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1

Mountain substitutability and peak load pricing of high alpine peaks as a management tool to reduce environmental damage: A contingent valuation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

High alpine peaks throughout the world are under increasing environmental pressure from hikers, trekkers, and climbers. Colorado's “Fourteeners”, peaks with summits above 14,000 feet are no exception. Most of these peaks have no entrance fees, and reach ecological and social carrying capacity on weekends. This paper illustrates how a series of dichotomous choice contingent valuation questions can be used to

John B. Loomis; Catherine M. Keske

2009-01-01

2

Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

3

Method to reduce damage to backing plate  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

2001-01-01

4

Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

Not Available

1994-08-01

5

Reduce environmental impact during startup  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states continually implement rules to control emissions during routine operation of petrochemical plants. The operating permits issued to the manufacturing facilities not only regulate fugitive and point source emissions during operation, but also impose stringent controls on the emissions during startup and commissioning. Since the startup of any plant entails conditions which may result in increased emissions and flaring, more noticeable by general public, it is desirable to reduce the duration of the startup/upset conditions which would in turn eliminate or minimize flaring. Significant reduction in startup emissions can be achieved by using simple techniques such as: pressuring up and chilldown of the cryogenic process units on natural gas or fuel gas in a closed loop system to avoid feed-in until the unit is completely ready; recycling the off-specification products and other intermediate streams back to the process until operating conditions are stabilized and systems reach equilibrium conditions; providing facilities such as dedicated burners in boilers to incinerate vent streams that may be produced in the process due to unexpected contaminants in the feed, provision to utilize emulsified and slop oils in the process in case of an upset, and drop out connection to remove condensate and/or oils that may accumulate in columns surge drums etc. causing process upsets; and starting up satellite units in the right sequence to avoid unnecessary venting of streams while the next unit is preparing for startup.

Shaikh, A. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01

6

Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions  

E-print Network

Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

Maheras, Anastasia Francis

2012-01-01

7

Reduce environmental impact during startup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states continually implement rules to control emissions during routine operation of petrochemical plants. The operating permits issued to the manufacturing facilities not only regulate fugitive and point source emissions during operation, but also impose stringent controls on the emissions during startup and commissioning. Since the startup of any plant entails conditions which may

Shaikh

1995-01-01

8

Tailored arrivals help reduce aviation's environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we confront modern issues such as global warming and rising greenhouse gases, the concept of reducing our environmental impact is becoming part of our daily mindset. Individually, people are beginning to take the initiative to conserve resources by recycling at home, driving fuel efficient vehicles, installing compact florescent light bulbs, purchasing energy efficient appliances, and carrying reusable grocery bags.

S. Meador; C. Maldonado

2010-01-01

9

Environmental Assessment: Management of Aquatic Rodent Damage in Missouri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is authorized to protect American agriculture and other resources from damage associated with wildlife. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates ways by which this responsibility can be carried out to...

2000-01-01

10

Repetitive intraperitoneal caspase-3 inhibitor and anesthesia reduces neuronal damage.  

PubMed

Caspase inhibitors are usually administered intracranially. There's very limited evidence showing that they can be used intraperitoneally, and still have a beneficial effect. We tested the hypothesis that, during focal cerebral ischemia, caspase inhibitors when used in combination with an anesthetic agent results in a significantly reduction in the neuronal damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six different groups: control, Isoflurane, Propofol, Isoflurane and Caspase-3 inhibitor intraperitoneally (IP), propofol and Caspase-3 inhibitor IP and only caspase-3 inhibitor, during post-ischemia. Neurological evaluation and histochemical analysis was assessed post-ischemia. The treatment proposed, resulted in a significant decrease in the cerebral infarction volume. Combination of treatments, and caspase-3 inhibitor alone significantly decreased the number of TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the boundary area of cortical infarction. IP administration appears to reach cerebral targets similarly to intracerebral model. This combination reduces the neurological damage caused by focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:23205555

Chaparro, Eduardo; Erasso, Diana; Quiroga, Carolina; Bosco, Gerardo; Parmagnani, Andrea; Rubini, Alessandro; Mangar, Devanand; Camporesi, Enrico

2013-12-01

11

Reducing environmental pollution using animal feed enzymes.  

PubMed

The global livestock population is estimated to be close to 4 billion animals, and to produce around 500 million tons of manure annually (Baidoo, 2003). This is expected to increase in the future with the projected greater demand for meat for human consumption. The problem of manure disposal is exacerbated by the concentration of animal production in increasingly large units, to obtain economies of scale and keep up with the demand for cheap food. The primary environmentalfactors are manure volume, manure nitrogen and phosphorus contents, methane production and odour (Jongbloed and Lenis, 1998). Legislation in many regions now restricts the amount of manure that can be applied per hectare, to prevent environmental pollution (Centner, 2001; Pellini and Morris, 2001). There are a number of strategies the animal production industry can take to reduce environmental impact. These include taking steps to improve the efficiency of conversion of feed into edible products, reduce feed wastage and formulate diets that more closely satisfy animal requirements for specific nutrients. At present 50-80% of the nitrogen and phosphorus fed to animals are not utilized but are excreted via manure and urine to the environment (Baidoo, 2003). Biotechnology could play a very important role in reducing the environmental impact of animal production. Examples include the development of animals more efficient at converting nutrients into edible products, and of higher quality, more digestible feedstuffs. Biotechnology can also be used to produce a range of feed additives that can improve the efficiency of animal production, including for example recombinant somatrophin, amino acids and enzymes. This paper summarizes a series of four experiments looking at the effects of microbial xylanase or phytase supplementation on excretion in swine and poultry. This summary indicates that the inclusion of these enzymes in animal feeds can reduce manure volume by up to 14%, and nitrogen and phosphorus outputs by up to 13% and 70%, respectively. PMID:15296179

Graham, H; Simmins, P H; Sands, J

2003-01-01

12

HAS AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT APPROACH REDUCED BLACKBIRD DAMAGE TO SUNFLOWER?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1970s many new and modified damage abatement methods have been implemented to reduce blackbird damage to ripening sunflower in the northern Great Plains. Concurrently, estimates were made of breeding blackbird densities and sunflower damage to track changes in population size and chart progress toward reducing damage. Breeding density estimates were made at both the regional and county levels,

GEORGE M. LINZ; BRIAN D. PEER; H. JEFFREY HOMAN; RYAN L. WIMBERLY; DAVID L. BERGMAN; WILLIAM J. BLEIER

13

Increasing sowing depth to reduce mouse damage to winter crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plagues of house mice (Mus domesticus) can cause severe economic damage to grain crops in southern Australia when their populations peak at sowing of winter-growing crops in autumn. Mice damage crops by locating and digging out newly sown seeds. If damage is high, farmers have to re-sow their crop. A trial was conducted to examine the effect of increasing sowing

Peter R Brown; Grant R Singleton; Colin R Tann; Ivan Mock

2003-01-01

14

Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage  

PubMed Central

Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50–200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca2+ influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru

2014-01-01

15

Dietary fish oil reduces oxidative DNA damage in rat colonocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged generation of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory mediators can induce oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG formation), potentially resulting in intestinal tumorigenesis. Fish oil (FO), compared to corn oil (CO), has been shown to downregulate inflammation and upregulate apoptosis targeted at damaged cells. We hypothesized FO could protect the intestine against 8-oxodG formation during dextran sodium sulfate- (DSS-) induced inflammation. We

Laura K. Bancroft; Joanne R. Lupton; Laurie A. Davidson; Stella S. Taddeo; Mary E. Murphy; Raymond J. Carroll; Robert S. Chapkin

2003-01-01

16

Diazoxide Reduces Status Epilepticus Neuron Damage in Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic hyperglycemia is associated with seizure severity and may aggravate brain damage after status epilepticus. Our earlier\\u000a studies suggest the involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) in glucose-related neuroexcitability. We aimed to determine whether KATP agonist protects against status epilepticus-induced brain damage. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups:\\u000a the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (STZ) group and the normal

Chin-Wei Huang; Sheng-Nan Wu; Juei-Tang Cheng; Jing-Jane Tsai; Chao-Ching Huang

2010-01-01

17

[Hazardous environmental factors causing renal damage in children].  

