. In addition, the morphological analysis of the optic nerve evidenced a reduction of the pathological excavation of the optic disk. This experimental hypertone protocol induces a severe lipoperoxidation, which is significantly reduced by L-carnitine. The overall interpretation is that mortality of the retinal cells is due to membrane damage. PMID:21364667

Calandrella, N; De Seta, C; Scarsella, G; Risuleo, G



Carnitine reduces the lipoperoxidative damage of the membrane and apoptosis after induction of cell stress in experimental glaucoma  

PubMed Central

The pathological damage caused by glaucoma is associated to a high intraocular pressure. The ocular hypertone is most likely due to a defective efflux of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye. Ocular hypertension causes apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells and overexpression of molecular markers typical of cell stress response and apoptosis. In this work, we report on the neuroprotective, antiapoptotic and antioxidant action of a natural substance, -carnitine. This compound is known for its ability to improve the mitochondrial performance. We analyze a number of cellular and molecular markers, typical of ocular hypertension and, in general, of the cell stress response. In particular, -carnitine reduces the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, ubiquitin and caspase 3 typical markers of cell stress. In addition, the morphological analysis of the optic nerve evidenced a reduction of the pathological excavation of the optic disk. This experimental hypertone protocol induces a severe lipoperoxidation, which is significantly reduced by -carnitine. The overall interpretation is that mortality of the retinal cells is due to membrane damage. PMID:21364667

Calandrella, N; De Seta, C; Scarsella, G; Risuleo, G



The antioxidative, non-psychoactive tricyclic phenothiazine reduces brain damage after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice.  


Oxidative stress due to free radical formation is an important mechanism of secondary brain damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Phenothiazine has been found to be a strong antioxidant in eukaryotic cells in vitro and in invertebrates in vivo. The present study was designed to determine the neuroprotective potency of unsubstituted phenothiazine in a paradigm of acute brain injury. Thirty minutes after pneumatic, controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, C57BI6 mice were randomly assigned to "low dose" (3mg/kg, LD) or "high dose" (30mg/kg, HD) s.c. phenothiazine or vehicle treatment. Brain lesion, neurofunctional impairment, body weight, and markers of cerebral inflammation were determined 24h after the insult. Phenothiazine treatment dose-dependently reduced brain lesion volume (LD: -19.8%; HD: -26.1%) and posttraumatic body weight loss. There were no significant differences in the neurological function score and in markers of cerebral inflammation (Iba-1 positive cells, TNF? expression), whereas iNOS expression was significantly lower compared to vehicle-treated animals. Phenothiazine appears to modify in a post-treatment protocol certain aspects of secondary brain damage in vivo at unusually low concentrations, in particular the cortical contusion volume after TBI. The potential role of the reduced iNOS expression is unclear at present. PMID:25449871

Songarj, Phuriphong; Luh, Clara; Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Engelhard, Kristin; Moosmann, Bernd; Thal, Serge C



Single alcohol exposure in early life damages hippocampal stem/progenitor cells and reduces adult neurogenesis.  


Alcohol exposure during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), characterized by impaired cognitive functions. Neurogenesis occurs in the adult hippocampus and is functionally associated with learning, memory, and mood disorders. However, whether early postnatal exposure to alcohol impairs neurogenesis and through which mechanisms it occurs is poorly understood. Here, we report that a single episode of alcohol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7) decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrate a co-localization of glial fibrillar acidic protein, nestin, and vimentin with activated caspase-3 12 h after ethanol treatment. Finally, we show that the number of primary neurospheres derived from the hippocampi of alcohol-exposed mice is reduced compared to controls. These findings suggest that alcohol exposure in postnatal mice reduces the pool of neural stem/progenitor cells in the DG, and subsequently results in a decrease of adult neurogenesis. This may explain certain aspects of impaired hippocampal functions in FAS. PMID:17490887

Ieraci, Alessandro; Herrera, Daniel G



The Curry Spice Curcumin Reduces Oxidative Damage and Amyloid Pathology in an Alzheimer Transgenic Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is character- ized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemi- ological studies suggest reduced AD risk associates with long- term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw mouse model (Tg2576), excessive use of NSAIDs targeting cyclooxygenase I can cause gastrointestinal, liver, and

Giselle P. Lim; Teresa Chu; Fusheng Yang; Walter Beech; Sally A. Frautschy; Greg M. Cole



Cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rice leaves is reduced by polyamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of polyamines against Cd toxicity of rice (Oryza sativa) leaves was investigated. Cd toxicity to rice leaves was determined by the decrease in protein content. CdCl2 treatment results in (1) increased Cd content, (2) induction of Cd toxicity, (3) increase in H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, (4) decrease in ascorbic acid (ASC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents,

Yi Ting Hsu; Ching Huei Kao




EPA Science Inventory

The papeer discusses the use of environmental technology verification (ETV) to reduce the risk of using innovative coating technologies. It presents key concepts of the ETV program, reviews the scope of the ETV program's coatings and coating equipment pilot (CCEP) and its use of ...


Modeling vibratory damage with reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates a coupled computational analysis framework that uses reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method to model vibratory induced stress near local defects. The application area of interest is the life prediction of thin gauge structural components exhibiting nonlinear, path-dependent dynamic response. Full-order finite element models of these structural components can require prohibitively large amounts of processor time. Recent developments in nonlinear reduced-order models have demonstrated efficient computation of the dynamic response. These models are relatively insensitive to small imperfections. Conversely, the generalized finite element method provides the ability to model local defects without geometric dependency on the mesh. A more robust version of the method, with numerically built enrichment functions, provides a multiple-scale modeling capability through direct coupling of global and local finite element models. Replacing the component finite element model with a reduced-order model allows for efficient computation of dynamic response while providing the necessary information to drive local, solid analyses which can zoom in on regions containing stress risers or cracks. This paper describes the coupling of these approaches to enable fatigue and crack propagation predictions. Numerical/experimental examples are provided.

O'Hara, Patrick J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.



Test validation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability and damage tolerance modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will establish a process for using a computational approach, validated at a specimen level, to predict reliably in the future component level performance without resorting to extensive testing.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.



Global Environmental Change 12 (2002) 197202 Increased crop damage in the US from excess precipitation  

E-print Network

on crop growth, plant damage from excess soil moisture. We compute that US corn production losses due and worldwide have caused great damage to crop production. If the frequency of these weather extremes were-related damage is difficult due to concurrent changes in population growth, economic development, flood


Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material structure combinations that are ductile (Fig. 1). This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure.

Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Rashid, Mark M.; Williamson, Richard L.



To reduce urban disparities in health, strengthen and enforce equitably environmental and consumer laws.  


While observers agree that reducing disparities in health is an important health priority for the USA, there is little agreement and no comprehensive plan to achieve this goal. In this commentary, we make the case for reducing the disproportionate exposure to environmental and consumer hazards as a promising strategy for reducing health disparities. Exposures to environmental risks such as air pollution, lead, and hazardous wastes and to consumer products such as tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food have been identified as significant threats to health and important contributors to disparities in health. Strengthening the regulations that prevent exposure to these harmful substances and enforcing these rules equitably could bring benefits to the population as a whole and especially to the disenfranchised, primarily urban, populations that are most exposed. The current policy environment may present a window of opportunity for pursuing this strategy. PMID:19533364

Olden, Kenneth; Ramos, Rose Marie; Freudenberg, Nicholas



Nutrient-Enhanced Diet Reduces Noise-Induced Damage to the Inner Ear and Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has been broadly implicated as a cause of cell death and neural degeneration in multiple disease conditions; however, the evidence for successful intervention with dietary antioxidant manipulations has been mixed. In this study, we investigated the potential for protection of cells in the inner ear using a dietary supplement with multiple antioxidant components, selected for their potential interactive effectiveness. Protection against permanent threshold shift (PTS) was observed in CBA/J mice maintained on a diet supplemented with a combination of ?-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium when compared to PTS in control mice maintained on a nutritionally complete control diet. Although hair cell survival was not enhanced, noise-induced loss of Type II fibrocytes in the lateral wall was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and there was a trend towards less noise-induced loss in strial cell density in animals maintained on the supplemented diet. Taken together, our data suggest that pre-noise oral treatment with the high-nutrient diet can protect cells in the inner ear and reduce PTS in mice. Demonstration of functional and morphological preservation of cells in the inner ear with oral administration of this antioxidant supplemented diet supports the possibility of translation to human patients, and suggests an opportunity to evaluate antioxidant protection in mouse models of oxidative stress-related disease and pathology. PMID:21708355

Le Prell, C. G.; Gagnon, P. M; Bennett, D. C.; Ohlemiller, K. K.



17?-estradiol ameliorates light-induced retinal damage in sprague-dawley rats by reducing oxidative stress.  


Oxidative stress is considered as a major cause of light-induced retinal neurodegeneration. The protective role of 17?-estradiol (?E2) in neurodegenerative disorders is well known, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we utilized a light-induced retinal damage model to explore the mechanism by which ?E2 exerts its neuroprotective effect. Adult male and female ovariectomized (OVX) rats were exposed to 8,000 lx white light for 12 h to induce retinal light damage. Electroretinogram (ERG) assays and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed that exposure to light for 12 h resulted in functional damage to the rat retina, histological changes, and retinal neuron loss. However, intravitreal injection (IVI) of ?E2 significantly rescued this impaired retinal function in both female and male rats. Based on the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) production (a biomarker of oxidative stress), an increase in retinal oxidative stress followed light exposure, and ?E2 administration reduced this light-induced oxidative stress. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase (qRT)-PCR indicated that the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) were downregulated in female OVX rats but were upregulated in male rats after light exposure, suggesting a gender difference in the regulation of these antioxidant enzyme genes in response to light. However, ?E2 administration restored or enhanced the SOD and Gpx expression levels following light exposure. Although the catalase (CAT) expression level was insensitive to light stimulation, ?E2 also increased the CAT gene expression level in both female OVX and male rats. Further examination indicated that the antioxidant proteins thioredoxin (Trx) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) are also involved in ?E2-mediated antioxidation and that the cytoprotective protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a key role in the endogenous defense mechanism against light exposure in a ?E2-independent manner. Taken together, we provide evidence that ?E2 protects against light-induced retinal damage via its antioxidative effect, and its underlying mechanism involves the regulation of the gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and Gpx) and proteins (Trx and Nrf2). Our study provides conceptual evidence in support of estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women to reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:25038876

Wang, Shaolan; Wang, Baoying; Feng, Yan; Mo, Mingshu; Du, Fangying; Li, Hongbo; Yu, Xiaorui



Glatiramer Acetate administration does not reduce damage after cerebral ischemia in mice.  


Inflammation plays a key role in ischemic stroke pathophysiology: microglial/macrophage cells and type-1 helper cells (Th1) seem deleterious, while type-2 helper cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) seem protective. CD4 Th0 differentiation is modulated by microglial cytokine secretion. Glatiramer Acetate (GA) is an immunomodulatory drug that has been approved for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis by means of a number of mechanisms: reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, Th0 differentiation shifting from Th2 to Th2 and Treg with anti-inflammatory cytokine production and increased neurogenesis. We induced permanent (pMCAo) or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) and GA (2 mg) or vehicle was injected subcutaneously immediately after cerebral ischemia. Mice were sacrificed at D3 to measure neurological deficit, infarct volume, microglial cell density and qPCR of TNF? and IL-1? (pro-inflammatory microglial cytokines), IFN? (Th2 cytokine), IL-4 (Th2 cytokine), TGF? and IL-10 (Treg cytokines), and at D7 to evaluate neurological deficit, infarct volume and neurogenesis assessment. We showed that in GA-treated pMCAo mice, infarct volume, microglial cell density and cytokine secretion were not significantly modified at D3, while neurogenesis was enhanced at D7 without significant infarct volume reduction. In GA-treated tMCAo mice, microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF? were significantly decreased without modification of microglial/macrophage cell density, cytokine secretion, neurological deficit or infarct volume at D3, or modification of neurological deficit, neurogenesis or infarct volume at D7. In conclusion, Glatiramer Acetate administered after cerebral ischemia does not reduce infarct volume or improve neurological deficit in mice despite a significant increase in neurogenesis in pMCAo and a microglial pro-inflammatory cytokine reduction in tMCAo. PMID:23026222

Poittevin, Marine; Deroide, Nicolas; Azibani, Feriel; Delcayre, Claude; Giannesini, Claire; Levy, Bernard I; Pocard, Marc; Kubis, Nathalie



Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. Methods This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. Results A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. Conclusions There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these. PMID:23663285



Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.  


We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. PMID:23684439

Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack



Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  


The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg



Cryotherapy reduces skeletal muscle damage after ischemia/reperfusion in rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryotherapy on the biochemical and morphological changes in ischemic and reperfused (I/R) gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into control and I/R groups, and divided based on whether or not the rats were submitted to cryotherapy. Following the reperfusion period, biochemical and morphological analyses were performed. Following cryotherapy, a reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and dichlorofluorescein oxidation levels were observed in I/R muscle. Cryotherapy in I/R muscle also minimized effects such as decreased cellular viability, levels of non-protein thiols and calcium ATPase activity as well as increased catalase activity. Cryotherapy also limited mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased the presence of neutrophils in I/R muscle, an effect that was corroborated by reduced myeloperoxidase activity in I/R muscle treated with cryotherapy. The effects of cryotherapy are associated with a reduction in the intensity of the inflammatory response and also with a decrease in mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23231035

Puntel, Gustavo O; Carvalho, Nélson R; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Salgueiro, Andréia C F; Puntel, Robson L; Folmer, Vanderlei; Barbosa, Nilda B V; Royes, Luiz F F; Rocha, Joăo Batista T; Soares, Félix A A



Pomegranate seed oil reduces intestinal damage in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate seed oil (PSO), which is the major source of conjugated linolenic acids such as punicic acid (PuA), exhibits strong anti-inflammatory properties. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease associated with severe and excessive intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered PSO on the development of NEC, intestinal epithelial proliferation, and cytokine regulation in a rat model of NEC. Premature rats were divided into three groups: dam fed (DF), formula-fed rats (FF), or rats fed with formula supplemented with 1.5% of PSO (FF + PSO). All groups were exposed to asphyxia/cold stress to induce NEC. Intestinal injury, epithelial cell proliferation, cytokine production, and trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) production were evaluated in the terminal ileum. Oral administration of PSO (FF+PSO) decreased the incidence of NEC from 61 to 26%. Feeding formula with PSO improved enterocyte proliferation in the site of injury. Increased levels of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-23, and TNF-? in the ileum of FF rats were normalized in PSO-treated animals. Tff3 production in the FF rats was reduced compared with DF but not further affected by the PSO. In conclusion, administration of PSO protects against NEC in the neonatal rat model. This protective effect is associated with an improvement of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and a strong anti-inflammatory effect of PSO on the developing intestinal mucosa. PMID:22821948

Coursodon-Boyiddle, Christine F.; Snarrenberg, Chelsea L.; Adkins-Rieck, Camille K.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J. Thomas; Jouni, Zeina E.



Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.  


We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B



Dexamethasone loaded core-shell SF/PEO nanofibers via green electrospinning reduced endothelial cells inflammatory damage.  


Silk fibroin (SF)/PEO nanofibers prepared by green electrospinning is safe, non-toxic and environment friendly, it is a potential drug delivery carrier for tissue engineering. In this study, a core-shell nanofibers named as Dex@SF/PEO were obtained by green electrospinning with SF/PEO as the shell and dexamethasone (Dex) in the core. The nanofiber morphology and core-shell structure were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The Dex release behavior from the nanofibers was tested by High Performance liquid (HPLC) method. The protective effect of drug loaded nanofibers mats on Porcine hip artery endothelial cells (PIECs) against LPS-induced inflammatory damage were determined by MTT assay. TEM result showed the distinct core-shell structure of nanofibers. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that dexamethasone can sustain release over 192h and core-shell nanofibers showed more slow release of Dex compared with the blending electrospinning nanofibers. Anti-inflammatory activity in vitro showed that released Dex can reduce the PIECs inflammatory damage and apoptosis which induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Dex@SF/PEO nanofibers are safe and non-toxic because of no harmful organic solvents used in the preparation, it is a promising environment friendly drug carrier for tissue engineering. PMID:25481687

Chen, Weiming; Li, Dawei; Ei-Shanshory, Ahmed; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Ei-Hamshary, Hany A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; He, Chuanglong; Mo, Xiumei



Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and wrenching floods. Our integrated model combines hydrologic, land use, environmental and economic data. The combination of the cadastral data with the flood characteristics (flow, depth, duration) for various periods of return enables to draw damage maps expressed as function of flood characteristics (Penning-Rowsell et al. 2005). This methodology also enables to illustrate consequences of risk prevention measures. We can thus measure the value of information in the alert system of Civil Protection Agency, give information on risks for urban development plans and simulate the consequences of hydraulic interventions like river bed cleaning. This methodology would then contribute to match with the requirements of the 2007 EU flood risk Management Directive (2007/60/CE).

Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.



Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.  


Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model. PMID:14680076

Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J



Damage of zona pellucida reduces the developmental potential and quality of porcine circovirus type 2-infected oocytes after parthenogenetic activation.  


The present aimed to study if porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which adhered to zona pellucida (ZP), was able to enter mature porcine oocytes with intact and damaged ZP. Four groups, including uninfected ZP-intact oocytes (UOZI), uninfected ZP-damaged oocytes (UOZD), PCV2-infected ZP-intact oocytes (POZI), and PCV2-infected ZP-damaged oocytes (POZD) were studied. The oocytes were incubated with 1 mL minimum essential medium, containing 3.1 × 10(8) copies of PCV2 DNA for 1 hour. Mechanical procedure of the insertion by microneedle induced injuries to the ZP of porcine oocytes. At the blastocyst stage, the percentage of PCV2-infected embryos and the ratio of viral antigen-positive cells per embryo were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To assess the effect of ZP injury on the developmental competence and quality of porcine PCV2-infected oocytes after parthenogenetic activation, blastocyst formation rates and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were analyzed. Moreover, real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency at different developmental stages. The results of indirect immunofluorescence showed that only POZD group presented PCV2-infected embryos and viral-positive cells. The blastocyst rate of POZD group dropped down to approximately half of POZI group's (7.1 ± 1.5 vs. 14.5 ± 3.3). At the blastocyst stage, ZP injury increased apoptotic index of PCV2-infected embryos. The relative expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in POZD group than the ones in POZI group at the two- and four-cell stages (not statistically significant). Compared with the one in POZI group, the ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of the ability to resist apoptosis, was lower in POZD group at the one-cell stage, but higher at the two- and four-cell stages. Expression levels of Oct4 and Nanog associated with pluripotency were lower in POZD group than the ones in POZI group at the morula stage (not statistically significant). Noteworthily, the expression of Nanog was significantly lower in POZD group versus POZI group (P < 0.05), whereas relative expression of Oct4 was significantly higher in the former at the blastocyst stage (P < 0.01). In conclusion, PCV2, which attached to ZP, was able to enter mature porcine oocytes with damaged ZP and subsequently reduced the developmental competence and quality of the oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. PMID:25062959

Zhao, Haijing; Ji, Qianqian; Zhao, Guangyin; Song, Zhenwei; Du, Baozhu; Nie, Yu; Chen, Yaosheng; Cong, Peiqing



DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in less developed countries.Aims: To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in outdoor workers from two Mexican cities.Methods: DNA damage (Comet assay) and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds,

H Tovalin; M Valverde; M T Morandi; S Blanco; L Whitehead; E Rojas



Kininogen deficiency protects from ischemic neurodegeneration in mice by reducing thrombosis, blood-brain barrier damage, and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Thrombosis and inflammation are hallmarks of ischemic stroke still unamenable to therapeutic interventions. High-molecular-weight kininogen (KNG) is a central constituent of the contact-kinin system which represents an interface between thrombotic and inflammatory circuits and is critically involved in stroke development. Kng?/? mice are protected from thrombosis after artificial vessel wall injury and lack the proinflammatory mediator bradykinin. We investigated the consequences of KNG deficiency in models of ischemic stroke. Kng?/? mice of either sex subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion developed dramatically smaller brain infarctions and less severe neurologic deficits without an increase in infarct-associated hemorrhage. This protective effect was preserved at later stages of infarction as well as in elderly mice. Targeting KNG reduced thrombus formation in ischemic vessels and improved cerebral blood flow, and reconstitution of KNG-deficient mice with human KNG or bradykinin restored clot deposition and infarct susceptibility. Moreover, mice deficient in KNG showed less severe blood-brain barrier damage and edema formation, and the local inflammatory response was reduced compared with controls. Because KNG appears to be instrumental in pathologic thrombus formation and inflammation but dispensable for hemostasis, KNG inhibition may offer a selective and safe strategy for combating stroke and other thromboembolic diseases. PMID:22936662

Langhauser, Friederike; Göb, Eva; Kraft, Peter; Geis, Christian; Schmitt, Joachim; Brede, Marc; Göbel, Kerstin; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Jakob, Peter; Stoll, Guido; Meuth, Sven G.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; McCrae, Keith R.



Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (gly-gly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the gly-gly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping



Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxins are produced mainly by the mycelial structure of filamentous fungi, or more specifically, molds. These secondary metabolites are synthesized during the end of the exponential growth phase and appear to have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. The contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem for the adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The toxic effect of the ingestion of mycotoxins in humans and animals depends on a number of factors including intake levels, duration of exposure, toxin species, mechanisms of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms. In general, the consumption of contaminated food and feed with mycotoxin induces to neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect in humans and/or animals. The most significant mycotoxins in terms of public health and agronomic perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, fumonisins, patulin, and the ergot alkaloids. Due to the detrimental effects of these mycotoxins, several strategies have been developed in order to reduce the risk of exposure. These include the degradation, destruction, inactivation or removal of mycotoxins through chemical, physical and biological methods. However, the results obtained with these methods have not been optimal, because they may change the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of food. Another alternative strategy to prevent or reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins is by applying antimutagenic agents. These substances act according to several extra- or intracellular mechanisms, their main goal being to avoid the interaction of mycotoxins with DNA; as a consequence of their action, these agents would inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the main strategies used to control AFB1 and ochratoxin A and contains an analysis of some antigenotoxic substances that reduce the DNA damage caused by these mycotoxins. PMID:22069607

Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José A.; Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Reyes-Ramírez, Patricia; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Sumaya-Martínez, Teresa; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo



Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.  


The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

Menzies, Kevin



REC-2006-A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo.  


Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10?Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7?±?0.47, 12.96?±?1.64 and 3.3?±?0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of ?-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15?mg?kg(-1) body weight) 1?h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156?±?0.576, 1.647?±?0.534 and 0.496?±?0.012, and an increase in ?-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60?min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair. PMID:20008078

Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar



Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling  

SciTech Connect

In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens. The High Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

Edward Marks



Use of EPO as an adjuvant in PDT of brain tumors to reduce damage to normal brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce damage to surrounding normal brain in the treatment of brain tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT), we have investigated the use of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) to exploit its well-established role as a neuroprotective agent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that EPO does not confer protection from PDT to rat glioma cells. In vivo testing of the possibility of EPO protecting normal brain tissue was carried out. The normal brains of Lewis rats were treated with Photofrin mediated PDT (6.25 mg/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and the outcome of the treatment compared between animals that received EPO (5000 U/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and controls. This comparison was made based on the volume of necrosis, as measured with the viability stain 2,3,5- Triphenyl tetrazoium chloride (TTC), and incidence of apoptosis, as measured with in situ end labeling assay (ISEL). Western blotting showed that EPO reaches the normal brain and activates the anti-apoptotic protein PKB/AKT1 within the brain cortex. The comparison based on volume of necrosis showed no statistical significance between the two groups. No clear difference was observed in the ISEL staining between the groups. A possible lack of responsivity in the assays that give rise to these results is discussed and future corrections are described.

Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar



Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles  

PubMed Central

The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles. PMID:25289186

Rubega, Margaret A.; Sustaita, Diego



Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures  

PubMed Central

A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkc? or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/ nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures. PMID:22253051

Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E.



Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma.  


Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in blood platelet and plasma proteins were determined by ELISA tests. Thiol groups level was estimated by using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid, DTNB). Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results from our work indicate that clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract may reveal the protective properties in the prevention against oxidative stress. The presence of clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract (12.5-100 ?g/ml) partly inhibited ONOO(-)-mediated protein carbonylation and nitration. All the used concentrations of T. pallidum extract reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma. The antioxidative action of the tested extract in the protection of blood platelet lipids was less effective; the extract at the lowest final concentration (12.5 ?g/ml) had no protective effect against lipid peroxidation. The present results indicate that the extract from T. pallidum is likely to be a source of compounds with the antioxidative properties, useful in the prevention against the oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:21465272

Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw



Characterization of microbially Fe(III)-reduced nontronite: Environmental cell-transmission electron microscopy study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microstructural changes induced by the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in nontronite by Shewanella oneidensis were studied using environmental cell (EC)-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conventional TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Direct observations of clays by EC-TEM in their hydrated state allowed for the first time an accurate and unambiguous TEM measurement of basal layer spacings and the contraction of layer spacing caused by microbial effects, most likely those of Fe(III) reduction. Non-reduced and Fe(III)-reduced nontronite, observed by EC-TEM, exhibited fringes with mean d001 spacings of 1.50 nm (standard deviation, ?? = 0.08 nm) and 1.26 nm (?? = 0.10 nm), respectively. In comparison, the same samples embedded with Nanoplast resin, sectioned by microtome, and observed using conventional TEM, displayed layer spacings of 1.0-1.1 nm (non-reduced) and 1.0 nm (reduced). The results from Nanoplast-embedded samples are typical of conventional TEM studies, which have measured nearly identical layer spacings regardless of Fe oxidation state. Following Fe(III) reduction, both EC- and conventional TEM showed an increase in the order of nontronite selected area electron diffraction patterns while the images exhibited fewer wavy fringes and fewer layer terminations. An increase in stacking order in reduced nontronite was also suggested by XRD measurements. In particular, the ratio of the valley to peak intensity (v/p) of the 1.7 nm basal 001 peak of ethylene glycolated nontronite was measured at 0.65 (non-reduced) and 0.85 (microbially reduced).

Kim, J.-W.; Furukawa, Y.; Daulton, T.L.; Lavoie, D.; Newell, S.W.



Modulation of Ischemia-Induced NMDAR1 Activation by Environmental Enrichment Decreases Oxidative Damage  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, we examined whether enriched environment (EE) housing has direct neuroprotective effects on oxidative damage following transient global cerebral ischemia. Fifty-two adult male Wistar rats were included in the study and received either ischemia or sham surgery. Once fully awake, rats in each group were randomly assigned to either: EE housing or socially paired housing (CON). Animals remained in their assigned environment for 7 days, and then were killed. Our data showed that glutamate receptor expression was significantly higher in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group than in the ischemia EE group. Furthermore, the oxidative DNA damage, protein oxidation, and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group were significantly increased compared to the ischemia EE group. These results suggest that EE housing possibly modulated the ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity, which then attenuated the oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in the ischemia EE rats. PMID:21612313

Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie



Assessing Anchor Damage on Coral Reefs: A Case Study in Selection of Environmental Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because environmental conservation can remove scarce natural resources from competing uses, it is important to gain support for conservation programs by demonstrating that management actions have been effective in achieving their goals. One way to do this is to show that selected significant environmental variables (indicators) vary between managed and unmanaged areas or change over time following implementation of a

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale; Vicki J. Harriott



Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey results are presented from 65 parents, students over 12 years, teachers, and other school employees using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. It shows the results of years of neglect of infrastructure for children and reveals disturbing new information about the environmental health of school…

Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.


Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.



Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach  

PubMed Central

Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area. PMID:22754580

Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan



Environmental damage caused by fossil fuels consumption. [External cost estimation($\\/GJ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that the objectives of this study is to identify the negative effects of the fossil fuels use and to evaluate their economic significance. An economic value of the damage for each of the analyzed effects has been estimated in US dollars per unit energy of the fuel used ($\\/GJ). This external costs of fossil fuel use should

F. Barbir; T. N. Veziroglu



Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna



Reduced carbon intensity in highly developed countries: environmental kuznets curves for carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) postulates that pollution increases with the income per capita up to a maximum, above which it decreases with the further increase in income per capita, i.e. following an inverse U-shape in the pollution vs. income per capita. It is commonly believed that EKC occurs for "local" pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, but does not hold for CO2 emissions. This is attributed to the fact that while "local" pollutants cause a visible environmental damage on the local/regional scale (which authorities/governments seek to avoid), the consequences of CO2 emission have no immediate attributable local/regional consequences. We review EKC for CO2 exploring its relation between CO2 per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI) between 1990 and 2010 obtained from the World Bank database. We find evidence for a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita in highly developed countries. We propose a model according to which the emissions per capita of a country are composed of a component related to the actual state of development and a component related to the change of development. The model leads to four distinct cases of which two have EKC shape and two imply saturation. This outcome is in line with previously suggested qualitative relations. Our analysis indicates that the EKC shaped cases better describes the empirical values. We explore the less extreme version corresponding to the so-called conventional EKC and study the maximum of the fitted curve, providing a threshold-value for the HDI and a typical maximum value for the emissions per capita. We find that approx. 5 countries have crossed the CO2-HDI maximum, corresponding to approx. 1.5% of the world population.

Kornhuber, Kai; Rybski, Diego; Costa, Luis; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.



Reduced glutathione accelerates the oxidative damage produced by sodium n-propylthiosulfate, one of the causative agents of onion-induced hemolytic anemia in dogs.  


The oxidative effects of sodium n-propylthiosulfate, one of the causative agents of onion-induced hemolytic anemia in dogs, were investigated in vitro using three types of canine erythrocytes, which are differentiated by the concentration of reduced glutathione and the composition of intracellular cations. After incubation with sodium n-propylthiosulfate, the methemoglobin concentration and Heinz body count in all three types of erythrocytes increased and a decrease in the erythrocyte reduced glutathione concentration was then observed. The erythrocytes containing high concentrations of potassium and reduced glutathione (approximately five times the normal values) were more susceptible to oxidative damage by sodium n-propylthiosulfate than were the normal canine erythrocytes. The susceptibility of the erythrocytes containing high potassium and normal reduced glutathione concentrations was intermediate between those of erythrocytes containing high concentrations of potassium and reduced glutathione and normal canine erythrocytes. In addition, the depletion of erythrocyte reduced glutathione by 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene resulted in a marked decrease in the oxidative injury induced by sodium n-propylthiosulfate in erythrocytes containing high concentrations of potassium and reduced glutathione. The generation of superoxide in erythrocytes containing high concentrations of potassium and reduced glutathione was 4.1 times higher than that in normal canine erythrocytes when the cells were incubated with sodium n-propylthiosulfate. These observations indicate that erythrocyte reduced glutathione, which is known as an antioxidant, accelerates the oxidative damage produced by sodium n-propylthiosulfate. PMID:10216234

Yamato, O; Hayashi, M; Kasai, E; Tajima, M; Yamasaki, M; Maede, Y



Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts  

PubMed Central

The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ?28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ?35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.



N-acetyl cysteine reduces chromosomal DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes during cardiac catheterization procedures: A pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundN-acetylcysteine (NAC) is considered a promising radio-protector for its antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We examined the ability of NAC to confer protection against radiation-induced chromosomal DNA damage during cardiac catheterization procedures.

Maria Grazia Andreassi; Angelo Cioppa; Samantha Manfredi; Maria Giovanna Neri; Ilenia Foffa; Eugenio Picano


Optical damage in reduced Z-cut LiNbO{sub 3} crystals caused by longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects  

SciTech Connect

The marked optical damage was observed in thin Z-cut plates of the deeply reduced nominally pure LiNbO{sub 3} crystals, when a 514.5-nm-laser beam with ordinary polarization was focused on the {+-}Z face. The longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects are shown to be responsible for most of the important peculiarities of the optical damage dynamics. The anisotropy in the behavior between the +Z and -Z faces has been explained by interference of the different kinds of pyroelectric and photovoltaic effects to the space-charge field with an altering relative sign.

Kostritskii, S. M. [RPC Optolink, Sosnovaya al., d. 6 A, str.2, NPL-3-1, Zelenograd, Moscow, 124489 (Russian Federation); Aillerie, M. [LMOPS, University Paul Verlaine of Metz and Supelec, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France)



Evaluation of Flight Control™ and Mesurol ® as repellents to reduce horned lark ( Eremophila alpestris) damage to lettuce seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted enclosure trials near Huron, CA in the San Joaquin Valley from 12 to 23 January 1999 to determine the efficacy of Flight Control™ (50% anthraquinone) and Mesurol® (75% methiocarb) in preventing horned lark damage to lettuce seedlings. Flight Control™ (FC) and Mesurol® were evaluated as foliar sprays at application rates of 2.79 and 2.27kgha?1, respectively. Horned lark damage

Darryl L York; John L Cummings; Richard M. Engeman; James E Davis



Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.



Environmental fate of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and its reduced products.  


Several defense departments intend to replace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in munitions formulations by the less sensitive 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). To help understand environmental behavior and ecological risk associated with DNAN we investigated its key initial abiotic and biotic reaction routes and determined relevant physicochemical parameters (pKa, logKow, aqueous solubility (Sw), partition coefficient (Kd)) for the chemical and its products. Reduction of DNAN with either zero valent iron or bacteria regioselectively produced 2-amino-4-nitroanisole (2-ANAN) which, under strict anaerobic conditions, gave 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN). Hydrolysis under environmental conditions was insignificant whereas photolysis gave photodegradable intermediates 2-hydroxy-4-nitroanisole and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Physicochemical properties of DNAN and its amino products drastically depended on the type and position of substituent(s) on the aromatic ring. Sw followed the order (TNTreduced bioavailability under oxic conditions. Although DNAN is more soluble than TNT, its lower hydrophobicity and its tendency to form aminoderivatives that sorb irreversibly to soil contribute to make it less toxic than the traditional explosive TNT. PMID:25460743

Hawari, J; Monteil-Rivera, F; Perreault, N N; Halasz, A; Paquet, L; Radovic-Hrapovic, Z; Deschamps, S; Thiboutot, S; Ampleman, G



Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions  

E-print Network

Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological ...

Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-



Environmentally Induced Damage to Children: A Call for Broadening the Critical Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of environmentally related illnesses, such as tuberculosis, asthma, allergies, respiratory disease, depression, and violent anger is increasing, particularly in the inner cities. The effects of these illnesses is often overlooked in discussions of educational and social inequity. This article discusses the significance of this…

Books, Sue


Removing of Formation Damage and Enhancement of Formation Productivity Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals  

E-print Network

(GLDA) a newly developed environmentally friendly chelate was examined as stand-alone stimulation fluid in deep oil and gas wells. In this study we used GLDA to stimulate carbonate cores (calcite and dolomite). GLDA was also used to stimulate and remove...

Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Nasr Eldin



Molecular and genetic damage in humans from environmental pollution in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXTREME environmental pollution such as that found in the highly industrialized Silesian region of Poland has been associated with increased risk of cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes1,2. Among the most prevalent carcinogenic and mutagenic air pollutants in Silesia are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which are largely produced by industrial and residential combustion of coal1. Molecular epidemiology aims to prevent

Frederica P. Perera; Kari Hemminki; Ewa Gryzbowska; Grazyna Motykiewicz; Jadwiga Michalska; Regina M. Santella; Tie-Lan Young; Christopher Dickey; Paul Brandt-Rauf; Immaculata Devivo; William Blaner; Wei-Yann Tsai; Mieczyslaw Chorazy



Coexistence of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles: enhancing or reducing environmental risks?  


Due to their bactericidal and photocatalytic characteristics, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in the fields of environment and physiology. Once these untreated nanoparticles are released into an aquatic environment and encounter one another, there is more uncertainty about their fate and ecotoxicological risks compared with the single nanoparticles. To expand our knowledge of the health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles, we investigated the possible risk of the co-existence of TiO2 NPs and Ag NPs in an aquatic environment using ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) as an aquatic animal model. In this study, silver ion (Ag(+)) release and physicochemical properties, as well as their effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, were monitored. Continuous illumination (12,000 lx) led to the 20.0% decrease in Ag(+) release in comparison with dark conditions, while TiO2 NPs and continuous illumination resulted in decreasing the Ag(+) concentration to 64.3% in contrast with Ag NPs-only suspensions. Toxicity tests indicated that different illumination modes exerted distinct effects of TiO2 NPs on the toxicity of Ag NPs: no effects, antagonism and synergism in dark, natural light and continuous light, respectively. In the presence of 1.5mg/L (18.8 ?M) TiO2 NPs, the toxicity of 1.5 mg/L (13.9 ?M) Ag NPs was reduced by 28.7% and increased by 6.93% in natural light and 12,000 lx of continuous light, respectively. After culturing in 12,000 lx continuous light for 24h, SOD activity of the light control surged to 1.96 times compared to the dark control (P<0.001). TiO2 NPs induced a reduction of CAT activity by an average of (36.1±1.7) % in the light. In the natural light reductions in the toxicity of Ag, NPs decrease Ag(+) concentrations via adsorption of Ag(+) onto TiO2 NPs surfaces. The enhancement of Ag NPs toxicity can contribute to the formation of activated TiO2-Ag NPs complexes in continuous light. The existence of TiO2 NPs in various illumination modes changed the surface chemistry of Ag NPs and then led to different toxicity effects. TiO2 NPs reduce the environmental risks of Ag NPs in natural light, but in continuous light, TiO2 NPs enhance the environmental risks of Ag NPs. PMID:24907921

Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng; Zhang, Hongwu



Phenotypic diversity and altered environmental plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana with reduced Hsp90 levels.  


The molecular chaperone HSP90 aids the maturation of a diverse but select set of metastable protein clients, many of which are key to a variety of signal transduction pathways. HSP90 function has been best investigated in animal and fungal systems, where inhibition of the chaperone has exceptionally diverse effects, ranging from reversing oncogenic transformation to preventing the acquisition of drug resistance. Inhibition of HSP90 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers novel morphologies dependent on normally cryptic genetic variation and increases stochastic variation inherent to developmental processes. The biochemical activity of HSP90 is strictly conserved between animals and plants. However, the substrates and pathways dependent on HSP90 in plants are poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the necessity of reliance on light-sensitive HSP90 inhibitors due to redundancy in the A. thaliana HSP90 gene family. Here we present phenotypic and genome-wide expression analyses of A. thaliana with constitutively reduced HSP90 levels achieved by RNAi targeting. HSP90 reduction affects a variety of quantitative life-history traits, including flowering time and total seed set, increases morphological diversity, and decreases the developmental stability of repeated characters. Several morphologies are synergistically affected by HSP90 and growth temperature. Genome-wide expression analyses also suggest a central role for HSP90 in the genesis and maintenance of plastic responses. The expression results are substantiated by examination of the response of HSP90-reduced plants to attack by caterpillars of the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni. HSP90 reduction potentiates a more robust herbivore defense response. In sum, we propose that HSP90 exerts global effects on the environmental responsiveness of plants to many different stimuli. The comprehensive set of HSP90-reduced lines described here is a vital instrument to further examine the role of HSP90 as a central interface between organism, development, and environment. PMID:17653275

Sangster, Todd A; Bahrami, Adam; Wilczek, Amity; Watanabe, Etsuko; Schellenberg, Kurt; McLellan, Catherine; Kelley, Alicia; Kong, Sek Won; Queitsch, Christine; Lindquist, Susan



Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China.  


In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p<0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:22414496

Alabi, Okunola A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia



Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves reduced  

E-print Network

Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23 Lung cancers (LCs) are among the most common human malignancies worldwide.1 Despite the use

Cai, Long


Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-? oligomers in aged mice  

PubMed Central

Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-? (A?) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble A? oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain A? oligomers and increased synthesis of the A?-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto



P2Y1R-initiated, IP3R-dependent stimulation of astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism reduces and partially reverses ischemic neuronal damage in mouse  

PubMed Central

Glia-based neuroprotection strategies are emerging as promising new avenues to treat brain damage. We previously reported that activation of the glial-specific purinergic receptor, P2Y1R, reduces both astrocyte swelling and brain infarcts in a photothrombotic mouse model of stroke. These restorative effects were dependent on astrocyte mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we extend these findings and report that P2Y1R stimulation with the purinergic ligand 2-methylthioladenosine 5? diphosphate (2MeSADP) reduces and partially reverses neuronal damage induced by photothrombosis. In vivo neuronal morphology was confocally imaged in transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein under the control of the Thy1 promoter. Astrocyte mitochondrial membrane potentials, monitored with the potential sensitive dye tetra-methyl rhodamine methyl ester, were depolarized after photothrombosis and subsequently repolarized when P2Y1Rs were stimulated. Mice deficient in the astrocyte-specific type 2 inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) receptor exhibited aggravated ischemic dendritic damage after photothrombosis. Treatment of these mice with 2MeSADP did not invoke an intracellular Ca2+ response, did not repolarize astrocyte mitochondria, and did not reduce or partially reverse neuronal lesions induced by photothrombotic stroke. These results demonstrate that IP3-Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes is not only critical for P2Y1R-enhanced protection, but suggest that IP3-Ca2+ signaling is also a key component of endogenous neuroprotection. PMID:23321785

Zheng, Wei; Talley Watts, Lora; Holstein, Deborah M; Wewer, Jimmy; Lechleiter, James D



DNA damage-inducible genes as biomarkers for exposures to environmental agents.  

PubMed Central

A biodosimetric approach to determine alpha-particle dose to the respiratory tract epithelium from known exposures to radon has been developed in the rat. Cytotoxicity assays have been used to obtain dose-conversion factors for cumulative exposures typical of those encountered by underground uranium miners. However, this approach is not sensitive enough to derive dose-conversion factors for indoor radon exposures. The expression of DNA damage-inducible genes is being investigated as a biomarker of exposure to radon progeny. Exposure of cultures of A549 cells to alpha particles resulted in an increase in the protein levels of the DNA damage-inducible genes, p53, Cip1, and Gadd45. These protein changes were associated with a transient arrest of cells passing through the cell cycle. This arrest was typified by an increase in the number of cells in the G1 and G2 phases and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. The effect of inhaled alpha particles (radon progeny) in rats was examined in the epithelial cells of the lateral well of the anterior nasal cavity. Exposures to radon progeny resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. These cell-cycle changes were concomitant with an increase in the number of cells containing DNA strand breaks. These results suggest a commonality between cell-cycle events in vitro and in vivo following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to ionizing radiation, A549 cells were exposed to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, methyl methanesulphonate, crocidolite asbestos, and glass microfiber. These studies showed that physical and chemical agents induce different expression patterns of p53, Cip1, and Gadd153 proteins and they could be used to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic materials such as asbestos and glass microfiber. The measurement of gene expression in A549 cells may provide a means to identify a broad spectrum of physical and chemical toxicants encountered in the environment. PMID:9255580

Johnson, N F; Carpenter, T R; Jaramillo, R J; Liberati, T A



Long-Term Effects of Chromatin Remodeling and DNA Damage in Stem Cells Induced by Environmental and Dietary Agents  

PubMed Central

The presence of histones acts as a barrier to protein access; thus chromatin remodeling must occur for essential processes such as transcription and replication. In conjunction with histone modifications, DNA methylation plays critical roles in gene silencing through chromatin remodeling. Chromatin remodeling is also interconnected with the DNA damage response, maintenance of stem cell properties, and cell differentiation programs. Chromatin modifications have increasingly been shown to produce long-lasting alterations in chromatin structure and transcription. Recent studies have shown environmental exposures in utero have the potential to alter normal developmental signaling networks, physiologic responses, and disease susceptibility later in life during a process known as developmental reprogramming. In this review we discuss the long-term impact of exposure to environmental compounds, the chromatin modifications that they induce, and the differentiation and developmental programs of multiple stem and progenitor cell types altered by exposure. The main focus is to highlight agents present in the human lifestyle that have the potential to promote epigenetic changes that impact developmental programs of specific cell types, may promote tumorigenesis through altering epigenetic marks, and may be transgenerational, for example, those able to be transmitted through multiple cell divisions. PMID:24579784

Bariar, Bhawana; Vestal, C. Greer; Richardson, Christine



Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

Not Available



Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.  


Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP. PMID:25354525

Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S



Early remote laser detection of vegetation damage caused by certain environmental stress factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fluorescence spectra of plants excited with a pulsed nitrogen laser beam emitting at 337 nm were found to be related to plant type, as well as with changes in the physiology of the plant as the result of various kinds of environmental stress. The plant types which were studied included herbaceous dicots, monocots, hardwoods, and conifers. These plant types could be identified on the basis of differences in either the number of fluorescent bands, or the relative intensity of the bands. The dicots and monocots had fluorescent maxima at 440, 685, and 740 nm. The monocots could be distinguished from the dicots by virtue of having a much higher 440 nm/685 nm ratio. Hardwoods and conifers had an additional fluorescence band at 525 nm, but healthy conifers did not have a band at 685 nm.

Chappelle, Emmett W.; Mcmurtrey, James E., III



How inhibiting nitrification affects nitrogen cycle and reduces environmental impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen input.  


Anthropogenic activities, and in particular the use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer, have doubled global annual reactive N inputs in the past 50-100 years, causing deleterious effects on the environment through increased N leaching and nitrous oxide (N2 O) and ammonia (NH3 ) emissions. Leaching and gaseous losses of N are greatly controlled by the net rate of microbial nitrification. Extensive experiments have been conducted to develop ways to inhibit this process through use of nitrification inhibitors (NI) in combination with fertilizers. Yet, no study has comprehensively assessed how inhibiting nitrification affects both hydrologic and gaseous losses of N and plant nitrogen use efficiency. We synthesized the results of 62 NI field studies and evaluated how NI application altered N cycle and ecosystem services in N enriched systems. Our results showed that inhibiting nitrification by NI application increased NH3 emission (mean: 20%, 95% confidential interval: 67% to 33%), but reduced dissolved inorganic N leaching (-48%, -56% to -38%), N2 O emission (-44%, -48% to -39%) and NO emission (-24%, -38% to -8%). This amounted to a net reduction of 16.5% in the total N release to the environment. Inhibiting nitrification also increased plant N recovery (58%, 34% to 93%) and productivity of grain (9%, 6% to 13%), straw (15%, 12% to 18%), vegetable (5%, 0% to 10%) and pasture hay (14%, 8% to 20%). The cost and benefit analysis showed that the economic benefit of reducing N's environmental impacts offset the cost of NI application. Applying NI along with N fertilizer could bring additional revenues of $163 ha(-1) yr(-1) for a maize farm, equivalent to 8.95% increase in revenues. Our findings showed that NIs could create a win-win scenario that reduces the negative impact of N leaching and greenhouse gas production, while increasing agricultural output. However, NI's potential negative impacts, such as increase in NH3 emission and the risk of NI contamination, should be fully considered before large-scale application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25380547

Qiao, Chunlian; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Shuijin; Compoton, Jana E; Greaver, Tara L; Li, Quanlin



SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) knockdown protects mice from acute liver injury by reducing vascular endothelial cell damage.  


Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is involved in many biological process including liver fibrogenesis, but its role in acute liver damage is unknown. To examine the role of SPARC in acute liver injury, we used SPARC knock-out (SPARC(-/-)) mice. Two models of acute liver damage were used: concanavalin A (Con A) and the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody Jo2. SPARC expression levels were analyzed in liver samples from patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SPARC expression is increased on acute-on-chronic AH patients. Knockdown of SPARC decreased hepatic damage in the two models of liver injury. SPARC(-/-) mice showed a marked reduction in Con A-induced necroinflammation. Infiltration by CD4+ T cells, expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 and apoptosis were attenuated in SPARC(-/-) mice. Sinusoidal endothelial cell monolayer was preserved and was less activated in Con A-treated SPARC(-/-) mice. SPARC knockdown reduced Con A-induced autophagy of cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Hepatic transcriptome analysis revealed several gene networks that may have a role in the attenuated liver damaged found in Con A-treated SPARC(-/-) mice. SPARC has a significant role in the development of Con A-induced severe liver injury. These results suggest that SPARC could represent a therapeutic target in acute liver injury. PMID:25410742

Peixoto, E; Atorrasagasti, C; Aquino, J B; Militello, R; Bayo, J; Fiore, E; Piccioni, F; Salvatierra, E; Alaniz, L; García, M G; Bataller, R; Corrales, F; Gidekel, M; Podhajcer, O; Colombo, M I; Mazzolini, G



Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia through prevention of blood-brain barrier disruption and endothelial damage.  


Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) is the leading cause of a poor prognosis even after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Therapeutic induction of hypothermia (TH) is the only proven therapy-and current standard care-for GCI after cardiac arrest; however, its application has been significantly limited owing to technical difficulties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to suppress neuronal death after cerebral ischemia. The prevention of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has not been suggested as a mechanism of MSC treatment but has for TH. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of MSC administration on BBB disruption and neutrophil infiltration after GCI. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MSC treatment, rats were subjected to 7 minutes of transient GCI and treated with MSCs immediately after reperfusion. Hippocampal neuronal death was evaluated at 7 days after ischemia using Fluoro-Jade B (FJB). BBB disruption, endothelial damage, and neutrophil infiltration were evaluated at 7 days after ischemia by immunostaining for IgG leakage, Rat endothelial antigen-1, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Rats treated with MSCs showed a significantly reduced FJB(+) neuron count compared with the control group. They also showed reduced IgG leakage, endothelial damage, and MPO(+) cell counts. The present study demonstrated that administration of MSCs after transient GCI provides a dramatic protective effect against hippocampal neuronal death. We hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of MSC treatment might be associated with the prevention of BBB disruption and endothelial damage and a decrease in neutrophil infiltration. PMID:25548390

Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Chung, Sung Phil; Kwon, Sung Won; Suh, Sang Won



Environmental concentrations of benz[a]anthracene induce developmental defects and DNA damage and impair photomotor response in Japanese medaka larvae.  


Benz[a]anthracene (BaA) is a ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in numerous aquatic ecosystems. However, ecotoxicological data in aquatic organisms are scarce. To remedy this lack of data, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to BaA and toxic effects were investigated at multiple toxicological endpoints. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated onto BaA-spiked artificial sediment for 9 days at low or moderate environmental concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 12µgg(-1) dw. BaA-exposed embryos exhibited significant tachycardia. BaA exposure was also shown to increase CYP1A activity in the hepato-biliary tissue as well as craniofacial deformities and DNA damage in pro-larvae. The photomotor response of BaA-exposed larvae was reduced in comparison to the control group. According to this set of tests, the lowest tested and observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Japanese medaka early life stages was equivalent to 0.92µgg(-1) dw of BaA. This concentration fall into the range of concentrations frequently encountered in sediments of polluted aquatic ecosystems. Taking into consideration these results, BaA represents a threat for fish early life stages in particular those developing onto or into contaminated sediments. PMID:25528488

Le Bihanic, Florane; Sommard, Vivien; Perrine, de Lansalut; Pichon, Anaďk; Grasset, Julie; Berrada, Saadia; Budzinski, Hélčne; Cousin, Xavier; Morin, Bénédicte; Cachot, Jérôme



Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan



Amifostine reduces the seminiferous epithelium damage in doxorubicin-treated prepubertal rats without improving the fertility status  

PubMed Central

Background Amifostine is an efficient cytoprotector against toxicity caused by some chemotherapeutic drugs. Doxorubicin, a potent anticancer anthracycline, is known to produce spermatogenic damage even in low doses. Although some studies have suggested that amifostine does not confer protection to doxorubicin-induced testicular damage, schedules and age of treatment have different approach depending on the protocol. Thus, we proposed to investigate the potential cytoprotective action of amifostine against the damage provoked by doxorubicin to prepubertal rat testes (30-day-old) by assessing some macro and microscopic morphometric parameters 15, 30 and 60 days after the treatment; for fertility evaluation, quantitative analyses of sperm parameters and reproductive competence in the adult phase were also carried out. Methods Thirty-day-old male rats were distributed into four groups: Doxorubicin (5 mg/kg), Amifostine (400 mg/kg), Amifostine/Doxorubicin (amifostine 15 minutes before doxorubicin) and Sham Control (0.9% saline solution). "Standard One Way Anova" parametric and "Anova on Ranks" non-parametric tests were applied according to the behavior of the obtained data; significant differences were considered when p < 0.05. Results The rats killed 30 and 60 days after doxorubicin treatment showed diminution of seminiferous epithelium height and reduction on the frequency of tubular sections containing at least one type of differentiated spermatogonia; reduction of sperm concentration and motility and an increase of sperm anomalous forms where observed in doxorubicin-treated animals. All these parameters were improved in the Amifostine/Doxorubicin group only when compared to Doxorubicin group. Such reduction, however, still remained below the values obtained from the Sham Control group. Nevertheless, the reproductive competence of doxorubicin-treated rats was not improved by amifostine pre-administration. Conclusions These results suggest that amifostine promotes a significant reduction of the doxorubicin long-term side effects on the seminiferous epithelium of prepubertal rats, which is reflected in the epidydimal fluid parameters in the adult phase. However, fertility status results suggest that such protection may not be effective against sperm DNA content damage. Further investigation of sperm DNA integrity must be carried out using amifostine and doxorubicin-treated experimental models. PMID:20064221



Do carbon-based defences reduce foliar damage? Habitat-related effects on tree seedling performance in a temperate rainforest of Chiloé Island, Chile.  


Carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs), such as phenols or tannins, have been considered as one of the most important and general chemical barriers of woody plants against a diverse array of herbivores. Herbivory has been described as a critical factor affecting the growth and survival of newly established tree seedlings or juveniles then, the presence of secondary metabolites as defences against herbivores should be a primary strategy to reduce foliar damage. We examined whether light-induced changes in leaf phenolic chemistry affected insect herbivory on seedlings of two rainforest tree species, Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) and Gevuina avellana (Proteaceae). Seedlings of both species were planted under closed canopy and in a canopy gap within a large remnant forest patch. Half of the seedlings in each habitat were disinfected with a wide-spectrum systemic insecticide and the other half were used as controls. Seedling growth, survival, and foliar damage (estimated by an herbivory index) due to insect herbivores were monitored over a period of 16 months (December 2001-April 2003). The total leaf content of phenols and condensed tannins were assessed in seedlings from both habitats. As expected, access to light induced a greater production of CBSCs in seedlings of both tree species, but these compounds did not seem to play a significant defensive role, as seedlings grown in gaps suffered greater leaf damage than those planted in forest interior. In addition, in both habitats, seedlings without insecticide treatment suffered a greater foliar damage than those with insecticide, especially 16 months after the beginning of the experiment. Canopy openness and herbivory had positive and negative effects, respectively, on seedling growth and survival in both tree species. In conclusion, despite the higher levels of defence in tree-fall gap, the higher densities of herbivore override this and lead to higher damage levels. PMID:16170562

Chacón, Paulina; Armesto, Juan J



Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave, risk of mortality was higher in the black community, and in those living in certain types of low-income and multi-tenant housing. Interventions in the built environment to promote urban heat island mitigation can reduce ambient temperatures, potentially reducing heat-related mortality rates in vulnerable populations, electricity consumption and air pollutant emissions, and slow ozone formation, an important health stressor. These mitigation measures may also serve as adaptive responses for a range of potential future climate conditions. Here we review current research that assesses the health, air quality, and energy conservation benefits in cities from these interventions in the built environment, and discuss the techniques and research objectives of a new pilot community-based project to mitigate the heat island effect in the South Bronx, New York City through implementation of vegetated and high albedo roofing on residential and institutional buildings. Recent studies use mesoscale climate models and a variety of land-use and land-cover scenarios to project the effects of increasing vegetative fraction and albedo within metropolitan regions and to evaluate the impacts of measures that may serve both as adaptive responses to current conditions and mitigation for future climate variability. Through this perspective, we address the questions: What urban design approaches make for resilient cities in a changing environment? What costs and benefits may be expected by the adoption of heat island mitigation techniques within the New York metropolitan region?

Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.



Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.



Can Voluntary Environmental Program Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions? An Analysis of the US DOE's Climate Challenge Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the impact of the Climate Challenge Program (CCP), a voluntary environmental agreement (VEA) negotiated between the Department of Energy and the U.S. utility industry. The aim of the agreement was to reduce carbon emissions between 1994 and 2000. Our analysis involved a statistical study based on a panel data set composed of investor- owned power plants (n=358)

Kyoungsun HEO; Kerry KRUTILLA; David H. GOOD




EPA Science Inventory

A set of six oligonucleotides, complementary to conserved tracts of 16S rRNA from phylogenetically-defined groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was characterized for use as hybridization probes in determinative and environmental microbiology. our probes were genus specific and id...


Hemoglobin-sulfhydryls from tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) can reduce oxidative damage induced by organic hydroperoxide in erythrocyte membrane.  


Sulfhydryl groups are important to avoid oxidative damage to the cell. In RBC, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are capable of oxidizing heme and promoting lipid peroxidation. H2O2 caused greater oxidation of heme than tert-BOOH, although the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups was similar. Geochelone carbonaria Hb, a rich sulfhydryl protein, inhibited the TBA-reactive substances formation of human erythrocytes exposed to tert-BOOH by about 30%; this decrease was smaller with Geochelone denticulata Hb. Sulfhydryl reagents diminished the number of reactive sulfhydryl groups in the G. carbonaria Hb resulting in a decrease of its antioxidant power, suggesting the involvement of sulfhydryls of Hb in the protection against lipid peroxidation. PMID:11026669

Torsoni, M A; Ogo, S H



May cause environmental damage the diversion of the Danube in the Szigetköz area, Hungary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary The floodplain area between the main channel of Danube and its branch river Mosoni-Duna is called the Szigetköz. This wetland area has special flora and fauna, and it is a natural protection area. Underneath of the Szigetköz, there are a thick (several hundreds meters) sedimentary sequence, the so called Kisalföld Quaternary Aquifer. This aquifer system is fed by the surface river system of Danube and supplies excellent quality drinking water for several hundred thousands of people in Hungary and Slovakia. The Szigetköz Monitoring Network was established in 1991 to describe the environmental effects of the B?s-Nagymaros Dam System, which was partly built in 1992 on the Slovakian part of the Danube. The dam diverts three-quarter of the Danube runoff to a 40 km long artificial concrete channel north of the original river bed. The effect of this diversion is spectacular on the wetland area. Water level in the meandering channels have decreased significantly, part of the wetland area frequently becomes dry. The natural flow pattern has disappeared. As a consequence, the channel characteristics of the river network, therefore the flow pattern, the quantity and quality of surface and subsurface water on the upper region of the Danube have significantly changed. The aim of our research is to describe the relationship between surface water and groundwater and considering the variable geology of the area, to describe trends in chemistry and to find the possible reasons for extreme values. Also to detect possible connection between the extreme values and the changes in flow pattern caused by the human intervention. Water sample pairs from surface water and shallow and deeper ground water were taken in every season at 18 locations. To sample shallow ground-water 1,5 m long, screened metal probes were derived into the sediment at the possible nearest point to the surface water. On the field pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, and in the wells redox potential were measured. Samples were taken for further laboratory analyses (major and trace components, nitrate. The chemical parameters of surface and subsurface water show seasonal changes, due to the changes of temperature, of precipitation, of biological and microbiological activity. At the monitoring points along the main channel the surface and subsurface water is closely related, and the velocity of groundwater can be calculated by the seasonal periodical dislocation. At the monitoring points on the north-western part of the study area (point 1), subsurface water replenished by the rivers, and water level in the probes follow the surface water level changes with short shift. Practically water quality is the same in the probe as in the surface. It is the same on the south-eastern part of the study area, where the diverted channel rejoins to the original river channel (point 10). The middle section (at points 4 and 5) of the study area, water level in the probes is higher than surface water level. Also concentrations of some chemical components are higher in the subsurface water here. These components are typically the results of water - sediment interaction. Based on these observations, the study area can be differentiated by the hydrochemical composition for losing and gaining sections. At the monitoring points along the meandering sub-branch system, water in the probes is reductive, the connection between surface and subsurface water is week, furthermore at some point is non-existent. At some points surface water has slow flow, or it is even stagnant. This means reductive environments, and high concentrations of some components, especially at the monitoring points of 31 and 41. For example, concentrations of ammonium, sulphate, phosphate, magnesium, iron, manganese are extremely high in the shallow groundwater. Originally the Danube supplied fresh, oxygen-rich water to the area, while nowadays at these locations surface water and subsurface water almost has no connection, and these sections of river bed already turned muddy, and organic material

Novak, Brigitta



Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael



Diethylnitrosamine causes pituitary damage, disturbs hormone levels, and reduces sexual dimorphism of certain liver functions in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to the liver has been well documented in the literature, but whether DEN also affects the endocrine parameters has been addressed in only a few studies. We thus investigated the effects of DEN on pituitary, serum hormone levels, and certain sex-differentiated liver enzymes in this study. Adult male Wister rats were intraperitoneally injected with DEN at a single dose of 200 mg/kg and were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, and 35 days after injection; DEN-treated females were included as controls at days 7 and 35. Electron microscopic observation showed that during the first week after injection, all types of granular cells of the anterior pituitary in male animals exhibited cellular damage, including disrupted organelles and cellular structure, as well as pyknotic or lytic nuclei. Many undamaged secretory cells exhibited dilated endoplasmic reticula, hypertrophic Golgi complexes, and peripheral location of secretory granules, which usually are morphologic features of increased cellular activities. In male rats, the serum level of total testosterone decreased and the corticosterone increased 1 day after DEN treatment. The serum level of growth hormone (GH) decreased and the prolactin level increased on day 3. The hepatic expression of the male-specific cytochrome P450 2C11 (CYP2C11) decreased to 1-5% of the normal levels during the first week and was still 50% lower than the normal level on day 35, whereas the female-specific CYP2C12 expression increased only slightly. Activities of the male predominant 16alpha, 16beta, and 6beta hydroxylation of androstenedione by microsome decreased in an in vitro assay, whereas the non-sex-differentiated 7alpha hydroxylation and the female-predominant 5alpha reduction of androstenedione were unaffected. In female rats, decreased serum GH level was observed on day 7. The CYP2C12 expression in females was decreased to about 1% and 80% of the normal levels on day 7 and day 35, respectively, but the CYP2C11 expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in male rats, DEN treatment may cause pituitary damage, disturb serum hormone levels, and induce long-lasting reduction of sexual dimorphism in certain liver functions. PMID:11673124

Liao, D J; Blanck, A; Eneroth, P; Gustafsson, J A; Hällström, I P



Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia.  


Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3 h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2 weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes. PMID:23772679

Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua



Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation by preventing damage to the intestinal mucosa in an experimental severe acute pancreatitis rat model  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that melatonin significantly decreased all studied acute pancreatitis-associated inflammatory parameters, in addition to reducing apoptosis and necrosis associated with pancreatic injury. However, the effect of melatonin on gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin on intestinal integrity in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) to evaluate whether melatonin prevented intestine barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 8 rats in the sham operation (SO) group, 18 rats in the SAP group and 14 SAP rats in the melatonin treatment (MT) group. SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 4% taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Melatonin was administered 30 min prior to taurocholate injection in the melatonin-treated rats. All rats were sacrificed 24 h subsequent to pancreatitis induction. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and quantify Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 in postcava blood. The microvilli structure was also analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. The level of E. coli DNA in the MT group was significantly lower than in rats in the SAP group. No E. coli DNA was detected in the control group. Villus height and crypt depth in the ileum were significantly higher in the MT and control groups compared to the SAP group, and were significantly higher in the MT group than in the SAP group. These results suggested that melatonin prevented gut barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation, resulting in reduced pancreatic-associated infections and decreased early mortality rates. PMID:24255660




The compatible solute ectoine reduces the exacerbating effect of environmental model particles on the immune response of the airways.  


Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution. PMID:24822073

Unfried, Klaus; Kroker, Matthias; Autengruber, Andrea; Goti?, Marijan; Sydlik, Ulrich



Environmentally Benign Single-Wafer Spin Cleaning Using Ultra-Diluted HF\\/Nitrogen Jet Spray Without Causing Structural Damage and Material Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realizing environmentally benign silicon-wafer cleaning has become one of the most important topics in the semiconductor industry. We have developed an ultra-diluted HF\\/nitrogen-gas jet spray procedure for single-wafer spin cleaning, which can efficiently remove not only particulate but also metallic contaminants in 20 s from both silicon and silicon-dioxide surfaces without causing damage to fragile 45-nm wide polycrystalline-silicon gate structures.

Takeshi Hattori; Hideki Hirano; Tsutomu Osaka; Hitoshi Kuniyasu



From rum jungle to Wismut-reducing the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling  

SciTech Connect

Australia has a long history of uranium mining. In the early days, little attention was given to environmental matters and considerable pollution occurred. Ansto has been involved in rehabilitation of a number of the early uranium mining sites, from Rum Jungle in Australia`s Northern Territory to Wismut in Germany, and is working with current producers to minimise the environmental impact of their operations. Ansto`s expertise is extensive and includes, inter alia, amelioration of acid mine drainage, radon measurement and control, treatment of mill wastes, management of tailings, monitoring of seepage plumes, mathematical modelling of pollutant transport and biological impacts in a tropical environment.

Zuk, W.M.; Jeffree, R.A.; Levins, D.M. [and others



Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts  

PubMed Central

Animal agriculture in the United States for the most part has industrialized, with negative consequences for air and water quality and antibiotic use. We consider health and environmental impacts of current US swine production and give an overview of current federal, state, and local strategies being used to address them. PMID:15451736

Osterberg, David; Wallinga, David



Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  


Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael



Food transport refrigeration - Approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food transport refrigeration is a critical link in the food chain not only in terms of maintaining the tem- perature integrity of the transported products but also its impact on energy consumption and CO2 emis- sions. This paper provides a review of (a) current approaches in road food transport refrigeration, (b) estimates of their environmental impacts, and (c) research on

S. A. Tassou; G. De-Lille; Y. T. Ge




EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant available water. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water use efficiency result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to crop p...


Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sitzlar, M.A.; Mora, M.A.; Fleming, J.G.W.; Bazer, F.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.



Surf City and North Topsail Beach North Carolina, Coastal Storm Damage Reduction; Integrated Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact  

E-print Network

Surf City and North Topsail Beach North Carolina, Coastal Storm Damage Reduction; Integrated of the Surf City and North Topsail Beach draft feasibility report and EIS. The Battelle IEPR panel reviewed the draft Surf City and North Topsail Beach North Carolina Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Integrated

US Army Corps of Engineers


Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

Turso, James; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan



Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage "FOD" Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/ health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite-element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

Turso, James A.; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan S.



Sildenafil reduces L-NAME-induced severe hypertension and worsening of myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion damage in the rat  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are beneficial in pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure, the two conditions associated with coronary heart disease and ischaemia. We investigated whether sildenafil counteracts the cardiovascular alterations induced by N ?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the rat. Experimental approach: Sildenafil was given orally to rats at doses of 0.37, 0.75 or 1.5?mg kg?1day?1 for four weeks, either alone or with L-NAME (35-40?mg kg?1 day?1 in the drinking water). Systolic blood pressure and urinary parameters (6-keto-prostaglandin F1?, thromboxane B2, 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2? and nitrite/nitrate) were measured in conscious rats. Isolated hearts were subjected to low flow ischaemia–reperfusion, and myocardial levels of guanosine 3', 5'cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) were determined. Endothelial vascular dysfunction was examined in aortic rings. Key results: Sildenafil dose-dependently prevented the rise in systolic blood pressure in L-NAME-treated rats. This activity was associated with a normalization of urinary 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2? and other biochemical parameters. In perfused hearts, the post-ischaemic ventricular dysfunction was worse in preparations from L-NAME-treated rats than in controls. Sildenafil dose-dependently reduced this effect, and creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase release were lower too. cGMP levels, which were low in myocardial tissue from L-NAME-treated rats, were restored by sildenafil. In noradrenaline-precontracted aortic rings from L-NAME-treated rats acetylcholine lost its vasorelaxant effect, and sildenafil restored it. Conclusion and implications: In a rat model of chronic nitric oxide deprivation, where hypertension and aggravation of post-ischaemic ventricular dysfunction are associated with loss of vascular endothelium-relaxant function, sildenafil provided significant cardiovascular protection, primarily by maintaining tissue cGMP levels. PMID:17245365

Rossoni, G; Manfredi, B; De Gennaro Colonna, V; Berti, M; Guazzi, M; Berti, F



Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336  

SciTech Connect

There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink{sup R} technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO{sup TM} automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)



Biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Amazon region - the situation of contemporary period and strategies for reduce these environmental changes  

SciTech Connect

The forest removal is a major contributor to local, regional and global environmental changes. Many of the tropical`s species are gravely threatened Numerous studies suggest that from 1970 to 1990 between 5 and 20 percent of the tropical`s species were committed to extinction. In 1995, the deforested lands in Brazilian Amazon account an amount Superior to 470,000 Km{sup 2}, old deforestation included, for a total surface of tropical`s rain forest of 3.4 and 3.8 million square kilometres. In 1990`s, the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere (as CO{sub 2}) from Brazilian Amazon deforestation was 3.5 % to 4.9 % and 250 % to 360 % of the World and Brazilian annual emission from fossil fuels, respectively. On the other hand, if deforestation is stopped and replaced with a rational forest management, a reuse of degraded lands for agro-forestry and biomass production for energy and industrial purposes, we can reduce the pressure on forests lands and the net carbon flux will be reversed. In this paper, we discuss the relations with biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region in the last thirty years and find suggest the principal`s strategies to reduce this environmental`s destruction.

Freitas, M.A.V. de; Aquino, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.




EPA Science Inventory

Insecticide levels and application costs supplied by 31 entomological experts, plus estimates of the other costs involved with various insect control strategies, indicate that many insect control strategies that may significantly reduce insecticide use on cotton and corn may be m...


Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective  

PubMed Central

Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.



Species Diversity Improves the Efficiency of Mercury-Reducing Biofilms under Changing Environmental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Six mercury-resistant environmental proteobacterial isolates and one genetically modified mercury-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain were analyzed for physiological traits of adaptive relevance in an environment of packed-bed bioreactors designed for the decontamination of mercury-polluted chlor-alkali wastewater. The strains displayed characteristic differences in each trait (i.e., biofilm formation capability, growth rate in mercury contaminated wastewaters, and mercury reduction efficiency). Subsequently, they were immobilized either as a monoculture or as a mixed culture on porous carrier material in packed-bed bioreactors through which different batches of filter-sterilized industrial chlor-alkali wastewater were pumped. In monospecies bioreactors, the mercury retention efficiency was sensitive to rapidly increasing mercury concentrations in the wastewater. Mixed culture biofilms displayed a high mercury retention efficiency that was not affected by rapid increases in mercury or continuously high mercury concentrations. The dynamic in the community composition of the mixed culture bioreactors was determined by ribosomal intergenic spacer polymorphism analysis. Mercury-mediated selective pressure decreased the number of prevalent strains. Microbial diversity was completely restored after easing of the selective pressure. Microbial diversity provides a reservoir of strains with complementary ecological niches that results in a superior bioreactor performance under changing environmental conditions. PMID:12039739

von Canstein, Harald; Kelly, Sven; Li, Ying; Wagner-Döbler, Irene



Direct heat death and heat potentiation of radiation damage in cancer cells: modification by intracellular and environmental factors  

SciTech Connect

This investigation represents an attempt to evaluate the damaging effects of hyperthermia on mammalian cells, specifically Bp-8 murine sarcoma cells. Two types of heat damage were studied, thermal radiosensitization and direct thermal cell death. The experiments were designed to answer two fundamental questions: Do thermal radiosensitization and direct thermal death share a common lesion. What are the factors responsible for the enhanced thermal sensitivity of tumors as compared to normal body cells.

Mivechi, N.F.



Monsanto: Taking the next environmental step; New technologies are key in reducing emissions  

SciTech Connect

In meeting a 1988 pledge to reduce its worldwide air emissions 90% by the end of 1992, Monsanto completed one of the industry`s most ambitious-and costly-voluntary pollution reduction programs. After $130 million in expenditures and the completion of 250 emission reduction projects, the company had cut its worldwide air emissions 92%, to 5 million lbs, and its U.S. emissions 85%, to 2.7 million lbs. Now Monsanto is looking to take the next step by slashing emission levels of all pollutants. Monsanto has scheduled another round of deadlines that go far beyound regulatory compliance. The company plans on making further reductions, including eliminating the release of waste to underground injection wells, which will likely involve fundamental changes in technology. The company`s goal is to reduce its worldwide toxic chemical releases and transfers to less that 100 million lbs/year by 1995, down 240 million lbs for 1990`s 337 million lbs. Many of Monsanto`s efforts since it made its 1988 pledge have focused on reducing air emissions, because those emissions were the highest. While Monsanto reports about half of its air reductions come from shutdowns of inefficient processes, the 1995 reduction efforts will require increased capital investment for new processes.

Lucas, A.



The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement  

SciTech Connect

The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

William T. Hartwell



Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.



Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.  


A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits - milk production, functional trait and environmental impact - with economic values of €83, €82 and €-83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (NoIT). The other scenarios included all three breeding goal traits and one indicator trait (IT) for EI. The indicator traits were recorded on a large scale (stayability after first lactation and stature), medium scale (live weight and greenhouse gases (GHG) measured in the breath of the cow during milking) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national milk recording system, and its use as an indicator trait for EI would not generate any additional recording costs. Therefore, stayability would be a good indicator trait to use to mitigate EI. The highest genetic gain in EI (23% higher compared to NoIT) was achieved when the GHG measured in the breath of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic records for the indicator trait is high enough to achieve a moderately high reliability of direct genomic values. PMID:25134920

Hansen Axelsson, H; Thomasen, J R; Sřrensen, A C; Rydhmer, L; Kargo, M; Johansson, K; Fikse, W F



ABSTRACT: The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement  

SciTech Connect

Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site ( Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies. Finally, the CEMP provides training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs, which help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

T. Hartwell



Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?  


The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food. PMID:20696093

Edwards-Jones, Gareth



Data Mining to Improve Management and Reduce Costs Associated With Environmental Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, data from 105 soil and groundwater remediation projects at BP gas stations were mined for lessons to reduce cost and improve management of remediation sites. A data mining tool called D2K was used to train decision tree, stepwise linear regression and instance based weighting models that relate hydrogeologic, sociopolitical, temporal and remedial factors in the site closure reports to remediation cost. The most important factors influencing cost were found to be the amount of soil excavated and the number of wells installed, suggesting that better management of excavation and well placement could result in significant cost savings. The best model for predicting cost classes (low, medium, and high cost) was the decision tree which had a prediction accuracy of approximately 73%. The misclassification of approximately 27% of the sites in even the best model suggests that remediation costs at service stations are influenced by other site-specific factors that may be difficult to accurately predict in advance.

Minsker, B. S.; Farrell, D. M.



Updated estimates of earnings benefits from reduced exposure of children to environmental lead  

SciTech Connect

The recent and important study by Schwartz found that almost three-fourths of the benefits of reduced lead exposure in children are in the form of earnings gains (earnings losses avoided). New data on recent trends in returns to education and cognitive skills in the labor market suggest a need to revise this estimate upward. Based on an analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the present study estimates that an upward revision of at least 50% (or $2.5 billion per annual birth cohort) is indicated. The study also finds evidence that percentage earnings gains are considerably larger for females than for males. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Salkever, D.S. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)



Environmentally enriched rearing environments reduce repetitive perseveration in caged mink, but increase spontaneous alternation.  


Studies spanning 15 species (including American mink, Neovison vison) demonstrate that within similarly-housed populations, individuals displaying high levels of stereotypic behaviour (SB) typically show perseverative responding (e.g. during set-shifting, or reversal/extinction learning). Similar correlations in autism and schizophrenia suggest this indicates captivity-induced cortico-striatal circuit dysfunction. However, this pattern does not prove developmental impairment: SB, perseveration and their inter-correlations also occur in normal humans. We therefore differentially-reared enriched versus non-enriched mink to investigate whether treatments that exacerbate SB correspondingly increase perseveration (Study 1). Enriched-rearing did reduce SB and perseverative response repetition (in two-choice guessing tasks), while increasing spontaneous alternation: a strategy yielding more rewards, and suggesting enhanced hippocampal development. This complements previous research demonstrating cortical/hippocampal impairments and reduced behavioural flexibility in non-enriched animals, with implications for research animals and wild animals captive-raised for reintroduction into nature. Consistent with previous data, highly stereotypic subjects repeated guessing task responses most rapidly, suggesting disinhibition during repetition. However, unexpectedly, SB and perseveration did not co-vary across individuals. We therefore suggest that behavioural changes manifest as increased perseveration are important but do not fully explain captive animals' SBs, possible reasons including the contributory role of differential motivations for underlying source behaviours. Re-analyses of old data (Study 2) confirmed that spontaneous alternation is profitable; and demonstrated that the precise methods used for quantifying perseveration and SB can modify the strength of apparent relationships between them, as can statistically controlling for feeding motivation: as predicted, partialling out motivational effects increased the variance in SB predicted by perseveration. PMID:23159704

Campbell, Dana L M; Dallaire, Jamie A; Mason, Georgia J



Multi-scale path planning for reduced environmental impact of aviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future air traffic management system capable of rerouting aircraft trajectories in real-time in response to transient and evolving events would result in increased aircraft efficiency, better utilization of the airspace, and decreased environmental impact. Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is used within a receding horizon framework to form aircraft trajectories which mitigate persistent contrail formation, avoid areas of convective weather, and seek a minimum fuel solution. Areas conducive to persistent contrail formation and areas of convective weather occur at disparate temporal and spatial scales, and thereby require the receding horizon controller to be adaptable to multi-scale events. In response, a novel adaptable receding horizon controller was developed to account for multi-scale disturbances, as well as generate trajectories using both a penalty function approach for obstacle penetration and hard obstacle avoidance constraints. A realistic aircraft fuel burn model based on aircraft data and engine performance simulations is used to form the cost function in the MILP optimization. The performance of the receding horizon algorithm is tested through simulation. A scalability analysis of the algorithm is conducted to ensure the tractability of the path planner. The adaptable receding horizon algorithm is shown to successfully negotiate multi-scale environments with performance exceeding static receding horizon solutions. The path planner is applied to realistic scenarios involving real atmospheric data. A single flight example for persistent contrail mitigation shows that fuel burn increases 1.48% when approximately 50% of persistent contrails are avoided, but 6.19% when 100% of persistent contrails are avoided. Persistent contrail mitigating trajectories are generated for multiple days of data, and the research shows that 58% of persistent contrails are avoided with a 0.48% increase in fuel consumption when averaged over a year.

Campbell, Scot Edward


Diminution in property value arising from the stigma of environmental contamination: A phantom injury in search of actual damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

From all appearances, societal attitudes toward environmental contamination have evolved over the past ten years or more to become far more informed and, some would say, more realistic. For those of us who litigate environmental contamination cases, the hysteria of the 1970s and early 1980s has largely (and thankfully) waned, as society has developed a better — and more empirical—understanding

William J. Stack Esq; Terri Jacobsen Esq



Assessment of the effects of Best Environmental Practices on reducing pesticide contamination in surface water, using multi-criteria modelling combined with a GIS  

E-print Network

1 Assessment of the effects of Best Environmental Practices on reducing pesticide contamination is an Agronomist and Researcher in the Environmental Sciences at Bordeaux Center of the French Public Institute of Sciences and Technologies for the Environment and Agriculture (Irstea). His principal research topics are

Boyer, Edmond


Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines  

PubMed Central

Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the U.S. Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in 7 isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of ?H2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis. PMID:21538559

Yamamoto, Kimiyo N.; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P.; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.



Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines.  


Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the US Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in seven isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of ?H2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis. PMID:21538559

Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R



Glutamine and alanyl-glutamine increase RhoA expression and reduce Clostridium difficile toxin-a-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage.  


Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Glutamine (Gln) is a major fuel for the intestinal cell population. Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) is a dipeptide that is highly soluble and well tolerated. IEC-6 cells were used in the in vitro experiments. Cell morphology was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell proliferation was assessed by WST-1 and Ki-67 and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Cytoskeleton was evaluated by immunofluorescence for RhoA and F-actin. RhoA was quantified by immunoblotting. TcdA induced cell shrinkage as observed by AFM, SEM, and fluorescent microscopy. Additionally, collapse of the F-actin cytoskeleton was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. TcdA decreased cell volume and area and increased cell height by 79%, 66.2%, and 58.9%, respectively. Following TcdA treatment, Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation, significantly increased RhoA by 65.5% and 89.7%, respectively at 24 h. Ala-Gln supplementation increased cell proliferation by 137.5% at 24 h and decreased cell apoptosis by 61.4% at 24 h following TcdA treatment. In conclusion, TcdA altered intestinal cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization, decreased cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis. Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation reduced intestinal epithelial cell damage and increased RhoA expression. PMID:23484083

Santos, Ana A Q A; Braga-Neto, Manuel B; Oliveira, Marcelo R; Freire, Rosemeire S; Barros, Eduardo B; Santiago, Thiago M; Rebelo, Luciana M; Mermelstein, Claudia; Warren, Cirle A; Guerrant, Richard L; Brito, Gerly A C



An efficient Foxtail mosaic virus vector system with reduced environmental risk  

PubMed Central

Background Plant viral vectors offer high-yield expression of pharmaceutical and commercially important proteins with a minimum of cost and preparation time. The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been introduced to deliver the viral vector as a transgene to each plant cell via a simple, nonsterile infiltration technique called "agroinoculation". With agroinoculation, a full length, systemically moving virus is no longer necessary for excellent protein yield, since the viral transgene is transcribed and replicates in every infiltrated cell. Viral genes may therefore be deleted to decrease the potential for accidental spread and persistence of the viral vector in the environment. Results In this study, both the coat protein (CP) and triple gene block (TGB) genetic segments were eliminated from Foxtail mosaic virus to create the "FECT" vector series, comprising a deletion of 29% of the genome. This viral vector is highly crippled and expresses little or no marker gene within the inoculated leaf. However, when co-agroinoculated with a silencing suppressor (p19 or HcPro), FECT expressed GFP at 40% total soluble protein in the tobacco host, Nicotiana benthamiana. The modified FoMV vector retained the full-length replicase ORF, the TGB1 subgenomic RNA leader sequence and either 0, 22 or 40 bases of TGB1 ORF (in vectors FECT0, FECT22 and FECT40, respectively). As well as N. benthamiana, infection of legumes was demonstrated. Despite many attempts, expression of GFP via syringe agroinoculation of various grass species was very low, reflecting the low Agrobacterium-mediated transformation rate of monocots. Conclusions The FECT/40 vector expresses foreign genes at a very high level, and yet has a greatly reduced biohazard potential. It can form no virions and can effectively replicate only in a plant with suppressed silencing. PMID:21162736



Comet assay application in environmental monitoring: DNA damage in human leukocytes and plant cells in comparison with bacterial and yeast tests.  


Urban airborne particulate is a complex mixture of air pollutants, many of which have not been identified. However, short-term mutagenesis tests together with chemicophysical parameter analysis are able to better assess air quality and genotoxic load. The findings of continuous monitoring (January 1991-August 1998) of urban air genotoxicity of a Po Valley town (Italy) on Salmonella typhimurium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are reported. During this period, various measures (catalytic devices, unleaded fuels, annual vehicle overhaul, etc.) to improve air-dispersed pollutant control were enforced. However, a continuous presence of genotoxic compounds is shown and more qualitative than quantitative changes are evident. We also demonstrate the ability of the Comet assay to detect DNA-damaging agents in airborne particulate samples. We applied the test to human leukocytes and, with major improvements, to plant cells (Allium cepa roots and epigean tissues of Impatiens balsamina). The first findings on human leukocytes confirm the sensitivity of this assay, its peculiarity and its applicability in assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. The capability of plants to show the response of multicellular organisms to environmental pollutants largely counterbalances a probable lowering in sensitivity. Moreover, application of the Comet test to epigean tissues could be useful in estimating the bioavailability of and genotoxic damage by air pollutants, including volatile compounds (ozone, benzene, nitrogen oxides, etc.) to higher plants. PMID:10567029

Poli, P; Buschini, A; Restivo, F M; Ficarelli, A; Cassoni, F; Ferrero, I; Rossi, C



Environmental Education in Small Business: The Owner-Manager's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, environmental education has been aimed at the community or in primary schools and governmental pressure to reduce environmental damage has focussed on large businesses. More recently, the role and importance of small business and how to engage them in the environmental debate has come under scrutiny. Researchers have identified…

Redmond, Janice; Walker, Elizabeth



Reducing Virus Associated Crop Loss Through Resistance to Insect Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of sustainable, environmentally-benign methods of crop protection is an important priority in agricultural\\u000a research. A variety of insects attack crops, causing damage and reducing yields and crop quality. Insects cause crop loss\\u000a directly through feeding on leaves, flowers, fruit or seed. A subset of insects damages crops indirectly, through transmission\\u000a of plant viruses, resulting in reduced yield and

Martha A. Mutschler; William M. Wintermantel


Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work is to test the protective effects of lutein and zeaxanthin against photo-oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and oxidation-induced changes in expression of inflammation-related genes. To mimic lipofuscin-mediated photo-oxidation in vivo, we used ARPE-19 cells that accumulated A2E, a lipofuscin fluorophore and photosensitizer, as a model system to investigate the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation. The data show that supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin in the medium resulted in accumulation of lutein or zeaxanthin in the RPE cells. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in the cells were 2–14-fold of that detected in the medium, indicating that ARPE-19 cells actively take up lutein or zeaxanthin. As compared with untreated cells, exposure of A2E-containing RPE to blue light resulted in a 40–60% decrease in proteasome activity, a 50–80% decrease in expression of CFH and MCP-1, and an ~ 20-fold increase in expression of IL-8. The photo-oxidation-induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and CFH were similar to those caused by chemical inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting that inactivation of the proteasome is involved in the photo-oxidation-induced alteration in expression of these inflammation-related genes. Incubation of the A2E-containing RPE with lutein or zeaxanthin prior to blue light exposure significantly attenuated the photo-oxidation-induced inactivation of the proteasome and photo-oxidation induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and CFH. Together, these data indicate that lutein or zeaxanthin modulates inflammatory responses in cultured RPE in response to photo-oxidation. Protecting the proteasome from oxidative inactivation appears to be one of the mechanisms by which lutein and zeaxanthin modulate the inflammatory response. Similar mechanisms may explain salutary effects of lutein and zeaxanthin in reducing the risk for AMD. PMID:22732187

Bian, Qingning; Gao, Shasha; Zhou, Jilin; Qin, Jian; Taylor, Allen; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Tang, Guangwen; Sparrow, Janet R.; Gierhart, Dennis; Shang, Fu



Using Community Advisory Boards to Reduce Environmental Barriers to Health in American Indian Communities, Wisconsin, 2007–2012  

PubMed Central

Background American Indian communities have a high prevalence of chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Innovative community-based approaches are needed to identify, prioritize, and create sustainable interventions to reduce environmental barriers to healthy lifestyles and ultimately improve health. Community Context Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based and community-based intervention to increase healthy lifestyles on Wisconsin American Indian reservations. This intervention arose from a long-standing partnership between University of Wisconsin researchers and 3 of these American Indian communities. Methods In each community, community advisory boards (CABs) were established by the residents and university partners. CAB meetings were open and held at various times and locations to increase member participation. CABs featured continual, snowball recruitment; internal and external expert consultation; and coordination with standing tribal committees. Meetings initially focused on understanding community supports for and barriers to healthy lifestyles but quickly turned toward community action for change. Outcome CAB interventions decreased environmental barriers to health at each site and improved options for healthy lifestyle choices. Over 5 years, 71 CAB meetings occurred with a total of 1,070 participants. Successful CAB interventions included planting community gardens and an apple orchard, conducting gardening and canning workshops, instituting food-related policies and dog control regulations, building an environmentally friendly playground, and providing access to recreational facilities. The CABs are now self-sustaining. Interpretation CABs can be highly effective action teams capable of improving community environments. Our experience shows that academic researchers can partner with community residents to generate programs and policies that will expand access to local food, increase people’s choices for engaging in physical activity, and encourage local policy changes that improve overall community health. PMID:25232747

Scott, Jamie R.; Prince, Ron; Williamson, Amy



Environmentally relevant concentrations of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) induced oxidative and genetic damage in Dreissena polymorpha.  


Synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) are extensively used as fragrances in several personal care products and have been recognized as emerging aquatic pollutants. Among SMCs, galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) are extensively used and have been measured in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. However, their potential risk to organisms remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 21-day exposures to HHCB and AHTN concentrations frequently measured in aquatic ecosystems can induce oxidative and genetic damage in Dreissena polymorpha. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were measured as oxidative stress indexes, while the DNA precipitation assay and the micronucleus test (MN test) were applied to investigate genetic injuries. HHCB induced significant increases in LPO and PCC levels, while AHTN enhanced only protein carbonylation. Moreover, significant increases in DNA strand breaks were caused by exposure to the highest concentrations of HHCB and AHTN tested in the present study, but no fixed genetic damage was observed. PMID:25462865

Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Traversi, Irene; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio; Binelli, Andrea



Environmental Adaptation: Genomic Analysis of the Piezotolerant and Psychrotolerant Deep-Sea Iron Reducing Bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3  

PubMed Central

Shewanella species are widespread in various environments. Here, the genome sequence of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, a piezotolerant and psychrotolerant iron reducing bacterium from deep-sea sediment was determined with related functional analysis to study its environmental adaptation mechanisms. The genome of WP3 consists of 5,396,476 base pairs (bp) with 4,944 open reading frames (ORFs). It possesses numerous genes or gene clusters which help it to cope with extreme living conditions such as genes for two sets of flagellum systems, structural RNA modification, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) biosynthesis and osmolyte transport and synthesis. And WP3 contains 55 open reading frames encoding putative c-type cytochromes which are substantial to its wide environmental adaptation ability. The mtr-omc gene cluster involved in the insoluble metal reduction in the Shewanella genus was identified and compared. The two sets of flagellum systems were found to be differentially regulated under low temperature and high pressure; the lateral flagellum system was found essential for its motility and living at low temperature. PMID:18398463

Jian, Huahua; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengkang; Wang, Feng; Zeng, Xiaowei; Gao, Lei; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Xiao, Xiang



An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation  

PubMed Central

Background Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems. Methods We performed a decision analysis in a poorly studied area, trip aggregation, and studied decisions from the perspective of two different stakeholders, the passenger and society. We modelled the impact and potential of composite traffic, a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, where a centralised system would collect the information on all trip demands online, would merge the trips with the same origin and destination into public vehicles with eight or four seats, and then would transmit the trip instructions to the passengers' mobile phones. Results We show here that in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health, environmental, and other detrimental impacts of car traffic typically by 50–70%, and if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, and within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies. Conclusion Composite traffic provides new degrees of freedom in urban decision-making in identifying novel solutions to the problems of urban traffic. PMID:16309549

Tuomisto, Jouni T; Tainio, Marko




PubMed Central

This article presents results from a study of a home environmental strategy (HES) designed to reduce availability of harmful legal products (HLPs) in the home that can be used by youth to get high. HLPs include inhalants, prescription and non-prescription drugs, and household products that can be ingested to get high. Availability is one of the most consistent predictors of substance use among youth. Parents of 5th to 7th-grade students in four Alaskan communities participated in telephone interviews as part of a larger study of a multi-component Community Prevention Model that included a HES. The strategy was designed to encourage parents to reduce availability of HLPs by removing them from the home, and by locking up and monitoring the supplies of HLPs in the home. Data from 402 parents at Wave 1 and 371 parents at Wave 2 were analyzed using Hierarchical Non-Linear Modeling (HNLM). Results show there was a significant decrease in HLPs in the home from Wave 1 to Wave 2, mostly inhalants, prescription and non-prescription drugs. Parents also reported a significant increase in locking up prescription and non-prescription drugs in the home. Parents’ direct exposure to the HES was marginally associated with the change over time in HLP availability in the home. Indirect exposure through others and media was not associated with this change. Study lessons learned and conclusions are highlighted. PMID:22943304

Collins, David A.; Johnson, Knowlton W.; Shamblen, Stephen R.



Preparation of Kupffer cell enriched non-parenchymal liver cells with high yield and reduced damage of surface markers by a modified method for flow cytometry.  


The aim of this study was to optimise a collagenase perfusion protocol for the isolation of a liver non-parenchymal cell (NPC) suspension enriched for Kupffer cells that reduced damage to F4/80 antigen cell surface expression to allow analysis by flow cytometry. Kupffer cell-enriched liver NPCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mice using different protocols. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of collagenase digestion on F4/80 expression on Kupffer cells, and results were represented by the percentage of F4/80 positive cells and by the F4/80 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The perfusion temperature, concentration of collagenase solution and total dosage of collagenase for liver perfusion influenced the effect of collagenase perfusion on the expression of F4/80 antigen on Kupffer cells. Collagenase perfusion at 28°C resulted in an increased percentage of F4/80 positive cells (P?=?0.001) and MFI (P?=?0.005) compared with 37°C. Perfusion with a total dose of 1.0?g/kg BW collagenase (using a 0.75?mg/mL solution) resulted in the highest percentage of F4/80 positive cells (P?=?0.001) compared with 0.8?g/kg BW and 1.2?g/kg BW collagenase. Isolation of cells using the modified protocol resulted in a higher percentage of Kupffer cells (P?

