Science.gov

Sample records for reducing environmental damage

  1. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  2. How damage diversification can reduce systemic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-04-01

    We study the influence of risk diversification on cascading failures in weighted complex networks, where weighted directed links represent exposures between nodes. These weights result from different diversification strategies and their adjustment allows us to reduce systemic risk significantly by topological means. As an example, we contrast a classical exposure diversification (ED) approach with a damage diversification (DD) variant. The latter reduces the loss that the failure of high degree nodes generally inflict to their network neighbors and thus hampers the cascade amplification. To quantify the final cascade size and obtain our results, we develop a branching process approximation taking into account that inflicted losses cannot only depend on properties of the exposed, but also of the failing node. This analytic extension is a natural consequence of the paradigm shift from individual to system safety. To deepen our understanding of the cascade process, we complement this systemic perspective by a mesoscopic one: an analysis of the failure risk of nodes dependent on their degree. Additionally, we ask for the role of these failures in the cascade amplification.

  3. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  4. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  5. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  6. Mountain substitutability and peak load pricing of high alpine peaks as a management tool to reduce environmental damage: a contingent valuation study.

    PubMed

    Loomis, John B; Keske, Catherine M

    2009-04-01

    High alpine peaks throughout the world are under increasing environmental pressure from hikers, trekkers, and climbers. Colorado's "Fourteeners", peaks with summits above 14,000 feet are no exception. Most of these peaks have no entrance fees, and reach ecological and social carrying capacity on weekends. This paper illustrates how a series of dichotomous choice contingent valuation questions can be used to evaluate substitutability between different alpine peaks and quantify the price responsiveness to an entrance fee. Using this approach, we find that peak load pricing would decrease use of popular Fourteeners in Colorado by 22%. This reduction is due almost entirely to substitution, rather than income effects. There is also price inelastic demand, as 60% of the hikers find no substitution for their specific Fourteener at the varying cost increases posed in the survey. The no substitute group has a mean net benefit of $294 per hiker, per trip, considerably higher than visitor net benefits in most recreational use studies. PMID:19111965

  7. Common trenching reduces damage to buried utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alfiere, E.P.

    1982-09-01

    Since 1972 Niagara Mohawk Power Co. has established a utility corridor, installing 503 miles of buried gas mains and electric cables in a common trench. Their guidelines for common trenching included (1) the developer's responsibility for providing a subdivision map showing the location of each sidewalk, lot, and roadway, (2) an easement strip paralleling the front lot (street) line that is to be cleared and graded by the developer before construction is started, (3) an electric planning department to prepare detailed construction drawings, coordinate plans with other utilities, determine the responsibility for trenching and backfilling, and determine that all the necessary easements have been secured, and (4) construction specifications varying the width and depth of the trench with the number and type of utilties occupying the joint trench. Advantages of the common trench program comprise reduced exposure to digups, communication and concern for each utility's facility, water and sewer construction installed before the common trench, and cost sharing that would reduce each facility's construction and restoration costs.

  8. [Environmental damage assessment: international regulations and revelation to China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-zhen; Cao, Dong; Yu, Fang; Wang, Jin-nan; Qi, Ji; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Tian-zhu; Luo, Yong-ming

    2013-05-01

    As the whole society gradually realizes the scarcity of nature resources and environmental value, countries all over the world have evolved and improved the system of environmental damage assessment through the practices of pollution prevention and ecological environmental protection. On one hand, in the research prospective, the practices of environmental damage assessment brought new challenges to environmental law, environmental economics, environmental science, environmental engineering, etc. On the other hand, they constantly promoted and developed relevant laws and regulations, techniques, working mechanism, and guidelines on procedure in practice. On the hasis of comparison and analysis of international practices and experiences from US, EU, and Japan, etc., this article identified relevant concepts, content, and scope of environmental damage assessment, and presented its scientific positioning and development direction. At present, both theory and practice of environmental damage assessment in China are in their infancy period. Considering current environmental situation and socioeconomic development features of China, learning international practices and experiences and raising the orientation of environmental damage assessment have great meaning in exploring the suitable environmental damage assessment system. PMID:23914513

  9. Unfermented grape juice reduce genomic damage on patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Zuray; Rodríguez-Ribera, Lara; Coll, Elisabeth; Montañés, Rosario; Diaz, Juan Manuel; Ballarin, José; Marcos, Ricard; Pastor, Susana

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in dialysis (HD) are considered to be submitted to a continuous oxidative stress. This stress can cause damage on DNA and, consequently, contribute to the high levels of DNA damage observed in these patients. Due to the well-known role of polyphenols as antioxidant agents we proposed its use to reduce the levels of genotoxicity present in HD-CKD patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antigenotoxic effects of unfermented grape juice (UGJ) on HD-CKD patients. The levels of DNA damage were analyzed using different biomarkers, such as breaks and oxidized DNA bases by the comet assay, chromosome damage by the micronucleus test. In addition, TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) was also evaluated. Thirty-nine patients were followed for six months, of whom 25 were supplemented by UGJ and 14 were not supplemented. The obtained results showed a significant decrease in the underlying levels of oxidative DNA damage, in the supplemented group. Regarding the clinical parameters, LDL and cholesterol, were significantly reduced in the patients studied after the supplementation period, although cholesterol was also decreased in the non-supplemented patients. In conclusion, in our studied group the supplementation with UGJ reduced the levels of oxidative DNA damage of HD-CKD patients. PMID:27016493

  10. Reducing systems protecting the bacterial cell envelope from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Arts, Isabelle S; Gennaris, Alexandra; Collet, Jean-François

    2015-06-22

    Exposure of cells to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages DNA, membrane lipids and proteins, which can potentially lead to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing residues cysteine and methionine are particularly sensitive to oxidation, forming sulfenic acids and methionine sulfoxides, respectively. The presence of protection mechanisms to scavenge ROS and repair damaged cellular components is therefore essential for cell survival. The bacterial cell envelope, which constitutes the first protection barrier from the extracellular environment, is particularly exposed to the oxidizing molecules generated by the host cells to kill invading microorganisms. Therefore, the presence of oxidative stress defense mechanisms in that compartment is crucial for cell survival. Here, we review recent findings that led to the identification of several reducing pathways protecting the cell envelope from oxidative damage. We focus in particular on the mechanisms that repair envelope proteins with oxidized cysteine and methionine residues and we discuss the major questions that remain to be solved. PMID:25957772

  11. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    PubMed

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  12. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Cheryl R.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Burns, Bruce R.; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  13. Reducing formation damage through two-stage polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Houchin, L.R.; Hudson, L.M.; Caothien, S.; Daddazio, G.; Hashemi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Formation damage resulting from the use of unfiltered polymers during gravel pack completion operations has been addressed as it relates to HEC completion fluids. However, other filtered polymer systems exhibit properties which, in specific applications, may out perform HEC systems. Thus, the performance characteristics of six commonly used polymer systems, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), clarified xanthan gum (XC), HEC/XC blends, crosslinked carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), and standard xanthan gum (XCD), required additional evaluation. Fluid modelling was employed using a new two-stage filtration process (gel filtration) in which the viscosified fluids were optimally sheared and fine-filtered to improve sand placement efficiency and reduce formation damage. The data obtained from this study establishes mixing and filtration design criteria for optimizing completion techniques such as gravel packing, sand washing, polymer diverting, and lost circulation control.

  14. Reduced calcium-dependent mitochondrial damage underlies the reduced vulnerability of excitotoxicity-tolerant hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Stanika, Ruslan I; Watts, Charlotte A; Brantner, Christine A; Smith, Carolyn L; Andrews, S Brian

    2008-03-01

    In central neurons, over-stimulation of NMDA receptors leads to excessive mitochondrial calcium accumulation and damage, which is a critical step in excitotoxic death. This raises the possibility that low susceptibility to calcium overload-induced mitochondrial damage might characterize excitotoxicity-resistant neurons. In this study, we have exploited two complementary models of preconditioning-induced excitotoxicity resistance to demonstrate reduced calcium-dependent mitochondrial damage in NMDA-tolerant hippocampal neurons. We have further identified adaptations in mitochondrial calcium handling that account for enhanced mitochondrial integrity. In both models, enhanced tolerance was associated with improved preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential and structure. In the first model, which exhibited modest neuroprotection, mitochondria-dependent calcium deregulation was delayed, even though cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium loads were quantitatively unchanged, indicating that enhanced mitochondrial calcium capacity accounts for reduced injury. In contrast, the second model, which exhibited strong neuroprotection, displayed further delayed calcium deregulation and reduced mitochondrial damage because downregulation of NMDA receptor surface expression depressed calcium loading. Reducing calcium entry also modified the chemical composition of the calcium-buffering precipitates that form in calcium-loaded mitochondria. It thus appears that reduced mitochondrial calcium loading is a major factor underlying the robust neuroprotection seen in highly tolerant cells. PMID:18036152

  15. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  16. Grounding after moderate eccentric contractions reduces muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard; Chevalier, Gaétan; Hill, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Grounding a human to the earth has resulted in changes in the physiology of the body. A pilot study on grounding and eccentric contractions demonstrated shortened duration of pain, reduced creatine kinase (CK), and differences in blood parameters. This follow-up study was conducted to investigate the effects of grounding after moderate eccentric contractions on pain, CK, and complete blood counts. Thirty-two healthy young men were randomly divided into grounded (n=16) and sham-grounded (n=16) groups. On days 1 through 4, visual analog scale for pain evaluations and blood draws were accomplished. On day 1, the participants performed eccentric contractions of 200 half-knee bends. They were then grounded or sham-grounded to the earth for 4 hours on days 1 and 2. Both groups experienced pain on all posttest days. On day 2, the sham-grounded group experienced significant CK increase (P<0.01) while the CK of the grounded group did not increase significantly; the between-group difference was significant (P=0.04). There was also an increase in the neutrophils of the grounded group on day 3 (P=0.05) compared to the sham-grounded group. There was a significant increase in platelets in the grounded group on days 2 through 4. Grounding produced changes in CK and complete blood counts that were not shared by the sham-grounded group. Grounding significantly reduced the loss of CK from the injured muscles indicating reduced muscle damage. These results warrant further study on the effects of earthing on delayed onset muscle damage. PMID:26443876

  17. Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50–200 μM) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200 μM H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca2+ influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

  18. Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Taichi; Yan, Hanxu; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50-200 μM) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200 μM H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca(2+) influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

  19. Immunomodulation by poly-YE reduces organophosphate-induced brain damage.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Arseny; Kunis, Gilad; Berkutzki, Tamara; Ronen, Ayal; Krivoy, Amir; Yoles, Eti; Last, David; Mardor, Yael; Van Shura, Kerry; McFarland, Emylee; Capacio, Benedict A; Eisner, Claire; Gonzales, Mary; Gregorowicz, Danise; Eisenkraft, Arik; McDonough, John H; Schwartz, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Accidental organophosphate poisoning resulting from environmental or occupational exposure, as well as the deliberate use of nerve agents on the battlefield or by terrorists, remain major threats for multi-casualty events, with no effective therapies yet available. Even transient exposure to organophosphorous compounds may lead to brain damage associated with microglial activation and to long-lasting neurological and psychological deficits. Regulation of the microglial response by adaptive immunity was previously shown to reduce the consequences of acute insult to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we tested whether an immunization-based treatment that affects the properties of T regulatory cells (Tregs) can reduce brain damage following organophosphate intoxication, as a supplement to the standard antidotal protocol. Rats were intoxicated by acute exposure to the nerve agent soman, or the organophosphate pesticide, paraoxon, and after 24 h were treated with the immunomodulator, poly-YE. A single injection of poly-YE resulted in a significant increase in neuronal survival and tissue preservation. The beneficial effect of poly-YE treatment was associated with specific recruitment of CD4(+) T cells into the brain, reduced microglial activation, and an increase in the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the piriform cortex. These results suggest therapeutic intervention with poly-YE as an immunomodulatory supplementary approach against consequences of organophosphate-induced brain damage. PMID:21925261

  20. Minocycline treatment reduces white matter damage after excitotoxic striatal injury.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Joanilson S; Freire, Marco Aurelio M; Lima, Rafael R; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam W; Pereira, Antonio; Gomes-Leal, Walace

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the protective effects of minocycline following white matter damage (WMD) in the rat striatum. Excitotoxic lesions were induced by N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) microinjections and caused striatal damage, concomitant with microglial/macrophage activation. The excitotoxic lesion both damaged oligodendrocytes (Tau-1(+) cells) and caused a decrease in tissue reactivity for myelin basic protein (MBP) after post-lesional day 3 (PLD). Treatment with the semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic minocycline, however, led to oligodendrocyte preservation and decreased myelin impairment. Taken together, these results suggest that white matter damage (WMD) is an important component of the physiopathology of acute striatal damage and that microglial/macrophage activation contributes to this pathological phenomenon. PMID:20226770

  1. Consideration of environmental and operational variability for damage diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, H.; Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    Damage diagnosis is a problem that can be addressed at many levels. Stated in its most basic form, the objective is to ascertain simply if damage is present or not. In a statistical pattern recognition paradigm of this problem, the philosophy is to collect baseline signatures from a system to be monitored and to compare subsequent data to see if the new 'pattern' deviates significantly from the baseline data. Unfortunately, matters are seldom as simple as this. In reality, structures will be subjected to changing environmental and operational conditions that will affect measured signals. In this case, there may be a wide range of normal conditions, and it is clearly undesirable to signal damage simply because of a change in the environment. In this paper, a unique combination of time series analysis, neural networks, and statistical inference techniques is developed for damage classification explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indication of true system changes.

  2. Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, A.-S.; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Kumar, A.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to musculoskeletal disuse and radiation result in bone loss; we hypothesized that these catabolic treatments cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby alter the tight balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used transgenic mice which over-express the human gene for catalase, targeted to mitochondria (MCAT). Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts the ROS hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. MCAT mice were shown previously to display reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiosensitivity of the CNS compared to wild type controls (WT). As expected, MCAT mice expressed the transgene in skeletal tissue, and in marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors cultured ex vivo, and also showed greater catalase activity compared to wildtype (WT) mice (3-6 fold). Colony expansion in marrow cells cultured under osteoblastogenic conditions was 2-fold greater in the MCAT mice compared to WT mice, while the extent of mineralization was unaffected. MCAT mice had slightly longer tibiae than WT mice (2%, P less than 0.01), although cortical bone area was slightly lower in MCAT mice than WT mice (10%, p=0.09). To challenge the skeletal system, mice were treated by exposure to combined disuse (2 wk Hindlimb Unloading) and total body irradiation Cs(137) (2 Gy, 0.8 Gy/min), then bone parameters were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA to detect possible interaction effects. Treatment caused a 2-fold increase (p=0.015) in malondialdehyde levels of bone tissue (ELISA) in WT mice, but had no effect in MCAT mice. These findings indicate that the transgene conferred protection from oxidative damage caused by treatment. Unexpected differences between WT and MCAT mice emerged in skeletal responses to treatment.. In WT mice, treatment did not alter osteoblastogenesis, cortical bone area, moment of inertia, or bone perimeter, whereas in MCAT mice, treatment increased these

  3. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  4. Expediting environmental restoration at a reduced cost

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.R.; Plack, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    With Congress appropriating approximately $1.0--1.5 Billion each year for Department of Defense (DOD) Environmental Restoration Program (DERP), every effort must be made to find ways to use these funds efficiently and effectively to nations hazardous waste sites. Each federal agency involved in environmental restoration is striving to find smarter, faster ways to accomplish this service. The Omaha District Corps of Engineers, Hazardous and Toxic Waste Branch (Omaha) and the Air Combat Command Installation Restoration Branch (ACC) have teamed up to develop and implement an innovative Accelerated Clean-up Program which with the President`s edict for expedited installation environmental restoration.

  5. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  6. Tree diversity reduces pest damage in mature forests across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Castagneyrol, Bastien; Vialatte, Aude; Deconchat, Marc; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Forest pest damage is expected to increase with global change. Tree diversity could mitigate this impact, but unambiguous demonstration of the diversity–resistance relationship is lacking in semi-natural mature forests. We used a network of 208 forest plots sampled along two orthogonal gradients of increasing tree species richness and latitudes to assess total tree defoliation in Europe. We found a positive relationship between tree species richness and resistance to insect herbivores: overall damage to broadleaved species significantly decreased with the number of tree species in mature forests. This pattern of associational resistance was frequently observed across tree species and countries, irrespective of their climate. These findings confirm the greater potential of mixed forests to face future biotic disturbances in a changing world. PMID:27122011

  7. Tree diversity reduces pest damage in mature forests across Europe.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Virginie; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Vialatte, Aude; Deconchat, Marc; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Forest pest damage is expected to increase with global change. Tree diversity could mitigate this impact, but unambiguous demonstration of the diversity-resistance relationship is lacking in semi-natural mature forests. We used a network of 208 forest plots sampled along two orthogonal gradients of increasing tree species richness and latitudes to assess total tree defoliation in Europe. We found a positive relationship between tree species richness and resistance to insect herbivores: overall damage to broadleaved species significantly decreased with the number of tree species in mature forests. This pattern of associational resistance was frequently observed across tree species and countries, irrespective of their climate. These findings confirm the greater potential of mixed forests to face future biotic disturbances in a changing world. PMID:27122011

  8. Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G.; Mattioli, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

  9. Reducing the environmental impact of uranium in-situ recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Simmons, Ardyth

    2010-10-01

    This session will explore the current technical approaches to reducing the environmental effects of uranium ISR in comparison to the historical environmental impact of uranium mining to demonstrate advances in this controversial subject.

  10. Investigation of water spray to reduce collateral thermal damage during laser resection of soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen-Kunde, D.; Wolken, H.; Ellebrecht, D.; Danicke, V.; Wurster, L.; Kleemann, M.; Birngruber, R.

    2013-06-01

    To reduce unwanted collateral thermal damage to surrounding tissue and organs during laparoscopic laser dissection (cw, wavelength: 1.9μm) of porcine liver water spray was used. Size and amount of the produced water droplets of the water spray were photographed by short time imaging and analyzed by imaging software. At in vivo measurements on fresh porcine liver the depth of thermal damage was reduced by 85 % with water spray and the lateral size of thermal damage at the tissue surface could be reduced by 67%. This results show that especially for laparoscopic laser surgery water spray application might be a useful tool to avoid unwanted collateral thermal damage.

  11. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  12. 78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and... Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for natural resource injuries and service losses associated with..., notice is hereby given that a document entitled, ``Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan...

  13. Solastalgia: living with the environmental damage caused by natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-02-01

    Forced separation from one's home may trigger emotional distress. People who remain in their homes may experience emotional distress due to living in a severely damaged environment. These people experience a type of 'homesickness' similar to nostalgia because the land around them no longer resembles the home they knew and loved. What they lack is solace or comfort from their home; they long for the home environment to be the way it was before. "Solastalgia" is a term created to describe feelings which arise in people when an environment changes so much that it negatively affects an individual's quality of life. Such changed environments may include drought-stricken areas and open-cut mines. The aim of this article is to describe how solastalgia, originally conceptualized as the result of man-made environmental change, can be similarly applied to the survivors of natural disasters. Using volcanic eruptions as a case example, the authors argue that people who experience a natural disaster are likely to suffer from solastalgia for a number of reasons, which may include the loss of housing, livestock and farmland, and the ongoing danger of living in a disaster-prone area. These losses and fears challenge people's established sense of place and identity and can lead to feelings of helplessness and depression. PMID:24438454

  14. Radiation damage in protein crystals is reduced with a micron-sized X-ray beam

    PubMed Central

    Sanishvili, Ruslan; Yoder, Derek W.; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Xu, Shenglan; Vogt, Stefan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg A.; Corcoran, Stephen; Benn, Richard; Nagarajan, Venugopalan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation damage is a major limitation in crystallography of biological macromolecules, even for cryocooled samples, and is particularly acute in microdiffraction. For the X-ray energies most commonly used for protein crystallography at synchrotron sources, photoelectrons are the predominant source of radiation damage. If the beam size is small relative to the photoelectron path length, then the photoelectron may escape the beam footprint, resulting in less damage in the illuminated volume. Thus, it may be possible to exploit this phenomenon to reduce radiation-induced damage during data measurement for techniques such as diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging that use X-rays to probe both crystalline and noncrystalline biological samples. In a systematic and direct experimental demonstration of reduced radiation damage in protein crystals with small beams, damage was measured as a function of micron-sized X-ray beams of decreasing dimensions. The damage rate normalized for dose was reduced by a factor of three from the largest (15.6 μm) to the smallest (0.84 μm) X-ray beam used. Radiation-induced damage to protein crystals was also mapped parallel and perpendicular to the polarization direction of an incident 1-μm X-ray beam. Damage was greatest at the beam center and decreased monotonically to zero at a distance of about 4 μm, establishing the range of photoelectrons. The observed damage is less anisotropic than photoelectron emission probability, consistent with photoelectron trajectory simulations. These experimental results provide the basis for data collection protocols to mitigate with micron-sized X-ray beams the effects of radiation damage. PMID:21444772

  15. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

  16. Comparison between the environmental damages of two axial air compressors manufactured by the firm Fini Compressori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Paolo; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldi, Giovanni; Saric, Miroslav; Tani, Giovanni

    2001-02-01

    This study was performed jointly by ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), Bologna and Florence Universities and the firm FINI COMPRESSORI. A comparison is carried out between the environmental damages of two models (MK10 and MK94) of air axial compressors manufactured by FINI COMPRESSORI, with a volume of intaken air of 226 l/min, a power of 1.8 kW and a maximum pressure of 10 bar. The comparison is obtained by using LCA calculated by SimaPro 3.1 code and two methods: Eco-indicator 95 and a new method obtained by adding to the Eco-indicator 95 method other damage categories such as some raw material depletion, solid and energy. The system boundaries include raw material extraction and the end of life of the components and some special tools for manufacturing such as dies, moulds and shells. All metallic materials have the recycling as waste scenario. For LCA study we have considered the three components crankshaft, crankcase and valve plate for both the models, the air cooling conveyor for the MK94 and the surplus of consumed energy for the MK10. The conveyor decreases the temperature of air and therefore increases the compressor efficiency and reduces the electrical energy consumption during the use. From the LCA results, we can conclude that the introduction of the conveyor reduces the damage of MK10 model of 114.07 mPt and that the other modifications of the design increase the damage of MK10 model of 11 mPt. The damage of air compressor can be diminished by reusing crankshaft and crankcase. A design modification of the blades of the ventilator is proposed to avoid the conveyor.