PubMed

Hazardous environmental factors invade the body through multiple routes, including ingestion, inhalation and absorption by contact with the skin and mucous membrane. They are from various sources and soil, water, air, building and decorative materials, foods and daily necessities are the main carriers. According to their physical and chemical properties and morphological characteristics, these hazardous factors are classified as metals, inorganic matter, organic matter, radioactive substances, biological toxins, viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and parasites. They cause diseases through blood and urine and also have kidney susceptibility. This article suggests that pediatricians should fully understand the characteristics and seriousness of hazardous environmental factors that cause renal damage, and pay attention to the prevention and control of these factors so as to minimize renal damage in children. PMID:24750822

Xu, Zhi-Quan; Yi, Zhu-Wen

2014-04-01

18

Reducing the environmental impact of uranium in-situ recovery.  

SciTech Connect

This session will explore the current technical approaches to reducing the environmental effects of uranium ISR in comparison to the historical environmental impact of uranium mining to demonstrate advances in this controversial subject.

Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Simmons, Ardyth

2010-10-01

19

Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Kreibich, H., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2013) Detailed insights into the influence of flood-coping appraisals on mitigation behaviour. Global Environmental Change. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.05.009. Kreibich, H., Thieken, A. H., Petrow, T., Müller, M., Merz, B. (2005): Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures - Lessons Learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002. NHESS, 5, 1, 117-126. Kreibich, H., Christenberger, S., Schwarze, R. (2011) Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods. NHESS, 11, 2, 309-321.

Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

2014-05-01

20

Reducing Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide for Schools. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This videotape describes the nonstructural areas within a school that can be damaged and create hazards for students, teachers, and staff during and after an earthquake; and discusses preventive measures to lower the injury potential from these hazards. It confirms that the best procedure to use during an earthquake to protect oneself from…

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

21

Antioxidant ebselen reduces oxidative damage in focal cerebral ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant and neuroprotective potential of the glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen has been investigated in experimental stroke. Intravenous ebselen (1 mg\\/kg\\/h) or vehicle infusion was started 45 min before permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat, and continued until the end of the experiment. The topography and extent of oxidative damage to the brain was assessed immunohistochemically using an

Hideaki Imai; David Ian Graham; Hiroyuki Masayasu; Iseabail Mhairi Macrae

2003-01-01

22

Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage  

DOEpatents

A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

2012-11-20

23

Consideration of environmental and operational variability for damage diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Damage diagnosis is a problem that can be addressed at many levels. Stated in its most basic form, the objective is to ascertain simply if damage is present or not. In a statistical pattern recognition paradigm of this problem, the philosophy is to collect baseline signatures from a system to be monitored and to compare subsequent data to see if the new 'pattern' deviates significantly from the baseline data. Unfortunately, matters are seldom as simple as this. In reality, structures will be subjected to changing environmental and operational conditions that will affect measured signals. In this case, there may be a wide range of normal conditions, and it is clearly undesirable to signal damage simply because of a change in the environment. In this paper, a unique combination of time series analysis, neural networks, and statistical inference techniques is developed for damage classification explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indication of true system changes.

Sohn, H. (Hoon); Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

2002-01-01

24

Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust.  

PubMed

Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G; Mattioli, Flavia; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

2013-02-01

25

Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust  

PubMed Central

Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G.; Mattioli, Flavia

2013-01-01

26

Dietary fish oil reduces oxidative DNA damage in rat colonocytes.  

PubMed

Prolonged generation of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory mediators can induce oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG formation), potentially resulting in intestinal tumorigenesis. Fish oil (FO), compared to corn oil (CO), has been shown to downregulate inflammation and upregulate apoptosis targeted at damaged cells. We hypothesized FO could protect the intestine against 8-oxodG formation during dextran sodium sulfate- (DSS-) induced inflammation. We provided 60 rats with FO- or CO-supplemented diets for 2 weeks with or without 3% DSS in drinking water for 48 h. Half the treated rats received 48 additional h of untreated water before termination. Due to DSS treatment, the intestinal epithelium had higher levels of 8-oxodG (p =.04), induction of repair enzyme OGG1 mRNA (p =.02), and higher levels of apoptosis at the top of colonic crypts (p =.01) and in surface cells (p <.0001). FO-fed rats, compared to CO, had lower levels of 8-oxodG (p =.05) and increased apoptosis (p =.04) in the upper crypt region; however, FO had no significant effect on OGG1 mRNA. We conclude that FO protects intestinal cells against oxidative DNA damage in part via deletion mechanisms. PMID:12853071

Bancroft, Laura K; Lupton, Joanne R; Davidson, Laurie A; Taddeo, Stella S; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S

2003-07-15

27

Reducing Aquatic Rodent Damage through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to analyze the potential environmental effects of the proposed Alabama WS beaver (Castor canadensis), nutria (Myocastor coypus), and muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) (hereafter referred to as aquatic rodents...

2002-01-01

28

Environmental Policies to Reduce College Drinking: Options and Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an over- view of environmental strategies that may reduce college drinking. Drinking behavior is influenced by many environmental factors, includ- ing messages in the media, community norms and attitudes, public and institutional policies and practices and economic factors. College stu- dent drinking may be influenced by environmental factors on and off

TRACI L. TOOMEY; ALEXANDER C. WAGENAAR

29

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-print Network

, Interview Dartmouth Dining Services Bo Petersson, Facilities Operation and Management, Dartmouth CollegeReducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College A report Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College By the Members of Environmental Studies 50 Dartmouth College Spring

30

Think globally, act locally - reducing environmental impacts of transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a pragmatic approach for reducing the environmental impacts of transport in the German Federal State Saxony. The aim is to use the potential of pricing measures for effectively reducing environmental impacts of transport. They are combined with less-effective but more accepted non-pricing measures in a policy package. The development of this approach starts with the calculation of

Regine Gerike; Tina Gehlert; Falk Richter; Wolfram Schmidt

2008-01-01

31

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-print Network

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College Summary: Environmental Analysis and Policy Formation during the spring 2004 term. We were dealt the charge: "Identify selected the mission: "To reduce Dartmouth College's fossil carbon emissions." We believe this mission

32

Reducing pressure damage: care bundles and collaborative learning.  