Xu, Fan; Zhen, Peng; Zheng, Yu; LIjuan, Feng; Aiting, Yang; Min, Cong; Hong, You; Jidong, Jia



Reduced mitochondrial ROS, enhanced antioxidant defense, and distinct age-related changes in oxidative damage in muscles of long-lived Peromyscus leucopus  

PubMed Central

Comparing biological processes in closely related species with divergent life spans is a powerful approach to study mechanisms of aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that longer-lived species would have lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and/or an increased antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced oxidative damage with age than in shorter-lived species. In this study, we measured ROS generation in the young adult animals of the long-lived white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (maximal life span potential, MLSP = 8 yr) and the common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus (C57BL/6J strain; MLSP = 3.5 yr). Consistent with the hypothesis, our results show that skeletal muscle mitochondria from adult P. leucopus produce less ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) compared with M. musculus. Additionally, P. leucopus has an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 1 at young age. P. leucopus compared with M. musculus display low levels of lipid peroxidation (isoprostanes) throughout life; however, P. leucopus although having elevated protein carbonyls at a young age, the accrual of protein oxidation with age is minimal in contrast to the linear increase in M. musculus. Altogether, the results from young animals are in agreement with the predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging with the exception of protein carbonyls. Nonetheless, the age-dependent increase in protein carbonyls is more pronounced in short-lived M. musculus, which supports enhanced protein homeostasis in long-lived P. leucopus. PMID:23325454

Shi, Yun; Pulliam, Daniel A.; Liu, Yuhong; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Jernigan, Amanda L.; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sloane, Lauren B.; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Ungvari, Zoltan; Austad, Steven N.



Reduced brown adipose tissue thermogenesis during environmental interactions in transgenic rats with ataxin-3-mediated ablation of hypothalamic orexin neurons.  


Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to substantial increases in body temperature evoked by threatening or emotional stimuli. BAT thermogenesis also contributes to increases in body temperature that occur during active phases of the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC), as part of normal daily life. Hypothalamic orexin-synthesizing neurons influence many physiological and behavioral variables, including BAT and body temperature. In conscious unrestrained animals maintained for 3 days in a quiet environment (24-26°C) with ad libitum food and water, we compared temperatures in transgenic rats with ablation of orexin neurons induced by expression of ataxin-3 (Orx_Ab) with wild-type (WT) rats. Both baseline BAT temperature and baseline body temperature, measured at the onset of BRAC episodes, were similar in Orx_Ab and WT rats. The time interval between BRAC episodes was also similar in the two groups. However, the initial slopes and amplitudes of BRAC-related increases in BAT and body temperature were reduced in Orx_Ab rats. Similarly, the initial slopes and amplitudes of the increases in BAT temperatures induced by sudden exposure to an intruder rat (freely moving or confined to a small cage) or by sudden exposure to live cockroaches were reduced in resident Orx_Ab rats. Constriction of the tail artery induced by salient alerting stimuli was also reduced in Orx_Ab rats. Our results suggest that orexin-synthesizing neurons contribute to the intensity with which rats interact with the external environment, both when the interaction is "spontaneous" and when the interaction is provoked by threatening or salient environmental events. PMID:25324552

Mohammed, Mazher; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Blessing, William



Remediation of ecosystems damaged by environmental contamination: Applications of ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the applicability of ecological engineering to pollution problems prevalent in present-day Central and Eastern Europe, a SCOPE-UNEP sponsored workshop was held in Estonia in November 1995. The workshop was undertaken specifically to obtain information from and to train planners, managers and scientists in the region. These `countries in transition' face, in many respects, unique environmental problems as a

W. J Mitsch; Ü Mander



The Relationship between Environmental Exposures to Phthalates and DNA Damage in Human Sperm Using the Neutral Comet Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited

Susan M. Duty; Narendra P. Singh; Manori J. Silva; Dana B. Barr; John W. Brock; Louise Ryan; Robert F. Herrick; David C. Christiani; Russ Hauser



Loss of p21{sup Sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage accompanied with increase of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 interaction with p21{sup Sdi1} gene promoter  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin or X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.

Choi, Ok Ran [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, In Kyoung, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of)




EPA Science Inventory

The report lists the expected insect control costs and insecticide use per acre for each insect control method on corn and cotton in each region discussed in Alternatives for Reducing Insecticides on Cotton and Corn: Economic and Environmental Impact. All the runs used in the lin...


Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation.  


The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH?)?SO? as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. PMID:25089689

Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Runfeng; Cheng, Wangda; Zeng, Fanrong; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Hu, Xinna; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo



2012 Environmental Performance Index: Ecosystem Vitality Objective The 2012 EPI builds on measures relevant to the goal of reducing the loss or degradation of  

E-print Network

2012 Environmental Performance Index: Ecosystem Vitality Objective The 2012 EPI builds on measures relevant to the goal of reducing the loss or degradation of ecosystems and natural resources, which are grouped into one objective category named ecosystem vitality. The objective weight is 70% of the overall

Columbia University



EPA Science Inventory

An in situ methodology based on immobilized redox indicators has been developed to determine when Fe(III)-reducing conditions exist in environmental systems. The redox indicators thionine (Thi, formal potential at pH 7 ( E 70') equals 66 mV), tol...


Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions,  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions, an aircraft design optimisation framework is used to design aircraft that minimise specific envi- ronmental

Papalambros, Panos


Using expert knowledge to increase realism in environmental system models can dramatically reduce the need for calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual environmental systems models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of model for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, strategies for better parameter identification were developed in the past, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding regarding how a catchment works into the process of parameterizing a conceptual model has still not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effect of imposing semi-quantitative, relational expert knowledge into the model development and parameter selection, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e. wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simplicity to complexity, three model set-ups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC have been developed based on these functional units. While FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC introduce increasingly more complexity by distinguishing 2 and 3 functional units, respectively. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters as well as states and fluxes of their different functional units to each other. Based on these comparisons, expert knowledge based, semi-quantitative relational constraints have been imposed on three models structures. More complexity of models allows more imposed constraints. It was shown that a constrained but uncalibrated semi-distributed model, FLEXC, can predict runoff with similar performance than a calibrated lumped model, FLEXA. In addition, when constrained and calibrated, the semi-distributed model FLEXC exhibits not only higher performance but also reduced uncertainty for prediction, compared to the calibrated, lumped FLEXA model.

Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.



Novel flashlamp-based time-resolved fluorescence microscope reduces autofluorescence for 30-fold contrast enhancement in environmental samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of naturally fluorescing components (autofluorophors) encountered in environmentally sourced samples can greatly hinder the detection and identification of fluorescently labeled target using fluorescence microscopy. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy (TRFM) is a technique that reduces the effects of autofluorescence through precisely controlled time delays. Lanthanide chelates have fluorescence lifetimes many orders of magnitude greater than typical autofluorophors, and persist in their luminescence long after autofluorescence has ceased. An intense short pulse of (UV) light is used to excite fluorescence in the sample and after a short delay period the longer persisting fluorescence from the chelate is captured with an image-intensified CCD camera. The choice of pulsed excitation source for TRFM has a large impact on the price and performance of the instrument. A flashlamp with a short pulse duration was selected for our instrument because of the high spectral energy in the UV region and short pulse length. However, flash output decays with an approximate lifetime of 18?s and the TRFM requires a long-lived chelate to ensure probe fluorescence is still visible after decay of the flash plasma. We synthesized a recently reported fluorescent chelate (BHHCT) and conjugated it to a monoclonal antibody directed against the water-borne parasite Giardia lamblia. Fluorescence lifetime of the construct was determined to be 339?s +/- 14?s and provided a 45-fold enhancement of labeled Giardia over background using a gate delay of 100?s. Despite the sub-optimal decay characteristics of the light pulse, flashlamps have many advantages compared to optical chopper wheels and modulated lasers. Their low cost, lack of vibration, ease of interface and small footprint are important factors to consider in TRFM design.

Connally, Russell; Veal, Duncan; Piper, James A.



Indigowood root extract protects hematopoietic cells, reduces tissue damage and modulates inflammatory cytokines after total-body irradiation: Does Indirubin play a role in radioprotection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radix of Isatis indigotica (indigowood root, IR) has been used in traditional medicine for its potential anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study is to investigate the radioprotective effects of radiation caused damages in hematopoietic system and normal tissues in mice. A total of 57 BALB\\/c mice were randomized into six treatment groups: control, IR treatment (0.195, 0.585 and 1.170g\\/kg,

Weir Chiang You; Wen Chuan Lin; Jia Tsz Huang; Chang Chi Hsieh



Toxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine  

E-print Network

triphosphate and to reduce growth under stress Hsin-Yao Cheng,1 Valerie W. C. Soo,1 Sabina Islam,1 Michael J to the pole and does not cause cell lysis under physiological conditions. Introduction of an F38R substitution and that this reduc- tion in metabolism is important for growth with various antimicrobials. Introduction In contrast

Wood, Thomas K.


?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.  


The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (PĽ0·004, d Ľ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (PĽ0·005, d Ľ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (PĽ0·08, d Ľ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John



Enhanced ?-ionone emission in Arabidopsis over-expressing AtCCD1 reduces feeding damage in vivo by the crucifer flea beetle.  


Plant carotenoid derived ?-ionone has been shown to have diverse biological effects on some insect herbivores and herbivore parasitoids. In this study, Arabidopsis transgenic plants over-expressing a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase1 gene (AtCCD1) were generated to test whether ?-ionone emissions could be enhanced and used to control feeding by the crucifer flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze). The transgenic plants exhibited a morphological phenotype indistinguishable from the wild type (WT) control over their complete life cycle. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of headspace volatiles collected from 6-wk-old intact flowering plants revealed substantially enhanced ?-ionone emission from transgenic plants compared with WT, but no ?-ionone enhancement occurred at a young vegetative stage (4-wk-old seedlings). Bioassays in an enclosed environment showed that AtCCD1 over-expression resulted in ?50% less leaf area damage by flea beetles on transgenic plants compared with WT plants. The mean number of damaged transgenic leaves per plant also was significantly lower in transgenic plants (P<0.05). Our results indicate that AtCCD1 over-expression and induced ?-ionone emission might find application in the control of pests for Brassica crops grown in greenhouse operations. Potentially, ?-ionone also could be used on crops grown in open-air ecosystems if this allomone is released in sufficient quantities to discourage herbivore foragers. PMID:22217781

Wei, Shu; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Soroka, Julie; Xu, Ning; Li, Xiang; Zebarjadi, Alireza; Gruber, Margaret



dl-3-n-Butylphthalide prevents oxidative damage and reduces mitochondrial dysfunction in an MPP(+)-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease.  


The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP(+))-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). NBP was extracted from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. (Chinese celery). MPP(+) treatment of PC12 cells caused reduced viability, formation of reactive oxygen, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicated that NBP reduced the cytotoxicity of MPP(+) by suppressing the mitochondrial permeability transition, reducing oxidative stress, and increasing the cellular GSH content. NBP also reduced the accumulation of alpha-synuclein, the main component of Lewy bodies. Given that NBP is safe and currently used in clinical trials for stroke patients, NBP will likely be a promising chemical for the treatment of PD. PMID:20347933

Huang, Jin-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Zhu; Su, Min; Zheng, Hui-Fen; Yang, Ya-Ping; Chen, Jing; Liu, Chun-Feng



The Antiepileptic Drug Levetiracetam Suppresses Non-Convulsive Seizure Activity and Reduces Ischemic Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

The antiepileptic drug Levetiracetam (Lev) has neuroprotective properties in experimental stroke, cerebral hemorrhage and neurotrauma. In these conditions, non-convulsive seizures (NCSs) propagate from the core of the focal lesion into perilesional tissue, enlarging the damaged area and promoting epileptogenesis. Here, we explore whether Lev neuroprotective effect is accompanied by changes in NCS generation or propagation. In particular, we performed continuous EEG recordings before and after the permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO) in rats that received Lev (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle immediately before surgery. Both in Lev-treated and in control rats, EEG activity was suppressed after pMCAO. In control but not in Lev-treated rats, EEG activity reappeared approximately 30-45 min after pMCAO. It initially consisted in single spikes and, then, evolved into spike-and-wave and polyspike-and-wave discharges. In Lev-treated rats, only rare spike events were observed and the EEG power was significantly smaller than in controls. Approximately 24 hours after pMCAO, EEG activity increased in Lev-treated rats because of the appearance of polyspike events whose power was, however, significantly smaller than in controls. In rats sacrificed 24 hours after pMCAO, the ischemic lesion was approximately 50% smaller in Lev-treated than in control rats. A similar neuroprotection was observed in rats sacrificed 72 hours after pMCAO. In conclusion, in rats subjected to pMCAO, a single Lev injection suppresses NCS occurrence for at least 24 hours. This electrophysiological effect could explain the long lasting reduction of ischemic brain damage caused by this drug. PMID:24236205

Cuomo, Ornella; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Leo, Antonio; Politi, Giovanni Bosco; Vinciguerra, Antonio; di Renzo, Gianfranco; Cataldi, Mauro




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...


Environmental Benefits from Reduced Pesticide Use and Returns to Research: An Application to the U.S. Cotton Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton production is one of the main pesticide use industries in the U.S. This intensive use has resulted in the disruption of naturally occurring biological control factors that regulate other insect pest populations and “the pesticide treadmill”. The result is resistance to insecticides, high control costs and unacceptable levels of chemical insecticides in the environment. Concerns about the environmental and

Doris N. Sande; Jeffrey D. Mullen; Augustus N. Matekole



Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions  

PubMed Central

A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repair is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase ?, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL. PMID:24631220

Cunniffe, Siobhan; O’Neill, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; Lomax, Martine E.



Structural damage detection based on stochastic subspace identification and statistical pattern recognition: I. Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key issues in vibration-based structural health monitoring is to extract the damage-sensitive but environment-insensitive features from sampled dynamic response measurements and to carry out the statistical analysis of these features for structural damage detection. A new damage feature is proposed in this paper by using the system matrices of the forward innovation model based on the covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification of a vibrating system. To overcome the variations of the system matrices, a non-singularity transposition matrix is introduced so that the system matrices are normalized to their standard forms. For reducing the effects of modeling errors, noise and environmental variations on measured structural responses, a statistical pattern recognition paradigm is incorporated into the proposed method. The Mahalanobis and Euclidean distance decision functions of the damage feature vector are adopted by defining a statistics-based damage index. The proposed structural damage detection method is verified against one numerical signal and two numerical beams. It is demonstrated that the proposed statistics-based damage index is sensitive to damage and shows some robustness to the noise and false estimation of the system ranks. The method is capable of locating damage of the beam structures under different types of excitations. The robustness of the proposed damage detection method to the variations in environmental temperature is further validated in a companion paper by a reinforced concrete beam tested in the laboratory and a full-scale arch bridge tested in the field.

Ren, W. X.; Lin, Y. Q.; Fang, S. E.



Bioenhanced dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase of trichloroethylene as affected by iron reducing conditions: Model systems and environmental samples.  


The anaerobic biotransformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) can be affected by competing electron acceptors such as Fe (III). This study assessed the role of Fe (III) reduction on the bioenhanced dissolution of TCE dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). Columns were set up as 1-D diffusion cells consisting of a lower DNAPL layer, a layer with an aquifer substratum and an upper water layer that is regularly refreshed. The substrata used were either inert sand or sand coated with 2-line ferrihydrite (HFO) or two environmental Fe (III) containing samples. The columns were inoculated with KB-1 and were repeatedly fed with formate. In none of the diffusion cells, vinyl chloride or ethene was detected while dissolved and extractable Fe (II) increased strongly during 60d of incubation. The cis-DCE concentration peaked at 4.0cm from the DNAPL (inert sand) while it was at 3.4cm (sand+HFO), 1.7cm and 2.5cm (environmental samples). The TCE concentration gradients near the DNAPL indicate that the DNAPL dissolution rate was larger than that in an abiotic cell by factors 1.3 (inert sand), 1.0 (sand+HFO) and 2.2 (both environmental samples). This results show that high bioavailable Fe (III) in HFO reduces the TCE degradation by competitive Fe (III) reduction, yielding lower bioenhanced dissolution. However, Fe (III) reduction in environmental samples was not reducing TCE degradation and the dissolution factor was even larger than that of inert sand. It is speculated that physical factors, e.g. micro-niches in the environmental samples protect microorganisms from toxic concentrations of TCE. PMID:25460750

Paul, Laiby; Smolders, Erik



Tornado Damage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about tornadoes, the damage they cause, and how to rate tornadoes. Specifically, students investigate the Enhanced Fujita Damage Scale of tornado intensity, and use it to complete a mock engineering analysis of damage caused by a tornado. Additional consideration is given to tornado warning systems and how these systems can be improved to be safer. Lastly, students learn basic tornado safety procedures.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Transgenic expression of fern Pteris vittata glutaredoxin PvGrx5 in Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant tolerance to high temperature stress and reduces oxidative damage to proteins.  


A glutaredoxin of the fern Pteris vittata PvGRX5 was previously implicated in arsenic tolerance. Because of possible involvements of glutaredoxins in metabolic adaptations to high temperature stress, transgenic Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing PvGRX5 were evaluated for thermotolerance. Homozygous lines expressing PvGRX5 exhibited significantly greater tolerance to high temperature stress than the vector control and wild-type, based upon growth during stress and during recovery from stress, and this was related to leaf glutaredoxin specific activities. Measurements of tissue ion leakage, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content showed that PvGRX5-expressors were significantly (P < 0.05) less affected by the high temperature treatment compared to wild-type and vector control lines for damage to membranes and proteins. Immunoblots indicated that specific protein bands, carbonylated during the stress treatment in the control lines, were protected in PvGRX5-expressors, thus implicating PvGRX5 in heat tolerance, likely mediated through cellular protection against oxidative stress. PMID:19936779

Sundaram, Sabarinath; Rathinasabapathi, Bala



Indigowood root extract protects hematopoietic cells, reduces tissue damage and modulates inflammatory cytokines after total-body irradiation: does Indirubin play a role in radioprotection?  


Radix of Isatis indigotica (indigowood root, IR) has been used in traditional medicine for its potential anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study is to investigate the radioprotective effects of radiation caused damages in hematopoietic system and normal tissues in mice. A total of 57 BALB/c mice were randomized into six treatment groups: control, IR treatment (0.195, 0.585 and 1.170 g/kg, p.o. daily), L-glutamine (0.520 g/kg) and sham group. All mice except the sham group were irradiated and then administered for one week. The radioprotective effect on hematopoietic system, serum cytokines, and intestinal toxicity was studied. Protective effects on spleen and thymus are found in IR-treated groups. IR assisted in restoration of leukocytopenia after whole mice irradiation with significant reduction of serum TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. These enhancements of hematopoietic effects are due to an increase in the serum G-CSF concentration in IR treated groups. In histopathological assessment, significant improvement of intestine toxicity is observed in high-dose IR and L-glutamine group. Evidences show that IR has potentials to be a radioprotector, especially in recovery of hematopoietic system, reduction of inflammatory cytokines and intestinal toxicity. Indirubin may play a crucial role, but the underlying mechanism is not very clear and warrants further studies. PMID:19589667

You, Weir Chiang; Lin, Wen Chuan; Huang, Jia Tsz; Hsieh, Chang Chi



Ginsenoside Rbeta1 reduces neurologic damage, is anti-apoptotic, and down-regulates p53 and BAX in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  


Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury following SAH but none have reached the level of effectiveness needed to clinically reduce mortality. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of the Chinese traditional medicine Panax Ginseng, has been shown to reduce ischemic brain injury and myocardial injury via anti-apoptotic pathways. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 on SAH induced brain injury in rats. Four groups were used: sham, vehicle (SAH), low dose treatment (SAH+ 5mg/kg GRb1), and high dose treatment (SAH+ 20mg/kg GRb1). Post assessment included wall thickness and mean cross-section area of basilar artery were measured for evaluating cerebral vasospasm, Evans blue extravasations to assess blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis looking for specific pro-apoptotic markers, and tunnel staining for cell death assessment. In addition, mortality, neurological function and brain edema were investigated. The results showed that high dose GRb1 treatment significantly enlarged mean cross-sectional area and decreased wall thickness of basilar artery, reduced neurological deficits, brain edema, BBB disruption, and TUNEL positive cell expression. Same time, we found that the proteins expression of P53, Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of bcl-2 was up-regulated in Rb1 treatment. The results of this study suggest that GRb1 could relieve cerebral vasospasm and potentially provide neuroprotection in SAH victims. The underlying mechanisms may be partly related to inhibition of P53 and Bax dependent proapoptosis pathway. More studies will be needed to confirm these results and determine its potential as a long term agent. PMID:20353383

Li, Yingbo; Tang, Jiping; Khatibi, Nikan H; Zhu, Mei; Chen, Di; Zheng, Weiping; Wang, Shali



The use of third-party review to reduce health and environmental hazards from surfactants and cleaning products in the janitorial industry.  


The demand for environmentally preferable products is increasing in the area of Institutional and Industrial (I&I) cleaners. The GreenBlue Institute (GreenBlue) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Design for Environment (DfE) launched two programs to review surfactant ingredients and final cleaning products, with the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) conducting third-party reviews. The Local Hazardous Waste Management Program (LHWMP) in King County, Washington, has a strategic goal to reduce the risk of exposure of hazardous chemicals to vulnerable populations such as janitorial workers. This report summarizes the NSF partnership with GreenBlue, CleanGredients, and U.S. EPA's DfE to perform third-party reviews of cleaning product ingredients and its relevance to LHWMP's interest in reducing risks to workers in the janitorial industry. Due to information barriers, workers in the janitorial industry are at risk daily to these hazardous chemicals. The surfactant and formulator review program will make positive contributions towards the reduction of toxic chemical exposure to the employees of the janitorial industry. With proper communication and an increased use of less toxic cleaners, exposures to vulnerable populations can be reduced. PMID:19452830

Okumura, Kazuhiro



Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg



Slam Haplotype 2 Promotes NKT But Suppresses V?4+ T-Cell Activation in Coxsackievirus B3 Infection Leading to Increased Liver Damage But Reduced Myocarditis  

PubMed Central

There are two major haplotypes of signal lymphocytic activation molecule (Slam) in inbred mouse strains, with the Slam haplotype 1 expressed in C57Bl/6 mice and the Slam haplotype 2 expressed in most other commonly used inbred strains, including 129 mice. Because signaling through Slam family receptors can affect innate immunity [natural killer T cell (NKT) and ?-? T-cell receptor], and innate immunity can determine susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, the present study evaluated the response of C57Bl/6 and congenic B6.129c1 mice (expressing the 129-derived Slam locus) to CVB3. CVB3-infected C57Bl/6 male mice developed increased myocarditis but reduced hepatic injury compared with infected B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice also had increased ??+ and CD8+interferon-?+ cells but decreased numbers of NKT (T-cell receptor ? chain + mCD1d tetramer+) and CD4+FoxP3+ cells compared with B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with CVB3 and treated with either ?-galactosylceramide, an NKT cell-specific ligand, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/PBS). Mice treated with ?-galactosylceramide showed significantly reduced myocarditis. Liver injuries, as determined by alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma, were increased significantly, confirming that NKT cells are protective for myocarditis but pathogenic in the liver. PMID:23195432

Huber, Sally Ann; Roberts, Brian; Moussawi, Mohamad; Boyson, Jonathan E.