  17. Environmental Enrichment Protects the Retina from Early Diabetic Damage in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L.; González Fleitas, María Florencia; Chianelli, Mónica S.; Fernandez, Diego C.; Sande, Pablo H.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials), retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats. PMID:25004165

  18. BPC-15 reduces trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colonic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Veljaca, M; Lesch, C A; Pllana, R; Sanchez, B; Chan, K; Guglietta, A

    1995-01-01

    The effect of BPC-15 (Booly Protection Compound-15) was evaluated in a rat model of colonic injury. A single intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in ethanol induces severe colonic damage, which is characterized by areas of necrosis surrounded by areas of acute inflammation. The damage is associated with high myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mainly as a reflection of neutrophilic infiltration into the damaged tissue. In this study, 1 hr before a single intracolonic administration of 50 mg/kg of TNBS in 50% ethanol, the animals were treated with one of the following doses of BPC-15: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 nmol/kg administered i.p. or with a dose of 10 nmol/kg administered intracolonically. The animals were sacrificed 3 days later and the extent of colonic necrosis and hyperemia was measured with an image analyzer. The i.p. administration of BPC-15 significantly reduced the extent of TNBS-induced colonic damage in a dose-dependent manner. This was associated with a statistically significant and dose-dependent reduction in colonic tissue MPO activity. At the dose tested (10 nmol/kg), intracolonic administration of BPC-15 did not significantly reduce either the extent of the colonic damage or the increase in MPO activity induced by TNBS. In conclusion, this study showed that i.p. administration of BPC-15 reduced TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats. PMID:7815358

  19. Experimental Colitis Is Attenuated by Cardioprotective Diet Supplementation That Reduces Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mucosal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Citalán Madrid, Alí Francisco; García Ponce, Alexander; Silva Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Betanzos, Abigail; Del Valle Mondragón, Leonardo; Nava, Porfirio; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are multifactorial, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the etiology is still poorly understood but involves altered immune responses, epithelial dysfunction, environmental factors, and nutrition. Recently, we have shown that the diet supplement corabion has cardioprotective effects due to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are also prominent risk factors in IBD, we speculated that corabion also has beneficial effects on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male mice by administration of 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for a period of 3 or 7 days with or without daily gavage feeding of corabion consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. We found that corabion administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Mechanistically, these effects could be explained by reduced neutrophil recruitment, oxidative stress, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and internalization of the junctional proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin leading to less edema formation. Thus, corabion may be a useful diet supplement for the management of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders such as IBD. PMID:26881044

  20. Antioxidant and micronutrient-rich milk formula reduces lead poisoning and related oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Hui; Song, Aihua; Jiao, Jingjing

    2013-07-01

    Lead poisoning is a global environmental disease that induces lifelong adverse health effects. The effect of a milk formula consisting of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), vitamin C (Vc), calcium lactate (CaLac), ferrous sulfate (FeSO₄) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO₄) on the reduction of lead and lead-induced oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice was studied. The lead-reducing effect of milk formula was investigated via a 7-week toxicokinetics study and a tissue distribution level examination. The ameliorating effect of milk formula on lead-induced oxidative damage was investigated. Results demonstrated current milk formula could effectively reduce blood lead levels (BLLs) and lead distribution levels of liver, kidneys, thighbones and brain in mice based on metal ion-mediated antagonism and chelation mechanisms. This milk formula could not only protect lead-susceptible tissues against lead poisoning, but also maintain normal absorption and distribution of essential elements in vivo. Meanwhile, current milk formula could prevent the reduction of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity and enhancement of free erythrocyte protoporphyrins (FEP) levels in blood erythrocytes of mice. Also, this formula could indirectly protect blood cell membranes against lead-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that current optimized milk formula effectively reduces lead poisoning and lead-induced in vivo oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice. PMID:23537597

  1. Reduced winter snowfall damages the structure and function of wintergreen ferns.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Jack T

    2014-05-20

    • Premise of the study: The full impact of climate change on ecosystems and the humans that depend on them is uncertain. Anthropogenic climate change is resulting in winters with less snow than is historically typical. This deficit may have an impact on wintergreen ferns whose fronds lie prostrate under the snowpack and are thereby protected from frost.• Methods: Frost damage and ecophysiological traits were quantified for three species of wintergreen fern (Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris marginalis, and Polystichum acrostichoides) near Delhi, NY following the winters of 2012 (which had very little snowfall) and 2013 (which had typical snowfall).• Key results: Dryopteris intermedia was the most common species and had the highest percentage of frost-damaged fronds and the highest percentage of its cover damaged in 2012. Frost damage was significantly less in 2013 for all species. Polystichum acrostichoides had the highest vernal photosynthetic rate in undamaged fronds, and all three species had a negative net photosynthetic rate in frost-damaged fronds. The wintergreen fern community lost 36.69 ± 2.80% of its productive surface area to frost damage in 2012. Dryopteris intermedia had the thinnest leaves and this trait may have made it the most susceptible to frost damage.• Conclusions: These results demonstrate that repeated winters of little snow may have a significant impact on the structure and functioning of the wintergreen fern community, and species will respond to a reduced snowpack on an individual basis. PMID:24844709

  2. [A Method Research on Environmental Damage Assessment of a Truck Rollover Pollution Incident].

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Zhao, Shi-ho; Chen, Gang-cai; Xian, Si-shu; Yang, Qing-ling; Zhou, Xian-jie; Yu, Hai

    2015-05-01

    With high occurrence of sudden water pollution incident, China faces an increasingly severe situation of water environment. In order to deter the acts of environmental pollution, ensure the damaged resources of environment can be restored and compensated, it is very critical to quantify the economic losses caused by the sudden water pollution incident. This paper took truck rollover pollution incidents in Chongqing for an example, established a set of evaluation method for quantifying the environmental damage, and then assessed the environmental damage by the method from four aspects, including the property damage, ecological environment and resources damages, the costs of administrative affairs in emergency disposal, and the costs of investigation and evaluation. PMID:26314145

  3. Damage Characterization Method for Structural Health Management Using Reduced Number of Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of validated multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools, technologies, and techniques to enable detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation in the presence of adverse conditions during flight will provide effective solutions to deal with safety related challenges facing next generation aircraft. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage (cracks) due to fatigue and low velocity foreign impacts that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. Hence, development of efficient methodologies to determine the presence, location, and severity of damage in critical structural components is highly important in developing efficient structural health management systems.

  4. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A; Lowery, Ryan P; De Souza, Eduardo O; Partl, Jeremy M; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (-39.8 watts, -5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  5. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  6. Induced superficial chondrocyte death reduces catabolic cartilage damage in murine posttraumatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minjie; Mani, Sriniwasan B; He, Yao; Hall, Amber M; Xu, Lin; Li, Yefu; Zurakowski, David; Jay, Gregory D; Warman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Joints that have degenerated as a result of aging or injury contain dead chondrocytes and damaged cartilage. Some studies have suggested that chondrocyte death precedes cartilage damage, but how the loss of chondrocytes affects cartilage integrity is not clear. In this study, we examined whether chondrocyte death undermines cartilage integrity in aging and injury using a rapid 3D confocal cartilage imaging technique coupled with standard histology. We induced autonomous expression of diphtheria toxin to kill articular surface chondrocytes in mice and determined that chondrocyte death did not lead to cartilage damage. Moreover, cartilage damage after surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus of the knee was increased in mice with intact chondrocytes compared with animals whose chondrocytes had been killed, suggesting that chondrocyte death does not drive cartilage damage in response to injury. These data imply that chondrocyte catabolism, not death, contributes to articular cartilage damage following injury. Therefore, therapies targeted at reducing the catabolic phenotype may protect against degenerative joint disease. PMID:27427985

  7. Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.

    PubMed

    Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

    2010-08-01

    Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill. PMID:20857741

  8. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-01-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  9. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-12-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  10. Birds and bats reduce insect biomass and leaf damage in tropical forest restoration sites.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Emily B; Lindell, Catherine A

    2012-07-01

    Both birds and bats are important insect predators in tropical systems. However, the relative influence of birds and bats on insect populations and their indirect effects on leaf damage have not previously been investigated in tropical forest restoration sites. Leaf damage by herbivorous insects can negatively affect the growth and survival of tropical plants and thus can influence the success of tropical forest restoration efforts. We used an exclosure experiment to examine the top-down effects of birds and bats on insects and leaf damage in a large-scale forest restoration experiment. Given the potential influence of tree planting design on bird and bat abundances, we also investigated planting design effects on bird and bat insectivory and leaf damage. The experiment included two planting treatment plots: islands, where trees were planted in patches, and plantations, where trees were planted in rows to create continuous cover. In both types of plots, insect biomass was highest on tree branches where both birds and bats were excluded from foraging and lowest on branches without exclosures where both birds and bats were present. In the island plots, birds and bats had approximately equal impacts on insect populations, while in plantations bats appeared to have a slightly stronger effect on insects than did birds. In plantations, the levels of leaf damage were higher on branches where birds and bats were excluded than on branches where both had access. In island plots, no significant differences in leaf damage were found between exclosure treatments although potential patterns were in the same direction as in the plantations. Our results suggest that both birds and bats play important roles as top predators in restoration systems by reducing herbivorous insects and their damage to planted trees. Tropical restoration projects should include efforts to attract and provide suitable habitat for birds and bats, given their demonstrated ecological importance. PMID

  11. Trekking poles reduce downhill walking-induced muscle and cartilage damage in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the use of trekking poles on muscle and cartilage damage and fatigue during downhill walking in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included eight obese women who had a body fat percentage greater than 30. Subjects performed downhill walking without a trekking pole (NP) and with a trekking pole (TP) at 50% heart rate reserve for 30 minutes on a treadmill. The treadmill was set at a 15% downhill declination. Blood samples were collected to examine muscle damage (serum creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] levels), cartilage damage (serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [COMP] levels), and fatigue (plasma lactate levels) at the pre-walking baseline (PWB), immediately after walking (IAW), and 2 hours post-walking (2HPW). [Results] The CK, LDH, COMP, and lactate levels were significantly increased IAW when compared with those at the PWB in both trials. In addition, in the NP trial, the CK, LDH, and COMP levels were significantly increased at 2HPW when compared with those at the PWB. [Conclusion] Downhill walking can cause muscle and cartilage damage, and our results suggest that the use of a trekking pole can reduce temporary muscle and cartilage damage after downhill walking. PMID:27313374

  12. Trekking poles reduce downhill walking-induced muscle and cartilage damage in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the use of trekking poles on muscle and cartilage damage and fatigue during downhill walking in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included eight obese women who had a body fat percentage greater than 30. Subjects performed downhill walking without a trekking pole (NP) and with a trekking pole (TP) at 50% heart rate reserve for 30 minutes on a treadmill. The treadmill was set at a 15% downhill declination. Blood samples were collected to examine muscle damage (serum creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] levels), cartilage damage (serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [COMP] levels), and fatigue (plasma lactate levels) at the pre-walking baseline (PWB), immediately after walking (IAW), and 2 hours post-walking (2HPW). [Results] The CK, LDH, COMP, and lactate levels were significantly increased IAW when compared with those at the PWB in both trials. In addition, in the NP trial, the CK, LDH, and COMP levels were significantly increased at 2HPW when compared with those at the PWB. [Conclusion] Downhill walking can cause muscle and cartilage damage, and our results suggest that the use of a trekking pole can reduce temporary muscle and cartilage damage after downhill walking. PMID:27313374

  13. Chemical genoprotection: reducing biological damage to as low as reasonably achievable levels

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, M; Armero, D; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Fernandez, H; Alcaraz-Saura, M; Canteras, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances present in the human diet with an antimutagenic protective capacity against genotoxic damage induced by exposure to X-rays in an attempt to reduce biological damage to as low a level as reasonably possible. Methods Ten compounds were assessed using the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome test. The compounds studied were added to human blood at 25 μM 5 min before exposure to irradiation by 2 Gy of X-rays. Results The protective capacity of the antioxidant substances assessed was from highest to lowest according to the frequency of the MN generated by X-ray exposure: rosmarinic acid = carnosic acid = δ-tocopherol = l-acid ascorbic = apigenin = amifostine (P < 0.001) > green tea extract = diosmine = rutin = dimetylsulfoxide (P < 0.05) > irradiated control. The reduction in genotoxic damage with the radiation doses administered reached 58%, which represents a significant reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage (P < 0.001). This degree of protection is greater than that obtained with amifostine, a radioprotective compound used in radiotherapy and which is characterised by its high toxicity. Conclusion Several antioxidant substances, common components of the human diet and lacking toxicity, offer protection from the biological harm induced by ionizing radiation. Administering these protective substances to patients before radiological exploration should be considered, even in the case of small radiation doses and regardless of the biological damage expected. PMID:21697157

  14. Cationic liposomes containing antioxidants reduces pulmonary injury in experimental model of sepsis: Liposomes antioxidants reduces pulmonary damage.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Andre Martins; Galvão, Júlia Siqueira; Pereira, Marcela Araújo; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves; Magalhães, Nereide Stella Santos; Fink, James B; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas; Castro, Celia Maria Machado Barbosa de; de Sousa Maia, Maria Bernadete

    2016-09-01

    The intracellular redox state of alveolar cells is a determining factor for tolerance to oxidative and pro-inflammatory stresses. This study investigated the effects of intratracheal co-administration of antioxidants encapsulated in liposomes on the lungs of rats subjected to sepsis. For this, male rats subjected to sepsis induced by lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli or placebo operation were treated (intratracheally) with antibiotic, 0.9% saline and antioxidants encapsulated or non-encapsulated in liposomes. Experimental model of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed in order to expose the cecum. The cecum was then gently squeezed to extrude a small amount of feces from the perforation site. As an index of oxidative damage, superoxide anions, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, catalase activity, nitrates/nitrites, cell viability and mortality rate were measured. Infected animals treated with antibiotic plus antioxidants encapsulated in liposomes showed reduced levels of superoxide anion (54% or 7.650±1.263 nmol/min/mg protein), lipid peroxidation (33% or 0.117±0.041 nmol/mg protein), protein carbonyl (57% or 0.039 ± 0.022 nmol/mg protein) and mortality rate (3.3%), p value <0.001. This treatment also reduced the level of nitrite/nitrate and increased cell viability (90.7%) of alveolar macrophages. Taken togheter, theses results support that cationic liposomes containing antioxidants should be explored as coadjuvants in the treatment of pulmonary oxidative damage. PMID:27267466

  15. Eculizumab reduces complement activation, inflammation, endothelial damage, thrombosis, and renal injury markers in aHUS

    PubMed Central

    Cofiell, Roxanne; Kukreja, Anjli; Bedard, Krystin; Yan, Yan; Mickle, Angela P.; Ogawa, Masayo; Bedrosian, Camille L.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a genetic, life-threatening disease characterized by uncontrolled complement activation, systemic thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and vital organ damage. We evaluated the effect of terminal complement blockade with the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab on biomarkers of cellular processes involved in TMA in patients with aHUS longitudinally, during up to 1 year of treatment, compared with in healthy volunteers. Biomarker levels were elevated at baseline in most patients, regardless of mutational status, plasma exchange/infusion use, platelet count, or lactate dehydrogenase or haptoglobin levels. Eculizumab reduced terminal complement activation (C5a and sC5b-9) and renal injury markers (clusterin, cystatin-C, β2-microglobulin, and liver fatty acid binding protein-1) to healthy volunteer levels and reduced inflammation (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1), coagulation (prothrombin fragment F1+2 and d-dimer), and endothelial damage (thrombomodulin) markers to near-normal levels. Alternative pathway activation (Ba) and endothelial activation markers (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) decreased but remained elevated, reflecting ongoing complement activation in aHUS despite complete terminal complement blockade. These results highlight links between terminal complement activation and inflammation, endothelial damage, thrombosis, and renal injury and underscore ongoing risk for systemic TMA and progression to organ damage. Further research regarding underlying complement dysregulation is warranted. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01194973. PMID:25833956

  16. Modified otter trawl legs to reduce damage and mortality of benthic organisms in North East Atlantic fisheries (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyonnet, B.; Grall, J.; Vincent, B.

    2008-07-01

    Despite a consensus about the significant damages to marine benthos and commercial fish stocks induced by mobile fishing gear, the extent and intensity of this practice have currently grown all over the world. The main problems of fisheries management are the capture and killing of juvenile and undersized fish and thus restrictions mainly concern mesh size in cod-end. However another recurrent problem and non-negligible is the by-catch of undersize commercial fish and of non-target species. Hence, regulations to reduce such by-catch have formed a part of fisheries management techniques since the early 20th century. As a consequence, successful developments and technical modification have been used to reduce capture of undersized fish and discards (i.e. mesh size, separator panels, and sorting grids) in the last decades. Technical modification concerning reduction of damage and mortality to benthic communities are less documented. Most of the tentative to replace tickler chain, panels or legs by other systems have failed, while results showed a decrease in non-target catch, and a decrease in commercial catch was observed. This paper presents fishing experiments with modified otter trawl aimed at reducing discard rates and direct mortality of benthic infauna and epifauna without affecting the level of landings (i.e. a comparison of environmental effects caused by a conventional otter trawl compared to a modified otter trawl with enlighten experimental legs). Catch composition, by-catch and short-term effects to macro- and megafauna communities of both fishing gear (conventional and modified) were investigated. Results show that no differences for commercial catch biomass or for benthic communities' structure were observed. Moreover, by-catch analysis showed no difference while significant higher damage and direct mortality were observed for target and non-target species caught by the normal otter trawl compared to those caught by the modified one. Consequently

  17. Damage detection under varying environmental and operational conditions using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima decay lines similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjirkallis, A.; Kyprianou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, there have been increasing demands to develop and deploy Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems for engineering structures in service. Since these structures are subjected to varying environmental and operational conditions, reliable SHM methodologies must be capable of not misattributing to damage changes due to environmental conditions. This paper presents a novel damage detection methodology based on the similarity between maxima decay lines of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of the structural responses obtained under different operational and environmental conditions. The normalized cross correlation (NCC) is used as a measure of this similarity. In addition, the pointwise summation of similar Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) decay lines is used to identify changes due to the presence of damage from different force realizations and/or varying environmental conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a simulated 3DOF system and an experimental cantilever beam.

  18. Systemic insecticide and gibberellin reduced cone damage and increased flowering in a spruce seed orchard.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, O; Almqvist, C; Weslien, J

    2012-06-01

    Insects feeding in conifer cones are difficult to control with nonsystemic insecticides. Newly developed systemic insecticides that can be injected into tree trunks may be a possible way of reducing both insect damage and negative side-effects to the surrounding environment, compared with conventional spraying. Several insecticides that could be injected into tree stems were tested on Picea abies (L.) Karst. In one experiment, insecticides (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, abamectin, and imidacloprid) were injected during flowering; in a second experiment two of these insecticides (abamectin and imidacloprid) were injected 1 yr before the expected flowering. In the second experiment insecticide treatment was also combined with treatments with the flower stimulating hormone, gibberellin (GA(4/7)). The only insecticide that reduced damage was abamectin, both after injection during flowering and after injection 1 yr before the expected flowering. Injections with GA(4/7) increased flowering and were as efficient as the conventional application method of drilling but abamectin was not effective in combination with the drilling method. There was no negative effect of the insecticide injections on seed quality. The injections were ineffective against the seed chalcid Megastigmus strobilobius (Ratzeburg), which was found to have an unexpected, negative effect on seed quality. Our results suggest that it may be possible to reduce damage from certain insect species, and to increase flowering by injecting abamectin and GA(4/7) in the year before a cone crop. PMID:22812130

  19. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Microglial Activation and Neurodegenerative Events in Light Damaged Retina

    PubMed Central

    Fiorani, Lavinia; Passacantando, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The first target of any therapy for retinal neurodegeneration is to slow down the progression of the disease and to maintain visual function. Cerium oxide or ceria nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, which is known to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles were able to mitigate neurodegeneration including microglial activation and related inflammatory processes induced by exposure to high intensity light. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were injected intravitreally or intraveinously in albino Sprague-Dawley rats three weeks before exposing them to light damage of 1000 lux for 24 h. Electroretinographic recordings were performed a week after light damage. The progression of retinal degeneration was evaluated by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and TUNEL staining to quantify photoreceptors death. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate retinal stress, neuroinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. Only intravitreally injected ceria nanoparticles were detected at the level of photoreceptor outer segments 3 weeks after the light damage and electoretinographic recordings showed that ceria nanoparticles maintained visual response. Moreover, this treatment reduced neuronal death and “hot spot” extension preserving the outer nuclear layer morphology. It is noteworthy that in this work we demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of ceria nanoparticles to reduce microglial activation and their migration toward outer nuclear layer. All these evidences support ceria nanoparticles as a powerful therapeutic agent in retinal neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26469804

  20. Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibition Reduces Vascular Damage and Modulates Innate Immune Responses in Murine Models of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jason S.; Luo, Wei; O’Dell, Alexander A.; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Zhao, Wenpu; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Guo, Chiao; Grenn, Robert C.; Thompson, Paul R.; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation promotes vascular damage, thrombosis, and activation of interferon-α-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in diseased arteries. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition is a strategy that can decrease in vivo NET formation. Objective To test whether peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition, a novel approach to targeting arterial disease, can reduce vascular damage and inhibit innate immune responses in murine models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Apolipoprotein-E (Apoe)−/− mice demonstrated enhanced NET formation, developed autoantibodies to NETs, and expressed high levels of interferon-α in diseased arteries. Apoe−/− mice were treated for 11 weeks with daily injections of Cl-amidine, a peptidylarginine deiminase inhibitor. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition blocked NET formation, reduced atherosclerotic lesion area, and delayed time to carotid artery thrombosis in a photochemical injury model. Decreases in atherosclerosis burden were accompanied by reduced recruitment of netting neutrophils and macrophages to arteries, as well as by reduced arterial interferon-α expression. Conclusions Pharmacological interventions that block NET formation can reduce atherosclerosis burden and arterial thrombosis in murine systems. These results support a role for aberrant NET formation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through modulation of innate immune responses. PMID:24425713

  1. Reducing Environmental Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles through Shape Control.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Danielle E; Osterberg, Joshua S; Gwin, Carley A; Colman, Benjamin P; Meyer, Joel N; Bernhardt, Emily S; Gunsch, Claudia K; DiGulio, Richard T; Liu, Jie

    2015-08-18

    The use of antibacterial silver nanomaterials in consumer products ranging from textiles to toys has given rise to concerns over their environmental toxicity. These materials, primarily nanoparticles, have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of organisms; thus methods and materials that reduce their environmental toxicity while retaining their useful antibacterial properties can potentially solve this problem. Here we demonstrate that silver nanocubes display a lower toxicity toward the model plant species Lolium multiflorum while showing similar toxicity toward other environmentally relevant and model organisms (Danio rerio and Caenorhabditis elegans) and bacterial species (Esherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) compared to quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles and silver nanowires. More specifically, in the L. multiflorum experiments, the roots of silver nanocube treated plants were 5.3% shorter than the control, while silver nanoparticle treated plant roots were 39.6% shorter than the control. The findings here could assist in the future development of new antibacterial products that cause less environmental toxicity after their intended use. PMID:26146787

  2. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  3. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  4. Evaluating the Thermal Damage Resistance of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Lamuel; Feldman, Ari; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Lehman, John; Singh, Gurpreet; National Institute of Standards and Technology Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene are known to exhibit some exceptional thermal (K ~ 2000 to 4400 W.m-1K-1 at 300K) and optical properties. Here, we demonstrate preparation and testing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chemically modified graphene-composite spray coatings for use on thermal detectors for high-power lasers. The synthesized nanocomposite material was tested by preparing spray coatings on aluminum test coupons used as a representation of the thermal detector's surface. These coatings were then exposed to increasing laser powers and extended exposure times to quantify their damage threshold and optical absorbance. The graphene/carbon nanotube (prepared at varying mass% of graphene in CNTs) coatings demonstrated significantly higher damage threshold values at 2.5 kW laser power (10.6 μm wavelength) than carbon paint or MWCNTs alone. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of irradiated specimens showed that the composite coating endured high laser-power densities (up to 2 kW.cm-2) without significant visual damage. This research is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation (Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems Division), under grant no. 1335862 to G. Singh.