PubMed

Reduction of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers is a patient and nursing priority. Although evidence-based interventions to prevent such ulcers are well known, reducing this healthcare burden has proven consistently difficult. Via case studies, this article describes how a bundle approach to pressure ulcer prevention may be adapted for use within different clinical areas. It illustrates how collaborative learning may facilitate the spread of improvement work across a health board and build improvement skills within nursing. PMID:24151722

Evans, Alison M; Barklam, Dwynwen; Hone, Karen; Ellis, Gemma; Whitlock, Joy

33

Stopping School Property Damage: Design and Administrative Guidelines to Reduce School Vandalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides practical guidelines to design future school buildings and to set up administrative programs for existing structures that can cut the cost of both intentional and accidental school property damage. The first section on building exterior design responses discusses ways to reduce the ongoing cost of property damage by…

Zeisel, John

34

Radiation damage in protein crystals is reduced with a micron-sized X-ray beam.  

PubMed

Radiation damage is a major limitation in crystallography of biological macromolecules, even for cryocooled samples, and is particularly acute in microdiffraction. For the X-ray energies most commonly used for protein crystallography at synchrotron sources, photoelectrons are the predominant source of radiation damage. If the beam size is small relative to the photoelectron path length, then the photoelectron may escape the beam footprint, resulting in less damage in the illuminated volume. Thus, it may be possible to exploit this phenomenon to reduce radiation-induced damage during data measurement for techniques such as diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging that use X-rays to probe both crystalline and noncrystalline biological samples. In a systematic and direct experimental demonstration of reduced radiation damage in protein crystals with small beams, damage was measured as a function of micron-sized X-ray beams of decreasing dimensions. The damage rate normalized for dose was reduced by a factor of three from the largest (15.6 ?m) to the smallest (0.84 ?m) X-ray beam used. Radiation-induced damage to protein crystals was also mapped parallel and perpendicular to the polarization direction of an incident 1-?m X-ray beam. Damage was greatest at the beam center and decreased monotonically to zero at a distance of about 4 ?m, establishing the range of photoelectrons. The observed damage is less anisotropic than photoelectron emission probability, consistent with photoelectron trajectory simulations. These experimental results provide the basis for data collection protocols to mitigate with micron-sized X-ray beams the effects of radiation damage. PMID:21444772

Sanishvili, Ruslan; Yoder, Derek W; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Xu, Shenglan; Vogt, Stefan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg A; Corcoran, Stephen; Benn, Richard; Nagarajan, Venugopalan; Smith, Janet L; Fischetti, Robert F

2011-04-12

35

Great Tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of

Christel M. M. Mols; Marcel E. Visser

2007-01-01

36

Electrolyzed–Reduced Water Scavenges Active Oxygen Species and Protects DNA from Oxidative Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen

Sanetaka Shirahata; Shigeru Kabayama; Mariko Nakano; Takumi Miura; Kenichi Kusumoto; Miho Gotoh; Hidemitsu Hayashi; Kazumichi Otsubo; Shinkatsu Morisawa; Yoshinori Katakura

1997-01-01

37

Reducing Rally Car Damage in Forests Partnership-working with the  

E-print Network

Reducing Rally Car Damage in Forests Partnership-working with the Motor Sport Association shows how years with special stage car rallies attracting top competitors from across the globe. Events range from that changing the pattern of tread on the tyres used by high performance rally cars would reduce the level

38

Immunomodulation by poly-YE reduces organophosphate-induced brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidental organophosphate poisoning resulting from environmental or occupational exposure, as well as the deliberate use of nerve agents on the battlefield or by terrorists, remain major threats for multi-casualty events, with no effective therapies yet available. Even transient exposure to organophosphorous compounds may lead to brain damage associated with microglial activation and to long-lasting neurological and psychological deficits. Regulation of

Arseny Finkelstein; Gilad Kunis; Tamara Berkutzki; Ayal Ronen; Amir Krivoy; Eti Yoles; David Last; Yael Mardor; Kerry Van Shura; Emylee McFarland; Benedict A. Capacio; Claire Eisner; Mary Gonzales; Danise Gregorowicz; Arik Eisenkraft; John H. McDonough; Michal Schwartz

39

Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation.  

PubMed

A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

Fletcher, Quinn E; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G; Woods, Sarah B; Seo, Arnold Y; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M

2013-05-01

40

Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation  

PubMed Central

A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically-based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically-demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

Fletcher, Quinn E.; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.; Woods, Sarah B.; Seo, Arnold Y.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R.; Humphries, Murray M.

2013-01-01

41

Evaluation of a methyl anthranilate formulation for reducing bird damage to blueberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the bird repellency of ReJeX-iT® AG-36 which contains the active ingredient methyl anthranilate (MA). In a 14-day field trial in Michigan, MA applied at 16.1 kg ha?1 did not reduce bird damage overall, but did appear to offer some protection from 3 to 10 days post-treatment. After 10 days, however, bird damage more than doubled. In Florida, we

John L. Cummings; Michael L. Avery; Patricia A. Pochop; James E. Davis; David G. Decker; Heather W. Krupa; James W. Johnson

1995-01-01

42

Activation of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase2 Reduces Ischemic Damage to the Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial interest in the development of drugs that limit the extent of ischemia-induced cardiac damage caused by myocardial infarction or by certain surgical procedures. Here, using an unbiased proteomic search, we identified mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as an enzyme whose activation correlates with reduced ischemic heart damage in rodent models. A high-throughput screen yielded a small-molecule activator

Che-Hong Chen; Grant R. Budas; Eric N. Churchill; Marie-Hélène Disatnik; Thomas D. Hurley; Daria Mochly-Rosen

2008-01-01

43

Comparison between the environmental damages of two axial air compressors manufactured by the firm Fini Compressori  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was performed jointly by ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), Bologna and Florence Universities and the firm FINI COMPRESSORI. A comparison is carried out between the environmental damages of two models (MK10 and MK94) of air axial compressors manufactured by FINI COMPRESSORI, with a volume of intaken air of 226 l/min, a power of 1.8 kW and a maximum pressure of 10 bar. The comparison is obtained by using LCA calculated by SimaPro 3.1 code and two methods: Eco-indicator 95 and a new method obtained by adding to the Eco-indicator 95 method other damage categories such as some raw material depletion, solid and energy. The system boundaries include raw material extraction and the end of life of the components and some special tools for manufacturing such as dies, moulds and shells. All metallic materials have the recycling as waste scenario. For LCA study we have considered the three components crankshaft, crankcase and valve plate for both the models, the air cooling conveyor for the MK94 and the surplus of consumed energy for the MK10. The conveyor decreases the temperature of air and therefore increases the compressor efficiency and reduces the electrical energy consumption during the use. From the LCA results, we can conclude that the introduction of the conveyor reduces the damage of MK10 model of 114.07 mPt and that the other modifications of the design increase the damage of MK10 model of 11 mPt. The damage of air compressor can be diminished by reusing crankshaft and crankcase. A design modification of the blades of the ventilator is proposed to avoid the conveyor.