Adverse effects of reduced oxygen tension on the proliferative capacity of rat kidney and insulin-secreting cell lines involve DNA damage and stress responses  

SciTech Connect

Standard cell culture conditions do not reflect the physiological environment in terms of oxygen tension (20% vs 3%). The effects of lowering oxygen tension on cell proliferation in culture can be beneficial as well as detrimental depending on the cell line studied, but the molecular mechanism underlying such effects is not fully understood. We observed that the proliferative capacity of the rat cell lines NRK and INS-1 was inhibited when cultured under 3% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen. Suppression of proliferation in NRK cells was accompanied by induction of DNA double strand breaks whereas in INS-1 cells it was accompanied by up-regulation of p53 and p27. Although Sirt1 was up-regulated in both cell lines by 3% oxygen the effects on antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, CuZnSOD and catalase) were cell line specific. Marked up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected in both NRK and INS-1 cells when cultured in 3% oxygen. HO-1 expression can be readily induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide in culture. These results suggest that reduced oxygen tension suppresses the proliferative capacity of these two cell lines through a stress response that is similar to an oxidative stress response but the molecular events that lead to the reduced cell proliferation are cell line specific.

Chen Jianhua [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Jones, R. Huw; Tarry-Adkins, Jane; Smith, Noel H.; Ozanne, Susan E. [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)



Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg



Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David



Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione.  


Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway. PMID:19202298

Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou



Revealing the binding structure of the protein corona on gold nanorods using synchrotron radiation-based techniques: understanding the reduced damage in cell membranes.  


Regarding the importance of the biological effects of nanomaterials, there is still limited knowledge about the binding structure and stability of the protein corona on nanomaterials and the subsequent impacts. Here we designed a hard serum albumin protein corona (BSA) on CTAB-coated gold nanorods (AuNRs) and captured the structure of protein adsorption using synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy, microbeam X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy, and circular dichroism in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The protein adsorption is attributed to at least 12 Au-S bonds and the stable corona reduced the cytotoxicity of CTAB/AuNRs. These combined strategies using physical, chemical, and biological approaches will improve our understanding of the protective effects of protein coronas against the toxicity of nanomaterials. These findings have shed light on a new strategy for studying interactions between proteins and nanomaterials, and this information will help further guide the rational design of nanomaterials for safe and effective biomedical applications. PMID:24215358

Wang, Liming; Li, Jingyuan; Pan, Jun; Jiang, Xiumei; Ji, Yinglu; Li, Yufeng; Qu, Ying; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Xiaochun; Chen, Chunying



Gymnaster koraiensis and its major components, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and gymnasterkoreayne B, reduce oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or acetaminophen in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

We investigated the protective effects of Gymnaster koraiensis against oxidative stress-induced hepatic cell damage. We used two different cytotoxicity models, i.e., the administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and acetaminophen, in HepG2 cells to evaluate the protective effects of G. koraiensis. The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DCQA), exerted protective effects in the t-BHP-induced liver cytotoxicity model. The EA fraction and DCQA ameliorated t-BHP-induced reductions in GSH levels and exhibited free radical scavenging activity. The EA fraction and DCQA also significantly reduced t-BHP-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the hexane fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound, gymnasterkoreayne B (GKB), exerted strong hepatoprotection in the acetaminopheninduced cytotoxicity model. CYP 3A4 enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by the extract, hexane fraction, and GKB. The hexane fraction and GKB ameliorated acetaminophen-induced reductions in GSH levels and protected against cell death. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(10): 513-518] PMID:24148773

Jho, Eun Hye; Kang, Kyungsu; Oidovsambuu, Sarangerel; Lee, Eun Ha; Jung, Sang Hoon; Shin, Il-Shik; Nho, Chu Won



Gas chromatography for in situ analysis of a cometary nucleus V. Study of capillary columns' robustness submitted to long-term reduced environmental pressure conditions.  


With the European Space Agency's Rosetta space mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a gas chromatograph, part of the COmetary Sampling And Composition (COSAC) experiment, travelled for about 10 years in the interplanetary medium before operating at the surface of the cometary nucleus in November 2014. During its journey in space, the instrument was exposed to the constraining conditions of the interplanetary medium, including reduced environmental pressures. In order to estimate the potential influence of this severe condition on the chromatographic capillary columns, their stationary phase and the subsequent separation capability, a set of flight spare columns were kept under reduced environmental pressure in the laboratory for the same duration as the probe sent to the comet. The columns' analytical performances were evaluated recently and compared to the original ones obtained just before the launch of the Rosetta probe. The results presented here show that the chromatographic performances of the spare chromatographic columns were not altered in time. From this result, it can be expected that the flight instrument will perform nominally for the analysis of the first cometary nucleus sample to be collected ever, and that the preparation of the interpretation of the data to be taken at the cometary surface nucleus can be done through calibration of these spare columns, and other spare components of the instrument. PMID:25441355

Szopa, C; Sternberg, R; Coscia, D; Goesmann, F; Gomes, R; Legrand, S; Jerome, M; Meierhenrich, U J; Raulin, F



Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children’s urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, children’s urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = –3.136; p = 0.002) and caregivers’ 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0%) (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.26) in the intervention than control group. Conclusions: Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted. PMID:25590146

Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Mei; Wang, Fuzhi; Xiao, Shuiyuan



TLR5 Activation Induces Secretory Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (sIL-1Ra) and Reduces Inflammasome-associated Tissue Damage  

PubMed Central

TLR5-mediated detection of flagellin induces NF-?B mediated transcription of host defense gene expression whereas recognition of intracellular flagellin by IPAF results in maturation/secretion of the inflammasome cytokine IL-1?. The potent effects of IL-1? are counter-regulated by secretory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra). We studied the roles of flagellin receptors in regulating the expression of IL-1? and sIL-1Ra and their subsequent roles in inflammation. Flagellin induced sIL-1Ra in intestinal epithelia and macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner while IL-1? was only induced in macrophages. In vivo, flagellin-induced sIL-1Ra, but not IL-1? was absolutely dependent upon TLR5 expressed on non-hemopioetic cells. Thus, loss of TLR5 increased the IL-1?/sIL-1Ra ratio upon flagellin treatment, which correlated with increased inflammatory pathology in response to this product. Furthermore, the flagellin/TLR5 interaction was important for induction of sIL-1Ra and limiting inflammatory pathology upon Salmonella infection. Lastly, reduced sIL-1Ra levels in TLR5KO mice correlated with spontaneous colitis. Taken together, we demonstrate that intestinal epithelia, despite not expressing IL-1?, secrete sIL-1Ra in a TLR5 dependent manner suggesting loss of TLR5 may promote inflammation via increasing IL-1? activity. Thus, optimizing the balance between inflammasome cytokines and their endogenous inhibitors might prove a useful strategy to treat inflammatory disorders. PMID:20844479

Carvalho, Frederic A.; Aitken, Jesse D.; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; Vijay-Kumar, Matam



Rifampin Followed by Ceftriaxone for Experimental Meningitis Decreases Lipoteichoic Acid Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Reduces Neuronal Damage in Comparison to Ceftriaxone Alone  

PubMed Central

Rifampin (RIF) releases smaller quantities of lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) from Streptococcus pneumoniae than ceftriaxone (CRO). Due to the rapid development of resistance, RIF cannot be used as a single agent for therapy of bacterial meningitis. For this reason, we compared the effect of treatment with RIF followed by treatment with CRO (RIF-CRO) or the effect of treatment with clindamycin (CLI) followed by treatment with CRO (CLI-CRO) to that of CRO alone on the concentrations of LTAs and teichoic acids in vitro. The effects of RIF-CRO on LTA concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and on neuronal injury were investigated in a rabbit model of S. pneumoniae meningitis. In vitro, bacterial titers were effectively reduced by CRO, RIF-CRO, and CLI-CRO when each drug was used at 10 ?g/ml. The levels of release of LTAs after the initiation of therapy were lower in RIF-CRO- and CLI-CRO-treated cultures than in cultures treated with CRO alone (P < 0.05 from 3 to 12 h after initiation of treatment). Similarly, in rabbits, the increase in the amount of LTAs in CSF was lower in RIF-CRO-treated animals than in CRO-treated animals (P = 0.02). The density of dentate apoptotic granular cells was lower after RIF-CRO therapy than after CRO therapy (medians, 58.4 and 145.6/mm2, respectively; 25th quartiles, 36.3 and 81.7/mm2, respectively; 75th quartiles, 100.7 and 152.3/mm2, respectively; P = 0.03). Therefore, initiation of therapy with a protein synthesis-inhibiting antibacterial and continuation of therapy with a combination that includes a ?-lactam may be a strategy to decrease neuronal injury in bacterial meningitis. PMID:12654664

Gerber, Joachim; Pohl, Karin; Sander, Valeska; Bunkowski, Stephanie; Nau, Roland



Evaluation of alternative planting strategies to reduce wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) damage to spring wheat in the northern Great Plains.  


Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., producers are often reluctant to use solid-stemmed wheat cultivars resistant to wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), due to concerns regarding yield, efficacy or market opportunities. We evaluated the impact of several planting strategies on wheat yield and quality and wheat stem sawfly infestation at two locations over a three-year period. Experimental units consisted of large plots (50 by 200 m) located on commercial farms adjacent to wheat stem sawfly-infested fields. Compared with a monoculture of a hollow-stemmed cultivar ('AC Barrie'), planting a monoculture of a solid-stemmed cultivar ('AC Eatonia') increased yield by an average of 16% (0.4 mg ha(-1)) and increased the grade of wheat by one unit at the two most heavily infested site-years. Planting a 1:1 blend of AC Eatonia and AC Barrie increased yield by an average of 11%, whereas planting 20- or 40-m plot margins to AC Eatonia increased yield by an average of 8%. High wheat stem sawfly pressure limited the effectiveness of using resistant cultivars in field margins because plants were often infested beyond the plot margin, with uniform infestation down the length of the plots at the two most heavily infested site-years. The effectiveness of AC Eatonia to reduce wheat stem sawfly survivorship was modest in this study, probably due to weather-related factors influencing pith expression and to the high abundance of wheat stem sawfly. Greater benefits from planting field margins to resistant cultivars or planting a blend of resistant and susceptible cultivars might be achievable under lower wheat stem sawfly pressure. PMID:20069842

Beres, B L; Cárcamo, H A; Bremer, E



Using expert knowledge to increase realism in environmental system models can dramatically reduce the need for calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual environmental system models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of models for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity, typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, approaches for better parameter estimation have been developed, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding of how a catchment works into the process of parameter estimation has not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effects of imposing semi-quantitative, relational inequality constraints, based on expert-knowledge, for model development and parameter specification, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e., wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simple to complex, three model setups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC were developed based on these functional units, where FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, and the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC progressively introduce more complexity. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters, as well as states and fluxes, of their different functional units to each other, allowing the formulation of constraints that limit the feasible parameter space. We show that by allowing for more landscape-related process heterogeneity in a model, e.g., FLEXC, the performance increases even without traditional calibration. The additional introduction of relational constraints further improved the performance of these models.

Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.



Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.  


We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation. PMID:21466825

Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J



Breeding for genetic improvement of forage plants in relation to increasing animal production with reduced environmental footprint.  


Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency. PMID:22717231

Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M



Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.



Sun Damage  


newsletter | contact Share | Sun Damage A A A The sun has a profound effect over years of exposure on the skin, causing premature ... changes. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun accounts for most premature skin aging. Many skin ...


Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Food choices influence health status, but also have a great impact on the environment. The production of animal-derived foods has a high environmental burden, whereas the burden of refined carbohydrates, vegetables and fruit is low. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use of usual diet with mortality risk, and to estimate the effect of a modelled meat substitution scenario on health and the environment. Methods The usual diet of 40011 subjects in the EPIC-NL cohort was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. GHGE and land use of food products were based on life cycle analysis. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to determine relative mortality risk. In the modelled meat-substitution scenario, one-third (35 gram) of the usual daily meat intake (105 gram) was substituted by other foods. Results During a follow-up of 15.9 years, 2563 deaths were registered. GHGE and land use of the usual diet were not associated with all-cause or with cause-specific mortality. Highest vs. lowest quartile of GHGE and land use adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were respectively 1.00 (95% CI: 0.86-1.17) and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.89-1.23). Modelled substitution of 35 g/d of meat with vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, pasta-rice-couscous, or fish significantly increased survival rates (6-19%), reduced GHGE (4-11%), and land use (10-12%). Conclusions There were no significant associations observed between dietary-derived GHGE and land use and mortality in this Dutch cohort. However, the scenario-study showed that substitution of meat with other major food groups was associated with a lower mortality risk and a reduced environmental burden. Especially when vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, fish, or pasta-rice-couscous replaced meat. PMID:24708803



Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain  

PubMed Central

Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas. As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078



Environmental Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, liability for damage caused by pollution is governed by a diversity of legal instruments, namely international\\u000a conventions, legislation of the European Union and national law. Of the numerous international conventions that address environmental\\u000a issues, only certain sector-specific conventions, namely the nuclear liability conventions and the conventions regulating\\u000a oil pollution damage by ships, are effective so far. The most

Monika Hinteregger


Lupus organ damage: what is damaged in Asian patients?  


Assessment of organ damage has become the standard outcome measure for morbidity and mortality in patients with lupus. Ethnicity is thought to be a marker for genetic, environmental, behavioral, and other variables that may affect disease outcomes. Previous studies suggest that Asians residing in western countries had significantly higher prevalence of damage compared with Whites. In contrast, studies performed in Chinese, Korean and Arab patients showed that the overall prevalence of damage and the most commonly involved organs (neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal) were similar to Whites. Compared with their Asian counterparts, Pakistani and Jewish patients appeared to have a higher prevalence of damage, most likely secondary to longer disease duration. Chinese patients had an increased prevalence of premature gonadal failure, whereas patients residing in western and southern Asia had more skin damage. When compared with Whites, Asian patients had more renal damage but less ocular and cardiovascular damage. Risk factors associated with organ damage in Asian lupus patients included older age, higher disease activity, and the use of cyclophosphamide and steroids. Further investigations into other determinants such as genetic predisposition, socioeconomic factors, prevalence and severity of disease manifestations, and treatment, is needed in order to understand the variation in damage accrual in lupus patients from different ethnicities. PMID:20947554

Kuan, W P; Li, E K; Tam, L-S



Mitochondrial DNA Damage and its Consequences for Mitochondrial Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

How mitochondria process DNA damage and whether a change in the steady-state level of mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction are questions that fuel burgeoning areas of research into aging and disease pathogenesis. Over the past decade, researchers have identified and measured various forms of endogenous and environmental mtDNA damage and have elucidated mtDNA repair pathways. Interestingly, mitochondria do not appear to contain the full range of DNA repair mechanisms that operate in the nucleus, although mtDNA contains types of damage that are targets of each nuclear DNA repair pathway. The reduced repair capacity may, in part, explain the high mutation frequency of the mitochondrial chromosome. Since mtDNA replication is dependent on transcription, mtDNA damage may alter mitochondrial gene expression at three levels: by causing DNA polymerase ? nucleotide incorporation errors leading to mutations, by interfering with the priming of mtDNA replication by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, or by inducing transcriptional mutagenesis or premature transcript termination. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA damage, its repair, and its effects on mtDNA integrity and gene expression. PMID:22728831

Cline, Susan D.



Environmentally Friendly Single-Wafer Spin Cleaning Using Ultra-diluted HF\\/Nitrogen Jet Spray without Causing Structural Damage and Material Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an ultra-diluted HF\\/nitrogen jet spray cleaning procedure for single-wafer spin cleaning, which can efficiently remove particulate and metallic contaminants in a short period of time from both silicon and silicon-dioxide surfaces without causing damage to fragile 45 nm polysilicon gate structures. The use of a very low HF concentration makes the silicon and oxide losses negligible. This

Hideki Hirano; K. Sato; T. Osaka; H. Kuniyasu; T. Hattori



Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of ?shes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, ?sh were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, ?sh have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Signi?cant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was signi?cantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a signi?cant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a signi?cant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these ?sh exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

Brown, Kim H.; Schultz, Irv; Nagler, James J.



Recent Advances in Composite Damage Mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art and recent developments in the field of composite material damage mechanics are reviewed, with emphasis on damage accumulation. The kinetics of damage accumulation are considered with emphasis on the general accumulation of discrete local damage events such as single or multiple fiber fractures or microcrack formation. The issues addressed include: how to define strength in the presence of widely distributed damage, and how to combine mechanical representations in order to predict the damage tolerance and life of engineering components. It is shown that a damage mechanics approach can be related to the thermodynamics of the damage accumulation processes in composite laminates subjected to mechanical loading and environmental conditions over long periods of time.

Reifsnider, Ken; Case, Scott; Iyengar, Nirmal



Environmental Warfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent discussions at the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament have focused on the use of artificial changes in the environment as a method of warfare. A far more urgent task is development of a specific ban on already available techniques of environmental damage and a general and complete disarmament. (BT)

Barnaby, Frank



Environmental Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental noise may be defined as unwanted sound that is caused by emissions from traffic (roads, air traffic corridors, and railways), industrial sites and recreational infrastructures, which may cause both annoyance and damage to health. Noise in the environment or community seriously affects people, interfering with daily activities at school, work and home and during leisure time.

Rumberg, Martin


Remote sensing of forest damage in the Czech Republic using hyperspectral methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study assesses the potential of hyperspectral data for monitoring the initial stages of damage in Norway spruce forests characterized by subtle changes in foliar chlorophyll and chemistry. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution reflectance measurements were obtained for selected study sites in the Krusne hory, Czech Republic. High spectral resolution airborne canopy data and field foliar samples were acquired simultaneously in August 1998 for a total of 51 study sites within the Krusne hory. The sites were selected to represent a full range of damage conditions in even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands located between 820--920m elevation. Reflectance, foliar pigments, nitrogen and chemical constituents were determined for first-, second- and third-year needles. A strong correlation to damage was established for the foliar chemistry. A significant increase in polar compounds (such as tannins, sugars and starch) and a reduced needle lignification occurs with increasing damage. Foliar chemical constituents appear to be effective indicators of long-term environmental conditions. The strong relationship between damage level and polar compounds suggests high potential for use of these constituents as bio-indicators of stress. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution data separate the initial forest damage classes. Based on field reflectance measurements for third-year needles, derivative indices from the red edge region were most strongly correlated to damage level, followed by indices ratioing damage-sensitive and damage-insensitive bands and a parameter describing the fit of an Inverted Gaussian curve. Red/red edge spectral data from the Airborne Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) had the highest potential for separation of initial levels of damage, which corresponds with the region suggested as most sensitive to damage as seen in conducting the field reflectance measurements. Both optical and derivative indices incorporating reflectance from the red edge region present the most potential as indicators of initial damage in both leaf and canopy spectra.

Entcheva, Petya K.


5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body ?- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:22843381

Grace, Marcy B.; Singh, Vijay K.; Rhee, Juong G.; Jackson, William E.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H.




EPA Science Inventory

Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...


Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R



Environmental enrichment modulates glucocorticoid receptor expression and reduces anxiety in Indian field male mouse Mus booduga through up-regulation of microRNA-124a.  


Enriched environmental condition (EC) has been known to reduce anxiety. In this study, we examined whether an EC could enhance anxiolytic behavior in the Indian field mouse Mus booduga by down-regulating the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) through microRNA-124a. Wild individuals were captured at agricultural field, and then housed at standard conditions (SC) for 7days. After short-term at standard condition (STSC), on 8th day they were divided into three groups as those: (i) STSC mice tested on light/dark box on the same day and then euthanized to examine gene expression, (ii) maintained at long-term in standard condition (LTSC) and (iii) transferred to EC. After 30days, both the LTSC and EC groups were tested on the light/dark box and then euthanized to examine gene expression in amygdala region of brain. EC group preferred to stay at light chamber and exhibited less anxiety-like behavioral components when compared to STSC and LTSC groups. However, between the two groups the STSC mice showed lesser anxiety-like behavior than LTSC mice. The expression of Dicer, Ago-2 and microRNA-124a (miR-124a) was more significantly up regulated in EC mice than in STSC and LTSC mice. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that miR-124a binds with 3'UTR of GR, and subsequently we detected a more decreased level of GR in EC than in STSC, LTSC mice. The results suggest that one of the action of EC could be a GR fine tuning through miR-124a, but there is no demonstration that it could be the only involved molecular mechanism. PMID:24457250

Durairaj, Ragu Varman; Koilmani, Emmanuvel Rajan



Drug-induced corneal damage.  


Corneal damage can have a variety of causes, including infections, chemical splashes, environmental factors (radiation, trauma, contact lenses, etc.), and systemic diseases (genetic, autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic, etc.). A wide range of drugs can also damage the cornea. The severity of drug-induced corneal changes can range from simple asymptomatic deposits to irreversible, sight-threatening damage. Several factors can influence the onset of corneal lesions. Some factors, such as the dose, are treatment-related, while others such as contact lenses, are patient-related. A variety of mechanisms may be involved, including corneal dryness, changes in the corneal epithelium, impaired wound healing and deposits. Many drugs can damage the cornea through direct contact, after intraocular injection or instillation, including VEGF inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, local anaesthetics, glaucoma drugs, fluoroquinolones, and preservatives. Some systemically administered drugs can also damage the cornea, notably cancer drugs, amiodarone and isotretinoin. Vulnerable patients should be informed of this risk if they are prescribed a drug with the potential to damage the cornea so that they can identify problems in a timely manner. It may be necessary to discontinue the suspect drug when signs and symptoms of corneal damage occur. PMID:24860895



Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was



Damage and fatigue Continuum damage mechanics modeling  

E-print Network

Damage and fatigue Continuum damage mechanics modeling for fatigue of materials and structures Cachan Cedex, France ABSTRACT. Application of damage mechanics to fatigue is addressed in the present paper. The ability of Lemaitre's damage law to describe low and high cycle fatigue


Environmental Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environment Canada has developed a set of environmental indicators that are easily measurable and provide useful clues on the state of the environment. This Web site provides a listing of those indicators that Environment Canada monitors. For each indicator, there is a detailed description of the environmental indicator, how it relates to larger environmental problems, and what is being done to reduce the threat. A number of Web links are provided for further information on each indicator.


Maximizing the usage of renewable energy will reduce our reliance on dwindling natural resources and environmental pollution. Batteries are an important enabling technology for renewable energy, portable  

E-print Network

and environmental pollution. Batteries are an important enabling technology for renewable energy, portable as a senior analytical scientist since February 2014 focusing on Cryo-TEM study of soft materials and solar

Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.


78 FR 21418 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation...Concerning Natural Resource Damages On April 3, 2013...Defendant Akema, Inc. for damages to natural resources...for natural resource damages at the facility under...and the Comprehensive Environmental Response...



32 CFR 536.35 - Unique issues related to environmental claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unique issues related to environmental claims. Claims for property damage, personal injury...settlement of property damage claims must cover all damages, including personal...Payment by Defense Environmental Rehabilitation...