  5. Reducing spatial variation in environmental assessment of marine benthic fauna.

    PubMed

    Leonardsson, Kjell; Blomqvist, Mats; Rosenberg, Rutger

    2016-03-15

    The Benthic Quality Index, BQI, is widely used for benthic quality assessment. Here, we investigated if spatial variation in the BQI can be reduced by accounting for the environmental factors instead of having different boundaries for different salinity regimes between status classes in the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. For this purpose we tested salinity, sediment structure, and depth in a regression model to test their contribution to variations in BQI. The spatial variation in BQI was better explained by depth than by salinity or sediment structure. The proposed assessment method uses the residuals from the regression model between BQI and depth. With this method the variance in BQI between samples was reduced by 50% to 75% in the majority of situations. A method to establish the boundary between good and moderate status and how to derive EQR-values according to the WFD is presented. PMID:26856645

  6. Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  7. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  8. Soft Perches in an Aviary System Reduce Incidence of Keel Bone Damage in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Ariane; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J.; Würbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  9. Does financial development reduce environmental degradation? Evidence from a panel study of 129 countries.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Tang, Chor Foon; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of financial development on CO2 emission in 129 countries classified by the income level. A panel CO2 emission model using urbanisation, GDP growth, trade openness, petroleum consumption and financial development variables that are major determinants of CO2 emission was constructed for the 1980-2011 period. The results revealed that the variables are cointegrated based on the Pedroni cointegration test. The dynamic ordinary least squares (OLS) and the Granger causality test results also show that financial development can improve environmental quality in the short run and long run due to its negative effect on CO2 emission. The rest of the determinants, especially petroleum consumption, are determined to be the major source of environmental damage in most of the income group countries. Based on the results obtained, the investigated countries should provide banking loans to projects and investments that can promote energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy to help these countries reduce environmental damage in both the short and long run. PMID:25994273

  10. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-12-31

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10{sup 6} SM{sup 3}) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment.

  11. Reduced-Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The principal program objective and principal part of the proposed action is to improve the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuels used in research and test reactors by providing the technical means (through technical development, design, and testing) for reducing the uranium enrichment requirements of these fuels to substantially less than the 90 to 93% enrichment currently used. Operator acceptance of the reduced-enrichment-uranium (REU) fuel alternative will require minimizing of reactor performance reduction, fuel cycle cost increases, the number of new safety and licensing issues raised, and reactor and facility modifications. The other part of the proposed action is to assure the capability for commercial production and supply of REU fuel for use both in the US and abroad. The RERTR Program scope is limited to generic design studies, technical support to reactor operating organizations in preparing for conversions to REU fuels, fuel development, fuel demonstrations, and technical support for commercialization of REU fuels. This environmental assessment addresses the environmental consequences of RERTR Program activities and of specific conversions of typical reactors (the Ford Nuclear Reactor and one or two other to-be-designated demonstrations) to REU-fuel cycles, including domestic and international shipments of enriched uranium pertinent to the conduct of RERTR Program activities.

  12. Medical Malpractice Reform: Noneconomic Damages Caps Reduced Payments 15 Percent, With Varied Effects By Specialty

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Seth A.; Helland, Eric; Jena, Anupam B.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of medical malpractice reforms on the average size of malpractice payments in specific physician specialties is unknown and subject to debate. We analyzed a national sample of 220,653 malpractice claims from 1985–2010 merged with information on state liability reforms. We estimated the impact of state noneconomic damage caps on average malpractice payment size for physicians overall and for 10 different specialties, and compared how the effects differed according to the restrictiveness of the cap ($250,000 vs. $500,000 cap). We found noneconomic damage caps reduced payments by $42,980 (15%; p<0.001), with a $250,000 cap reducuing average payments by $59,331 (20%; p<0.001), while a $500,000 cap had no significant effect. Effects varied according to specialty and were largest in specialties with high average payments, such as pediatrics. This suggests that the effect of noneconomic damage caps differs by specialty, and only more restrictive caps result in lower average payments. PMID:25339633

  13. Exogenous spermidine alleviates oxidative damage and reduce yield loss in rice submerged at tillering stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Chu, Meijie; Ding, Yanfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Li, Ganghua

    2015-01-01

    To figure out whether spermidine (Spd) can alleviate oxidative damage on rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by submergence stress, Ningjing 3 was used in this study. The results showed that, spraying Spd on rice leaves at a concentration of 0.5 mM promoted the growth recovery of rice after drainage, such as green leaves, tillers, and aboveground dry mass. According to physiological analysis, Spd accelerate restored chlorophylls damage by submergence, and decreased the rate of O2·− generation and H2O2 content, inhibited submergence-induced lipid peroxidation. Spd also helped to maintain antioxidant enzyme activities after drainage, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and GR, which ultimately improved the recovery ability of submerged rice. With the effect of Spd, the rice yields increased by 12.1, 17.9, 13.5, and 18.0%, of which submerged for 1, 3, 5, 7 days, respectively. It is supposed that exogenous Spd really has an alleviate effect on submergence damage and reduce yield loss of rice. PMID:26583021

  14. Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Felipe S.; Burton, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

  15. Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2015-04-01

    Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05 mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

  16. Structural damage detection for in-service highway bridge under operational and environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Christenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Structural health monitoring has drawn significant attention in the past decades with numerous methodologies and applications for civil structural systems. Although many researchers have developed analytical and experimental damage detection algorithms through vibration-based methods, these methods are not widely accepted for practical structural systems because of their sensitivity to uncertain environmental and operational conditions. The primary environmental factor that influences the structural modal properties is temperature. The goal of this article is to analyze the natural frequency-temperature relationships and detect structural damage in the presence of operational and environmental variations using modal-based method. For this purpose, correlations between natural frequency and temperature are analyzed to select proper independent variables and inputs for the multiple linear regression model and neural network model. In order to capture the changes of natural frequency, confidence intervals to detect the damages for both models are generated. A long-term structural health monitoring system was installed on an in-service highway bridge located in Meriden, Connecticut to obtain vibration and environmental data. Experimental testing results show that the variability of measured natural frequencies due to temperature is captured, and the temperature-induced changes in natural frequencies have been considered prior to the establishment of the threshold in the damage warning system. This novel approach is applicable for structural health monitoring system and helpful to assess the performance of the structure for bridge management and maintenance.

  17. Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract protects osteoblastic cells from highly reducing sugar-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kwang Sik; Rhee, Sang Youl; Jung, Woon Won; Kim, Nam Jae; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Kyoung; Choi, Young Kil; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-07-01

    In this study, Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract (CZE) was investigated to determine its effects on 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib)-induced oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction in the MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cell line. Osteoblastic cells were treated with the highly reducing sugar, dRib, in the presence or absence of CZE. Cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were subsequently examined. It was observed that dRib reduced cell survival, while it markedly increased the intracellular levels of ROS and apoptosis. However, pre-treatment of the cells with CZE attenuated all the dRib-induced effects. The antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), also prevented dRib-induced oxidative cell damage. In addition, treatment with CZE resulted in a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen content, as well as in the expression of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation [ALP, collagen, osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OC) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2, BMP4 and BMP7]. In mechanistic studies of the antioxidative potential of CZE, we found that CZE reversed the dRib-induced decrease in the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT)1 and AKT2 genes, which are master regulators of survival-related signaling pathways. CZE also upregulated the gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD)2, SOD3 and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), which was inhibited by dRib. Taken together, these results suggest that CZE attenuates dRib-induced cell damage in osteoblastic cells and may be useful for the treatment of diabetes-associated bone disease. PMID:23652775

  18. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies to reduce non-structural damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Lopes, Mário; Mota de Sá, Francisco; Amaral Ferreia, Mónica; Candeias, Paulo; Campos Costa, Alfredo; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Meroni, Fabrizio; Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Langer, Horst; Musacchio, Gemma; Sousa Silva, Delta; Falsaperla, Susanna; Scarfì, Luciano; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. Non-structural components of a building include all those components that are not part of the structural system, more specifically the architectural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, as well as furniture, fixtures, equipment, and contents. Windows, partitions, granite veneer, piping, ceilings, air conditioning ducts and equipment, elevators, computer and hospital equipment, file cabinets, and retail merchandise are all examples of non-structural components that are vulnerable to earthquake damage. We will use the experience gained during past earthquakes, which struck in particular Iceland, Italy and Portugal (Azores). Securing the non-structural elements improves the safety during an earthquake and saves lives. This paper aims at identifying non-structural seismic protection measures in the pilot areas and to develop a portfolio of good practices for the most common and serious non-structural vulnerabilities. This systematic identification and the portfolio will be achieved through a "cross-knowledge" strategy based on previous researches, evidence of non-structural damage in past earthquakes. Shake table tests of a group of non-structural elements will be performed. These tests will be filmed and, jointly with portfolio, will serve as didactic supporting tools to be used in workshops with building construction stakeholders and in risk communication activities. A Practical Guide for non-structural risk reduction will be specifically prepared for citizens on the basis of the outputs of the project, taking into account the local culture and needs of each participating country.

  19. Reduced Sensitivity to Sooner Reward During Intertemporal Decision-Making Following Insula Damage in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sellitto, Manuela; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Mattioli, Flavia; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    During intertemporal choice, humans tend to prefer small-sooner rewards over larger-delayed rewards, reflecting temporal discounting (TD) of delayed outcomes. Functional neuroimaging (fMRI) evidence has implicated the insular cortex in time-sensitive decisions, yet it is not clear whether activity in this brain region is crucial for, or merely associated with, TD behavior. Here, patients with damage to the insula (Insular patients), control patients with lesions outside the insula, and healthy individuals chose between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. Insular patients were less sensitive to sooner rewards than were the control groups, exhibiting reduced TD. A Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analysis confirmed a statistically significant association between insular damage and reduced TD. These results indicate that the insular cortex is crucial for intertemporal choice. We suggest that he insula may be necessary to anticipate the bodily/emotional effects of receiving rewards at different delays, influencing the computation of their incentive value. Devoid of such input, insular patients’ choices would be governed by a heuristic of quantity, allowing patients to wait for larger options. PMID:26793084

  20. Reducing the Risk of Damage to Power Transformers of 110 kV and Above Accompanying Internal Short Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    L’vova, M. M.; L’vov, S. Yu.; Komarov, V. B.; Lyut’ko, E. O.; Vdoviko, V. P.; Demchenko, V. V.; Belyaev, S. G.; Savel’ev, V. A.; L’vov, M. Yu. L’vov, Yu. N.

    2015-03-15

    Methods of increasing the operating reliability of power transformers, autotransformers and shunting reactors in order to reduce the risk of damage, which accompany internal short circuits and equipment fires and explosions, are considered.

  1. High effectiveness of tailored flower strips in reducing pests and crop plant damage.

    PubMed

    Tschumi, Matthias; Albrecht, Matthias; Entling, Martin H; Jacot, Katja

    2015-09-01

    Providing key resources to animals may enhance both their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. We examined the performance of annual flower strips targeted at the promotion of natural pest control in winter wheat. Flower strips were experimentally sown along 10 winter wheat fields across a gradient of landscape complexity (i.e. proportion non-crop area within 750 m around focal fields) and compared with 15 fields with wheat control strips. We found strong reductions in cereal leaf beetle(CLB) density (larvae: 40%; adults of the second generation: 53%) and plant damage caused by CLB (61%) in fields with flower strips compared with control fields. Natural enemies of CLB were strongly increased in flower strips and in part also in adjacent wheat fields. Flower strip effects on natural enemies, pests and crop damage were largely independent of landscape complexity(8-75% non-crop area). Our study demonstrates a high effectiveness of annual flower strips in promoting pest control, reducing CLB pest levels below the economic threshold. Hence, the studied flower strip offers a viable alternative to insecticides. This highlights the high potential of tailored agri-environment schemes to contribute to ecological intensification and may encourage more farmers to adopt such schemes. PMID:26311668

  2. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering.

    PubMed

    Capellari, Giovanni; Azam, Saeed Eftekhar; Mariani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615

  3. Oral Resveratrol Reduces Neuronal Damage in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shindler, Kenneth S.; Ventura, Elvira; Dutt, Mahasweta; Elliott, Peter; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), correlates with permanent neurological dysfunction. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage. Methods We examined whether oral therapy with SRT501, a pharmaceutical-grade formulation of resveratrol, reduces neuronal loss during relapsing/remitting EAE. Resveratrol activates SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that promotes mitochondrial function. Results Oral SRT501 prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory optic nerve lesion in MS and EAE. SRT501 also suppressed neurological dysfunction during EAE remission, and spinal cords from SRT501-treated mice had significantly higher axonal density than vehicle-treated mice. Similar neuroprotection was mediated by SRT1720, another SIRT1-activating compound; and sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor, attenuated SRT501 neuroprotective effects. SIRT1 activators did not prevent inflammation. Conclusions These studies demonstrate SRT501 attenuates neuronal damage and neurological dysfunction in EAE by a mechanism involving SIRT1 activation. SIRT1 activators are a potential oral therapy in MS. PMID:21107122

  4. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Capellari, Giovanni; Eftekhar Azam, Saeed; Mariani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615

  5. High effectiveness of tailored flower strips in reducing pests and crop plant damage

    PubMed Central

    Tschumi, Matthias; Albrecht, Matthias; Entling, Martin H.; Jacot, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Providing key resources to animals may enhance both their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. We examined the performance of annual flower strips targeted at the promotion of natural pest control in winter wheat. Flower strips were experimentally sown along 10 winter wheat fields across a gradient of landscape complexity (i.e. proportion non-crop area within 750 m around focal fields) and compared with 15 fields with wheat control strips. We found strong reductions in cereal leaf beetle (CLB) density (larvae: 40%; adults of the second generation: 53%) and plant damage caused by CLB (61%) in fields with flower strips compared with control fields. Natural enemies of CLB were strongly increased in flower strips and in part also in adjacent wheat fields. Flower strip effects on natural enemies, pests and crop damage were largely independent of landscape complexity (8–75% non-crop area). Our study demonstrates a high effectiveness of annual flower strips in promoting pest control, reducing CLB pest levels below the economic threshold. Hence, the studied flower strip offers a viable alternative to insecticides. This highlights the high potential of tailored agri-environment schemes to contribute to ecological intensification and may encourage more farmers to adopt such schemes. PMID:26311668

  6. A Modified Catheterization Procedure to Reduce Bladder Damage when Collecting Urine Samples from Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Tetsuo; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; SATO, Say; SEKI, Makoto; NISHIKI, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection. PMID:24561376

  7. Melatonin Improves Outcomes of Heatstroke in Mice by Reducing Brain Inflammation and Oxidative Damage and Multiple Organ Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shu-Fen; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2013-01-01

    We report here that when untreated mice underwent heat stress, they displayed thermoregulatory deficit (e.g., animals display hypothermia during room temperature exposure), brain (or hypothalamic) inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment (e.g., decreased plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone during heat stress), multiple organ dysfunction or failure, and lethality. Melatonin therapy significantly reduced the thermoregulatory deficit, brain inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment, multiple organ dysfunction, and lethality caused by heat stroke. Our data indicate that melatonin may improve outcomes of heat stroke by reducing brain inflammation, oxidative damage, and multiple organ dysfunction. PMID:24369441

  8. The influence of operational and environmental loads on the process of assessing damages in beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furdui, H.; Muntean, F.; Minda, A. A.; Praisach, Z. I.; Gillich, N.

    2015-07-01

    Damage detection methods based on vibration analysis make use of the modal parameter changes. Natural frequencies are the features that can be acquired most simply and inexpensively. But this parameter is influenced by environmental conditions, e.g. temperature and operational loads as additional masses or axial loads induced by restraint displacements. The effect of these factors is not completely known, but in the numerous actual research it is considered that they affect negatively the damage assessment process. This is justified by the small frequency changes occurring due to damage, which can be masked by the frequency shifts due to external loads. The paper intends to clarify the effect of external loads on the natural frequencies of beams and truss elements, and to show in which manner the damage detection process is affected by these loads. The finite element analysis, performed on diverse structures for a large range of temperature values, has shown that the temperature itself has a very limited effect on the frequency changes. Thus, axial forces resulted due to obstructed displacements can influence more substantially the frequency changes. These facts are demonstrated by experimental and theoretical studies. Finally, we succeed to adapt a prior contrived relation providing the frequency changes due to damage in order to fit the case of known external loads. Whereas a new baseline for damage detection was found, considering the effect of temperature and external loads, this process can be performed without other complication.

  9. Photomultiplier circuit including means for rapidly reducing the sensitivity thereof. [and protection from radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A simple, reliable and inexpensive control circuit is described for rapidly reducing the bias voltage across one or more of the dynode stages of a photomultiplier, to substantially decrease its sensitivity to incoming light at those times where excess light intensity might damage the tube. The control circuit comprises a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), coupled between a pair of the electrodes in the tube, preferably the cathode and first dynode, or the first and second dynodes, the switching device operating in response to a trigger pulse applied to its gate to short circuit the two electrodes. To insure the desired reduction in sensitivity, two switching stages, the devices be employed between two of the electrode stages, the devices being operated simultaneously to short circuit both stages.

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of silymarin and naringenin in reducing arsenic-induced hepatic damage in young rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anshu; Yadav, Abhishek; Bozhkov, A I; Padalko, V I; Flora, S J S

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the effects of silymarin and naringenin in counteracting arsenic-induced hepatic oxidative stress post exposure. Male wistar rats were chronically exposed to sodium arsenite for eight months followed by oral treatment with silymarin and naringenin (50 mg/kg each) for 15 consecutive days to evaluate hepatic damage and antioxidant potential. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease in hepatic GSH levels, SOD and catalase activities and an increase in GST and TBARS levels after arsenic administration. Silymarin or naringenin administration increased GSH levels and was beneficial in the recovery of altered SOD and catalase activity besides significantly reducing blood and tissue arsenic concentration. Our results point to the antioxidant potential of these flavonoids, which might be of benefit in the clinical recovery of subject exposed to arsenic. These flavonoids can be incorporated into the diet or co-supplemented during chelation treatment, and thus may afford a protective effect against arsenite-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:20719385

  11. Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: a mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; LaPatra, S.; Gregg, J.; Winton, J.; Hershberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyophonus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of uninfected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltration of immune cells and fibrotic (granuloma) tissue surrounding the parasite. Diminished swimming stamina is hypothesized to be due to cardiac failure resulting from the combination of parasite-damaged heart muscle and low myocardial oxygen supply during sustained aerobic exercise. Loss of stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected salmonids could explain the poor performance previously reported for wild Chinook and sockeye salmon stocks during their spawning migration. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bascietto, J.J.; Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1993-06-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

  13. Iron porphyrinate Fe(TPPS) reduces brain cell damage in rats intrastriatally lesioned by quinolinate.

    PubMed

    González-Cortés, Carolina; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Gómez-López, Marcos Artemio; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Rembao-Bojórquez, Daniel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Gómez-Ruiz, Celedonio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2008-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is involved in the neurotoxic pattern produced by quinolinic acid in the rat brain [V. Pérez-De La Cruz, C. González-Cortés, S. Galván-Arzate, O.N. Medina-Campos, F. Pérez-Severiano, S.F. Ali, J. Pedraza-Chaverrí, A. Santamaría, Excitotoxic brain damage involves early peroxynitrite formation in a model of Huntington's disease in rats: protective role of iron porphyrinate 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III), Neuroscience 135 (2005) 463-474.]. The aim of this work was to investigate whether ONOO(-) can also be responsible for morphological alterations and inflammatory events in the same paradigm. For this purpose, we evaluated the effect of a pre-treatment with the iron porphyrinate Fe(TPPS), a well-known ONOO(-) decomposition catalyst (10 mg/kg, i.p., 120 min before lesion), on the quinolinate-induced striatal cell damage and immunoreactivities to glial-fibrilar acidic protein (GFAP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), one and seven days after the intrastriatal infusion of quinolinate (240 nmol/microl) to rats. The striatal tissue from animals lesioned by quinolinate showed a significant degree of damage and enhanced immunoreactivities to GFAP, IL-6 and iNOS, both at 1 and 7 days post-lesion. Pre-treatment of rats with Fe(TPPS) significantly attenuated or prevented all these markers at both post-lesion times tested, except for GFAP immunoreactivity at 7 days post-lesion and iNOS immunoreactivity at 1 day post-lesion. Altogether, our results suggest that ONOO(-) is actively participating in triggering inflammatory events and morphological alterations in the toxic model produced by quinolinate, since the use of agents affecting its formation, such as Fe(TPPS), are effective experimental tools to reduce the brain lesions associated to excitotoxic and oxidative damage. PMID:18579343

  14. Antioxidant treatment reduces blast-induced cochlear damage and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Donald L; Lu, Jianzhong; Li, Wei; Du, Xiaoping; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to blast overpressure has become one of the hazards of both military and civilian life in many parts of the world due to war and terrorist activity. Auditory damage is one of the primary sequela of blast trauma, affecting immediate situational awareness and causing permanent hearing loss. Protecting against blast exposure is limited by the inability to anticipate the timing of these exposures, particularly those caused by terrorists. Therefore a therapeutic regimen is desirable that is able to ameliorate auditory damage when administered after a blast exposure has occurred. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of a combination of antioxidants 2,4-disulfonyl α-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) beginning 1 h after blast exposure could reduce both temporary and permanent hearing loss. To this end, a blast simulator was developed and the operational conditions established for exposing rats to blast overpressures comparable to those encountered in an open-field blast of 14 pounds per square inch (psi). This blast model produced reproducible blast overpressures that resulted in physiological and physical damage to the auditory system that was proportional to the number and amplitude of the blasts. After exposure to 3 consecutive 14 psi blasts 100% of anesthetized rats had permanent hearing loss as determined at 21 days post exposure by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. Animals treated with HPN-07 and NAC after blast exposure showed a significant reduction in ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE level shifts at 2-16 kHz with significant reduction in inner hair cell (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) loss across the 5-36 kHz region of the cochlea compared with control animals. The time course of changes in the auditory system was documented at 3 h, 24 h, 7 day and 21 day after blast exposure. At 3 h after blast exposure the auditory brainstem response (ABR

  15. C1 Esterase Inhibitor Reduces Lower Extremity Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Associated Lung Damage

    PubMed Central

    Duehrkop, Claudia; Banz, Yara; Spirig, Rolf; Miescher, Sylvia; Nolte, Marc W.; Spycher, Martin; Smith, Richard A. G.; Sacks, Steven H.; Rieben, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Methods and Findings Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n = 6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n = 4), vehicle (n = 7), or NaCl (n = 8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle. Conclusions C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application

  16. Detection of structural damage using novelty detection algorithm under variational environmental and operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mountassir, M.; Yaacoubi, S.; Dahmene, F.