Neri, Paolo; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldi, Giovanni; Saric, Miroslav; Tani, Giovanni

2001-02-01

44

Gadolinium reduces short-term stretch-induced muscle damage in isolated mdx mouse muscle fibres  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal muscle disease caused by absence of the protein dystrophin which is part of a glycoprotein complex located on the intracellular surface of the surface membrane. The precise function of dystrophin and the reason why its absence causes severe muscle damage are unclear. Stretch-induced muscle damage is well recognised in normal muscle and is more severe in muscles from animals lacking dystrophin (mdx mice). It has been proposed that stretch-induced damage underlies the progression of damage in muscular dystrophy. In the present study we confirm that single fibres from mdx muscle are more susceptible to stretch-induced damage and show that there is an associated rise in intracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]i) which is greater than in wild-type mice. We show that this rise in [Na+]i can be prevented by Gd3+, which is an established blocker of stretch-activated channels. mdx fibres have a higher than normal resting [Na+]i and this is also reduced by Gd3+. If Gd3+ is applied over the period in which [Na+]i rises following stretched contraction, it prevents one component of the reduced force. The other component of reduced force is caused by inhomogeneity of sarcomeres and can be minimised by stretching the muscle to its new optimum length. These experiments show that part of the short-term damage caused by stretch in mdx fibres can be prevented by blocking stretch-activated channels. PMID:14561828

Yeung, Ella W; Head, Stewart I; Allen, David G

2003-01-01

45

BPC-15 reduces trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colonic damage in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of BPC-15 (Booly Protection Compound-15) was evaluated in a rat model of colonic injury. A single intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in ethanol induces severe colonic damage, which is characterized by areas of necrosis surrounded by areas of acute inflammation. The damage is associated with high myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mainly as a reflection of neutrophilic infiltration into the damaged tissue. In this study, 1 hr before a single intracolonic administration of 50 mg/kg of TNBS in 50% ethanol, the animals were treated with one of the following doses of BPC-15: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 nmol/kg administered i.p. or with a dose of 10 nmol/kg administered intracolonically. The animals were sacrificed 3 days later and the extent of colonic necrosis and hyperemia was measured with an image analyzer. The i.p. administration of BPC-15 significantly reduced the extent of TNBS-induced colonic damage in a dose-dependent manner. This was associated with a statistically significant and dose-dependent reduction in colonic tissue MPO activity. At the dose tested (10 nmol/kg), intracolonic administration of BPC-15 did not significantly reduce either the extent of the colonic damage or the increase in MPO activity induced by TNBS. In conclusion, this study showed that i.p. administration of BPC-15 reduced TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats. PMID:7815358

Veljaca, M; Lesch, C A; Pllana, R; Sanchez, B; Chan, K; Guglietta, A

1995-01-01

46

Proposed definition of environmental damage illustrated by the cases of genetically modified crops and invasive species.  

PubMed

The introduction of non-native plant species and the release of genetically modified (GM) crops can induce environmental changes at gene to ecosystem levels. Regulatory frameworks such as the Convention on Biological Diversity or the EU Deliberate Release Directive aim to prevent environmental damage but do not define the term. Although ecologists and conservationists often refer to environmental effects of GM crops or invasive species as damage, most authors do not disclose their normative assumptions or explain why some environmental impacts are regarded as detrimental and others are not. Thus far, a concise definition of environmental damage is missing and is necessary for a transparent assessment of environmental effects or risks. Therefore, we suggest defining environmental damage as a significant adverse effect on a biotic or abiotic conservation resource (i.e., a biotic or abiotic natural resource that is protected by conservational or environmental legislation) that has an impact on the value of the conservation resource, the conservation resource as an ecosystem component, or the sustainable use of the conservation resource. This definition relies on three normative assumptions: only concrete effects on a conservation resource can be damages; only adverse effects that lead to a decrease in the value of the conservation resource can be damages; and only significant adverse effects constitute damage to a conservation resource. Applying this definition within the framework of environmental risk assessment requires further normative determinations, for example, selection of a threshold to distinguish between adverse and significant adverse effects and approaches for assessing the environmental value of conservation resources. Such determinations, however, are not part of the definition of environmental damage. Rather they are part of the definition's operationalization through assessment procedures, which must be grounded in a comprehensible definition of environmental damage. PMID:20015260

Bartz, Robert; Heink, Ulrich; Kowarik, Ingo

2010-06-01

47

Polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxidation in Virginia pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines play an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions including salt and osmotic stresses. In this investigation, the responses of polyamines to salt-induced oxidative stress were studied in callus cultures and plantlets in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Our results demonstrated that polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing

Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

2005-01-01

48

Integrated management to reduce rodent damage to lowland rice crops in Indonesia  

E-print Network

Integrated management to reduce rodent damage to lowland rice crops in Indonesia Grant R. Singletona,*, Sudarmajib , J. Jacoba , C.J. Krebsa a CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, G.P.O. Box 284, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601, Australia b Indonesian Institute for Rice Research, Jl Raya No. 9, Sukamandi

Krebs, Charles J.

49

Field tests of denatonium benzoate to reduce seedling damage by pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides Rich.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The repellency of a bitter compound, denatonium benzoate, to reduce pocket gopher damage to conifer seedlings was tested in two independent field trials in Oregon and Idaho. In the Oregon trial (1992 to 1993), treatments included a denatonium benzoate tablet placed in-ground with the seedling roots; a tablet plus denatonium benzoate foliar spray applied to both roots and foliage; and

Gary W. Witmer; Michael J. Pipas; John C. Bucher

1998-01-01

50

Environmentally harmonized CF{sub 3}I plasma for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching  

SciTech Connect

Low-damage, high-rate, and highly selective low-k etching can be simultaneously satisfied using a plasma with an environmentally harmonized gas chemistry (CF{sub 3}I). Such a CF{sub 3}I plasma can drastically reduce the irradiation damage by ultraviolet (UV) photons during low-k etching, because the intensity of UV in CF{sub 3}I plasma is much lower than that in conventional CF{sub 4} plasma. The etching selectivity of SiOCH to a photoresist can be drastically improved by using CF{sub 3}I plasma because of reducing F radical generation. In addition, pulse-time-modulated CF{sub 3}I plasma causes a drastic increase in the etching rate because a large amount of negative ions can be generated. These results show that CF{sub 3}I plasma is a very promising candidate for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching.

Samukawa, Seiji; Ichihashi, Yoshinari; Ohtake, Hiroto [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Soda, Eiichi; Saito, Shuichi [Back End Program, Research Dept. 2, Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies Inc., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

2008-03-01

51

Environmentally harmonized CF3I plasma for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-damage, high-rate, and highly selective low-k etching can be simultaneously satisfied using a plasma with an environmentally harmonized gas chemistry (CF3I). Such a CF3I plasma can drastically reduce the irradiation damage by ultraviolet (UV) photons during low-k etching, because the intensity of UV in CF3I plasma is much lower than that in conventional CF4 plasma. The etching selectivity of SiOCH to a photoresist can be drastically improved by using CF3I plasma because of reducing F radical generation. In addition, pulse-time-modulated CF3I plasma causes a drastic increase in the etching rate because a large amount of negative ions can be generated. These results show that CF3I plasma is a very promising candidate for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching.

Samukawa, Seiji; Ichihashi, Yoshinari; Ohtake, Hiroto; Soda, Eiichi; Saito, Shuichi

2008-03-01

52

Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.  