Fluoroscopy assisted minimally invasive transplantation of allogenic mesenchymal stromal cells embedded in HyStem reduces the progression of nucleus pulposus degeneration in the damaged interverbal disc: a preliminary study in rabbits.  


This study was conducted to develop a technique for minimally invasive and accurate delivery of stem cells to augment nucleus pulposus (NP) in damaged intervertebral discs (IVD). IVD damage was created in noncontiguous discs at L4-L5 level; rabbits (N = 12) were randomly divided into three groups: group I treated with MSCs in HyStem hydrogel, group II treated with HyStem alone, and group III received no intervention. MSCs and hydrogel were administered to the damaged disc under guidance of fluoroscopy. Augmentation of NP was assessed through histological and MRI T2 mapping of the NP after eight weeks of transplantation. T2 weighted signal intensity was higher in group I than in groups II and III (P < 0.05). Disc height index showed maximum disc height in group I compared to groups II and III. Histological score of the degenerative index was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group I (8.6 ± 1.8) than that in groups II (11.6 ± 2.3) and III (18.0 ± 5.7). Immunohistochemistry staining for collagen type II and aggrecan staining were higher in group I as compared to other groups. Our results demonstrate that the minimally invasive administration of MSCs in hyaluronan hydrogel (HyStem) augments the repair of NP in damaged IVD. PMID:24983002

Subhan, Rifa Aquidah; Puvanan, Karunanithi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Shani, Samuel; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Abbas, Azlina Amir; Mohamed, Jamal Azmi; Kamarul, Tunku



Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth



Reduced shedding regenerator and method  


A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)



Environmental indices: theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

All existing environmental index systems, along with principles for their design, application and structure, are included in this book. Chapter I introduces environmental data, presenting simple communicative approaches such as environmental quality profiles. It also describes the national monitoring activities that generate these data and discusses the difficulty of constructing meaningful environmental damage functions. Chapter II presents a new conceptual

W. R. Ott



Benchmark Dose Estimation for Cadmium-Induced Renal Tubular Damage among Environmental Cadmium-Exposed Women Aged 35–54 Years in Two Counties of China  

PubMed Central

Background A number of factors, including gender, age, smoking habits, and occupational exposure, affect the levels of urinary cadmium. Few studies have considered these influences when calculating the benchmark dose (BMD) of cadmium. In the present study, we aimed to calculate BMDs and their 95% lower confidence bounds (BMDLs) for cadmium-induced renal tubular effects in an age-specific population in south-central China. Methods In this study, urinary cadmium, ?2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels were measured in morning urine samples from 490 randomly selected non-smoking women aged 35–54 years. Participants were selected using stratified cluster sampling in two counties (counties A and B) in China. Multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the dose-response relationship between urinary cadmium levels and tubular effects. BMDs/BMDLs corresponding to an additional risk (benchmark response) of 5% and 10% were calculated with assumed cut-off values of the 84th and 90th percentile of urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels of the controls. Results Urinary levels of ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase increased significantly with increasing levels of urinary cadmium. Age was not associated with urinary cadmium levels, possibly because of the narrow age range included in this study. Based on urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase, BMDs and BMDLs of urinary cadmium ranged from 2.08 to 3.80 (1.41–2.18) µg/g cr for subjects in county A and from 0.99 to 3.34 (0.74–1.91) µg/g cr for those in county B. The predetermined benchmark response of 0.05 and the 90th percentiles of urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels of the subjects not exposed to cadmium (i.e., the control group) served as cut-off values. Conclusions The obtained BMDs of urinary cadmium were similar to the reference point of 1 µg/g cr, as suggested by the European Food Safety Authority, indicating that cadmium exposure must be reduced to protect human health. PMID:25536107

Hu, Jia; Li, Mei; Han, Tian-xu; Chen, Jian-wei; Ye, Lin-xiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yi-kai



A study of the effects of end-cap molecular species on environmental characteristics of polimidesulfones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To improve the environmental stability and mechanical properties of polyimidesulfone (PISO2), it was decided to investigate the effects of various types of end caps on its thermo-mechanical and related properties. It was noted that end caps are effective in reducing the environmental damage susceptibility of PISO2 samples, apparently due to their ability to react with free end groups which are believed to be moisture pickup sites. Phthalic anydride, aniline and aminobenzophenone were the end caps used in this study.

Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.; Walker, S.



40 CFR 1500.4 - Reducing paperwork.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reducing paperwork. 1500.4 Section 1500...POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.4 Reducing paperwork. Agencies shall reduce excessive paperwork by: (a) Reducing the length of environmental...



Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges---a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal

Sabrina J. Lovell; Lisa A. Drake



77 FR 39686 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Restoration Plan To Compensate for Injuries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and...Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...The Trustees seek damages from potentially responsible...oil. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA...full natural resource damage assessment was...




E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy February 2013 The University of Leeds is responsible to reflect best environmental practice, implement an environmental management system to pursue sustainability and continuous improvement and seek innovative ways of meeting environmental objectives. These include: To meet

Haase, Markus


Use of environmental qualification technology to extend mechanical, age-degradable part replacement intervals to reduce plant operation and maintenance costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses expanded use of environmental qualification technology to assess and quantify conservatism inherent in established material replacement practices for non-metallic, mechanical components. Vendor recommended replacement intervals are often based on assumptions of worst case operating conditions. Replacement of age-degradable parts on a more frequent than necessary basis can translate to si&icant plant operations and maintenance (O&M) costs as

Michael J. Sarlitto



Approach for Assessing Direct Flood Damages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a methodological approach to flood direct tangible damage - damage to assets and direct intangible damage - environmental damage and loss of life assessment. The assessment of flood risk is an essential part of the risk management approach, which is the conceptual basis for the EU directive 2007/60/ES on the assessment and management of flood risk. The purpose of this directive is to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risk, aiming at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with flood in the community. Overall, an accurate estimation of negative effects on assets, environment and people is important in order to be able to determine the economy, environmental and social flood risk level in a system and the effects of risk mitigation measures.

Ga?ová, Lenka; Zele?áková, Martina; S?y?, Daniel; Purcz, Pavol



The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES): New Mars Science to Reduce Human Risk and Prepare for the Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Obtaining critical measurements for eventual human Mars missions while expanding upon recent Mars scientific discoveries and deriving new scientific knowledge from a unique near surface vantage point is the focus of the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES) exploration mission. The key element of ARES is an instrumented,rocket-powered, well-tested robotic airplane platform, that will fly between one to two kilometers above the surface while traversing hundreds of kilometers to collect and transmit previously unobtainable high spatial measurements relevant to the NASA Mars Exploration Program and the exploration of Mars by humans.

Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Wright, Henry S.; Killough, B. D.; Edwards, W. C.



Phenotypic and Genetic Consequences of Protein Damage  

PubMed Central

Although the genome contains all the information necessary for maintenance and perpetuation of life, it is the proteome that repairs, duplicates and expresses the genome and actually performs most cellular functions. Here we reveal strong phenotypes of physiological oxidative proteome damage at the functional and genomic levels. Genome-wide mutations rates and biosynthetic capacity were monitored in real time, in single Escherichia coli cells with identical levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage, but with different levels of irreversible oxidative proteome damage (carbonylation). Increased protein carbonylation correlates with a mutator phenotype, whereas reducing it below wild type level produces an anti-mutator phenotype identifying proteome damage as the leading cause of spontaneous mutations. Proteome oxidation elevates also UV-light induced mutagenesis and impairs cellular biosynthesis. In conclusion, protein damage reduces the efficacy and precision of vital cellular processes resulting in high mutation rates and functional degeneracy akin to cellular aging. PMID:24068972

Krisko, Anita; Radman, Miroslav



Results of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study (NCICAS) environmental intervention to reduce cockroach allergen exposure in inner-city homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cockroach allergen is important in asthma. Practical methods to reduce exposure are needed. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of house cleaning and professional extermination on lowering cockroach antigen levels in inner-city dwellings. Methods: As part of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study intervention, 265 of 331 families with asthmatic children who had positive skin test responses to

Peter J. Gergen; Kathleen M. Mortimer; Peyton A. Eggleston; David Rosenstreich; Herman Mitchell; Dennis Ownby; Meyer Kattan; Dean Baker; Elizabeth C. Wright; Raymond Slavin; Floyd Malveaux



Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH1 and CRASH2 clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. METHODS: We conducted a

Saleena Subaiya; Euan Hogg; Ian Roberts



Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

Stevens, J.



Dechloromonas agitata gen. nov., sp. nov. and Dechlorosoma suillum gen. nov., sp. nov., two novel environmentally dominant (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria and their phylogenetic position.  


Previous studies on the ubiquity and diversity of microbial (per)chlorate reduction resulted in the isolation of 20 new strains of dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolates were members of the Proteobacteria with representatives in the alpha-, beta- and gamma-subclasses. The majority of the new isolates were located in the beta-subclass and were closely related to each other and to the phototrophic Rhodocyclus species. Here an in-depth analysis of these organisms which form two distinct monophyletic groups within the Rhodocyclus assemblage is presented. Two new genera, Dechloromonas and Dechlorosoma, are proposed for these beta-subclass lineages which represent the predominant (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria in the environment. The type species and strains for these new genera are Dechloromonas agitata strain CKBT and Dechlorosoma suillum strain PST, respectively. PMID:11321099

Achenbach, L A; Michaelidou, U; Bruce, R A; Fryman, J; Coates, J D



Pediatric environmental health.  

PubMed Central

The links between environmental agents, environmental conditions, and disease and disability among children are receiving increasing attention. Evidence abounds that children are more susceptible than adults to the damaging effects of environmental agents and conditions. This evidence is illuminated by the much-publicized and expanding research agenda on the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and treatment of environmentally related disease in the pediatric population. Encouragingly, advances in molecular biology and other sciences are providing important tools to aid pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in meeting the environmental health needs of children. PMID:15712790

Walker, Bailus



Economic measurement of environment damages  

SciTech Connect

The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

Krawiec, F.



Effect of Uncertainty of Identified Parameters on Structural Damage Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a study of the effect of the uncertainty of identified parameters on the damage detection of structure. The identified parameters, which are obtained by applying system identification algorithms to analyze the time-domain response data, have uncertainty due to noise, environmental change, etc. The damage of some structural elements may have less effect on the identified parameters than noise or environmental change, so some damage situations cannot be distinguished under these circumstances. An algorithm is presented to determine whether the considered damage can be distinguished. A twenty-bay truss structure is used to demonstrate and verify the study.

Davidson, Mario; Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Sathanthan, S.



Reduced Diversity and High Sponge Abundance on a Sedimented Indo-Pacific Reef System: Implications for Future Changes in Environmental Quality  

PubMed Central

Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded) and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning. PMID:24475041

Powell, Abigail; Smith, David J.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Jones, Timothy; Berman, Jade; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Bell, James J.



Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions Appendix II The unique geology, hydrology and instream habitat. This chapter examines how environmental conditions in the Deschutes watershed affect, the discussion characterizes the environmental conditions within three watershed areas: the Lower Deschutes


Viral Carcinogenesis: Factors Inducing DNA Damage and Virus Integration  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the causative agents of 10%–15% of human cancers worldwide. The most common outcome for virus-induced reprogramming is genomic instability, including accumulation of mutations, aberrations and DNA damage. Although each virus has its own specific mechanism for promoting carcinogenesis, the majority of DNA oncogenic viruses encode oncogenes that transform infected cells, frequently by targeting p53 and pRB. In addition, integration of viral DNA into the human genome can also play an important role in promoting tumor development for several viruses, including HBV and HPV. Because viral integration requires the breakage of both the viral and the host DNA, the integration rate is believed to be linked to the levels of DNA damage. DNA damage can be caused by both endogenous and exogenous factors, including inflammation induced by either the virus itself or by co-infections with other agents, environmental agents and other factors. Typically, cancer develops years to decades following the initial infection. A better understanding of virus-mediated carcinogenesis, the networking of pathways involved in transformation and the relevant risk factors, particularly in those cases where tumorigenesis proceeds by way of virus integration, will help to suggest prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of virus-mediated cancer. PMID:25340830

Chen, Yan; Williams, Vonetta; Filippova, Maria; Filippov, Valery; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope



A mixture of an environmentally realistic concentration of a phthalate and herbicide reduces testosterone in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) through a novel mechanism of action  

PubMed Central

Several chemicals that are used by humans, such as pesticides and plastics, are released into the aquatic environment through wastewater and runoff and have been shown to be potent disruptors of androgen synthesis at high concentrations. Although many of these chemicals have been studied in isolation, a large amount of uncertainty remains over how fish respond to low concentrations of anti-androgenic mixtures, which more accurately reflects how such chemicals are present in the aquatic environment. In this study male fathead minnows (FHM) (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of two anti-androgens, the herbicide linuron, and the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) individually and as part of a mixture of the two for a 28-day period. At the end of this period there was a reduction in plasma testosterone (T) concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture, but not in FHM exposed individually to linuron or DEHP or the control FHM. There was also a significant reduction in 17?-estradiol (E2) in the DEHP-only and mixture exposed groups as compared to the control. Contrary to what has been previously published for these two chemicals in mammals, the lower plasma T concentrations in male FHM exposed to the mixture was not a result of the inhibition of genes involved in steroidogenesis; nor due to an increase in the expression of genes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Rather, an increase in relative transcript abundance for CYP3A4 in the liver and androgen-and estrogen-specific SULT2A1 and SULT1st2 in the testes provides evidence that the decrease in plasma T and E2 may be linked to increased steroid catabolism. Feedback from the pituitary is not repressed as the relative expression of follicle stimulating hormone ?-subunit mRNA transcript levels in the brain was significantly higher in both DEHP and mixture exposed FHM. In addition, luteinizing hormone ?-subunit mRNA transcript levels increased but were not significant in the mixture as compared to the control. Hormone receptor mRNA transcript levels in the liver and testes were not significantly different across all four exposure groups. This study highlights the importance of assessing environmentally relevant concentrations of mixtures when determining risk to aquatic organisms. PMID:22277248

Crago, Jordan; Klaper, Rebecca



Stability of U(VI)- and Tc(VII) reducing microbial communities to environmental perturbation: a thermodynamic network model and intermediate-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

The project is a collaborative task with a larger project headed by Jack Istok at Oregon State University, which is conducted under the same title. The project was conceptualized as follows. A ''geochemical'' model of microbial communities was hypothesized, in which microbes were characterized as mineral species according to the chemical transformations they used for metabolic function. The iron-reducing bacteria, for example, would be represented by the iron reducing chemical reaction, including a specific electron donor, the fraction of the consumed donor used for biomass maintenance or growth, and a free energy for the reaction. The pseudomineral species would then be included in a standard geochemical model, and community succession could be calculated according to the thermodynamically favored microbially mediated reactions under progressive consumption of electron donors and receptors, and evolving geochemical conditions. The project includes relatively minor participation by the University of Oklahoma and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, with the major component at OSU. The PNNL project was funded to provide assistance to Dr. Istok in formulating the appropriate modeling approach and geochemical constraints on the modeling effort.

McKinley, James P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Istok, Jack; Krumholz, Lee



77 FR 25499 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act...Freeport-McMoRan is civilly liable for payment of damages for injuries to natural resources...



77 FR 516 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act...Freeport-McMoRan is civilly liable for payment of damages for injuries to natural resources...



Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Progress on each of the following topics is outlined: (1) rotating target neutron source, (2) fusion materials irradiation test facility, (3) environmental characterization, (4) damage production, and (5) damage microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior. (MOW)




Proteomic profiling of ClpXP substrates after DNA damage reveals extensive instability within SOS regulon.  


ClpXP, a bacterial AAA+ protease, controls intracellular levels of many stress-response proteins. To investigate substrate profile changes caused by a specific environmental stress, quantitative mass spectrometry (SILAC) was used to analyze proteins trapped by ClpXP(trap) before and after DNA damage. The abundance of half of the trapped proteins changed more than 3-fold after damage. Overrepresented substrates included the DNA-repair proteins RecN and UvrA. Among SOS-response proteins, 25% were ClpXP substrates and, importantly, nearly all of the highly induced regulon members were rapidly degraded. Other proteins, including the stress regulator sigma(S), were underrepresented in ClpXP(trap) after DNA damage; overproduction experiments suggest that simple substrate competition does not account for this reduced recognition. We conclude that damage-response proteins are an unusually rapidly degraded family and that ClpXP has substantial capacity to process the influx of newly synthesized substrates while maintaining the ability to degrade its other substrates in an environmentally responsive manner. PMID:16630889

Neher, Saskia B; Villén, Judit; Oakes, Elizabeth C; Bakalarski, Corey E; Sauer, Robert T; Gygi, Steven P; Baker, Tania A



Design of photoresists with reduced environmental impact. 1: Water-soluble resists based on photo-cross-linking of poly(vinyl alcohol)  

SciTech Connect

Various approaches to environmentally improved photoresist materials have been reported in the literature. The feasibility of a chemically amplified fully water-soluble negative-tone resist based upon the cross-linking of a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix resin has been demonstrated. Two-component resists incorporating PVA and (2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)dimethylsulfonium triflate as a water-soluble photoacid generator were formulated in deionized water and spin-coated onto bare silicon wafers. Negative-tone images were obtained upon irradiation at 254 nm, postbaking, and subsequent development in pure water. The two-component resist suffered from swelling during development, but improved performance was obtained through the addition of a cross-linking agent, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM). The resulting three-component, water-soluble resist was able to resolve micron-sized images using a 248 nm stepper, at a dose of ca. 200 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Model studies conducted using {sup 13}C NMR monitoring with 2,4-pentanediol as a model for PVA showed that under acidic catalysis HMMM reacts to form active electrophilic species that add to the diol, affording ether linkages with concomitant liberation of methanol.

Havard, J.M.; Shim, S.Y.; Frechet, J.M.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lin, Q.; Medeiros, D.R.; Willson, C.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Byers, J.D. [SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States)] [SEMATECH, Austin, TX (United States)



Corporate Environmental Management and Environmental Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the potential of environmental management systems (EMSs) to provide opportunities for reducing toxic releases\\u000a cost-effectively and increasing environmental efficiency of a sample of S&P 500 firms. We use directional distance function\\u000a to estimate firm-specific environmental efficiency. A truncated regression model with bootstraping is then estimated to analyze\\u000a the determinants of the environmental efficiency of firms. The analysis

Madhu Khanna; Surender Kumar



Additive effects of cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin II receptor blocker on reducing cardiorenal damage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  


Cilnidipine (Cil), which is an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been known to provide renal protection by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system. In this study, we compared the effects of the combination of Cil and amlodipine (Aml), which is an L-type CCB, with an angiotensin (Ang) II receptor blocker on diabetic cardiorenal damage in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats. Seventeen-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomly assigned to receive Cil, Aml, valsartan (Val), Cil + Val, Aml + Val, or a vehicle (eight rats per group) for 22 weeks. Antihypertensive potencies were nearly equal among the CCB monotherapy groups and the combination therapy groups. The lowering of blood pressure by either treatment did not significantly affect the glycemic variables. However, exacerbations of renal and heart failure were significantly suppressed in rats administered Cil or Val, and additional suppression was observed in those administered Cil + Val. Although Val increased the renin-Ang system, Aml + Val treatment resulted in additional increases in these parameters, while Cil + Val did not show such effects. Furthermore, Cil increased the ratio of Ang-(1-7) to Ang-I, despite the fact that Val and Aml + Val decreased the Ang-(1-7) levels. These actions of Cil + Val might be due to their synergistic inhibitory effect on the activity of the SNS, and on aldosterone secretion through N-type calcium channel antagonism and Ang II receptor type 1 antagonism. Thus, Cil may inhibit the progression of cardiorenal disease in type 2 diabetes patients by acting as an N-type CCB and inhibiting the aldosterone secretion and SNS activation when these drugs were administered in combination with an Ang II receptor blocker. PMID:24970998

Mori, Yutaka; Aritomi, Shizuka; Niinuma, Kazumi; Nakamura, Tarou; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Junichi; Utsunomiya, Kazunori



75 FR 63469 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nepa/. Weekly receipt of Environmental Impact Statements Filed 10...Sale 193, Analyzing the Environmental Impact of Natural Gas Development...To Evaluate Coastal Storm Damage Reduction, Topsail Island...12, 2010. Cliff Rader, Environmental Protection Specialist,...



Combating wind erosion of sandy soils and crop damage in the coastal deserts: Wind tunnel experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the western Negev desert of Israel frequent sandstorms cause heavy damage to young lettuce, carrot, peanut and potato plants during the planting season. The damage of plants is based mainly on the mechanical impact of saltating sand particles, which causes irreversible injuries to the plant leaves. Current agro-technique measures taken to prevent wind damage to crop in Israel are based on high frequency irrigation. Although the high-frequency irrigation helps bind soil particles together by forming a soil crust, it is associated with the large waste of water, which is not practical under the arid conditions. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a chemical stabilizer has proved to be effective for prevention of soil erosion, saving irrigation water and a stable growth of plants in the early stages. Although the technique of PAM application is not yet used commercially in Israel, the preliminary studies suggested that it might have the potential to reduce the damage to the plant leaves by sandstorms, providing both environmental and agricultural benefits. In this study the effectiveness of PAM for preventing sandstorms in the western Negev was also investigated. Optimal concentration and volume of PAM solution per hectare of bare sandy soil were determined. For this purpose a wind tunnel was used to determine wind velocities of the first and continuous detachment of particles. The ability of PAM application to minimize the damage of plants by sandstorms was experimentally verified using image analysis tools.

Genis, Arthur; Vulfson, Leonid; Ben-Asher, Jiftah




SciTech Connect

Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L



Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. Methods We conducted a carbon audit of two clinical trials (the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 trials), quantifying the carbon dioxide emissions produced over a one-year audit period. Carbon emissions arising from the coordination centre, freight delivery, trial-related travel and commuting were calculated and compared. Results The total emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents during the one-year audit period were 181.3 tonnes for CRASH-1 and 108.2 tonnes for CRASH-2. In total, CRASH-1 emitted 924.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents compared with 508.5 tonnes for CRASH-2. The CRASH-1 trial recruited 10,008 patients over 5.1 years, corresponding to 92 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The CRASH-2 trial recruited 20,211 patients over 4.7 years, corresponding to 25 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The largest contributor to emissions in CRASH-1 was freight delivery of trial materials (86.0 tonnes, 48% of total emissions), whereas the largest contributor in CRASH-2 was energy use by the trial coordination centre (54.6 tonnes, 30% of total emissions). Conclusions Faster patient recruitment in the CRASH-2 trial largely accounted for its greatly increased carbon efficiency in terms of emissions per randomized patient. Lighter trial materials and web-based data entry also contributed to the overall lower carbon emissions in CRASH-2 as compared to CRASH-1. Trial Registration Numbers CRASH-1: ISRCTN74459797 CRASH-2: ISRCTN86750102 PMID:21291517



The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.  


Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. PMID:24953197

Tucker, Corrina A



Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ? Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ? Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ? Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ? Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

Zheng, Yi [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China) [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tao, Shasha [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lian, Fangru [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chau, Binh T. [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)] [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fang, Deyu [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States) [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Zhang, Donna D., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)



Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein  

SciTech Connect

Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.



78 FR 59718 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...above bankruptcy action a Proof of Claim for environmental response costs, natural resource damages, and natural resource damage assessment...pursuant to Section 107 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and...