    2015-07-01

    Novelty detection is a widely used algorithm in different fields of study due to its capabilities to recognize any kind of abnormalities in a specific process in order to ensure better working in normal conditions. In the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), this method is utilized as damage detection technique because the presence of defects can be considered as abnormal to the structure. Nevertheless, the performance of such a method could be jeopardized if the structure is operating in harsh environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). In this paper, novelty detection statistical technique is used to investigate the detection of damages under various EOCs. Experiments were conducted with different scenarios: damage sizes and shapes. EOCs effects were simulated by adding stochastic noise to the collected experimental data. Different levels of noise were studied to determine the accuracy and the performance of the proposed method.

  17. NAAG peptidase inhibitor reduces cellular damage in a model of TBI with secondary hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-Feng; Gurkoff, Gene G; Van, Ken C; Song, Minsoo; Lowe, David A; Zhou, Jia; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2012-08-21

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a rapid and excessive glutamate elevation in the extracellular milieu, resulting in neuronal degeneration and astrocyte damage. Posttraumatic hypoxia is a clinically relevant secondary insult that increases the magnitude and duration of glutamate release following TBI. N-acetyl-aspartyl glutamate (NAAG), a prevalent neuropeptide in the CNS, suppresses presynaptic glutamate release by its action at the mGluR3 (a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor). However, extracellular NAAG is rapidly converted into NAA and glutamate by the catalytic enzyme glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) reducing presynaptic inhibition. We previously reported that the GCPII inhibitor ZJ-43 and its prodrug di-ester PGI-02776 reduce the deleterious effects of excessive extracellular glutamate when injected systemically within the first 30 min following injury. We now report that PGI-02776 (10mg/kg) is neuroprotective when administered 30 min post-injury in a model of TBI plus 30 min of hypoxia (FiO(2)=11%). 24h following TBI with hypoxia, significant increases in neuronal cell death in the CA1, CA2/3, CA3c, hilus and dentate gyrus were observed in the ipsilateral hippocampus. Additionally, there was a significant reduction in the number of astrocytes in the ipsilateral CA1, CA2/3 and in the CA3c/hilus/dentate gyrus. Administration of PGI-02776 immediately following the cessation of hypoxia significantly reduced neuronal and astrocytic cell death across all regions of the hippocampus. These findings indicate that NAAG peptidase inhibitors administered post-injury can significantly reduce the deleterious effects of TBI combined with a secondary hypoxic insult. PMID:22750589

  18. Lonicera caerulea fruits reduce UVA-induced damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Vostálová, Jitka; Galandáková, Adéla; Palíková, Irena; Ulrichová, Jitka; Doležal, Dalibor; Lichnovská, Radka; Vrbková, Jana; Rajnochová Svobodová, Alena

    2013-11-01

    UVA photons are less energetic than UVB photons but they are more abundant in solar radiation. Modern tools have shown that UVA light has serious adverse effects on the skin. We investigated the effect of consuming Lonicera caerulea berries on UVA-induced damage in SKH-1 mice. The mice were fed a diet containing L. caerulea berries (10%, w/w) for 14 days before a single UVA (30 J/cm(2)) treatment. Effects on haematological and antioxidant parameters were evaluated 4 and 24h after irradiation. The bioavailability of L. caerulea phenolics was also assessed. Consuming the L. caerulea berry-enriched diet caused reduced malondialdehyde production and increased catalase activity and glutathione levels were found in skin and erythrocytes. UVA-induced NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and gamma-L-glutamate-L-cysteine ligase protein in skin were reduced in mice fed L. caerulea berries. Enhanced heme oxygenase-1 level in skin, interleukin-17 in plasma and reduced interleukin-12 levels in plasma were found in the mice on the experimental diet. Histological (pyknotic) changes in the nuclei of basal cells induced by UVA exposure were reduced in L. caerulea berry consuming animals. HLPC-MS analysis showed high concentrations of hippuric acid, one of the main metabolites of aromatic amino acids and phenolic compounds, in skin, liver, urine and faeces of mice consuming the berries. Taken together, consumption of L. caerulea berries affords protection from the adverse effects of a single UVA exposure mainly via modulation of antioxidant parameters. PMID:23974431

  19. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    PubMed

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Šmilauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems. PMID:24516587

  20. Reduced-order modeling for mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia

    2014-12-01

    An efficient method for nonlinear vibration analysis of mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages is presented. The main objective is to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. Firstly, in order to reduce the input information needed for component mode synthesis (CMS), the whole model of an impeller is obtained by rotation transformation based on the finite element model of a sector model. Then, a hybrid-interface method of CMS is employed to generate a reduced-order model (ROM) for the cracked impeller. The degrees of freedom on the crack surfaces are retained in the ROM to simulate the crack breathing effects. A novel approach for computing the inversion of large sparse matrix is proposed to save memory space during model order reduction by partitioning the matrix into many smaller blocks. Moreover, to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the resonant frequencies, the bilinear frequency approximation is used to estimate the resonant frequencies of the mistuned impeller with a crack. Additionally, statistical analysis is performed using the Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of the resonant frequencies versus crack length at different mistuning levels. The results show that the most significant effect of mistuning and cracks on the vibration response is the shift and split of the two resonant frequencies with the same nodal diameters. Finally, potential quantitative indicators for detection of crack of centrifugal impellers are discussed.

  1. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-03-30

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such developments. PMID:25754645

  2. Grazing can reduce the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating managed rotational grazing into a dairy farm can result in an array of environmental consequences. A comprehensive assessment of the environmental impacts of four management scenarios was conducted by simulating a 250 acre dairy farm typical of Pennsylvania with: (1) a confinement fe...

  3. The beneficial effects of dietary restriction: reduced oxidative damage and enhanced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wachsman, J T

    1996-02-19

    There is compelling evidence for the central role of oxidative damage in the aging process and for the participation of reactive oxygen species in tumor initiation and promotion. Caloric restriction (CR) or energy restriction retards age-associated increases in mitochondrial free-radical production and reduces the accumulation of oxidatively damaged cell components. CR has also been shown to slow down age-related declines in various repair capabilities, including some types of DNA repair. It is proposed that inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport and/or uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation (rotenone, amytal, amiodarone, valinomycin, etc.), when used at extremely low doses, could mimic the effects of CR in model systems. The objective is to lower mitochondrial free-radical production by decreasing the fraction of electron carriers in the reduced state. In addition to a variety of other effects, CR has been shown to increase the rate of apoptosis, particularly in preneoplastic cells, and in general, to promote elevated levels of free glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs are known to induce tissue-specific apoptosis and to upregulate gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC). Tumor promoters like phorbol esters have the opposite effect, in that they inhibit both the process of apoptosis and GJIC. The enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is thought to play a central role in apoptosis, in a manner that has been highly conserved in evolution. There is good evidence that the apoptosis-associated Ca/Mg-dependent DNA endonuclease is maintained in a latent form by being poly (ADP-ribosylated). Apoptosis would require the removal of this polymer from the endonuclease, and, most likely, its removal from topoisomerase II and histone H1 as well. The role of poly (ADP-ribose) in apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and aging could be studied by the use of modulators of PARP activity (3-aminobenzamide, 3-nitrosobenzamide, 1% ethanol, etc.), inhibitors of poly ADP

  4. Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin enhances the antitumor efficacy of enediyne lidamycin in association with reduced DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei-Fei; Li, Liang; Shang, Bo-Yang; Shao, Rong-Guang; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) leads to inappropriate processing of proteins involved in DNA damage repair pathways after DNA damage and may enhance tumor cell radio- and chemo-therapy sensitivity. To investigate the potentiation of antitumor efficacy of lidamycin (LDM), an enediyne agent by the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDM), and possible mechanisms, we have determined effects on ovarian cancer SKOV- 3, hepatoma Bel-7402 and HepG2 cells by MTT assay, apoptosis assay, and cell cycle analysis. DNA damage was investigated with H2AX C-terminal phosphorylation (γH2AX) assays. We found that GDM synergistically sensitized SKOV-3 and Bel-7402 cells to the enediyne LDM, and this was accompanied by increased apoptosis. GDM pretreatment resulted in a greater LDM-induced DNA damage and reduced DNA repair as compared with LDM alone. However, in HepG2 cells GDM did not show significant sensitizing effects both in MTT assay and in DNA damage repair. Abrogation of LDM-induced G2/M arrest by GDM was found in SKOV-3 but not in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the expression of ATM, related to DNA damage repair responses, was also decreased by GDM in SKOV-3 and Bel-7402 cells but not in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibitors may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of LDM, possibly by reducing the repair of LDM-induced DNA damage. PMID:25227788

  5. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

    2012-01-01

    ). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

  6. Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E; Butterly, Matthew S; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2014-08-12

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance. PMID:25071194

  7. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  8. Low-Power 2-MHz Pulsed-Wave Transcranial Ultrasound Reduces Ischemic Brain Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Barlinn, Kristian; Strong, Roger; Alexandrov, Anne W; Aronowski, Jaroslaw

    2011-09-01

    It is largely unknown whether prolonged insonation with ultrasound impacts the ischemic brain tissue by itself. Our goal was to evaluate safety and the effect of high-frequency ultrasound on infarct volume in rats. Thirty-two Long-Evans rats with permanent middle cerebral and carotid artery occlusions received either 2-MHz ultrasound at two levels of insonation power (128 or 10 mW) or no ultrasound (controls). We measured cerebral hemorrhage, indirect and direct infarct volume as well as edema volume at 24 h. No cerebral hemorrhages were detected in all animals. Exposure to low-power (10 mW) ultrasound resulted in a significantly decreased indirect infarct volume (p = 0.0039), direct infarct volume (p = 0.0031), and brain edema volume (p = 0.01) compared with controls. High-power (128 mW) ultrasound had no significant effects. An additional experiment with India ink showed a greater intravascular penetration of dye into ischemic tissues exposed to low-power ultrasound. Insonation with high-frequency, low-power ultrasound reduces ischemic brain damage in rat. Its effect on edema reduction and possible promotion of microcirculation could be used to facilitate drug and nutrient delivery to ischemic areas. PMID:24323655

  9. Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes

    PubMed Central

    Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E.; Butterly, Matthew S.; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E.

    2014-01-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance. PMID:25071194

  10. Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin

    PubMed Central

    McFarlin, Brian K.; Venable, Adam S.; Henning, Andrea L.; Sampson, Jill N. Best; Pennel, Kathryn; Vingren, Jakob L.; Hill, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) impact subsequent training sessions and activities of daily living (ADL) even in active individuals. In sedentary or diseased individuals, EIMD and DOMS may be even more pronounced and present even in the absence of structured exercise. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (Longvida® 400 mg/days) on muscle & ADL soreness, creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) following EMID (eccentric-only dual-leg press exercise). Subjects (N = 28) were randomly assigned to either curcumin (400 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour) and supplemented 2 days before to 4 days after EMID. Blood samples were collected prior to (PRE), and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after EIMD to measure CK and inflammatory cytokines. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with P < 0.05. Results Curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly smaller increases in CK (− 48%), TNF-α (− 25%), and IL-8 (− 21%) following EIMD compared to placebo. We observed no significant differences in IL-6, IL-10, or quadriceps muscle soreness between conditions for this sample size. Conclusions Collectively, the findings demonstrated that consumption of curcumin reduced biological inflammation, but not quadriceps muscle soreness, during recovery after EIMD. The observed improvements in biological inflammation may translate to faster recovery and improved functional capacity during subsequent exercise sessions. General significance These findings support the use of oral curcumin supplementation to reduce the symptoms of EIMD. The next logical step is to evaluate further the efficacy of an inflammatory clinical disease model. PMID:27051592

  11. North American ginseng protects against muscle damage and reduces neutrophil infiltration after an acute bout of downhill running in rats.

    PubMed

    Estaki, Mehrbod; Noble, Earl G

    2015-02-01

    Eccentric muscle contractions such as those experienced during downhill running are associated with inflammation, delayed-onset of muscle soreness, myofiber damage, and various functional deficits. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and thus may offset some of this exercise-induced damage. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that intervention with North American ginseng would reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed (300 mg/(kg·day)(-1)) of either an alcohol (AL) or aqueous (AQ) extract of North American ginseng for 14 days before a single bout of downhill running and were compared with matching nonexercised (C) groups. Plasma creatine kinase levels were significantly reduced in both ginseng treated groups compared with the C group that received a water placebo (p < 0.002). Further, the AQ but not AL group also showed attenuated morphological signs of damage (hemotoxylin and eosin) as well as reduced levels of infiltrating neutrophils (HIS48) in the soleus muscle (p < 0.001). In summary, supplementation with an AQ but not AL extract of North American ginseng was able to reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. PMID:25531801

  12. Normobaric hyperoxia markedly reduces brain damage and sensorimotor deficits following brief focal ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Emmrich, Julius V; Sitnikov, Sergey L; Hong, Young T; Sawiak, Stephen J; Fryer, Tim D; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Williamson, David J; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2016-03-01

    'True' transient ischaemic attacks are characterized not only clinically, but also radiologically by a lack of corresponding changes on magnetic resonance imaging. During a transient ischaemic attack it is assumed that the affected tissue is penumbral but rescued by early spontaneous reperfusion. There is, however, evidence from rodent studies that even brief focal ischaemia not resulting in tissue infarction can cause extensive selective neuronal loss associated with long-lasting sensorimotor impairment but normal magnetic resonance imaging. Selective neuronal loss might therefore contribute to the increasingly recognized cognitive impairment occurring in patients with transient ischaemic attacks. It is therefore relevant to consider treatments to reduce brain damage occurring with transient ischaemic attacks. As penumbral neurons are threatened by markedly constrained oxygen delivery, improving the latter by increasing arterial O2 content would seem logical. Despite only small increases in arterial O2 content, normobaric oxygen therapy experimentally induces significant increases in penumbral O2 pressure and by such may maintain the penumbra alive until reperfusion. Nevertheless, the effects of normobaric oxygen therapy on infarct volume in rodent models have been conflicting, although duration of occlusion appeared an important factor. Likewise, in the single randomized trial published to date, early-administered normobaric oxygen therapy had no significant effect on clinical outcome despite reduced diffusion-weighted imaging lesion growth during therapy. Here we tested the hypothesis that normobaric oxygen therapy prevents both selective neuronal loss and sensorimotor deficits in a rodent model mimicking true transient ischaemic attack. Normobaric oxygen therapy was applied from the onset and until completion of 15 min distal middle cerebral artery occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a strain representative of the transient ischaemic attack

  13. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection

    PubMed Central

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ∼2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ∼$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

  14. Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitherman, Robert

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide practical information to owners, operators, and occupants of office and commercial buildings on the vulnerabilities posed by earthquake damage to nonstructural items and the means available to deal with these potential problems. Examples of dangerous nonstructural damages that have occurred in past…

  15. Autoregressive modeling with state-space embedding vectors for damage detection under operational and environmental variability

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Figueiredo, Eloi; Todd, Michael; Flynn, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear time series approach is presented to detect damage in systems by using a state-space reconstruction to infer the geometrical structure of a deterministic dynamical system from observed time series response at multiple locations. The unique contribution of this approach is using a Multivariate Autoregressive (MAR) model of a baseline condition to predict the state space, where the model encodes the embedding vectors rather than scalar time series. A hypothesis test is established that the MAR model will fail to predict future response if damage is present in the test condition, and this test is investigated for robustness in the context of operational and environmental variability. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated using acceleration time series from a base-excited 3-story frame structure.

  16. Cadmium: Simulation of environmental control strategies to reduce exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, K. J.; Miles, L. J.; Greenkorn, R. A.

    1981-07-01

    The effects of selected environmental control strategies on human dietary and respiratory exposure to environmental cadmium (Cd) have been simulated. For each control strategy, mean Cd dietary and respiratory exposures are presented for a twenty-year simulation period. Human exposures related to cadmium are associated with both process waste disposal and product disposal. Dietary exposure is by far the dominant mechanism for Cd intake. Dietary exposure related to aqueous discharges is primarily a result of municipal sludge landspreading, whereas that associated with emissions to the atmosphere derives mainly from the deposition on cropland of airborne particulates from product incineration. Only relatively small dietary exposure reductions are possible through restrictions on any single Cd use. Combinations of waste management and environmental control measures promise greater reductions in dietary and respiratory exposure than those achievable through use restrictions.

  17. Blockade of Thrombopoietin Reduces Organ Damage in Experimental Endotoxemia and Polymicrobial Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    De Giuli, Paolo; Bosco, Ornella; Martin-Conte, Erica; Spatola, Tiziana; Turco, Emilia; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Thrombopoietin (TPO), a growth factor primarily involved in thrombopoiesis may also have a role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. In patients with sepsis, indeed, TPO levels are markedly increased, with disease severity being the major independent determinant of TPO concentrations. Moreover, TPO increases and correlates with ex vivo indices of platelet activation in patients with burn injury upon sepsis development, and may contribute to depress cardiac contractility in septic shock. Still, the role of TPO in sepsis pathophysiology remains controversial, given the protective role of TPO in other experimental disease models, for instance in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of our study was to define the contribution of TPO in the development of organ damage induced by endotoxemia or sepsis, and to investigate the effects of inhibiting TPO in these conditions. Methods We synthesized a chimeric protein able to inhibit TPO, mTPOR-MBP, and studied its effect in two murine experimental models, acute endotoxemia and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Results In both models, TPO levels markedly increased, from 289.80±27.87 pg/mL to 465.60±45.92 pg/mL at 3 hours in the LPS model (P<0.01), and from 265.00±26.02 pg/mL to 373.70±26.20 pg/mL in the CLP model (P<0.05), respectively. Paralleling TPO levels, also platelet-monocyte aggregates increased, from 32.86±2.48% to 46.13±1.39% at 3 hours in the LPS model (P<0.01), and from 43.68±1.69% to 56.52±4.66% in the CLP model (P<0.05). Blockade of TPO by mTPOR-MBP administration reduced histological damage in target organs, namely lung, liver, and gut. In particular, neutrophil infiltration and lung septal thickening were reduced from a score of 1.86±0.34 to 0.60±0.27 (P<0.01) and from 1.43±0.37 to 0.40±0.16 (P<0.05), respectively, in the LPS model at 3 hours, and from a score of 1.75±0.37 to 0.38±0.18 (P<0.01) and from 1.25±0.31 to 0

  18. Modelling the benefits of flood emergency management measures in reducing damages: a case study on Sondrio, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, D.; Ballio, F.; Menoni, S.

    2013-08-01

    The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.

  19. Reduced subventricular zone proliferation and white matter damage in juvenile ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Di Curzio, Domenico L; Buist, Richard J; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2013-10-01

    Hydrocephalus is a neurological condition characterized by altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow with enlargement of ventricular cavities in the brain. A reliable model of hydrocephalus in gyrencephalic mammals is necessary to test preclinical hypotheses. Our objective was to characterize the behavioral, structural, and histological changes in juvenile ferrets following induction of hydrocephalus. Fourteen-day old ferrets were given an injection of kaolin (aluminum silicate) into the cisterna magna. Two days later and repeated weekly until 56 days of age, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to assess ventricle size. Behavior was examined thrice weekly. Compared to age-matched saline-injected controls, severely hydrocephalic ferrets weighed significantly less, their postures were impaired, and they were hyperactive prior to extreme debilitation. They developed significant ventriculomegaly and displayed white matter destruction. Reactive astroglia and microglia detected by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1 immunostaining were apparent in white matter, cortex, and hippocampus. There was a hydrocephalus-related increase in activated caspase 3 labeling of apoptotic cells (7.0 vs. 15.5%) and a reduction in Ki67 labeling of proliferating cells (23.3 vs. 5.9%) in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Reduced Olig2 immunolabeling suggests a depletion of glial precursors. GFAP content was elevated. Myelin basic protein (MBP) quantitation and myelin biochemical enzyme activity showed early maturational increases. Where white matter was not destroyed, the remaining axons developed myelin similar to the controls. In conclusion, the hydrocephalus-induced periventricular disturbances may involve developmental impairments in cell proliferation and glial precursor cell populations. The ferret should prove useful for testing hypotheses about white matter damage and protection in the immature hydrocephalic brain. PMID:23769908

  20. Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.M.; Poulikakos, L.D.; Lees, A.R.; Heutschi, K.; Kalivoda, M.T.

    2012-01-15

    Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

  1. Overview of the Progress in Reducing Environmental Effects on Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot weather can have negative impacts on feedlot cattle by reducing animal performance and compromising animal well-being. In most circumstances, animals adapt with amazing ease – balancing their heat production (maintenance energy, production levels, feed intake and activity) with their ability to ...

  2. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    PubMed Central

    Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystalliz­ation or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100 K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions. PMID:21931220

  3. A padding method to reduce edge effects for enhanced damage identification using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Lorenzo; Basu, Biswajit; Spagnoli, Andrea; Broderick, Brian M.

    2015-02-01

    Vibration response based structural damage identification by spatial wavelet analysis is widely considered a powerful tool in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). This work deals with the issue of border distortions in wavelet transform that can mask tiny damages close to the boundary of a structure. Since traditional padding methods (e.g., zero-padding, symmetric padding, linear padding) are often not satisfactory, a simple and computationally inexpensive signal extension method, based on fitting polynomial functions and continuity conditions at the extrema, is proposed. The method is applied to analyze noisy mode shapes and static deflection of cracked cantilever and simply supported beams. The effectiveness and the versatility of the method in localizing tiny damages close to clamped, free or hinged beam boundaries is demonstrated. Furthermore, an extensive comparison with the linear padding method and Messina's isomorphism methods is carried out.