PubMed

The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

2000-12-01

53

Environmental Damage Schedules: Community Judgments of Importance and Assessments of Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available methods of valuing environmental changes are often limited in their applicability to current issues such as damage assessment and implementing regulatory controls, or may otherwise not provide reliable readings of community preferences. An alternative is to base decisions on predetermined fixed schedules of sanctions, restrictions, damage awards, and other allocative guides and incentives, which are based on community judgments

Ratana Chuenpagdee; Jack L. Knetsch; Thomas C. Brown

2001-01-01

54

Birds and bats reduce insect biomass and leaf damage in tropical forest restoration sites.  

PubMed

Both birds and bats are important insect predators in tropical systems. However, the relative influence of birds and bats on insect populations and their indirect effects on leaf damage have not previously been investigated in tropical forest restoration sites. Leaf damage by herbivorous insects can negatively affect the growth and survival of tropical plants and thus can influence the success of tropical forest restoration efforts. We used an exclosure experiment to examine the top-down effects of birds and bats on insects and leaf damage in a large-scale forest restoration experiment. Given the potential influence of tree planting design on bird and bat abundances, we also investigated planting design effects on bird and bat insectivory and leaf damage. The experiment included two planting treatment plots: islands, where trees were planted in patches, and plantations, where trees were planted in rows to create continuous cover. In both types of plots, insect biomass was highest on tree branches where both birds and bats were excluded from foraging and lowest on branches without exclosures where both birds and bats were present. In the island plots, birds and bats had approximately equal impacts on insect populations, while in plantations bats appeared to have a slightly stronger effect on insects than did birds. In plantations, the levels of leaf damage were higher on branches where birds and bats were excluded than on branches where both had access. In island plots, no significant differences in leaf damage were found between exclosure treatments although potential patterns were in the same direction as in the plantations. Our results suggest that both birds and bats play important roles as top predators in restoration systems by reducing herbivorous insects and their damage to planted trees. Tropical restoration projects should include efforts to attract and provide suitable habitat for birds and bats, given their demonstrated ecological importance. PMID:22908711

Morrison, Emily B; Lindell, Catherine A

2012-07-01

55

Great tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards.  

PubMed

Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), as well as Organic Farming (OF), by setting up an area with nest boxes while leaving a comparable area as a control within 12 commercial orchards. We showed that in IPM orchards, but not in OF orchards, in the areas with breeding great tits, apples had 50% of the caterpillar damage of the control areas. Offering nest boxes to attract insectivorous passerines in orchards can thus lead to more limited pesticide use, thereby adding to the natural biological diversity in an agricultural landscape, while also being economically profitable to the fruit growers. PMID:17285148

Mols, Christel M M; Visser, Marcel E

2007-01-01

56

The reduced environmental liability of clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors will discuss the waste stream minimization that future commercially operated clean coal technologies can effect. They will explore the ability of these now-beginning-to-mature technologies to reduce those aspects of the emission streams that have greatest potential for what the authors term as environmental liability. Environmental liability is manifested in a variety of forms. There are both current liabilities and future liabilities. In addition, uncertainties may reside in future anticipated regulatory compliance and the costs of such compliance. Exposure to liability translates into perceived risk which creates an air of uncertainty to the power industry and its lenders who provide the capital to build new power plants. In the context of electric power generation, newer, high efficiency power generation technologies developed in the course of the Clean Coal Technology Program of the US Department of Energy result in reduced waste stream emissions when compared against more aging conventional combustion technologies. This paper will discuss how the introduction of new clean coal technologies will help balance the conflict between adverse environmental impact and the global demand for increased energy. The authors will discuss how clean coal technologies will facilitate compliance with future air standards that may otherwise expose power producers to modification and cleanup costs, noncompliance penalties, or premature shut down.

Leslie, A.C.D. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); McMillen, M. [Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1997-08-01

57

Effect of vegetation management for reducing damage to lodgepole pine seedlings from northern pocket gophers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vegetation management on northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) activity and damage to lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) seedlings were studied using 2,4-D herbicide to alter the habitat. Treatments were applied to a large (8.1 ha) treatment unit and observed effects were compared with an untreated control unit of the same size. The greatly reduced forb and grass cover

Richard M. Engeman; Victor G. Barnes Jr; Richard M. Anthony; Heather W. Krupa

1997-01-01

58

Systemic insecticide and gibberellin reduced cone damage and increased flowering in a spruce seed orchard.  

PubMed

Insects feeding in conifer cones are difficult to control with nonsystemic insecticides. Newly developed systemic insecticides that can be injected into tree trunks may be a possible way of reducing both insect damage and negative side-effects to the surrounding environment, compared with conventional spraying. Several insecticides that could be injected into tree stems were tested on Picea abies (L.) Karst. In one experiment, insecticides (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, abamectin, and imidacloprid) were injected during flowering; in a second experiment two of these insecticides (abamectin and imidacloprid) were injected 1 yr before the expected flowering. In the second experiment insecticide treatment was also combined with treatments with the flower stimulating hormone, gibberellin (GA(4/7)). The only insecticide that reduced damage was abamectin, both after injection during flowering and after injection 1 yr before the expected flowering. Injections with GA(4/7) increased flowering and were as efficient as the conventional application method of drilling but abamectin was not effective in combination with the drilling method. There was no negative effect of the insecticide injections on seed quality. The injections were ineffective against the seed chalcid Megastigmus strobilobius (Ratzeburg), which was found to have an unexpected, negative effect on seed quality. Our results suggest that it may be possible to reduce damage from certain insect species, and to increase flowering by injecting abamectin and GA(4/7) in the year before a cone crop. PMID:22812130

Rosenberg, O; Almqvist, C; Weslien, J

2012-06-01

59

Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibition Reduces Vascular Damage and Modulates Innate Immune Responses in Murine Models of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Rationale Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation promotes vascular damage, thrombosis, and activation of interferon-?-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in diseased arteries. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition is a strategy that can decrease in vivo NET formation. Objective To test whether peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition, a novel approach to targeting arterial disease, can reduce vascular damage and inhibit innate immune responses in murine models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Apolipoprotein-E (Apoe)?/? mice demonstrated enhanced NET formation, developed autoantibodies to NETs, and expressed high levels of interferon-? in diseased arteries. Apoe?/? mice were treated for 11 weeks with daily injections of Cl-amidine, a peptidylarginine deiminase inhibitor. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition blocked NET formation, reduced atherosclerotic lesion area, and delayed time to carotid artery thrombosis in a photochemical injury model. Decreases in atherosclerosis burden were accompanied by reduced recruitment of netting neutrophils and macrophages to arteries, as well as by reduced arterial interferon-? expression. Conclusions Pharmacological interventions that block NET formation can reduce atherosclerosis burden and arterial thrombosis in murine systems. These results support a role for aberrant NET formation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through modulation of innate immune responses. PMID:24425713

Knight, Jason S.; Luo, Wei; O'Dell, Alexander A.; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Zhao, Wenpu; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Guo, Chiao; Grenn, Robert C.; Thompson, Paul R.; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

2014-01-01

60

Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.  