Optical damage in KTN  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of light-induced refractive-index changes (``optical damage'') has been carried out for paraelectric electro-optic crystals. The results are compared with experimental data taken on several KTN crystals. Both the spatial extent and temporal variations of optical damage are accurately determined by the theory for all crystals tested. The rate at which optical damage occurs can be used to determine

S. R. King; T. S. Hartwick; A. B. Chase



Damage Tolerance of Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

Hodge, Andy




EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to episodic air pollution in the Czech Republic has been associated with abnormal semen quality and sperm DNA damage (EHP 108:887;2000). A subsequent longitudinal study evaluated semen from 36 men sampled up to 7 times over a period of two years to capture exposures dur...


Environmental protection implementation plan  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable.

Holland, R.C.



Ischemia-Reperfusion Damage  

PubMed Central

Ischemia-reperfusion damage is a complex pathological process that begins with tissue anoxia and continues with the production of free oxygen radicals, expanding with the inflammatory response. The literature suggests the importance of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory treatment to treat ischemia-reperfusion-related tissue damage.

Yapca, Omer E.; Borekci, Bunyamin; Suleyman, Halis



Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains.  

E-print Network

??This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally… (more)

Miletto, M.



Environmental contaminants  

PubMed Central

Contaminants such as cadmium, bisphenol A and lead pollute our environment and affect male reproductive function. There is evidence that toxicant exposure adversely affects fertility. Cadmium and bisphenol A exert their effects in the testis by perturbing blood-testis barrier function, which in turn affects germ cell adhesion in the seminiferous epithelium because of a disruption of the functional axis between these sites. In essence, cadmium mediates its adverse effects at the blood-testis barrier by disrupting cell adhesion protein complexes, illustrating that toxicants can dismantle cell junctions in the testis. Herein, we will discuss how environmental toxicants may affect reproductive function. We will also examine how these adverse effects on fertility may be mediated in part by adipose tissue and bone. Lastly, we will briefly discuss how toxicant-induced damage may be effectively managed so that fertility can be maintained. It is hoped that this information will offer a new paradigm for future studies. PMID:22332111



Environmental testing and laser transmission results for ruggedized high power IR fiber cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present successful results of high mid-IR laser power transmission as well as MIL-SPEC environmental testing (thermal cycling and vibration testing) of ruggedized, IR-transmitting chalcogenide glass fiber cables. The cables tested included chalcogenide fiber cables with endfaces imprinted with anti-reflective "moth eye" surfaces, whereby the reflection loss is reduced from about 17% per end to less than 3%. The cables with these moth eye surfaces also show excellent laser damage resistance.

Busse, Lynda; Kung, Frederic; Florea, Catalin; Shaw, Brandon; Aggarwal, Ishwar; Sanghera, Jas



Reducing Dropouts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems. Dropping…

Timpane, Michael; And Others


Laser Damage Lab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical Damage Threshold Testing Instrumentation at NASA Langley Research Center. This work was sanctioned and funded by Code Q, R, & AE to develop a new standard for damage testing various types of optical materials and coatings. Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing is a destructive test procedure to determine the minimum applied laser energy level that will result in damage and is referred to as the damage threshold. The damage threshold is often the critical limitation in the section of optical materials for use in high-energy laser systems.The test station consists of diagnostic equipment, beam conditioning optical elements, an inspection microscope and three lasers: a high energy pulsed ND: Yag, which develops 650mJ at 10 hz and outputs three wavelengths which include 1.06m, 532nm and 355 nm; a Ti:sapphire laser which produces a continuum of laser output from 790nm to 900nm; and a alignment HeNe, which looks yellow when mixed with the 2nd harmonic ND:Yag laser. Laser sources are used to perform damage threshold testing at the specific wavelength of interest.



Strategies for Reducing or Preventing the Generation of Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The reduction of oxidative stress could be achieved in three levels: by lowering exposure to environmental pollutants with oxidizing properties, by increasing levels of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, or by lowering the generation of oxidative stress by stabilizing mitochondrial energy production and efficiency. Endogenous oxidative stress could be influenced in two ways: by prevention of ROS formation or by quenching of ROS with antioxidants. However, the results of epidemiological studies where people were treated with synthetic antioxidants are inconclusive and contradictory. Recent evidence suggests that antioxidant supplements (although highly recommended by the pharmaceutical industry and taken by many individuals) do not offer sufficient protection against oxidative stress, oxidative damage or increase the lifespan. The key to the future success of decreasing oxidative-stress-induced damage should thus be the suppression of oxidative damage without disrupting the wellintegrated antioxidant defense network. Approach to neutralize free radicals with antioxidants should be changed into prevention of free radical formation. Thus, this paper addresses oxidative stress and strategies to reduce it with the focus on nutritional and psychosocial interventions of oxidative stress prevention, that is, methods to stabilize mitochondria structure and energy efficiency, or approaches which would increase endogenous antioxidative protection and repair systems. PMID:22191011

Poljsak, B.



War Damage Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During and after the Persian Gulf war, hundreds of "oil lakes" were created in Kuwait by oil released from damaged wells. The lakes are a hazard to the Kuwait atmosphere, soil and ground water and must be carefully monitored. Boston University Center for Remote Sensing, assisted by other organizations, has accurately mapped the lakes using Landsat and Spot imagery. The war damage included the formation of over 300 oil lakes, oil pollution and sand dune movement. Total damage area is over 5,400 square kilometers - 30 percent of Kuwait's total surface area.



Assessing tubal damage  

PubMed Central

The fallopian tube plays an important role in the mechanical transport and physiological sustenance of the gametes and early conceptus. Complex and coordinated neuromuscular activity, cilial action and endocrine secretions are required for successful tubal function. Compromised tubal damage can occur after external or internal injury, inhibiting the normal transport of gametes. The overall prognosis for fertility depends principally on the insult and the severity of the tissue damage; hence, assessment of tubal damage plays a major role in predicting occurrence of pregnancy and the likelihood of developing ectopic pregnancy. PMID:19562067

Patil, Madhuri



Reducing Deer Damage to Forest Crops Bradford A. Bender  

E-print Network

are typically 4' to 5' high using 5,6, or 7 wires. Polytape fences are portable, inexpensive, and easy. Building by hand was the only option on this site during the growing season because of soft ground


Compilation Of Damage Findings From Multiple Recent Teardown Analysis Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fleet managers depend upon various tools to assure the safe operation of their aircraft. Performing a structural teardown\\u000a analysis program of one or more aircraft with known service history provides precise damage data resulting from a given usage.\\u000a These data can then be used to validate NDI methods, update damage models and reduce uncertainty in the damage condition assessment\\u000a of

Gregory A. Shoales; Scott A. Fawaz; Molly R. Walters


Damage diagnosis algorithm using a sequential change point detection method with an unknown distribution for damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a damage diagnosis algorithm for civil structures that uses a sequential change point detection method for the cases where the post-damage feature distribution is unknown a priori. This algorithm extracts features from structural vibration data using time-series analysis and then declares damage using the change point detection method. The change point detection method asymptotically minimizes detection delay for a given false alarm rate. The conventional method uses the known pre- and post-damage feature distributions to perform a sequential hypothesis test. In practice, however, the post-damage distribution is unlikely to be known a priori. Therefore, our algorithm estimates and updates this distribution as data are collected using the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian methods. We also applied an approximate method to reduce the computation load and memory requirement associated with the estimation. The algorithm is validated using multiple sets of simulated data and a set of experimental data collected from a four-story steel special moment-resisting frame. Our algorithm was able to estimate the post-damage distribution consistently and resulted in detection delays only a few seconds longer than the delays from the conventional method that assumes we know the post-damage feature distribution. We confirmed that the Bayesian method is particularly efficient in declaring damage with minimal memory requirement, but the maximum likelihood method provides an insightful heuristic approach.

Noh, Hae Young; Rajagopal, Ram; Kiremidjian, Anne S.



Novel barriers to prevent dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) and rodent damage in apple plantings.  


We evaluated a combination of noninsecticidal alternatives to control trunk-damaging dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), consisting of novel barrier technologies, used alone or in combination with mating disruption. Barrier formulations evaluated included fibrous barriers of nonwoven ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and nonfibrous barriers of rubberized paint (elastomer) used in building coatings. To examine efficacy of dogwood borer control in orchards, all barrier trials were replicated in field tests, both in combination with mating disruption and without it. Trunk inspections to determine whether mating disruption and barriers effectively reduced actual tree infestation showed pheromone disruption significantly reduced infestation compared with the untreated check, but was not as effective as trunk handgun sprays of chlorpyrifos. EVA trunk barriers were effective in preventing borer infestation compared with untreated trees. The elastomer did not differ from the check or the EVA treatment. There was no interaction between disruption and barrier treatments. Barrier field life and durability was assessed over 2 yr by comparing degradation over time due to weathering and other environmental effects including animal damage. The EVA persisted and remained more intact than the elastomer, but was in need of reapplication after 2 yr. Barriers were also screened for efficacy against voles in small-plot trials in nonorchard locations with known high vole pressure; they were tested either alone, combined with a repellent (thiram), or, in the case of the elastomer only, combined with an abrasive (sand). Only the EVA significantly lowered vole chewing damage relative to the untreated checks. PMID:25026680

Agnello, Arthur M; Kain, David P; Gardner, Jeffrey; Curtis, Paul D; Ashdown, Michael L; Hoffmann, Michael P



Damage Characterization of EBC-SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to their high temperature capabilities, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components are being developed for use in hot-section aerospace engine applications. Harsh engine environments have led to the development of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for silicon-based CMCs to further increase thermal and environmental capabilities. This study aims at understanding the damage mechanisms associated with these materials under simulated operating conditions. A high heat-flux laser testing rig capable of imposing large through-thickness thermal gradients by means of controlled laser beam heating and back-side air cooling is used. Tests are performed on uncoated composites, as well as CMC substrates that have been coated with state-of-the-art ceramic EBC systems. Results show that the use of the EBCs may help increase temperature capability and creep resistance by reducing the effects of stressed oxidation and environmental degradation. Also, the ability of electrical resistance (ER) and acoustic emission (AE) measurements to monitor material condition and damage state during high temperature testing is shown; suggesting their usefulness as a valuable health monitoring technique. Micromechanics models are used to describe the localized stress state of the composite system, which is utilized along with ER modeling concepts to develop an electromechanical model capable of characterizing material behavior.

Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming



Controlling Mole Damage  

E-print Network

Moles can cause much damage to crops and livestock. This leaflet explains the proper way to set shocker loop traps and harpoon traps. Cultural controls and habitat modifications are discussed. Moles also can be controlled with toxicants...

Texas Wildlife Services



Northridge, CA Earthquake Damage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The person in this image was a USGS employee at the time this was taken. Collection of USGS still images taken after the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake highlighting the damage to buildings and infrastructure....


Composite heat damage assessment  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)



LSD and Genetic Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others



Controlling Armadillo Damage  

E-print Network

Armadillos are beneficial because they eat insects and other invertebrates, but they can damage lawns, gardens and structural foundations. They also are believed to transmit leprosy to humans. This leaflet focuses on control methods such as trapping...

Texas Wildlife Services




E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 #12;Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 1 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT

Walter, M.Todd


Interactive effects of leaf damage, light intensity and support availability on chemical defenses and morphology of a twining vine.  


In a greenhouse study, we evaluated the effect of the light environment and support availability on the induction of tropane alkaloids (TAs) after leaf damage in the twining vine Convolvulus arvensis. We also tested whether leaf damage modifies the phenotypic responses of the plant to shade and physical support. We found a consistent pattern of induction of TAs after leaf damage in each environmental condition. The induction of TAs was differentially affected by combinations of support and light treatments. In the sun, prostrate and climbing vines exhibited similar induced responses. In the shade, prostrate vines showed greater induced responses. Thus, vines showed the greatest chemical induction when damage occurred in a resource-poor environment (shade), and there was no cue (support) of future increase in resource uptake. Damaged plants showed reduced plasticity to shading in leaf shape and internodes and petiole length in comparison with control, undamaged plants. Herbivory and/or induced responses to herbivory may limit adaptive plant responses to the environment. Therefore, the negative consequences of herbivory on plant fitness might be magnified in a context of changing environments. PMID:17111219

Gianoli, Ernesto; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Becerra, José



Advances in understanding damage by salt crystallization.  


The single most important cause of the deterioration of monuments in the Mediterranean basin, and elsewhere around the world, is the crystallization of salt within the pores of the stone. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms responsible for salt damage. As a result, new methods of treatment are being proposed that offer the possibility of attacking the cause of the problem, rather than simply treating the symptoms. In this Account, we review the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization, then examine how a range of technological innovations have been applied experimentally to further the current understanding of in-pore crystallization. We close with a discussion of how computer modeling now provides particularly valuable insight, including quantitative estimates of both the interaction forces between the mineral and the crystal and the stresses induced in the material. Analyzing the kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal growth within the pores of a stone requires sensitive tools used in combination. For example, calorimetry quantifies the amount of salt that precipitates in the pores of a stone during cooling, and dilatometric measurements on a companion sample reveal the stress exerted by the salt. Synchrotron X-rays can penetrate the stone and identify the metastable phases that often appear in the first stages of crystallization. Atomic force microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy permit study of the nanometric liquid film that typically lies between salt and stone; this film controls the magnitude of the pressure exerted and the kinetics of relaxation of the stress. These experimental advances provide validation for increasingly advanced simulations, using continuum models of reactive transport on a macroscopic scale and molecular dynamics on the atomic scale. Because of the fundamental understanding of the damage mechanisms that is beginning to emerge, it is possible to devise methods for protecting monuments and sculptures. For example, chemical modification of the stone can alter the repulsive forces that stabilize the liquid film between the salt and mineral surfaces, thereby reducing the stress that the salt can generate. Alternatively, molecules can be introduced into the pores of the stone that inhibit the nucleation or growth of salt crystals. Many challenges remain, however, particularly in understanding the complex interactions between salts, the role of metastable phases, the mechanism of crack initiation and growth, and the role of biofilms. PMID:20214404

Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M; Scherer, George W



Rate Tornado Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tornadoes can produce damage that ranges from broken tree limbs to a block of houses swept from their foundations. They can inflict utter devastation across a wide swath of land or, destroy one house and leave others on either side largely untouched. In this interactive feature from NOVA Online, sudents examine a series of photos of tornado damage and assign intensity ratings (on the Fulita scale) based on what they see.



Rate Tornado Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interactive Flash animation that educates students about the Fujita scale for rating tornado wind speeds and the damage caused by tornados. After being presented with photographs of tornado damage, students are challenged to assign the tornado a rating on the F-scale. The interactive explains the different levels of the F-scale and provides instant feedback on whether or not the correct category was assigned to the tornado.

Lexi Krock


Rate Tornado Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tornadoes can produce damage that ranges from broken tree limbs to a block of houses swept from their foundations. They can inflict utter devastation across a wide swath of land or, destroy one house and leave others on either side largely untouched. In this interactive feature from NOVA Online, sudents examine a series of photos of tornado damage and assign intensity ratings (on the Fulita scale) based on what they see.


Environmental risk evaluation to minimize impacts within the area affected by the Wenchuan earthquake.  


Earthquakes can be devastating to built infrastructure and the natural environment, as evidenced by the March 2011, M=9.0 earthquake, and subsequent tsunami, in Japan. As seen in the Japanese event, environmental damage caused by secondary disasters (tsunami, leakage from a nuclear reactor) can equal or exceed the impacts of the primary event. In order to develop an environmental assessment system to examine secondary disasters, a comprehensive environmental impact evaluation was conducted after the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on 12 May 2008 in the Sichuan Province, China. This evaluation focused on several key environmental elements such as wastewater, drinking water, soil, solid waste, radiation, and ecosystem-level effects. As part of this assessment, an analysis of root causes and potential solutions was conducted for key issues such as population relocation and resettlement in temporary dwellings, recovery of environmental protection functions, industrial development strategies and production recovery. Methods for post-quake environmental assessment were developed, utilizing GIS-based techniques for spatial evaluation of primary and secondary disaster patterns. The goal of this exercise was the development of effective assessment methods that can be rapidly applied in a post-disaster situation to reduce and mitigate damage caused by secondary disasters, and facilitate the recovery of impaired environmental management structure and function. PMID:22285064

Du, Pengfei; Chen, Jining; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yi; Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Xiaojian



HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The effect of various HF-based etching processes on the laser damage resistance of scratched fused silica surfaces has been investigated. Conventionally polished and subsequently scratched fused silica plates were treated by submerging in various HF-based etchants (HF or NH{sub 4}F:HF at various ratios and concentrations) under different process conditions (e.g., agitation frequencies, etch times, rinse conditions, and environmental cleanliness). Subsequently, the laser damage resistance (at 351 or 355 nm) of the treated surface was measured. The laser damage resistance was found to be strongly process dependent and scaled inversely with scratch width. The etching process was optimized to remove or prevent the presence of identified precursors (chemical impurities, fracture surfaces, and silica-based redeposit) known to lead to laser damage initiation. The redeposit precursor was reduced (and hence the damage threshold was increased) by: (1) increasing the SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} solubility through reduction in the NH4F concentration and impurity cation impurities, and (2) improving the mass transport of reaction product (SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-}) (using high frequency ultrasonic agitation and excessive spray rinsing) away from the etched surface. A 2D finite element crack-etching and rinsing mass transport model (incorporating diffusion and advection) was used to predict reaction product concentration. The predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed process trends. The laser damage thresholds also increased with etched amount (up to {approx}30 {micro}m), which has been attributed to: (1) etching through lateral cracks where there is poor acid penetration, and (2) increasing the crack opening resulting in increased mass transport rates. With the optimized etch process, laser damage resistance increased dramatically; the average threshold fluence for damage initiation for 30 {micro}m wide scratches increased from 7 to 41 J/cm{sup 2}, and the statistical probability of damage initiation at 12 J/cm{sup 2} of an ensemble of scratches decreased from {approx}100 mm{sup -1} of scratch length to {approx}0.001 mm{sup -1}.

Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Steele, R A; Shen, N; Monticelli, M V; Feit, M D; Laurence, T A; Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Wong, L L



Review of Environmentally Assisted Cracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many efforts have been made in the past by several researchers to arrive at some unifying principles governing the embrittlement phenomena. An inescapable conclusion reached by all these efforts was that the behavior is very complex. Hence, recognizing the complexity of material/environment behavior, we focus our attention here only in extracting some similarities in the experimental trends to arrive at some generic principles of behavior. Crack nucleation and growth are examined under static load in the presence of internal and external environments. Stress concentration, either pre-existing or in-situ generated, appears to be a requirement for embrittlement. A chemical stress concentration factor is defined for a given material/environment system as the ratio of failure stress with and without the damaging chemical environment. All factors that affect the buildup of the required stress concentration, such as planarity of slip, stacking fault energy, etc., also affect the stress-corrosion behavior. The chemical stress concentration factor is coupled with the mechanical stress concentration factor. In addition, generic features for all systems appear to be (a) an existence of a threshold stress as a function of concentration of the damaging environment and flow properties of the material, and (b) an existence of a limiting threshold as a function of concentration, indicative of a damage saturation for that environment. Kinetics of crack growth also depends on concentration and the mode of crack growth. In general, environment appears to enhance crack tip ductility on one side by the reduction of energy for dislocation nucleation and glide, and to reduce cohesive energy for cleavage, on the other. These two opposing factors are coupled to provide environmentally induced crack nucleation and growth. The relative ratio of these two opposing factors depends on concentration and flow properties, thereby affecting limiting thresholds. The limiting concentration or saturation depends on the relative chemistry of environment and material. A dynamic dislocation model is suggested to account for crack growth.

Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.



Environmental Degradation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals that enter the atmosphere, intensive farming and fishing, and consuming fossil fuels have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Although the land, atmosphere, and the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes and recycle materials naturally, humans have disrupted these natural cycles. Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and most industrial processes. Overuse and pollution of rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater reduces the availability and suitability of these resources for all organisms. Technology used in the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels needed to meet the growing human demand has increased the depletion of nonrenewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and degraded or altered the environment, both locally and globally. Learning Outcomes: Compare and contrast ways in which different technologies have impacted the environmental system. Differentiate between examples of renewable resources and non-renewable (finite) resources. Summarize how the burning of fossil fuels is affecting the environment. Assess both local and global environmental impacts when given examples of human resource use. Identify ways in which one human-based environmental change can have a domino-effect on the rest of the ecosystem (when given a scenario).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)



Tail posture predicts tail damage among weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tail biting in pigs is a widespread behavioural vice with significant animal welfare and economic consequences. All too often, tail biting is not diagnosed nor dealt with until tail damage is present. To effectively reduce the negative effects of tail biting, it must be diagnosed in an early stage. So far no predictors for tail damage have been found. Predictors

Johan J. Zonderland; Johan W. van Riel; Marc B. M. Bracke; Bas Kemp; Leo A. den Hartog; Hans A. M. Spoolder



Real Time Computational Algorithms for Eddy Current Based Damage Detection  

E-print Network

Real Time Computational Algorithms for Eddy Current Based Damage Detection H. T. Banks y, Michele L such damages by application of an eddy current based technique coupled with reduced order modeling. We begin by developing a model for a speci#12;c eddy current method in which we make some simplifying assumptions


Damage and compensatory effects of winter drought on winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were carried out to investigate the damage and compensatory effects of winter drought on winter wheat. The results of the study show that, after winter drought, the growth and development of winter wheat, display obviously dual effects of damage and compensatory. The productive tiller percentage increases while spike number per hectare reduces. Plant height does not change significantly,

Xiu-Shan Tan; Bao-Xing Ye; Jian-Jie Bi



Environmental Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students explore the various roles of environmental engineers, including: environmental cleanup, water quality, groundwater resources, surface water and groundwater flow, water contamination, waste disposal and air pollution. Specifically, students learn about the factors that affect water quality and the conditions that enable different animals and plants to survive in their environments. Next, students learn about groundwater and how environmental engineers study groundwater to predict the distribution of surface pollution. Students also learn how water flows through the ground, what an aquifer is and what soil properties are used to predict groundwater flow. Additionally, students discover that the water they drink everyday comes from many different sources, including surface water and groundwater. They investigate possible scenarios of drinking water contamination and how contaminants can negatively affect the organisms that come in contact with them. Students learn about the three most common methods of waste disposal and how environmental engineers continue to develop technologies to dispose of trash. Lastly, students learn what causes air pollution and how to investigate the different pollutants that exist, such as toxic gases and particulate matter. Also, they investigate the technologies developed by engineers to reduce air pollution.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program


Environmental Programs Environmental Programs Committee  

E-print Network

162 Environmental Programs Environmental Programs Committee Walter Whitfield Isle, Chair (English) Katherine Bennett Ensor (Statistics) Mark R. Wiesner (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Donald Ostdiek (Architecture) The Environmental Programs Committee coordinates courses and curricula on environmental topics

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca


Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers  

E-print Network

carbonate. Additionally, increasing cycle volume in WAG injection reduced the damage introduced to the core. Sulfate precipitation during CO2 sequestration was primarily controlled by temperature. For formation brine with high total dissolved solids (TDS...

Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-



Environmental impacts and costs of energy.  


Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion. PMID:17119229

Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V



Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the same geometry (19mm diameter) and surface finish. A peak absorbed energy for perforation of 34.5J was identied regardless of the projectile density. The effect of composite panel manufacturing methods on the impact damage and energy absorption of the panel was also investigated. Specifically, damage related to pre-cured facesheets is compared to the co-cured facesheets used throughout the study.

Mordasky, Matthew D.