  4. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-radical scavengers that are known to be effective protectors of proteins in solution are found to increase global radiation damage to protein crystals. Protective mechanisms may become deleterious in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystallization or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100 K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions.

  5. Onions showing reduced damage by thrips and iris yellow spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of a USDA SCRI project were to understand better the epidemiology of the virus and to identify onion populations that suffer less damage under severe pressure from thrips and IYSV. Research demonstrated that North American isolates of IYSV were not all identical, indicating that the virus ...

  6. Pest tradeoffs in technology: Reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have now reported increased levels of non Bt-targeted secondary pests in Bt crops. We carried out a series of greenhouse and field experiments comparing aphid populations on Bt-and non Bt-cotton that were damaged by the Bt-targeted caterpillar, Heliothis virescens. We found in bo...

  7. Associations among environmental exposure to manganese, neuropsychological performance, oxidative damage and kidney biomarkers in children.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Sabrina; Baierle, Marília; Göethel, Gabriela; Barth, Anelise; Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele; Sauer, Elisa; Gauer, Bruna; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Altknecht, Louise; Jager, Márcia; Dias, Ana Cristina Garcia; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana; Gioda, Adriana; Moresco, Rafael; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) results in several toxic effects, mainly neurotoxicity. This study investigated associations among Mn exposure, neuropsychological performance, biomarkers of oxidative damage and early kidney dysfunction in children aged 6-12 years old. Sixty-three children were enrolled in this study, being 43 from a rural area and 20 from an urban area. Manganese was quantified in blood (B-Mn), hair (H-Mn) and drinking water using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The neuropsychological functions assessed were attention, perception, working memory, phonological awareness and executive functions - inhibition. The Intelligence quotient (IQ) was also evaluated. The biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCO), δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), reactivation indexes with dithiothreitol (ALA-RE/DTT) and ZnCl2 (ALA-RE/ZnCl2), non-protein thiol groups, as well as microalbuminuria (mALB) level and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity were assessed. The results demonstrated that Mn levels in blood, hair and drinking water were higher in rural children than in urban children (p<0.01). Adjusted for potential confounding factors, IQ, age, gender and parents' education, significant associations were observed mainly between B-Mn and visual attention (β=0.649; p<0.001). Moreover, B-Mn was negatively associated with visual perception and phonological awareness. H-Mn was inversely associated with working memory, and Mn levels from drinking water with written language and executive functions - inhibition. Rural children showed a significant increase in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, as well as alteration in kidney function biomarkers (p<0.05). Moreover, significant associations were found between B-Mn, H-Mn and Mn levels in drinking water and biomarkers of oxidative damage and kidney function, besides between some oxidative stress biomarkers and neuropsychological tasks (p<0.05). The findings of this

  8. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise management program handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Timothy D.; Shekell, Ted K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  9. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain. PMID:26576074

  10. Carvedilol promotes neurological function, reduces bone loss and attenuates cell damage after acute spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da; Huang, Ying; Li, Bin; Jia, Changqing; Liang, Feng; Fu, Qin

    2015-02-01

    Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to permanent functional deficits via mechanical injury and secondary mechanisms, but the therapeutic strategy for SCI is limited. Carvedilol has been shown to possess multiple biological and pharmacological properties. The of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of carvedilol in SCI rats. An acute SCI rat model was established and neurological function was tested. After carvedilol (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) treatment for 21 days, the status of osteoporosis, neuron damage, astrocyte activation, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in rats. Carvedilol significantly improved locomotor activity that was decreased by SCI. In addition, carvedilol promoted bone growth by regulating the expression of nuclear factor-κB ligand (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), inactivating osteoclasts and thereby increasing bone mineral density in tibias. In addition, carvedilol reduced SCI-induced neural damage, increased neuron number and reduced astrocyte activation in the spinal cord. Furthermore, the production and mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were significantly reduced, reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity were markedly increased and malondialdehyde content was markedly decreased in the spinal cords of carvedilol-treated rats. These results indicate that carvedilol exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in SCI rats. In addition, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand was reduced by carvedilol treatment, which, in turn, reduced cleaved caspase 3 expression and finally decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the spinal cord. In conclusion, carvedilol promotes neurological function, reduces bone loss and attenuates cell damage after acute SCI in rats. PMID:25424914

  11. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  12. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Plancher, Henry; Petersen, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  13. Structural Damage Detection Using Artificial Neural Networks and Measured Frf Data Reduced via Principal Component Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZANG, C.; IMREGUN, M.

    2001-05-01

    This paper deals with structural damage detection using measured frequency response functions (FRFs) as input data to artificial neural networks (ANNs). A major obstacle, the impracticality of using full-size FRF data with ANNs, was circumvented by applying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based data reduction technique to the measured FRFs. The compressed FRFs, represented by their projection onto the most significant principal components, were then used as the ANN input variables instead of the raw FRF data. The output is a prediction for the actual state of the specimen, i.e., healthy or damaged. A further advantage of this particular approach was found to be the ability to deal with relatively high measurement noise, which is of common occurrence when dealing with industrial structures. The methodology was applied to the measured FRFs of a railway wheel, each response function having 4096 spectral lines. The available FRF data were grouped into x, y and z direction FRFs and a compression ratio of about 400 was achieved for each direction. Three different networks, each corresponding to a co-ordinate direction, were trained and verified using 80 PCA-compressed FRFs. Twenty compressed FRFs, obtained from further measurements, were used for the actual damage detection tests. Half of the test FRFs were polluted further by adding 5% random noise in order to assess the robustness of the method in the presence of significant experimental noise. The results showed that, in all cases considered, it was possible to distinguish between the healthy and damaged states with very good accuracy and repeatability.

  14. LKB1 reduces ROS-mediated cell damage via activation of p38

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua-Guo; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Chen, Jianfeng; Lu, Yibing; Wang, Jian-Wei; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Xiao, Xuxian; He, Qiongqiong; Werle, Kaitlin D.; Kim, Hyung-Gyoon; Lopez, Richard; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, also known as serine/threonine kinase 11, STK11) is a tumor suppressor mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in a variety of sporadic cancers. Herein, we demonstrate that LKB1 controls the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protects the genome from oxidative damage. Cells lacking LKB1 exhibit markedly increased intracellular ROS levels, excessive oxidation of DNA, increased mutation rates, and accumulation of DNA damage, which are effectively prevented by ectopic expression of LKB1 and by incubation with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The role of LKB1 in suppressing ROS is independent of AMPK, a canonical substrate of LKB1. Instead, under the elevated ROS, LKB1 binds to and maintains the activity of cdc42-PAK1 (p21 activated kinase 1) complex, which triggers the activation of p38 and its downstream signaling targets, such as ATF-2, thereby enhancing the activity of SOD-2 and catalase, two antioxidant enzymes that protect the cells from ROS accumulation, DNA damage, and loss of viability. Our results provide a new paradigm for a non-canonical tumor suppressor function of LKB1 and highlight the importance of targeting ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer cells lacking LKB1. PMID:25263448

  15. Effect of Temperature on Damage Evolution of Cr25Ni35Nb Alloy Subjected to Combined Mechanical and Environmental Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Limin; Liu, Huansheng; Gong, Jianming; Geng, Luyang

    2015-07-01

    Due to combined mechanical and environmental degradation, i.e. coupled creep and carburization, Cr25Ni35Nb alloy often fails prior to the expected design life. In the present paper, based on the continuum damage mechanics, the constitutive model of coupled multi-damage factors for computing the damage evolution of Cr25Ni35Nb alloy was proposed. The damage prediction was carried out by using finite element method based on ABAQUS code. And then damage evolution processes at different operating temperatures (950 °C and 1050 °C) were simulated and the effect of service temperature on the damage evolution was discussed. The results showed that the rate of damage increased obviously with operating temperature increasing. The location with maximum damage is along the inner surface of tube, which implies that fracture begins along the inner surface of tube under the action of coupled creep and carburization damage and this is coincident with the actual observation of the failure of furnace tube.

  16. The psychosocial impact of the environmental damage caused by the MT Merapi eruption on survivors in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2014-12-01

    The eruption of Indonesia's Mount Merapi volcano in 2010 caused extensive environmental degradation. Settlements and hundreds of hectares of farmlands were buried under volcanic ash. Until now, there has been no research on the psychosocial impact of living in an environment damaged by a volcanic eruption. We studied and compared the psychosocial impact of environmental damage on volcano survivors from two subdistricts-Cangkringan and Pakem. Cangkringan survivors affected by the 2010 eruption continue to live in a damaged environment. The Pakem subdistrict was damaged by eruptions of Mt Merapi in the 1990s but there is no recent damage to their environment. The Indonesian-Environmental Distress Scale (I-EDS), a translated revision of the original Environmental Distress Scale (EDS), was used to collect data. Exploratory statistical methods and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relative contributions of demographic variables on the psychosocial impact of living in an environment damaged by volcanic eruption. A total of 348 survivors of the Mt Merapi eruption participated in the survey. The mean I-EDS score for Cangkringan district was 15.8 (SD 1.6; range 11.8-19.8) compared to 14.6 (SD 1.3; range 11.8-18.3) for Pakem district (P < 0.001). This result was confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis showing further that older respondents (P < 0.001), unemployed and retired respondents (P = 0.007), and respondents with no formal school education (P = 0.037) had lower I-EDS scores compared to the respective reference groups. Survivors of the Mt Merapi eruption who continue to live in the environment damaged by the 2010 volcanic eruption experience environmental distress. Relevant interventions should target those from low sosioeconomic groups to deal with the distress. PMID:24763946

  17. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  18. Intermittent hypoxia reduces microglia proliferation and induces DNA damage in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Song; Wang, Zhonghua; Xu, Bo; Chen, Kui; Sun, Jinyuan; Ren, Lianping

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Intermittent hypoxia (IH), caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), could cause hippocampus or neuron damage through multiple signaling pathways, while the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the effect of IH on the biological functions of microglia cells. Materials and Methods: Cell proliferation of BV2 cells after exposure to IH were observed by MTT assay and then DNA damage was detected by comet assay. RNA-sequencing assay was performed in cells under IH condition and normal conditions to find out the differentially expressed genes, which were further confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay. Results: As results, IH inhibited the proliferation of BV2 cells, as well as caused DNA damage. RNA-sequencing assay revealed 4 differentially expressed genes (p21, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E2, and Gadd45α) which were associated with the network of P53 signaling pathways in BV2 cells, among which, p21 and Gadd45α were dramatically increased while Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2 were both decreased significantly. Moreover, inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNF-α and iNOS were significantly up-regulated in microglia cells under IH conditions for 8 hr. Conclusion: Our results indicated that IH could inhibit cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 expression via initiating multiple P53 pathways, which further blocked cell cycle transition and attenuated proliferative capability of BV2 cells. Meanwhile, IH activated inflammation reactions in BV2 cells. Present study elaborate the effects of IH on biological functions of microglia and provide theoretical foundation for further study on new therapy methods for OSA. PMID:27403256

  19. Norepinephrine Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and DNA Damage in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja R; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Theruvathu, Jacob; Mitra, Sankar A; Boldogh, Istvan; Sowers, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the role of norepinephrine (NE) on DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in ovarian surface epithelial cells. Method Non-tumorigenic, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells were treated with NE, bleomycin, and bleomycin followed by NE. The comet assay was performed on each treatment group to determine the amount of single and double-strand breaks induced by treatments. ROS levels for each treatment group were measured using the H2DCF-DA fluorescence assay. Finally, RNA transcripts were measured for each treatment group with regards to the expression of DNA repair and oxidative stress genes. Results The mean tail moment of untreated cells was significantly greater than that of cells treated with NE (p=0.02). The mean tail moment of cells treated with bleomycin was significantly greater than that of cells treated with bleomycin followed by NE (p<0.01). Treatment with NE resulted in significantly less ROS generation than in untreated cells (p<0.01). NE treatment after hydrogen peroxide treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease in ROS generation. Genes associated with oxidative stress were upregulated in cells treated with bleomycin, however this upregulation was blunted when bleomycin-treated cells were treated subsequently with NE. Conclusion NE is associated with decreased DNA damage and ROS production in ovarian surface epithelial cells. This effect is protective in the presence of the oxidative-damaging agent bleomycin. These results suggest an additional physiologic role for the stress hormone NE, in protecting ovarian surface epithelial cells from oxidative stress. PMID:26167254

  20. Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  1. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  2. Method and apparatus for reducing diffraction-induced damage in high power laser amplifier systems

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Newnam, Brian E.; Shapiro, Stanley L.; Terrell, Jr., N. James

    1976-01-01

    Self-focusing damage caused by diffraction in laser amplifier systems may be minimized by appropriately tailoring the input optical beam profile by passing the beam through an aperture having a uniform high optical transmission within a particular radius r.sub.o and a transmission which drops gradually to a low value at greater radii. Apertures having the desired transmission characteristics may readily be manufactured by exposing high resolution photographic films and plates to a diffuse, disk-shaped light source and mask arrangement.

  3. Postirradiation administration of adenosine monophosphate combined with dipyridamole reduces early cellular damage in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bohacek, J.; Hosek, B.; Pospisil, M. )

    1993-01-01

    The administration of dipyridamole and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) to mice 5 to 25 min after 1 Gy of total-body gamma irradiation was found to decrease cellular damage, as indicated by the thymidine level in plasma and the amount of saline soluble polynucleotides in the thymus. The drug combination used did not influence similar cytotoxic effects of hydrocortisone. Furthermore, it was shown that the addition of dipyridamole and AMP to in vitro irradiated suspensions of thymocytes enhanced the rejoining processes of DNA strand breaks. Receptor-mediated action of extracellular adenosine may be responsible for the therapeutic effects observed.

  4. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.

    PubMed

    Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska. PMID:25376148

  5. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.

    2015-01-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska.

  6. Monoacylated Cellular Prion Proteins Reduce Amyloid-β-Induced Activation of Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 and Synapse Damage.

    PubMed

    West, Ewan; Osborne, Craig; Nolan, William; Bate, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and the loss of synapses. Aggregation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) by Aβ oligomers induced synapse damage in cultured neurons. PrPC is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, the composition of which affects protein targeting and cell signaling. Monoacylated PrPC incorporated into neurons bound "natural Aβ", sequestering Aβ outside lipid rafts and preventing its accumulation at synapses. The presence of monoacylated PrPC reduced the Aβ-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and Aβ-induced synapse damage. This protective effect was stimulus specific, as treated neurons remained sensitive to α-synuclein, a protein associated with synapse damage in Parkinson's disease. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by Aβ oligomers triggered the formation of a signaling complex containing the cPLA2.a process, disrupted by monoacylated PrPC. We propose that monoacylated PrPC acts as a molecular sponge, binding Aβ oligomers at the neuronal perikarya without activating cPLA2 or triggering synapse damage. PMID:26043272

  7. Monoacylated Cellular Prion Proteins Reduce Amyloid-β-Induced Activation of Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 and Synapse Damage

    PubMed Central

    West, Ewan; Osborne, Craig; Nolan, William; Bate, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and the loss of synapses. Aggregation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) by Aβ oligomers induced synapse damage in cultured neurons. PrPC is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, the composition of which affects protein targeting and cell signaling. Monoacylated PrPC incorporated into neurons bound “natural Aβ”, sequestering Aβ outside lipid rafts and preventing its accumulation at synapses. The presence of monoacylated PrPC reduced the Aβ-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and Aβ-induced synapse damage. This protective effect was stimulus specific, as treated neurons remained sensitive to α-synuclein, a protein associated with synapse damage in Parkinson’s disease. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by Aβ oligomers triggered the formation of a signaling complex containing the cPLA2.a process, disrupted by monoacylated PrPC. We propose that monoacylated PrPC acts as a molecular sponge, binding Aβ oligomers at the neuronal perikarya without activating cPLA2 or triggering synapse damage. PMID:26043272

  8. Anthocyanin/polyphenolic-rich fruit juice reduces oxidative cell damage in an intervention study with patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Spormann, Thomas M; Albert, Franz W; Rath, Thomas; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2008-12-01

    Hemodialysis patients face an elevated risk of cancer, arteriosclerosis, and other diseases, ascribed in part to increased oxidative stress. Red fruit juice with high anthocyanin/polyphenol content had been shown to reduce oxidative damage in healthy probands. To test its preventive potential in hemodialysis patients, 21 subjects in a pilot intervention study consumed 200 mL/day of red fruit juice (3-week run-in; 4-week juice uptake; 3-week wash-out). Weekly blood sampling was done to monitor DNA damage (comet assay +/- formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase enzyme), glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, triglycerides, and DNA binding capacity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Results show a significant decrease of DNA oxidation damage (P < 0.0001), protein and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively), and nuclear factor-kappaB binding activity (P < 0.01), and an increase of glutathione level and status (both P < 0.0001) during juice uptake. We attribute this reduction in oxidative (cell) damage in hemodialysis patients to the especially high anthocyanin/polyphenol content of the juice. This provides promising perspectives into the prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease in population subgroups exposed to enhanced oxidative stress like hemodialysis patients. PMID:19064553

  9. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  10. THE ENVIRONMENTAL COST OF REDUCING AGRICULTURAL FINE PARTICULATE (PM2.5) DUST EMISSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels. Non-attainment findings are scheduled for release in 2010. State environmental protection agencies in state...

  11. Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hyunhoe

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

  12. Inhibition of mTOR Pathway by Rapamycin Reduces Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Transient Forebrain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Hei, Changhun; Liu, Ping; Song, Yaozu; Thomas, Taylor; Tshimanga, Sylvie; Wang, Feng; Niu, Jianguo; Sun, Tao; Li, P. Andy

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to clarify the role of mTOR in mediating cerebral ischemic brain damage and the effects of rapamycin on ischemic outcomes. Ten minutes of forebrain ischemia was induced in rats, and their brains were sampled after 3 h, 16 h, and 7 days reperfusion for histology, immunohistochemistry and biochemical analysis. Our data demonstrated that cerebral ischemia resulted in both apoptotic and necrotic neuronal death; cerebral ischemia and reperfusion led to significant increases of mRNA and protein levels of p-mTOR and its downstream p-P70S6K and p-S6; elevation of LC3-II, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm in both the cortex and hippocampus. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin markedly reduced ischemia-induced damage; suppressed p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K and p-S6 protein levels; decreased LC3-II and Beclin-1; and prevented cytochrome c release in the two structures. All together, these data provide evidence that cerebral ischemia activates mTOR and autophagy pathways. Inhibition of mTOR deactivates the mTOR pathway, suppresses autophagy, prevents cytochrome c release and reduces ischemic brain damage. PMID:26681922

  13. Black Currant Nectar Reduces Muscle Damage and Inflammation Following a Bout of High-Intensity Eccentric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Alexander T; Flieller, Emily B; Dillon, Kimber J; Leverett, Betsy D

    2016-01-01

    This investigation determined the efficacy of black currant nectar (BCN) in reducing symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Sixteen college students were randomly assigned to drink either 16 oz of BCN or a placebo (PLA) twice a day for eight consecutive days. A bout of eccentric knee extensions (3 × 10 sets @ 115% of 1RM) was performed on the fourth day. Outcome measures included muscle soreness (subjective scale from 0 to 10) and blood markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK), inflammation (interleukin-6, IL-6), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Although there were no differences in reported soreness between groups, consumption of BCN reduced CK levels at both 48 (PLA = 82.13% vs. BCN = -6.71%, p = .042) and 96 h post exercise (PLA = 74.96% vs. BCN = -12.11%, p = .030). The change in IL-6 was higher in the PLA group (PLA = 8.84% vs. BCN = -6.54%, p = .023) at 24 h post exercise. The change in ORAC levels was higher in the treatment group (BCN = 2.68% vs. PLA = -6.02%, p = .039) at 48 h post exercise. Our results demonstrate that consumption of BCN prior to and after a bout of eccentric exercise attenuates muscle damage and inflammation. PMID:25153307

  14. Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids ameliorates neuronal damage and reduces lesion extent in a mouse model of transient ischemic attack

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ming-san; Guo, Lin; Li, Rui-qi; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are a major component in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Ilicis Pubescentis. Previous studies have shown that the administration of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids is protective in cerebral ischemia. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined whether the total flavonoids extracted from Radix Ilicis Pubescentis prevent or ameliorate neuronal damage following transient ischemic attacks. Therefore, Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids question and the potential underlying mechanisms. Thus, beginning 3 days before the induction of a mouse model of transient ischemic attack using tert-butyl hydroperoxide injections, mice were intragastrically administered 0.3, 0.15, or 0.075 g/kg of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids daily for 10 days. The results of spectrophotometric analyses demonstrated that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids enhanced oxygen free radical scavenging and reduced pathological alterations in the brain. Hematoxylin-eosin staining results showed that Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids reduced hippocampal neuronal damage and cerebral vascular injury in this mouse model of transient ischemic attack. These results suggest that the antioxidant effects of Radix Ilicis Pubescentis total flavonoids alleviate the damage to brain tissue caused by transient ischemic attack. PMID:27127483

  15. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Darrah, Thomas H; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  16. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D.; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  17. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  18. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  19. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  20. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  1. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  2. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  3. USING THE DNA ALKALINE UNWINDING ASSAY TO DETECT DNA DAMAGE IN LABORATORY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED CELLS AND TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. n preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. ultured mammalian fib...

  4. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges by environmental pollutants: relationship of SCE to other measures of genetic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.L.; Shimizu, R.W.; Li, A.P.; Benson, J.M.; Dutcher, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), induced by environmental pollutants from fossil fuel use, were measured in 2 cell systems, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Chinese hamster primary lung cell cultures. The frequency of SCEs induced in these cell systems was related to other measures of genetic damage, namely mutations in CHO cells at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) gene locus and in bacteria (Salmonella mutagenicity test TA-98), produced by the same pollutants. The pollutants were divided into 2 classes: those produced in oxidizing combustion environments--extracts of particles from light-duty diesel cars, spark-ignition cars, and an automotive tunnel; and those produced in reducing environments--extracts from coke oven mains and condensates from a low BTU coal gasifier obtained either before or after cleanup of the process stream. Sister chromatid exchanges were induced by all pollutants without the addition of a rat liver microsomal fraction (S-9 mix), whereas S-9 mix was required to induce a positive response in the CHO/HGPRT assay for all pollutants. The pollutants produced in a reducing environment required metabolic activation by S-9 mix to be mutagenic in the Salmonella mutation assay. The addition of S-9 mix to pollutants produced in an oxidizing environment reduced the response in the Salmonella test. The relative genotoxic potency for each pollutant was determined for all 3 endpoints. The slopes of dose-response curves for each pollutant were plotted for each assay to compare relative potency. When the bacterial mutagenicity test was compared to either mammalian cell assay, SCE or CHO/HGPRT, there was little correlation between relative potencies. However, the data indicated that the responses in the 2 mammalian cell assays, SCE and CHO/HGPRT, showed similar relative responses to the pollutants.