PubMed

The generation of reactive oxygen species is thought to cause extensive oxidative damage to various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. In this study, the preventive, suppressive, and protective effects of in vitro supplementation with electrolyzed-reduced water on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes were examined using a comet assay. Pretreatment, cotreatment, and posttreatment with electrolyzed-reduced water enhanced human lymphocyte resistance to the DNA strand breaks induced by H2O2 in vitro. Moreover, electrolyzed-reduced water was much more effective than diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water in preventing total RNA degradation at 4 and 25 degrees C. In addition, electrolyzed-reduced water completely prevented the oxidative cleavage of horseradish peroxidase, as determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid dissolved in electrolyzed-reduced water was about threefold that of ascorbic acid dissolved in nonelectrolyzed deionized water, as measured by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase superoxide scavenging assay system, suggesting an inhibitory effect of electrolyzedreduced water on the oxidation of ascorbic acid. PMID:17159237

Lee, Mi Young; Kim, Yoon Kyoung; Ryoo, Kun Kul; Lee, Yoon Bae; Park, Eun Ju

2006-11-01

61

Cost assessment of various means of averting environmental damage and groundwater contamination from nitrate seepage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizers are used in addition to irrigation water to increase soil fertility and productivity, but cropped areas are sources of groundwater contamination due to loads of nitrates carried downwards by seepage of excess water. The public is increasingly aware of the grave problems of environmental damage caused by groundwater pollution. These environmental effects are not considered by farmers, whose production

Nava Haruvy; A. Hadas

1997-01-01

62

Toxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine triphosphate and to reduce growth under stress.  

PubMed

Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems perhaps enable cells to reduce their metabolism to weather environmental challenges although there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. Escherichia coli?GhoT/GhoS is a TA system in which toxin GhoT expression is reduced by cleavage of its messenger RNA (mRNA) by antitoxin GhoS, and TA system MqsR/MqsA controls GhoT/GhoS through differential mRNA decay. However, the physiological role of GhoT has not been determined. We show here through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and fluorescent stains that GhoT reduces metabolism by damaging the membrane and that toxin MqsR (a 5'-GCU-specific endoribonuclease) causes membrane damage in a GhoT-dependent manner. This membrane damage results in reduced cellular levels of ATP and the disruption of proton motive force (PMF). Normally, GhoT is localized to the pole and does not cause cell lysis under physiological conditions. Introduction of an F38R substitution results in loss of GhoT toxicity, ghost cell production and membrane damage while retaining the pole localization. Also, deletion of ghoST or ghoT results in significantly greater initial growth in the presence of antimicrobials. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GhoT reduces metabolism by reducing ATP and PMF and that this reduction in metabolism is important for growth with various antimicrobials. PMID:24373067

Cheng, Hsin-Yao; Soo, Valerie W C; Islam, Sabina; McAnulty, Michael J; Benedik, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

2014-06-01

63

Pravastatin reduces microvascular basal lamina damage following focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.  

PubMed

Transient ischemia has been shown to damage the basal lamina of the cerebral microvasculature. Other studies proved statins to be beneficial to non-cerebral microvessels. The aim of this study was to determine whether pravastatin pretreatment ameliorates microvascular basal lamina damage following transient ischemia. Using the suture model, we subjected 15 rats to focal ischemia (3 h) and reperfusion (24 h). Rats received pravastatin (20 mg/kg/day) or saline for 4 weeks prior to the experiment. The outcome was determined by a behavior test and the infarct size. Collagen type IV, a marker for an intact basal lamina, and hemoglobin extravasation were measured by Western blot analysis. A ratio (in percentage) between ischemic and contralateral hemispheres was calculated. Pravastatin pretreatment resulted in a significantly better neurological outcome and reduced infarct size (15 +/- 0.5 and 59 +/- 10 mm(3), respectively) compared with controls (12.25 +/- 0.4 and 167 +/- 13 mm(3), respectively, P < 0.01 for both). In controls, loss of collagen type IV was seen in the basal ganglia and in the cortex (43 +/- 4 and 64 +/- 5%, respectively). Pravastatin prevented significant collagen loss (basal ganglia: 106 +/- 17%; cortex: 112 +/- 14%, P < 0.01 for both) and significantly reduced the hemoglobin extravasation compared with controls in the basal ganglia (198 +/- 49 vs. 553 +/- 47%, P < 0.01). Pravastatin pretreatment resulted in a reduction of microvascular basal lamina damage and hemoglobin extravasation following transient ischemia. Pravastatin seems to protect the cerebral microvascular system. PMID:16836638

Trinkl, Andreas; Vosko, Milan R; Wunderlich, Nathalie; Dichgans, Martin; Hamann, Gerhard F

2006-07-01

64

Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod.  

PubMed

Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

Barreto, Felipe S; Burton, Ronald S

2013-09-22

65

Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod  

PubMed Central

Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

Barreto, Felipe S.; Burton, Ronald S.

2013-01-01

66

Reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition after eccentric muscle damage in human elbow flexor muscles.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effect of eccentric exercise on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) after damage to elbow flexor muscles. Nine young (22.5 ± 0.6 yr; mean ± SD) male subjects performed maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexor muscles until maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force was reduced by ?40%. TMS was performed before, 2 h after, and 2 days after exercise under Rest and Active (5% MVC) conditions with motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. Peripheral electrical stimulation of the brachial plexus was used to assess maximal M-waves, and paired-pulse TMS with a 3-ms interstimulus interval was used to assess changes in SICI at each time point. The eccentric exercise resulted in a 34% decline in strength (P < 0.001), a 41% decline in resting M-wave (P = 0.01), changes in resting elbow joint angle (10°, P < 0.001), and a shift in the optimal elbow joint angle for force production (18°, P < 0.05) 2 h after exercise. This was accompanied by impaired muscle strength (27%, P < 0.001) and increased muscle soreness (P < 0.001) 2 days after exercise, which is indicative of muscle damage. When the test MEP amplitudes were matched between sessions, we found that SICI was reduced by 27% in resting and 23% in active BB muscle 2 h after exercise. SICI recovered 2 days after exercise when muscle pain and soreness were present, suggesting that delayed onset muscle soreness from eccentric exercise does not influence SICI. The change in SICI observed 2 h after exercise suggests that eccentric muscle damage has widespread effects throughout the motor system that likely includes changes in motor cortex. PMID:22837166

Pitman, Bradley M; Semmler, John G

2012-09-01

67

Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract protects osteoblastic cells from highly reducing sugar-induced oxidative damage.  

PubMed

In this study, Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract (CZE) was investigated to determine its effects on 2-deoxy-D-ribose (dRib)-induced oxidative damage and cellular dysfunction in the MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cell line. Osteoblastic cells were treated with the highly reducing sugar, dRib, in the presence or absence of CZE. Cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were subsequently examined. It was observed that dRib reduced cell survival, while it markedly increased the intracellular levels of ROS and apoptosis. However, pre-treatment of the cells with CZE attenuated all the dRib-induced effects. The antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), also prevented dRib-induced oxidative cell damage. In addition, treatment with CZE resulted in a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen content, as well as in the expression of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation [ALP, collagen, osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OC) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2, BMP4 and BMP7]. In mechanistic studies of the antioxidative potential of CZE, we found that CZE reversed the dRib-induced decrease in the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT)1 and AKT2 genes, which are master regulators of survival-related signaling pathways. CZE also upregulated the gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD)2, SOD3 and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), which was inhibited by dRib. Taken together, these results suggest that CZE attenuates dRib-induced cell damage in osteoblastic cells and may be useful for the treatment of diabetes-associated bone disease. PMID:23652775

Suh, Kwang Sik; Rhee, Sang Youl; Jung, Woon Won; Kim, Nam Jae; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Min Kyoung; Choi, Young Kil; Kim, Young Seol

2013-07-01

68

C1 Esterase Inhibitor Reduces Lower Extremity Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Associated Lung Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Methods and Findings Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n?=?6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n?=?4), vehicle (n?=?7), or NaCl (n?=?8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle. Conclusions C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application. PMID:23991040

Duehrkop, Claudia; Banz, Yara; Spirig, Rolf; Miescher, Sylvia; Nolte, Marc W.; Spycher, Martin; Smith, Richard A. G.; Sacks, Steven H.; Rieben, Robert

2013-01-01

69

Medical malpractice reform: noneconomic damages caps reduced payments 15 percent, with varied effects by specialty.  

PubMed

The impact of medical malpractice reforms on the average size of malpractice payments in specific physician specialties is unknown and subject to debate. We analyzed a national sample of malpractice claims for the period 1985-2010, merged with information on state liability reforms, to estimate the impact of state noneconomic damages caps on average malpractice payment size for physicians overall and for ten different specialty categories. We then compared how the effects differed according to the restrictiveness of the cap ($250,000 versus $500,000). We found that, overall, noneconomic damages caps reduced average payments by $42,980 (15 percent), compared to having no cap at all. A more restrictive $250,000 cap reduced average payments by $59,331 (20 percent), and a less restrictive $500,000 cap had no significant effect, compared to no cap at all. The effect of the caps overall varied according to specialty, with the largest impact being on claims involving pediatricians and the smallest on claims involving surgical subspecialties and ophthalmologists. PMID:25339633

Seabury, Seth A; Helland, Eric; Jena, Anupam B

2014-11-01

70

Studies on cigarette smoke induced oxidative DNA damage and reduced spermatogenesis in rats.  

PubMed

In the present work, the effect of exposure to cigarette smoke on male fertility in rats, as characterized by changes in the relative weight of sex organs, epididymal sperm count, activity of marker enzymes and DNA damage was evaluated. Exposure of rats to cigarette smoke caused a gradual decrease in total body weight gain and relative weight of the epididymis and seminal vesicles by 30 and 40% respectively. Epididymal sperm count was reduced significantly by 25% (P 0.05) after 2 weeks and by 41% (P 0.001) after 4 weeks of exposure. Exposure to cigarette smoke had reduced the activity of sorbitol dehydogenase by 18% (P < or = 0.05) and increased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase by 28% (P < or = 0.05). The changes in both key enzymes were significant, which reflected the inhibitory effect of cigarette smoke on spermatogenesis and sperm maturation. The toxic effect of exposure could be explained partially due to induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress as shown by the significant increase in serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine from 22.83 to 37.33 ng ml(-1) blood. PMID:25204071

Abdul-Ghani, Rula; Qazzaz, Munir; Dabdoub, Nabil; Muhammad, Rateb; Abdul-Ghani, A S

2014-09-01

71

Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia  

PubMed Central

Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. PMID:25371725

DING, MEI; SI, DAOYUAN; ZHANG, WENQI; FENG, ZHAOHUI; HE, MIN; YANG, PING

2014-01-01

72

Selenium supplementation reduced oxidative DNA damage in adnexectomized BRCA1 mutations carriers.  

PubMed

Some experimental evidence suggests that BRCA1 plays a role in repair of oxidative DNA damage. Selenium has anticancer properties that are linked with protection against oxidative stress. To assess whether supplementation of BRCA1 mutation carriers with selenium have a beneficial effect concerning oxidative stress/DNA damage in the present double-blinded placebo control study, we determined 8-oxodG level in cellular DNA and urinary excretion of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua in the mutation carriers. We found that 8-oxodG level in leukocytes DNA is significantly higher in BRCA1 mutation carriers. In the distinct subpopulation of BRCA1 mutation carriers without symptoms of cancer who underwent adnexectomy and were supplemented with selenium, the level of 8-oxodG in DNA decreased significantly in comparison with the subgroup without supplementation. Simultaneously in the same group, an increase of urinary 8-oxoGua, the product of base excision repair (hOGG1 glycosylase), was observed. Therefore, it is likely that the selenium supplementation of the patients is responsible for the increase of BER enzymes activities, which in turn may result in reduction of oxidative DNA damage. Importantly, in a double-blinded placebo control prospective study, it was shown that in the same patient groups, reduction in cancer incidents was observed. Altogether, these results suggest that BRCA1 deficiency contributes to 8-oxodG accumulation in cellular DNA, which in turn may be a factor responsible for cancer development in women with mutations, and that the risk to developed breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers may be reduced in selenium-supplemented patients who underwent adnexectomy. PMID:19843683

Dziaman, Tomasz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gackowski, Daniel; Rozalski, Rafal; Siomek, Agnieszka; Szpila, Anna; Guz, Jolanta; Lubinski, Jan; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Olinski, Ryszard

2009-11-01

73

Transnational Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage: Examining Changing Spatialities of Environmental Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The civil liability regime for ship-source oil pollution stands at the forefront of rule development for transnational environmental compensation, advancing private law remedies to enable national victims of oil spill damage to make financial claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in certain circumstances, the global oil cargo industry. This rule formulation and implementation attests to the significance of

Michael Mason

74

Development of adherent ceramic coatings to reduce contact stress damage of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

High-strength, oxidation-resistant materials for advanced heat engine applications are susceptible to contact stress damage at ceramic/ceramic interfaces. It has been observed that surface damage and strength loss under sliding contact can be substantially reduced by applying a thin ceramic coating. In this program, a multilayered, compositionally graded coating was designed for ceramic components in advanced heat engines. A chemical vapor deposition process was developed for applying coatings in the thickness range of 2--20 {mu}m on 2 in. {times} 1/4 in. {times} 1/8 in. bars. Strongly adherent coatings were grown on the three substrates of interest -- reaction bonded silicon nitride, hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride, and sintered silicon carbide. The effect of the coating on relevant mechanical properties of the substrate materials was evaluated. Performance of the coated material was assessed by conducting long-term high-temperature oxidation and thermal shock tests at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. Some oxidation tests were also performed at 1375{degrees}C. Coated material was prepared for contact stress testing at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. Results indicate that with the present coating configuration, potential exists for commercial application at temperatures of up to 1200{degrees}C. Increases in the use temperature appear possible by modifying the coating properties.