  5. Treatment with novel RSV Ig RI-002 controls viral replication and reduces pulmonary damage in immunocompromised Sigmodon hispidus.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalova, M; Blanco, J C G; Falsey, A R; Mond, J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in several high health risk populations, including infants, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with lower respiratory tract RSV infection can exceed 80%. It has been shown that RSV replication in immunosuppressed individuals is significantly prolonged, but the contribution of pulmonary damage, if any, to the pathogenesis of RSV disease in this susceptible population is not known. In this work, we tested RI-002, a novel standardized Ig formulation containing a high level of RSV-neutralizing Ab, for its ability to control RSV infection in immunocompromised cotton rats Sigmodon hispidus. Animals immunosuppressed by repeat cyclophosphamide injections were infected with RSV and treated with RI-002. Prolonged RSV replication, characteristic of immunosuppressed cotton rats, was inhibited by RI-002 administration. Ab treatment reduced detection of systemic dissemination of viral RNA. Importantly, pulmonary interstitial inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia that were significantly elevated in immunosuppressed animals were reduced by RI-002 administration. These results indicate the potential of RI-002 to improve outcome of RSV infection in immunocompromised subjects not only by controlling viral replication, but also by reducing damage to lung parenchyma and epithelial airway lining, but further studies are needed. PMID:26367224

  6. Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: results from an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bakuradze, Tamara; Boehm, Nadine; Janzowski, Christine; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Albert, Franz W; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence increasingly suggests coffee consumption to be correlated to prevention or delay of degenerative diseases connected with oxidative cellular stress. In an intervention study comprising 33 healthy volunteers, we examined DNA-protective and antioxidative effects exerted in vivo by daily ingestion of 750 mL of freshly brewed coffee rich in both green coffee bean constituents as well as roast products. The study design encompassed an initial 4 wk of wash-out, followed by 4 wk of coffee intake and 4 wk of second wash-out. At the start and after each study phase blood samples were taken to monitor biomarkers of oxidative stress response. In addition, body weight/composition and intake of energy/nutrients were recorded. In the coffee ingestion period, the primary endpoint, oxidative DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay (± FPG), was markedly reduced (p<0.001). Glutathione level (p<0.05) and GSR-activity (p<0.01) were elevated. Body weight (p<0.01)/body fat (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.001)/nutrient (p<0.001-0.05) intake were reduced. Our results allow to conclude that daily consumption of 3-4 cups of brew from a special Arabica coffee exerts health beneficial effects, as evidenced by reduced oxidative damage, body fat mass and energy/nutrient uptake. PMID:21462335

  7. Epicatechin Reduces Striatal MPP⁺-Induced Damage in Rats through Slight Increases in SOD-Cu,Zn Activity.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Osornio, M; Gorostieta-Salas, E; Montes, S; Pérez-Severiano, F; Rubio, C; Gómez, C; Ríos, C; Guevara, J

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by movement alterations caused by reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway, presumably by oxidative stress (OS). MPP(+) intrastriatal injection leads to the overproduction of free radicals (FR). The increasing formation of FR produces OS, a decline in dopamine (DA) content, and behavioral disorders. Epicatechin (EC) has shown the ability to be FR scavenger, an antioxidant enzyme inductor, a redox state modulator, and transition metal chelator. Acute administration of 100 mg/kg of EC significantly prevented (P < 0.05) the circling MPP(+)-induced behavior (10 μg/8 μL). Likewise, EC significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the formation of fluorescent lipid products caused by MPP(+). MPP(+) injection produced (P < 0.05) increased enzymatic activity of the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS). This effect was blocked with acute EC pretreatment. Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) activity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced as a consequence of MPP(+) damage. EC produced a slight increase (≈20%) in Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the control group. Such effects persisted in animals injured with MPP(+). The results show that EC is effective against MPP(+)-induced biochemical and behavioral damage, which is possible by an increase in Cu/Zn-SOD activity. PMID:26301040

  8. DNA Damage Reduces the Quality, but Not the Quantity of Human Papillomavirus 16 E1 and E2 DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bristol, Molly L.; Wang, Xu; Smith, Nathan W.; Son, Minkyeong P.; Evans, Michael R.; Morgan, Iain M.

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents in almost all cervical carcinomas. HPVs are also causative agents in head and neck cancer, the cases of which are increasing rapidly. Viral replication activates the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; associated proteins are recruited to replication foci, and this pathway may serve to allow for viral genome amplification. Likewise, HPV genome double-strand breaks (DSBs) could be produced during replication and could lead to linearization and viral integration. Many studies have shown that viral integration into the host genome results in unregulated expression of the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, promoting HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Previously, we have demonstrated that DNA-damaging agents, such as etoposide, or knocking down viral replication partner proteins, such as topoisomerase II β binding protein I (TopBP1), does not reduce the level of DNA replication. Here, we investigated whether these treatments alter the quality of DNA replication by HPV16 E1 and E2. We confirm that knockdown of TopBP1 or treatment with etoposide does not reduce total levels of E1/E2-mediated DNA replication; however, the quality of replication is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate that E1 and E2 continue to replicate under genomically-stressed conditions and that this replication is mutagenic. This mutagenesis would promote the formation of substrates for integration of the viral genome into that of the host, a hallmark of cervical cancer. PMID:27338449

  9. DNA Damage Reduces the Quality, but Not the Quantity of Human Papillomavirus 16 E1 and E2 DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Bristol, Molly L; Wang, Xu; Smith, Nathan W; Son, Minkyeong P; Evans, Michael R; Morgan, Iain M

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causative agents in almost all cervical carcinomas. HPVs are also causative agents in head and neck cancer, the cases of which are increasing rapidly. Viral replication activates the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway; associated proteins are recruited to replication foci, and this pathway may serve to allow for viral genome amplification. Likewise, HPV genome double-strand breaks (DSBs) could be produced during replication and could lead to linearization and viral integration. Many studies have shown that viral integration into the host genome results in unregulated expression of the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, promoting HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Previously, we have demonstrated that DNA-damaging agents, such as etoposide, or knocking down viral replication partner proteins, such as topoisomerase II β binding protein I (TopBP1), does not reduce the level of DNA replication. Here, we investigated whether these treatments alter the quality of DNA replication by HPV16 E1 and E2. We confirm that knockdown of TopBP1 or treatment with etoposide does not reduce total levels of E1/E2-mediated DNA replication; however, the quality of replication is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate that E1 and E2 continue to replicate under genomically-stressed conditions and that this replication is mutagenic. This mutagenesis would promote the formation of substrates for integration of the viral genome into that of the host, a hallmark of cervical cancer. PMID:27338449

  10. Curcumin reduces oxidative and nitrative DNA damage through balancing of oxidant-antioxidant status in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini.

    PubMed

    Pinlaor, Somchai; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Prakobwong, Suksanti; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Khoontawad, Jarinya; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2009-10-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection is endemic in northeastern Thailand. We have previously reported that OV infection induces oxidative and nitrative DNA damage via chronic inflammation, which contributes to the disease and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Here, we examined the effect of curcumin, an antioxidant, on pathogenesis in OV-infected hamsters. DNA lesions were detected by double immunofluorescence and the hepatic expression of oxidant-generating and antioxidant genes was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Dietary 1.0% curcumin significantly decreased OV-induced accumulation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), an oxidative DNA lesion, and 8-nitroguanine, a nitrative DNA lesion, in the nucleus of bile duct epithelial and inflammatory cells. Expression of oxidant-generating genes (inducible nitric oxide synthase; iNOS, its nuclear transcriptional factor, NF-kappaB, and cyclooxygenase-2), and plasma levels of nitrate, malondialdehyde, and alanine aminotransferase, were also decreased in curcumin-treated group. In contrast, curcumin increased the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes (Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase), and ferric-reducing anti-oxidant power in the plasma. In conclusion, curcumin reduced oxidative and nitrative DNA damage by suppression of oxidant-generating genes and enhancement of antioxidant genes, leading to inhibition of oxidative and nitrative stress. Therefore, curcumin may be used as a chemopreventive agent to reduce the severity of OV-associated diseases and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). PMID:19753608

  11. Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 Reduces Intestinal Epithelial Tight-Junction Damage and Mortality in Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Qiankun; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Shoutao; Wang, Guozheng; Ji, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Objective Damage to intestinal epithelial tight junctions plays an important role in sepsis. Recently we found that Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2) is able to protect LPS-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage and in this study we will investigate if CORM-2 could protect intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Materials and Methods The CLP model was generated using male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats according to standard procedure and treated with CORM-2 or inactive CORM-2 (iCORM-2), 8 mg/kg, i.v. immediately after CLP induction and euthanized after 24h or 72h (for mortality rate only). Morphological changes were investigated using both transmission electron and confocal microscopy. The levels of important TJ proteins and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) were examined using Western blotting. Cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured using ELISA kits. The overall intestinal epithelial permeability was evaluated using FD-4 as a marker. Results CORM-2, but not iCORM-2, significantly reduced sepsis-induced damage of intestinal mucosa (including TJ disruption), TJ protein reduction (including zonula occludens-l (ZO-1), claudin-1 and occludin), MLC phosphorylation and proinflammatory cytokine release. The overall outcomes showed that CORM-2 suppressed sepsis-induced intestinal epithelial permeability changes and reduced mortality rate of those septic rats. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that CORM-2 could be a potential therapeutic reagent for sepsis by suppressing inflammation, restoring intestinal epithelial barrier and reducing mortality. PMID:26720630

  12. Efficacy of plastic mesh tubes in reducing herbivory damage by the invasive nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an urban restoration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheffels, Trevor R.; Systma, Mark D.; Carter, Jacoby; Taylor, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of stream corridors is becoming an increasingly important component of urban landscape planning, and the high cost of these projects necessitates the need to understand and address potential ecological obstacles to project success. The nutria(Myocastor coypus) is an invasive, semi-aquatic rodent native to South America that causes detrimental ecological impacts in riparian and wetland habitats throughout its introduced range, and techniques are needed to reduce nutria herbivory damage to urban stream restoration projects. We assessed the efficacy of standard Vexar® plastic mesh tubes in reducing nutria herbivory damage to newly established woody plants. The study was conducted in winter-spring 2009 at Delta Ponds, a 60-ha urban waterway in Eugene, Oregon. Woody plants protected by Vexar® tubes demonstrated 100% survival over the 3-month initial establishment period, while only 17% of unprotected plantings survived. Nutria demonstrated a preference for black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp trichocarpa) over red osier dogwood (Cornussericea) and willow (Salix spp). Camera surveillance showed that nutria were more active in unprotected rather than protected treatments. Our results suggest that Vexar® plastic mesh tubing can be an effective short-term herbivory mitigation tool when habitat use by nutria is low. Additionally, planting functionally equivalent woody plant species that are less preferred by nutria, and other herbivores, may be another method for reducing herbivory and improving revegetation success. This study highlights the need to address potential wildlife damage conflicts in the planning process for stream restoration in urban landscapes.

  13. Deciphering maize genetics and ecology to reduce insect damage and aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases, which reduce yield and impose health threats via mycotoxin contaminations, are critical impediments for maize production in the southern US states. To address this problem a combination of basic and applied research approaches are being conducted by the interdis...

  14. Power Line Damage, Electrical Outages Reduced in the ''Sleet Belt'': NICE3 Steel Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-25

    The AR Windamper System was developed through a grant from the Inventions and Innovation Program, to protect power transmission lines in sleet belt states and provinces by eliminating the ''galloping'' phenomenon. Wind damping products minimize power outages and reduce repair costs to transmission lines.

  15. Baifuzi reduces transient ischemic brain damage through an interaction with the STREX domain of BKCa channels

    PubMed Central

    Chi, S; Cai, W; Liu, P; Zhang, Z; Chen, X; Gao, L; Qi, J; Bi, L; Chen, L; Qi, Z

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a long-term disability and one of the leading causes of death. However, no successful therapeutic intervention is available for the majority of stroke patients. In this study, we explored a traditional Chinese medicine Baifuzi (Typhonium giganteum Engl.). We show, at first, that the ethanol extract of Baifuzi exerts neuroprotective effects against brain damage induced by transient global or focal cerebral ischemia in rats and mice. Second, the extract activated large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa) channels, and BKCa channel blockade suppressed the neuroprotection of the extract, suggesting that the BKCa is the molecular target of Baifuzi. Third, Baifuzi cerebroside (Baifuzi-CB), purified from its ethanol extract, activated BKCa channels in a manner similar to that of the extract. Fourth, the stress axis hormone-regulated exon (STREX) domain of the BKCa channel directly interacted with Baifuzi-CB, and its deletion suppressed channel activation by Baifuzi-CB. These results indicate that Baifuzi-CB activated the BKCa channel through its direct interaction with the STREX domain of the channel and suggests that Baifuzi-CB merits exploration as a potential therapeutic agent for treating brain ischemia. PMID:21364615

  16. Osteopontin deficiency reduces kidney damage from hypercholesterolemia in Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Zouwei; Okura, Takafumi; Nagao, Tomoaki; Enomoto, Daijiro; Kukida, Masayoshi; Tanino, Akiko; Miyoshi, Ken-ichi; Kurata, Mie; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-established risk factor for kidney injury, which can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated in the pathology of several renal conditions. This study was to evaluate the effects of OPN on hypercholesterolemia induced renal dysfunction. Eight-week-old male mice were divided into 4 groups: apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/−) and ApoE/OPN knockout (ApoE−/−/OPN−/−) mice fed a normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol diet (HD). After 4 weeks, Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and oil red O staining revealed excessive lipid deposition in the glomeruli of ApoE−/−HD mice, however, significantly suppressed in ApoE−/−/OPN−/−HD mice. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression was lower in the glomeruli of ApoE−/−/OPN−/−HD mice than ApoE−/−HD mice. In vitro study, primary mesangial cells were incubated with recombinant mouse OPN (rmOPN). RmOPN induced LOX-1 mRNA and protein expression in primary mesangial cells. Pre-treatment with an ERK inhibitor suppressed the LOX-1 gene expression induced by rmOPN. These results indicate that OPN contributes to kidney damage in hypercholesterolemia and suggest that inhibition of OPN may provide a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27353458

  17. Osteopontin deficiency reduces kidney damage from hypercholesterolemia in Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zouwei; Okura, Takafumi; Nagao, Tomoaki; Enomoto, Daijiro; Kukida, Masayoshi; Tanino, Akiko; Miyoshi, Ken-Ichi; Kurata, Mie; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-established risk factor for kidney injury, which can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated in the pathology of several renal conditions. This study was to evaluate the effects of OPN on hypercholesterolemia induced renal dysfunction. Eight-week-old male mice were divided into 4 groups: apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) and ApoE/OPN knockout (ApoE(-/-)/OPN(-/-)) mice fed a normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol diet (HD). After 4 weeks, Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and oil red O staining revealed excessive lipid deposition in the glomeruli of ApoE(-/-)HD mice, however, significantly suppressed in ApoE(-/-)/OPN(-/-)HD mice. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) expression was lower in the glomeruli of ApoE(-/-)/OPN(-/-)HD mice than ApoE(-/-)HD mice. In vitro study, primary mesangial cells were incubated with recombinant mouse OPN (rmOPN). RmOPN induced LOX-1 mRNA and protein expression in primary mesangial cells. Pre-treatment with an ERK inhibitor suppressed the LOX-1 gene expression induced by rmOPN. These results indicate that OPN contributes to kidney damage in hypercholesterolemia and suggest that inhibition of OPN may provide a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27353458

  18. Testing NMDA receptor block as a therapeutic strategy for reducing ischaemic damage to CNS white matter.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, Yamina; Hamilton, Nicola B; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur; Attwell, David

    2008-01-15

    Damage to oligodendrocytes caused by glutamate release contributes to mental or physical handicap in periventricular leukomalacia, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and stroke, and has been attributed to activation of AMPA/kainate receptors. However, glutamate also activates unusual NMDA receptors in oligodendrocytes, which can generate an ion influx even at the resting potential in a physiological [Mg2+]. Here, we show that the clinically licensed NMDA receptor antagonist memantine blocks oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors at concentrations achieved therapeutically. Simulated ischaemia released glutamate which activated NMDA receptors, as well as AMPA/kainate receptors, on mature and precursor oligodendrocytes. Although blocking AMPA/kainate receptors alone during ischaemia had no effect, combining memantine with an AMPA/kainate receptor blocker, or applying the NMDA blocker MK-801 alone, improved recovery of the action potential in myelinated axons after the ischaemia. These data suggest NMDA receptor blockers as a potentially useful treatment for some white matter diseases and define conditions under which these blockers may be useful therapeutically. Our results highlight the importance of developing new antagonists selective for oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors based on their difference in subunit structure from most neuronal NMDA receptors. PMID:18046734

  19. Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

  20. Deficiency of the oxidative damage-specific DNA glycosylase NEIL1 leads to reduced germinal center B cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hiromi; Ouchida, Rika; Hijikata, Atsushi; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Ohara, Osamu; Li, Yingqian; Gao, Xiang; Yasui, Akira; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Wang, Ji-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells possess multiple DNA glycosylases, including OGG1, NTH1, NEIL1, NEIL2 and NEIL3, for the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Among these, NEIL1 and NEIL2 are able to excise oxidized bases on single stranded or bubble-structured DNA and has been implicated in repair of oxidative damage associated with DNA replication or transcription. We found that Neil1 was highly constitutively expressed in the germinal center (GC) B cells, a rapidly dividing cell population that is undergoing immunoglobulin (Ig) gene hypermutation and isotype switching. While Neil1−/− mice exhibited normal B and T cell development and maturation, these mice contained a significantly lower frequency of GC B cells than did WT mice after immunization with a T-dependent antigen. Consistent with the reduced expansion of GC B cells, Neil1−/− mice had a decreased frequency of Ig gene hypermutation and produced less antibody against a T-dependent antigen during both primary and secondary immune responses. These results suggest that repair of endogenous oxidative DNA damage by NEIL1 is important for the rapid expansion of GC B cells and efficient induction of humoral immune responses. PMID:19782007

  1. Study of genetic damage in the Japanese oyster induced by an environmentally-relevant exposure to diuron: evidence of vertical transmission of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Barranger, A; Akcha, F; Rouxel, J; Brizard, R; Maurouard, E; Pallud, M; Menard, D; Tapie, N; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Benabdelmouna, A

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides represent a major proportion of the chemical pollutants detected in French coastal waters and hence a significant environmental risk with regards to marine organisms. Commercially-raised bivalves are particularly exposed to pollutants, among them pesticides, as shellfish farming zones are subject to considerable pressure from agricultural activities on the mainland. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the genotoxic effects of diuron exposure on oyster genitors and (2) the possible transmission of damaged DNA to offspring and its repercussions on oyster fitness. To investigate these points, oysters were exposed to concentrations of diuron close to those detected in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (two 7-day exposure pulses at 0.4 and 0.6 μg L(-1)) during the gametogenesis period. Genomic abnormalities were characterized using two complementary approaches. The Comet assay was applied for the measurement of early and reversible primary DNA damage, whereas flow cytometry was used to assess the clastogenic and aneugenic effect of diuron exposure. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were used in exposed and assay tanks to confirm the waterborne concentration of diuron reached during the experiment. The results obtained by the Comet assay clearly showed a higher level of DNA strand breaks in both the hemocytes and spermatozoa of diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of damaged genetic material to gamete cells could be responsible for the genetic damage measured in offspring. Indeed, flow cytometry analyses showed the presence of DNA breakage and a significant decrease in DNA content in spat from diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of DNA damage to the offspring could be involved in the negative effects observed on offspring development (decrease in hatching rate, higher level of larval abnormalities, delay in metamorphosis) and growth. In this study, the vertical transmission of DNA damage was so highlighted by subjecting oyster

  2. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  3. Test validation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability and damage tolerance modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-03-01

    Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will establish a process for using a computational approach, validated at a specimen level, to predict reliably in the future component level performance without resorting to extensive testing.

  4. Bax inhibiting peptide reduces apoptosis in neonatal rat hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng-Ya; Cui, Kai-Jie; Yu, Mao-Min; Zhang, Hui; Peng, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) has been reported to induce apoptosis in neonates. We, therefore, analyzed the ability of Bax-inhibiting peptide (BIP) to provide neuroprotective effects during hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Seven-day-old wistar rat pups (n = 198) were randomly divided into a sham-operated group (Group S, n = 18), saline group (Group C, n = 90) and BIP group (Group B, n = 90). Pathological changes in the cerebral tissues of rat pups were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, TUNEL and Western blot. The expression of cytochrome c and caspase-3 was determined using western blot technique. Rat pups demonstrated neurobehavioral alteration in Groups C and B. TUNEL-positive cells in the left hippocampus were significantly increased in Group C and Group B after HIBD (P < 0.01) when compared with Group S. There was a marked reduction in TUNEL positive cells in subgroups B1 through B4 when compared with the respective subgroups C1 through C5. Compared with Group S, the expression of caspase-3 and cytochrome c was significantly increased in Groups C and B (P < 0.01). The difference in expression of caspase-3 and cytochrome c between subgroups B1 through B4 and C1 through C4 was significant (P < 0.01). In conclusions, the neuro-protective effect of BIP was due to a reduction of nerve cell apoptosis in our neonatal HIE rat model. We propose that BIP has potential as a neuro-protective drug in neonatal HIE cases. PMID:26823794

  5. Partially flexible MEMS neural probe composed of polyimide and sucrose gel for reducing brain damage during and after implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Myounggun; Cho, Jeiwon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Jung, Dahee; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Shin, Sehyun; Cho, Il-Joo

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a flexible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) neural probe that minimizes neuron damage and immune response, suitable for chronic recording applications. MEMS neural probes with various features such as high electrode densities have been actively investigated for neuron stimulation and recording to study brain functions. However, successful recording of neural signals in chronic application using rigid silicon probes still remains challenging because of cell death and macrophages accumulated around the electrodes over time from continuous brain movement. Thus, in this paper, we propose a new flexible MEMS neural probe that consists of two segments: a polyimide-based, flexible segment for connection and a rigid segment composed of thin silicon for insertion. While the flexible connection segment is designed to reduce the long-term chronic neuron damage, the thin insertion segment is designed to minimize the brain damage during the insertion process. The proposed flexible neural probe was successfully fabricated using the MEMS process on a silicon on insulator wafer. For a successful insertion, a biodegradable sucrose gel is coated on the flexible segment to temporarily increase the probe stiffness to prevent buckling. After the insertion, the sucrose gel dissolves inside the brain exposing the polyimide probe. By performing an insertion test, we confirm that the flexible probe has enough stiffness. In addition, by monitoring immune responses and brain histology, we successfully demonstrate that the proposed flexible neural probe incurs fivefold less neural damage than that incurred by a conventional silicon neural probe. Therefore, the presented flexible neural probe is a promising candidate for recording stable neural signals for long-time chronic applications.

  6. INCREASING SAFETY AND REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE RISK FROM AGING HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding of the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stage...

  7. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Rashid, Mark M.; Williamson, Richard L.

    2005-06-01

    Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material structure combinations that are ductile (Fig. 1). This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure.

  8. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: a scenario analysis.

    PubMed

    Neto, Belmira; Kroeze, Carolien; Hordijk, Leen; Costa, Carlos; Pulles, Tinus

    2009-02-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze, C., Hordijk, L., Costa, C., 2008. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting company and options for control. Environmental Modelling & Software 23 (2) 147-168] we included the model description and explored the model by applying it to a plant in which no reduction options are assumed to be implemented (so-called zero case, reflecting the current practice in the plant). Here, we perform a systematic analysis of reduction options. We analysed seven types of reduction strategies, assuming the simultaneous implementation of different reduction options. These strategies are analysed with respect to their potential to reduce emissions, environmental impact and costs associated with the implementation of options. These strategies were found to differ largely in their potential to reduce the environmental impact of the plant (10-87%), as well as in the costs associated with the implementation of options (-268 to +277keuro/year). We were able to define 11 strategies, reducing the overall environmental impact by more than 50%. Of these, two have net negative costs, indicating that the company may in fact earn money through their implementation. PMID:18342428

  9. Ginsenoside-Rb2 displays anti-osteoporosis effects through reducing oxidative damage and bone-resorbing cytokines during osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Jie, Qiang; Wei, Bo-Yuan; Fan, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Zhang, Jin-Kang; Li, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Jun; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Yang, Liu; Liu, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a significant pathogenic factor of osteoporosis. Ginsenoside-Rb2 (Rb2), a 20(S)-protopanaxadiol glycoside extracted from ginseng, is a potent antioxidant that generates interest regarding the bone metabolism area. We tested the potential anti-osteoporosis effects of Rb2 and its underlying mechanism in this study. We produced an oxidative damage model induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells to test the essential anti-osteoporosis effects of Rb2in vitro. The results indicated that treatment of 0.1 to 10μM Rb2 promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells, improved alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression, elevated calcium mineralization and mRNA expressions of Alp, Col1a1, osteocalcin (Ocn) and osteopontin (Opn) against oxidative damage induced by H2O2. Importantly, Rb2 reduced the expression levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and IL-6 and inhibited the H2O2-induced production of ROS. The in vivo study indicated that the Rb2 administered for 12weeks partially decreased blood malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and elevated the activity of reduced glutathione (GSH) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Moreover, Rb2 improved the micro-architecture of trabecular bones and increased bone mineral density (BMD) of the 4th lumbar vertebrae (L4) and the distal femur. Altogether, these results demonstrated that the potential anti-osteoporosis effects of Rb2 were linked to a reduction of oxidative damage and bone-resorbing cytokines, which suggests that Rb2 might be effective in preventing and alleviating osteoporosis. PMID:24933344

  10. Medical malpractice reform: noneconomic damages caps reduced payments 15 percent, with varied effects by specialty.

    PubMed

    Seabury, Seth A; Helland, Eric; Jena, Anupam B

    2014-11-01

    The impact of medical malpractice reforms on the average size of malpractice payments in specific physician specialties is unknown and subject to debate. We analyzed a national sample of malpractice claims for the period 1985-2010, merged with information on state liability reforms, to estimate the impact of state noneconomic damages caps on average malpractice payment size for physicians overall and for ten different specialty categories. We then compared how the effects differed according to the restrictiveness of the cap ($250,000 versus $500,000). We found that, overall, noneconomic damages caps reduced average payments by $42,980 (15 percent), compared to having no cap at all. A more restrictive $250,000 cap reduced average payments by $59,331 (20 percent), and a less restrictive $500,000 cap had no significant effect, compared to no cap at all. The effect of the caps overall varied according to specialty, with the largest impact being on claims involving pediatricians and the smallest on claims involving surgical subspecialties and ophthalmologists. PMID:25339633

  11. alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

    2009-10-01

    One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention. PMID:19558415

  12. Andrographolide interferes quorum sensing to reduce cell damage caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xun; Zhang, Li-Yan; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Xia, Fang; Fu, Yun-Xing; Wu, Yong-Li; Leng, Chun-Qing; Yi, Peng-Fei; Shen, Hai-Qing; Wei, Xu-Bin; Fu, Ben-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induce septicemia in chickens by invading type II pneumocytes to breach the blood-air barrier. The virulence of APEC can be regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Andrographolide is a QS inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Therefore, we investigate whether andrographolide inhibits the injury of chicken type II pneumocytes by avian pathogenic E. coli O78 (APEC-O78) by disrupting the bacterial QS system. The results showed that sub-MIC of andrographolide significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), F-actin cytoskeleton polymerization, and the degree of the adherence to chicken type II pneumocytes induced by APEC-O78. Further, we found that andrographolide significantly decreased the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity and the expression of virulence factors of APEC-O78. These results suggest that andrographolide reduce the pathogenicity of APEC-O78 in chicken type II pneumocytes by interfering QS and decreasing virulence. These results provide new evidence for colibacillosis prevention methods in chickens. PMID:25448450

  13. Nutrient-Enhanced Diet Reduces Noise-Induced Damage to the Inner Ear and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Gagnon, P. M; Bennett, D. C.; Ohlemiller, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been broadly implicated as a cause of cell death and neural degeneration in multiple disease conditions; however, the evidence for successful intervention with dietary antioxidant manipulations has been mixed. In this study, we investigated the potential for protection of cells in the inner ear using a dietary supplement with multiple antioxidant components, selected for their potential interactive effectiveness. Protection against permanent threshold shift (PTS) was observed in CBA/J mice maintained on a diet supplemented with a combination of β-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium when compared to PTS in control mice maintained on a nutritionally complete control diet. Although hair cell survival was not enhanced, noise-induced loss of Type II fibrocytes in the lateral wall was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and there was a trend towards less noise-induced loss in strial cell density in animals maintained on the supplemented diet. Taken together, our data suggest that pre-noise oral treatment with the high-nutrient diet can protect cells in the inner ear and reduce PTS in mice. Demonstration of functional and morphological preservation of cells in the inner ear with oral administration of this antioxidant supplemented diet supports the possibility of translation to human patients, and suggests an opportunity to evaluate antioxidant protection in mouse models of oxidative stress-related disease and pathology. PMID:21708355

  14. Nutrient-enhanced diet reduces noise-induced damage to the inner ear and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Gagnon, Patricia M; Bennett, David C; Ohlemiller, Kevin K

    2011-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated broadly as a cause of cell death and neural degeneration in multiple disease conditions; however, the evidence for successful intervention with dietary antioxidant manipulations has been mixed. In this study, we investigated the potential for protection of cells in the inner ear using a dietary supplement with multiple antioxidant components, which were selected for their potential interactive effectiveness. Protection against permanent threshold shift (PTS) was observed in CBA/J mice maintained on a diet supplemented with a combination of β-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium when compared with PTS in control mice maintained on a nutritionally complete control diet. Although hair cell survival was not enhanced, noise-induced loss of type II fibrocytes in the lateral wall was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), and there was a trend toward less noise-induced loss in strial cell density in animals maintained on the supplemented diet. Taken together, our data suggest that prenoise oral treatment with the high-nutrient diet can protect cells in the inner ear and reduce PTS in mice. The demonstration of functional and morphologic preservation of cells in the inner ear with oral administration of this antioxidant supplemented diet supports the possibility of translation to human patients and suggests an opportunity to evaluate antioxidant protection in mouse models of oxidative stress-related disease and pathology. PMID:21708355

  15. Progesterone Reduces Secondary Damage, Preserves White Matter, and Improves Locomotor Outcome after Spinal Cord Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; González, Susana; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Lima, Analía; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; De Nicola, Alejandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Progesterone is an anti-inflammatory and promyelinating agent after spinal cord injury, but its effectiveness on functional recovery is still controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of chronic progesterone administration on tissue preservation and functional recovery in a clinically relevant model of spinal cord lesion (thoracic contusion). Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed that progesterone reduced both volume and rostrocaudal extension of the lesion at 60 days post-injury. In addition, progesterone increased the number of total mature oligodendrocytes, myelin basic protein immunoreactivity, and the number of axonal profiles at the epicenter of the lesion. Further, progesterone treatment significantly improved motor outcome as assessed using the Basso-Bresnahan-Beattie scale for locomotion and CatWalk gait analysis. These data suggest that progesterone could be considered a promising therapeutical candidate for spinal cord injury. PMID:24460450

  16. Ultrastrong, Chemically Resistant Reduced Graphene Oxide-based Multilayer Thin Films with Damage Detection Capability.

    PubMed

    Guin, Tyler; Stevens, Bart; Krecker, Michelle; D'Angelo, John; Humood, Mohammad; Song, Yixuan; Smith, Ryan; Polycarpou, Andreas; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2016-03-01

    Multilayer thin films of graphene oxide (GO) and poly(vinylamine) (PVAm) were deposited via layer-by-layer assembly. Poly(vinylamine) pH was used to tailor film thickness and GO layer spacing. Graphene oxide concentration in the films was controlled through simple pH adjustment. Thermal reduction of the PVAm/GO multilayer thin films rendered them electrically conductive, which could be further tailored with PVAm pH. These reduced films also exhibited exceptionally high elastic modulus of 30 GPa and hardness of 1.8 GPa, which are among the highest of any graphene-filled polymer composite values ever reported. Cross-linking of these films with glutaraldehyde improved their chemical resistance, allowing them to survive strongly acidic or salty solutions. Additionally, scratches in the films can be instantaneously detected by a simple electrical resistance measurement. These films are promising for a variety of packaging and electronic applications. PMID:26885558

  17. Neutrophil Protease Inhibition Reduces Neuromyelitis Optica–Immunoglobulin G–Induced Damage in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Saadoun, Samira; Waters, Patrick; MacDonald, Claire; Bell, B. Anthony; Vincent, Angela; Verkman, A.S.; Papadopoulos, Marios C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system associated with pathogenic autoantibodies against the astrocyte water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4). The presence of neutrophils is a characteristic feature in NMO lesions in humans. Neutrophils are not generally found in multiple sclerosis lesions. We evaluated the role of neutrophils in a mouse NMO model. Methods NMO lesions were produced in mice by intracerebral injection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) isolated from NMO patient serum and human complement. We previously reported that this mouse model produces the characteristic histological features of NMO, including perivascular complement activation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and loss of myelin, AQP4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Lesions are absent when AQP4 null mice are used or when IgG from non-NMO patients is injected. Results We found remarkably reduced neuroinflammation, myelin loss, and AQP4 loss in brains of neutropenic mice at 24 hours and 7 days, and increased severity of NMO lesions in mice made neutrophilic by granulocyte colony stimulating factor. NMO lesions were greatly reduced by intracerebral administration of the neutrophil protease inhibitors Sivelestat and cathepsin G inhibitor I or by intraperitoneal injection of Sivelestat alone. Immunostaining of human NMO lesions for neutrophil elastase revealed many degranulating perivascular neutrophils, with no equivalent perivascular neutrophils in human multiple sclerosis lesions. Interpretation Our data implicate a central role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of early NMO lesions and suggest the potential utility of neutrophil protease inhibitors such as Sivelestat in NMO therapy. PMID:22374891

  18. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  19. Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Olson, Dawn M.; Ruberson, John R.; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

  20. Seeking Energy System Pathways to Reduce Ozone Damage to Ecosystems through Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, S. L.; Pinder, R. W.; Loughlin, D. H.; Bash, J. O.; Turner, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Percell, P.; Zhao, S.; Russell, M. G.; Hakami, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) affects the productivity of ecosystems in addition to degrading human health. Concentrations of this pollutant are significantly influenced by precursor gas emissions, many of which emanate from energy production and use processes. Energy system optimization models could inform policy decisions that are intended to reduce these harmful effects if the contribution of precursor gas emissions to human health and ecosystem degradation could be elucidated. Nevertheless, determining the degree to which precursor gas emissions harm ecosystems and human health is challenging because of the photochemical production of ozone and the distinct mechanisms by which ozone causes harm to different crops, tree species, and humans. Here, the adjoint of a regional chemical transport model is employed to efficiently calculate the relative influences of ozone precursor gas emissions on ecosystem and human health degradation, which informs an energy system optimization. Specifically, for the summer of 2007 the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model adjoint is used to calculate the location- and sector-specific influences of precursor gas emissions on potential productivity losses for the major crops and sensitive tree species as well as human mortality attributable to chronic ozone exposure in the continental U.S. The atmospheric concentrations are evaluated with 12-km horizontal resolution with crop production and timber biomass data gridded similarly. These location-specific factors inform the energy production and use technologies selected in the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model.

  1. Cryotherapy reduces skeletal muscle damage after ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Puntel, Gustavo O; Carvalho, Nélson R; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Salgueiro, Andréia C F; Puntel, Robson L; Folmer, Vanderlei; Barbosa, Nilda B V; Royes, Luiz F F; Rocha, João Batista T; Soares, Félix A A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cryotherapy on the biochemical and morphological changes in ischemic and reperfused (I/R) gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into control and I/R groups, and divided based on whether or not the rats were submitted to cryotherapy. Following the reperfusion period, biochemical and morphological analyses were performed. Following cryotherapy, a reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and dichlorofluorescein oxidation levels were observed in I/R muscle. Cryotherapy in I/R muscle also minimized effects such as decreased cellular viability, levels of non-protein thiols and calcium ATPase activity as well as increased catalase activity. Cryotherapy also limited mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased the presence of neutrophils in I/R muscle, an effect that was corroborated by reduced myeloperoxidase activity in I/R muscle treated with cryotherapy. The effects of cryotherapy are associated with a reduction in the intensity of the inflammatory response and also with a decrease in mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23231035

  2. mTOR Inhibition improves anaemia and reduces organ damage in a murine model of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jintao; Tran, Jennifer; Wang, Hui; Guo, Chiao; Harro, David; Campbell, Andrew D; Eitzman, Daniel T

    2016-08-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to play an important role in red blood cell physiology, with inhibition of mTOR signalling leading to alterations in erythropoiesis. To determine if mTOR inhibition would improve anaemia in sickle cell disease (SCD), mice with SCD were treated with the dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor, INK128. One week after daily oral drug treatment, erythrocyte count, haemoglobin, and haematocrit were all significantly increased while reticulocyte counts were reduced. These parameters remained stable during 3 weeks of treatment. Similar effects were observed following oral treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor, sirolimus. Sirolimus treatment prolonged the lifespan of sickle cell erythrocytes in circulation, reduced spleen size, and reduced renal and hepatic iron accumulation in SCD mice. Following middle cerebral artery occlusion, stroke size was reduced in SCD mice treated with sirolimus. In conclusion, mTOR inhibition is protective against anaemia and organ damage in a murine model of SCD. PMID:27030515

  3. Extra-virgin olive oil-enriched diets reduce indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Barranco, M D; Martín, M J; Herrerías, J; Motilva, V

    2002-12-01

    Olive oil, the main fat component of the Mediterranean diet, has been found to be protective against oxidative stress and could be beneficial in inflammatory and gastrointestinal disorders. First-pressed, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) has appreciable amounts of powerful antioxidants such as polyphenolic compounds that prevent its autoxidation and are responsible for its high stability. The aim of the present study was to determine whether diets supplemented with EVOO could reduce the severity of indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative damage and also to study changes in the activities of certain oxidative stress-related enzymes such as xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase as a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation and possible modifications in gluthatione metabolism were also studied. Weanling rats were maintained on semisynthetic diet for 6 weeks; a standard diet containing 5% (w/w) of fat as control or EVOO supplemented diets (5% and 20% w/w). Gastric lesions were induced on the last day by oral administration of indomethacin (60 mg/kg body wt). In animals fed EVOO diets, gastric lesions were decreased significantly and in parallel with dietary fat, when compared to animals consuming a standard diet. These protective effects were related to a reduction of lipid peroxides generation, neutrophil infiltration, and xanthine oxidase activity. Superoxide dismutase, an important enzyme to scavenger of lipid peroxides, was unaffected by feeding conditions. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with EVOO significantly increased both glutathione peroxidase activity and total glutathione content. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that fat diets containing EVOO reduces indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats. This effect may be partly due not only to reducing oxidative stress and neutrophil-induced toxicity but also to enhancing the glutathione antioxidant defense system. PMID:12498302

  4. Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

  5. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  6. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and

  7. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model. PMID:14680076

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TEDCHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TO REDUCE THE RISK OF USING INNOVATIVE COATING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papeer discusses the use of environmental technology verification (ETV) to reduce the risk of using innovative coating technologies. It presents key concepts of the ETV program, reviews the scope of the ETV program's coatings and coating equipment pilot (CCEP) and its use of ...

  9. Consumer acceptability of cucumber pickles produced by fermentation in calcium chloride brine for reduced environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentat...

  10. Clay-based Formulations to Reduce the Environmental Impact of the Herbicide Terbuthylazine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled release formulations of pesticides are receiving increasing attention as a way to reduce the environmental impact of pesticides after their application to agricultural soils. Natural and modified clay minerals have been proved to be efficient adsorbents for many pesticides and, accordingl...

  11. DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Tovalin, H; Valverde, M; Morandi, M T; Blanco, S; Whitehead, L; Rojas, E

    2006-01-01

    Background Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in less developed countries. Aims To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in outdoor workers from two Mexican cities. Methods DNA damage (Comet assay) and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds, PM2.5, and ozone were investigated in 55 outdoor and indoor workers from México City and Puebla. Results In México City, outdoor workers had greater DNA damage, reflected by a longer tail length, than indoor workers (median 46.8 v 30.1 μm), and a greater percentage of highly damaged cells (cells with tail length ⩾41 μm); in Puebla, outdoor and indoor workers had similar DNA damage. There were more alkali labile sites in outdoor than indoor workers. The DNA damage magnitude was positively correlated with PM2.5 and ozone exposure. Outdoor and indoor workers with ⩾60% of highly damaged cells (highly damaged workers) had significantly higher exposures to PM2.5, ozone, and some volatile organic compounds. The main factors associated with the highly damaged workers were ozone, PM2.5, and 1‐ethyl‐2‐methyl benzene exposure. Conclusions With this approach, the effects of some air pollutants could be correlated with biological endpoints from the Comet assay. It is suggested that the use of personal exposure assessment and biological endpoints evaluation could be an important tool to generate a more precise assessment of the associated potential health risks. PMID:16556741

  12. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges by environmental pollutants: relationship of SCE to other measures of genetic damage.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A L; Shimizu, R W; Li, A P; Benson, J M; Dutcher, J S

    1984-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), induced by environmental pollutants from fossil fuel use, were measured in 2 cell systems, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Chinese hamster primary lung cell cultures. The frequency of SCEs induced in these cell systems was related to other measures of genetic damage, namely mutations in CHO cells at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) gene locus and in bacteria (Salmonella mutagenicity test TA-98), produced by the same pollutants. The pollutants were divided into 2 classes: those produced in oxidizing combustion environments--extracts of particles from light-duty diesel cars, spark-ignition cars, and an automotive tunnel; and those produced in reducing environments--extracts from coke oven mains and condensates from a low BTU coal gasifier obtained either before or after cleanup of the process stream. Sister chromatid exchanges were induced by all pollutants without the addition of a rat liver microsomal fraction (S-9 mix), whereas S-9 mix was required to induce a positive response in the CHO/HGPRT assay for all pollutants. The pollutants produced in a reducing environment required metabolic activation by S-9 mix to be mutagenic in the Salmonella mutation assay. The addition of S-9 mix to pollutants produced in an oxidizing environment reduced the response in the Salmonella test. The relative genotoxic potency for each pollutant was determined for all 3 endpoints. The slopes of dose-response curves for each pollutant were plotted for each assay to compare relative potency. When the bacterial mutagenicity test was compared to either mammalian cell assay, SCE or CHO/HGPRT, there was little correlation between relative potencies. However, the data indicated that the responses in the 2 mammalian cell assays, SCE and CHO/HGPRT, showed similar relative responses to the pollutants. Differences in the requirement for S-9 mix seem to be related to both the chemical nature of the mixture and the endpoint

  13. Reducing exposure to environmental toxicants before birth: moving from risk perception to risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Grason, Holly A; Misra, Dawn P

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we considered approaches to reducing maternal exposure to hazardous environmental toxicants, focusing on risk communication to pregnant women and providers, but also considering identification of environmental toxicants in the community and reduction of environmental toxicants. We addressed the following questions: (1) What do pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health? and (2) What policy strategies are needed (should be considered) to move forward in risk reduction in this area? We reviewed the literature on knowledge of pregnant women and providers regarding these issues. While there is limited research on what pregnant women and their providers know about environmental toxicants and perinatal health, there is evidence of reproductive and perinatal toxicity. This article describes a wide range of policy strategies that could be implemented to address environmental toxicants in the context of perinatal health. Effective leadership in this area will likely require collaboration of both environmental health and maternal and child health leaders and organizations. PMID:19753941

  14. Low-damage low-k etching with an environmentally friendly CF{sub 3}I plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Soda, Eiichi; Kondo, Seiichi; Saito, Shuichi; Ichihashi, Yoshinari; Sato, Aiko; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2008-07-15

    The feasibility of etching Cu/low-k interconnects by using a low global warming potential CF{sub 3}I plasma was studied. Low-damage etching was done and porous SiOC (p-SiOC, k<2.6) film with low roughness was produced. Exposing p-SiOC film to CF{sub 3}I plasma was found to suppress the decrease in the CH{sub 3} group and the increase in the k value compared to those of conventional CF{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 6} plasmas. These effects are due to the low UV intensity and small amount of F radicals of CF{sub 3}I plasma. The authors also found that the etching profile of CF{sub 3}I plasma was comparable with that of CF{sub 4} plasma. Since the etching selectivity (p-SiOC/ArF photoresist) of CF{sub 3}I plasma is higher than that of CF{sub 4} plasma, the remaining photoresist thickness increases after etching, thus suppressing line edge roughness (LER). The decreased LER mitigated degradation of IV and time dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics in Cu interconnects. They also found that the roughness on the bottom surface of the p-SiOC trench was reduced. These benefits are due to CF{sub 3}I plasma's low reactivity with the carbon in photoresists and p-SiOC films. Based on these findings, they believe that the environmentally friendly CF{sub 3}I gas has great promise as a p-SiOC etching material.

  15. White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Liu, Ronghua; Pauls, K Peter; Wood, Geoffrey A; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2015-07-01

    Common beans are a rich source of nondigestible fermentable components and phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the gut-health-promoting potential of kidney beans in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure (via drinking water, 2% DSS w/v, 7 days). C57BL/6 mice were fed one of three isocaloric diets: basal diet control (BD), or BD supplemented with 20% cooked white (WK) or dark red kidney (DK) bean flour for 3 weeks. In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relmβ) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response. During colitis, both bean diets reduced (a) disease severity, (b) colonic histological damage and (c) increased mRNA expression of antimicrobial and barrier integrity-promoting genes (Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), MUC1-3, Relmβ and Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)) and reduced proinflammatory mediator expression [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], which correlated with reduced colon tissue protein levels. Further, bean diets exerted a systemic anti-inflammatory effect during colitis by reducing serum levels of IL-17A, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, both WK and DK bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived SCFA metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity. PMID:25841250

  16. Seasonal variations of DNA damage in human lymphocytes: correlation with different environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Lisa; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Moretti, Silvia; Boddi, Vieri; Dolara, Piero

    2006-01-29

    Several types of DNA damage, including DNA breaks and DNA base oxidation, display a seasonal trend. In the present work, a sample of 79 healthy subjects living in the city of Florence, Italy, was used to analyse this effect. Three possible causative agents were taken into consideration: solar radiation, air temperature and air ozone level. DNA damage was measured in isolated human lymphocytes at different times during the year and the observed damage was correlated with the levels of these three agents in the days preceding blood sampling. Three time windows were chosen: 3, 7 and 30 days before blood sampling. DNA strand breaks and the oxidized purinic bases cleaved by the formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG sites) were measured by means of the comet assay. The results of multivariate regression analysis showed a positive correlation between lymphocyte DNA damage and air temperature, and a less strong correlation with global solar radiation and air ozone levels. PMID:16095632

  17. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  18. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior.

    PubMed

    Klonek, Florian E; Güntner, Amelie V; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals' self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) - an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation - can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients' verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents' level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients' expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents' verbal threats and change recipients' verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations. PMID:26257676

  19. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klonek, Florian E.; Güntner, Amelie V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) — an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation — can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations. PMID:26257676

  20. Kininogen deficiency protects from ischemic neurodegeneration in mice by reducing thrombosis, blood-brain barrier damage, and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Langhauser, Friederike; Göb, Eva; Kraft, Peter; Geis, Christian; Schmitt, Joachim; Brede, Marc; Göbel, Kerstin; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Jakob, Peter; Stoll, Guido; Meuth, Sven G.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; McCrae, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombosis and inflammation are hallmarks of ischemic stroke still unamenable to therapeutic interventions. High-molecular-weight kininogen (KNG) is a central constituent of the contact-kinin system which represents an interface between thrombotic and inflammatory circuits and is critically involved in stroke development. Kng−/− mice are protected from thrombosis after artificial vessel wall injury and lack the proinflammatory mediator bradykinin. We investigated the consequences of KNG deficiency in models of ischemic stroke. Kng−/− mice of either sex subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion developed dramatically smaller brain infarctions and less severe neurologic deficits without an increase in infarct-associated hemorrhage. This protective effect was preserved at later stages of infarction as well as in elderly mice. Targeting KNG reduced thrombus formation in ischemic vessels and improved cerebral blood flow, and reconstitution of KNG-deficient mice with human KNG or bradykinin restored clot deposition and infarct susceptibility. Moreover, mice deficient in KNG showed less severe blood-brain barrier damage and edema formation, and the local inflammatory response was reduced compared with controls. Because KNG appears to be instrumental in pathologic thrombus formation and inflammation but dispensable for hemostasis, KNG inhibition may offer a selective and safe strategy for combating stroke and other thromboembolic diseases. PMID:22936662

  1. Kininogen deficiency protects from ischemic neurodegeneration in mice by reducing thrombosis, blood-brain barrier damage, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Langhauser, Friederike; Göb, Eva; Kraft, Peter; Geis, Christian; Schmitt, Joachim; Brede, Marc; Göbel, Kerstin; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Jakob, Peter; Stoll, Guido; Meuth, Sven G; Nieswandt, Bernhard; McCrae, Keith R; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    Thrombosis and inflammation are hallmarks of ischemic stroke still unamenable to therapeutic interventions. High-molecular-weight kininogen (KNG) is a central constituent of the contact-kinin system which represents an interface between thrombotic and inflammatory circuits and is critically involved in stroke development. Kng(-/-) mice are protected from thrombosis after artificial vessel wall injury and lack the proinflammatory mediator bradykinin. We investigated the consequences of KNG deficiency in models of ischemic stroke. Kng(-/-) mice of either sex subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion developed dramatically smaller brain infarctions and less severe neurologic deficits without an increase in infarct-associated hemorrhage. This protective effect was preserved at later stages of infarction as well as in elderly mice. Targeting KNG reduced thrombus formation in ischemic vessels and improved cerebral blood flow, and reconstitution of KNG-deficient mice with human KNG or bradykinin restored clot deposition and infarct susceptibility. Moreover, mice deficient in KNG showed less severe blood-brain barrier damage and edema formation, and the local inflammatory response was reduced compared with controls. Because KNG appears to be instrumental in pathologic thrombus formation and inflammation but dispensable for hemostasis, KNG inhibition may offer a selective and safe strategy for combating stroke and other thromboembolic diseases. PMID:22936662

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG A-905 treatment reduces intestinal damage in a murine model of irinotecan-induced mucositis.

    PubMed

    Bastos, R W; Pedroso, S H S P; Vieira, A T; Moreira, L M C; França, C S; Cartelle, C T; Arantes, R M E; Generoso, S V; Cardoso, V N; Neves, M J; Nicoli, J R; Martins, F S

    2016-09-01

    Indigenous microbiota plays a crucial role in the development of several intestinal diseases, including mucositis. Gastrointestinal mucositis is a major and serious side effect of cancer therapy, and there is no effective therapy for this clinical condition. However, some probiotics have been shown to attenuate such conditions. To evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFMG A-905 (Sc-905), a potential probiotic yeast, we investigated whether pre- or post-treatment with viable or inactivated Sc-905 could prevent weight loss and intestinal lesions, and maintain integrity of the mucosal barrier in a mucositis model induced by irinotecan in mice. Only post-treatment with viable Sc-905 was able to protect mice against the damage caused by chemotherapy, reducing the weight loss, increase of intestinal permeability and jejunal lesions (villous shortening). Besides, this treatment reduced oxidative stress, prevented the decrease of goblet cells and stimulated the replication of cells in the intestinal crypts of mice with experimental mucositis. In conclusion, Sc-905 protects animals against irinotecan-induced mucositis when administered as a post-treatment with viable cells, and this effect seems to be related with the reduction of oxidative stress and preservation of intestinal mucosa. PMID:27133563

  3. The Potential of Five Winter-grown Crops to Reduce Root-knot Nematode Damage and Increase Yield of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

  4. Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. Methods This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. Results A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. Conclusions There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these. PMID:23663285

  5. Environmental Flows Can Reduce the Encroachment of Terrestrial Vegetation into River Channels: A Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kimberly A.; Webb, J. Angus; de Little, Siobhan C.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

  6. Willed-movement training reduces brain damage and enhances synaptic plasticity related proteins synthesis after focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu; Tang, Qingping; Shen, Qin; Li, Simin

    2016-01-01

    It has been wildly accepted that willed movement(WM) training promotes neurological rehabilitation in patients with stroke. However, it was not clear whether the effect of WM is better than other forms of exercise. The purpose of this study is to assess different effects of WM and other forms of exercise on rats with focal ischemia. The subjects are all had right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery and randomly allocated to three groups of training and one control group with no training. Infarct volume by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) dye, expression of PICK1 and synaptophysin in cerebral cortex and striatum of injured side by western blotting and immunofluorescence performed are analyzed. Exercise has done respectively on rats in each group for 15 days and 30 days. Compared with the control group, the brain damage is reduced in other groups after 15 days exercise. The protein expressions levels of synaptophysin and PICK1 are upregulated after exercise. Concentration of PICK1 protein in WM is greater than other exercise groups, and the expression of synaptophysin in WM and SM groups are higher than EM groups. The number of PICK1 positive cells, synaptophysin and PICK1 co-positive cells are increased by exercise. Synaptophysin is widely distributed in cortex surrounding the injury area in WM and EM. It is indicated in our result that willed-movement training is the most effective intervention in enhancing the PICK1-mediated synaptic plasticity in the area adjacent to the damage region of ischemic rats. PMID:26556240

  7. NAAG peptidase inhibitor reduces acute neuronal degeneration and astrocyte damage following lateral fluid percussion TBI in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunlong; Zhao, Xueren; Sarva, Jayaprakash; Kozikowski, Alan; Neale, Joseph H; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2005-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces a rapid and excessive elevation in extracellular glutamate associated with excitotoxicity and secondary brain pathology. The peptide neurotransmitter Nacetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) suppresses glutamate transmission through selective activation of presynaptic Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGluR3). Thus, inhibition of NAAG peptidase activity and the prolong presence of synaptic NAAG were hypothesized to have significant potential for cellular protection following TBI. In the present study, a novel NAAG peptidase inhibitor, ZJ-43, was used in four different doses (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg). Each dose was repeatedly administered i.p. (n=5/group) by multiple injections at three times (0 time, 8 h, 16 h) after moderate lateral fluid percussion TBI in the rat. An additional group was co-administered ZJ-43 (150 mg/kg) and the Group II mGluR antagonist, LY341495 (1 mg/kg), which was predicted to abolish any protective effects of ZJ-43. Rats were euthanized at 24 h after TBI, and brains were processed with a selective marker for degenerating neurons (Fluoro-Jade B) and a marker for astrocytes (GFAP). Ipsilateral neuronal degeneration and bilateral astrocyte loss in the CA2/3 regions of the hippocampus were quantified using stereological techniques. Compared with vehicle, ZJ-43 significantly reduced the number of the ipsilateral degenerating neurons (p<0.01) with the greatest neuroprotection at the 50 mg/kg dose. Moreover, LY341495 successfully abolished the protective effects of ZJ-43. 50 mg/kg of ZJ-43 also significantly reduced the ipsilateral astrocyte loss (p<0.05). We conclude that the NAAG peptidase inhibitor ZJ-43 is a potential novel strategy to reduce both neuronal and astrocyte damage associated with the glutamate excitotoxicity after TBI. PMID:15716632

  8. Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José A.; Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Reyes-Ramírez, Patricia; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Sumaya-Martínez, Teresa; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are produced mainly by the mycelial structure of filamentous fungi, or more specifically, molds. These secondary metabolites are synthesized during the end of the exponential growth phase and appear to have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. The contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem for the adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The toxic effect of the ingestion of mycotoxins in humans and animals depends on a number of factors including intake levels, duration of exposure, toxin species, mechanisms of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms. In general, the consumption of contaminated food and feed with mycotoxin induces to neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect in humans and/or animals. The most significant mycotoxins in terms of public health and agronomic perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, fumonisins, patulin, and the ergot alkaloids. Due to the detrimental effects of these mycotoxins, several strategies have been developed in order to reduce the risk of exposure. These include the degradation, destruction, inactivation or removal of mycotoxins through chemical, physical and biological methods. However, the results obtained with these methods have not been optimal, because they may change the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of food. Another alternative strategy to prevent or reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins is by applying antimutagenic agents. These substances act according to several extra- or intracellular mechanisms, their main goal being to avoid the interaction of mycotoxins with DNA; as a consequence of their action, these agents would inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the main strategies used to control AFB1 and ochratoxin A and contains an analysis of some antigenotoxic substances that reduce the

  9. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B. J.; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S.; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian. PMID:26953824

  10. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian. PMID:26953824

  11. Second-generation locking mechanisms and ethylene oxide sterilization reduce tibial insert backside damage in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Michael G; Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of polyethylene quality and locking mechanism on damage to the nonarticulating (backside) surface of retrieved tibial inserts in total knee arthroplasty. Inserts with peripheral capture (PC) locking mechanisms and ethylene oxide (EtO)-sterilized polyethylene were hypothesized to prevent major backside damage. A total of 156 inserts were sorted by locking mechanism and sterilization method and analyzed by damage scoring methods. Ninety-seven specimens exhibited burnishing. Significant positive linear correlations were observed between damage score and age in vivo for all combinations, but damage occurred at a significantly lower rate for second-generation PC implants with EtO sterilization. Most specimens in this group were undamaged (46/72), with others exhibiting only burnishing. Sex, body mass index, and weight did not influence backside damage. PMID:20541356

  12. REC-2006-A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10 Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7 ± 0.47, 12.96 ± 1.64 and 3.3 ± 0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of β-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15 mg kg(-1) body weight) 1 h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156 ± 0.576, 1.647 ± 0.534 and 0.496 ± 0.012, and an increase in β-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair. PMID:20008078

  13. Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

    Survey results are presented from 65 parents, students over 12 years, teachers, and other school employees using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. It shows the results of years of neglect of infrastructure for children and reveals disturbing new information about the environmental health of school…

  14. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Kevin R; Rubega, Margaret A; Sustaita, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles. PMID:25289186

  15. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles

    PubMed Central

    Rubega, Margaret A.; Sustaita, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles. PMID:25289186

  16. Radiolabeled nanoceria probes may reduce oxidative damages and risk of cancer: a hypothesis for radioisotope-based imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Bakht, Mohamadreza K; Hosseini, Vahid; Honarpisheh, Hamid

    2013-12-01

    Low-dose ionizing radiations are commonly utilized in medical centers for diagnostic imaging procedures. Unfortunately, the absorption of ionizing radiation generates reactive chemical species that could damage cells. In diagnostic radioisotope-based imaging procedures, the radiological exposures by gamma emitter imaging probes such as radioactive technetium ((99m)Tc) could express low risk of cancer. Recently, many studies have documented cell protective, neuro-protective, anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) as a result of their antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties. Since there is no safe level of ionizing radiations, then we hypothesize that radiolabeled nanoceria might be an interesting probe to reduce cancer risk and other related oxidative stresses. We also provide a synthetic scheme of nanoceria functionalization with fluorine radiolabeled ligands as an exemplary approach. In conclusion, using nanoceria to combine radioisotope-based imaging probes with antioxidant activity might open new way to protect patient against radioactive emission of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in several radioisotope-based imaging applications, in particular for patients who need frequent imaging procedures and children who are more susceptible to radiation. PMID:24210631

  17. Use of EPO as an adjuvant in PDT of brain tumors to reduce damage to normal brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar

    2004-10-01

    In order to reduce damage to surrounding normal brain in the treatment of brain tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT), we have investigated the use of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) to exploit its well-established role as a neuroprotective agent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that EPO does not confer protection from PDT to rat glioma cells. In vivo testing of the possibility of EPO protecting normal brain tissue was carried out. The normal brains of Lewis rats were treated with Photofrin mediated PDT (6.25 mg/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and the outcome of the treatment compared between animals that received EPO (5000 U/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and controls. This comparison was made based on the volume of necrosis, as measured with the viability stain 2,3,5- Triphenyl tetrazoium chloride (TTC), and incidence of apoptosis, as measured with in situ end labeling assay (ISEL). Western blotting showed that EPO reaches the normal brain and activates the anti-apoptotic protein PKB/AKT1 within the brain cortex. The comparison based on volume of necrosis showed no statistical significance between the two groups. No clear difference was observed in the ISEL staining between the groups. A possible lack of responsivity in the assays that give rise to these results is discussed and future corrections are described.

  18. Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts?--a meta-analysis of European research.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, H L; Hodge, I D; Riordan, P; Macdonald, D W

    2012-12-15

    Organic farming practices have been promoted as, inter alia, reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. This meta-analysis systematically analyses published studies that compare environmental impacts of organic and conventional farming in Europe. The results show that organic farming practices generally have positive impacts on the environment per unit of area, but not necessarily per product unit. Organic farms tend to have higher soil organic matter content and lower nutrient losses (nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions and ammonia emissions) per unit of field area. However, ammonia emissions, nitrogen leaching and nitrous oxide emissions per product unit were higher from organic systems. Organic systems had lower energy requirements, but higher land use, eutrophication potential and acidification potential per product unit. The variation within the results across different studies was wide due to differences in the systems compared and research methods used. The only impacts that were found to differ significantly between the systems were soil organic matter content, nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions per unit of field area, energy use and land use. Most of the studies that compared biodiversity in organic and conventional farming demonstrated lower environmental impacts from organic farming. The key challenges in conventional farming are to improve soil quality (by versatile crop rotations and additions of organic material), recycle nutrients and enhance and protect biodiversity. In organic farming, the main challenges are to improve the nutrient management and increase yields. In order to reduce the environmental impacts of farming in Europe, research efforts and policies should be targeted to developing farming systems that produce high yields with low negative environmental impacts drawing on techniques from both organic and conventional systems. PMID:22947228

  19. Evidence of drug metabolism by macrophages: possible role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of drug-induced tissue damage and in the activation of environmental procarcinogens.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, S N

    1987-01-01

    After interaction with human macrophages derived from blood, bone marrow or spleen, solutions of sodium phenobarbitone, phenytoin sodium and chlorpromazine hydrochloride showed reduced cytotoxicity towards K562 cells. The reduction in cytotoxicity was partially suppressed in the presence of tetrahydrofurane, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450. These data suggest that macrophages are capable of metabolizing certain drugs, probably via a cytochrome P450-dependent mechanism. The present findings raise the possibility that some drug-induced blood dyscrasias are caused by metabolism of the drug by bone marrow macrophages and the consequent release of relatively short-lived molecules which are toxic to adjacent haemopoietic cells. The generation of cytotoxic molecules during drug metabolism by macrophages may also be responsible for drug-induced damage to other macrophage-rich tissues. In addition, since cytochrome P450-dependent reactions seem to occur within macrophages, these cells may activate environmental procarcinogens and thus plays a role in carcinogenesis and leukaemogenesis. PMID:3652639

  20. The administration of food supplemented with cocoa powder during nutritional recovery reduces damage caused by oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Barragán Mejía, Gerardo; Calderón Guzmán, David; Juárez Olguín, Hugo; Hernández Martínez, Nancy; García Cruz, Edna; Morales Ramírez, Aline; Labra Ruiz, Norma; Esquivel Jiménez, Gabriela; Osnaya Brizuela, Norma; García Álvarez, Raquel; Ontiveros Mendoza, Esperanza

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition contributes to the development of oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The selective administration of nutrients tends to show positive results in individuals who have suffered from malnutrition. To determine the effect of the administration of cocoa powder on the peroxidation of lipids and glutathione level during the nutritional recovery in brain, rats of 21 days old were subjected to a protocol that resembles malnutrition (MN) by feeding them with 60% of the daily food consumption of the control group (WN) and later to nutritional recovery with regular rodent feed (RFR) or added with cocoa (10 g of cocoa powder/kg of regular rodent feed) (CCR). Animals fed with regular rodent food showed significant reduction in brain glutathione: RFR (84.18 ± 6.38 ng/mg protein) vs. CCR (210.61 ± 50.10 ng/mg protein) and WN (186.55 ± 33.18 ng/mg protein), but with similar level to that of MN (92.12 ± 15.60 ng/mg protein). On the contrary, lipid peroxidation in RFR-fed animals increased RFR (1.32 ± 0.2 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), CCR (0.86 ± 0.07 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), WN (0.89 ± 0.09 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue), but their thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration is similar to that of MN group (1.50 ± 0.2 μM malondialdehyde/g of tissue). Consumption of cocoa powder as a source of antioxidants favors the restoration of the concentration of glutathione and reduces the damage caused by oxidative stress during nutritional recovery in rat brain. PMID:21826449

  1. Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (gly-gly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the gly-gly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  2. Field damage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) with reduced lignin levels by naturally occurring insect pests and pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutant lines of sorghum with low levels of lignin are potentially useful for bioenergy production, but may have problems with insects or disease. Field grown normal and low lignin bmr6 and bmr12 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were examined for insect and disease damage in the field, and insect damage in ...

  3. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  4. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule. Workshop summary; interim notification policy: Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups.

  5. Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kevin

    2014-08-13

    The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

  6. Assessment of the economic magnitude of environmental damage from acid precipitation in the Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    Menz, F.C.; Mullen, J.K.

    1983-05-01

    This research represents one of a few initial attempts to quantify economic damages resulting from increased acidification of lakes and ponds ostensibly due to acidic deposition. The focus of this research is the loss in economic welfare resulting from diminished recreational angling opportunities within the Adirondack fishery. An amended travel-cost model was applied to a survey of licensed anglers in New York State to determine the economic value of the fishery prior to the general acknowledgement of widespread acidification damages. Data pertaining to those water bodies that have become acidified were used together with the parameters of the empirical model to generate the change in visitation and economic value resulting from increased acidification. Annual losses in economic value due to the acidification-related reduction in recreational angling opportunities were estimated to be in the range of $1.6 to 3.2 million. These estimates should be interpreted as a lower bound of the actual social losses incurred annually from acidification damages to this freshwater ecosystem. 6 references.

  7. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  8. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    SciTech Connect

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

    2011-04-20

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

  9. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers. PMID:27428555

  10. Deficiency in Cardiolipin Reduces Doxorubicin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in Human B-Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Baikuntha; Rao, V. Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid which plays an important role in mitochondrial function. Perturbation in CL biosynthesis alters mitochondrial bioenergetics causing a severe genetic disorder commonly known as Barth syndrome. Barth syndrome patients are known to have a reduced concentration and altered composition of CL. Cardiolipin is also known to have a high affinity for the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox), resulting in an extensive mitochondrial accumulation of the drug. Our results indicate that B-lymphocytes from healthy individuals are more sensitive to Dox-induced oxidative stress and cellular toxicity compared to the B-lymphocytes from Barth syndrome as indicated by greater cell death and greater level of cleaved caspase-3 following Dox treatment. Barth lymphocytes, when compared to healthy lymphocytes, showed a greater basal level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mito-ROS), yet exhibited a lower level of induced mito-ROS production in response to Dox. Significantly less ATP content and slightly greater OXPHOS protein levels were detected in healthy cells compared to Barth cells after Dox treatment. Consistent with greater mitochondrial ROS, treatment with Dox induced a higher level of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in healthy lymphocytes compared to Barth lymphocytes. The final remodeling of CL during CL synthesis is catalyzed by the tafazzin protein. Knockdown of tafazzin gene in H9c2 cardiomyocytes using siRNA showed decreased oxidant-induced damage, as observed in Barth lymphocytes. Our findings demonstrate that a deficiency in CL might provide a therapeutic advantage in favor of oxidant-induced anticancer activities. PMID:27434059