D'Angelo, C.; Kim, H.J.; Oblas, D.W.; Rebenne, H.E.; Sarin, V.K. (GTE Labs., Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1992-04-01

75

Development of adherent ceramic coatings to reduce contact stress damage of ceramics. Final report  

SciTech Connect

High-strength, oxidation-resistant materials for advanced heat engine applications are susceptible to contact stress damage at ceramic/ceramic interfaces. It has been observed that surface damage and strength loss under sliding contact can be substantially reduced by applying a thin ceramic coating. In this program, a multilayered, compositionally graded coating was designed for ceramic components in advanced heat engines. A chemical vapor deposition process was developed for applying coatings in the thickness range of 2--20 {mu}m on 2 in. {times} 1/4 in. {times} 1/8 in. bars. Strongly adherent coatings were grown on the three substrates of interest -- reaction bonded silicon nitride, hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride, and sintered silicon carbide. The effect of the coating on relevant mechanical properties of the substrate materials was evaluated. Performance of the coated material was assessed by conducting long-term high-temperature oxidation and thermal shock tests at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. Some oxidation tests were also performed at 1375{degrees}C. Coated material was prepared for contact stress testing at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. Results indicate that with the present coating configuration, potential exists for commercial application at temperatures of up to 1200{degrees}C. Increases in the use temperature appear possible by modifying the coating properties.

D`Angelo, C.; Kim, H.J.; Oblas, D.W.; Rebenne, H.E.; Sarin, V.K. [GTE Labs., Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

1992-04-01

76

Seasonal variations in spontaneous levels of DNA damage; implication in the risk assessment of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed

The alkaline comet assay was used to investigate DNA damage levels in white blood cells of 45 normal healthy subjects. Therefore blood was sampled at four different periods, namely in February, June, August and November of the same year. Higher DNA damage levels were found in summertime, as well as higher levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine in this period. This suggests a higher exposure to polycyclic hydrocarbons in the summer compared with other periods of the year. The observed seasonal variation in DNA damage levels is in agreement with some, but in contradiction with other data. Seasonal variations in DNA damage levels can easily be explained by the existence of different confounders that may influence the results of a biomonitoring study. Besides sunlight and environmental pollution, also diet, allergy and physical exercise, for example, were already identified as important influencing factors. The investigation confirms that the blood sampling period is crucial in the planning and interpretation of biomonitoring studies. PMID:17370239

Verschaeve, L; Koppen, G; Gorp, U Van; Schoeters, G; Jacobs, G; Zwijzen, C

2007-01-01

77

Photomultiplier circuit including means for rapidly reducing the sensitivity thereof. [and protection from radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple, reliable and inexpensive control circuit is described for rapidly reducing the bias voltage across one or more of the dynode stages of a photomultiplier, to substantially decrease its sensitivity to incoming light at those times where excess light intensity might damage the tube. The control circuit comprises a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), coupled between a pair of the electrodes in the tube, preferably the cathode and first dynode, or the first and second dynodes, the switching device operating in response to a trigger pulse applied to its gate to short circuit the two electrodes. To insure the desired reduction in sensitivity, two switching stages, the devices be employed between two of the electrode stages, the devices being operated simultaneously to short circuit both stages.

Mcclenahan, J. O. (inventor)

1974-01-01

78

Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: A mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyophonus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of uninfected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltration of immune cells and fibrotic (granuloma) tissue surrounding the parasite. Diminished swimming stamina is hypothesized to be due to cardiac failure resulting from the combination of parasite-damaged heart muscle and low myocardial oxygen supply during sustained aerobic exercise. Loss of stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected salmonids could explain the poor performance previously reported for wild Chinook and sockeye salmon stocks during their spawning migration. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kocan, R.; LaPatra, S.; Gregg, J.; Winton, J.; Hershberger, P.

2006-01-01

79

Reducing the environmental impact of poultry breeding by genetic selection.  

PubMed

Improving the sustainability of poultry production involves limiting its environmental impact and maintaining effectiveness. It has recently been shown that genetic selection on the ability of chickens to digest wheat at 23 d of age can decrease chicken excretion without decreasing BW at this age. The aim of this study was to check whether selection on digestibility modified excretion and growth performance over the whole production cycle. The 2 divergent lines selected for high (D+) and low (D-) apparent metabolizable energy corrected for 0 N balance (AMEn) values were compared with a reference line used at the beginning of the selection experiment (RL) to evaluate the potential excretion improvement that could be expected with such selection. These 3 lines were therefore compared for growth and excretion (raw and relative to feed intake, fresh and dry excreta weights, and moisture content of excreta) from 4 to 53 d. Between 4 and 7 d, 17 and 21 d, and 49 and 53 d, AMEn and N and P excretion rates were also compared between the 3 lines. Furthermore, body composition (breast meat and abdominal fat yields), bone breaking strength, and meat quality traits (lightness, redness, yellowness, and ultimate pH) were compared between lines at 53 d. Over the whole rearing period, D+ birds excreted significantly less fresh and dry excreta (-56 and -61%) than D- and RL birds (-6 and -26%). Similarly, N and P excretion rates of D+ birds were 13% to 30% less than those of D- birds and 12% to 19% less than RL birds, depending on age. These excretion differences may be related to the differential development of the gastrointestinal tract. Differences between lines were already present at 7 d for relative gizzard weight and the weight of the upper to the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract ratio. Anatomic differences were maximum at 23 d for all traits except for relative weight of the duodenum. At slaughter age, BW, breast and fat yields, and meat color did not differ between D+ and RL birds, but D- birds were fatter than D+ and RL birds. Finally, ultimate meat pH was 1% to 2% greater in RL birds than in the D+ and D- lines. In conclusion, this study showed that selection of chickens for AMEn is a possible way to reduce the environmental impact of production over the whole rearing period without a negative impact on growth, body composition, or meat quality. PMID:23243164

de Verdal, H; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Bastianelli, D; Même, N; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Narcy, A

2013-02-01

80

Lonicera caerulea fruits reduce UVA-induced damage in hairless mice.  

PubMed

UVA photons are less energetic than UVB photons but they are more abundant in solar radiation. Modern tools have shown that UVA light has serious adverse effects on the skin. We investigated the effect of consuming Lonicera caerulea berries on UVA-induced damage in SKH-1 mice. The mice were fed a diet containing L. caerulea berries (10%, w/w) for 14 days before a single UVA (30 J/cm(2)) treatment. Effects on haematological and antioxidant parameters were evaluated 4 and 24h after irradiation. The bioavailability of L. caerulea phenolics was also assessed. Consuming the L. caerulea berry-enriched diet caused reduced malondialdehyde production and increased catalase activity and glutathione levels were found in skin and erythrocytes. UVA-induced NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and gamma-L-glutamate-L-cysteine ligase protein in skin were reduced in mice fed L. caerulea berries. Enhanced heme oxygenase-1 level in skin, interleukin-17 in plasma and reduced interleukin-12 levels in plasma were found in the mice on the experimental diet. Histological (pyknotic) changes in the nuclei of basal cells induced by UVA exposure were reduced in L. caerulea berry consuming animals. HLPC-MS analysis showed high concentrations of hippuric acid, one of the main metabolites of aromatic amino acids and phenolic compounds, in skin, liver, urine and faeces of mice consuming the berries. Taken together, consumption of L. caerulea berries affords protection from the adverse effects of a single UVA exposure mainly via modulation of antioxidant parameters. PMID:23974431

Vostálová, Jitka; Galandáková, Adéla; Palíková, Irena; Ulrichová, Jitka; Doležal, Dalibor; Lichnovská, Radka; Vrbková, Jana; Rajnochová Svobodová, Alena

2013-11-01

81

Reducing Solid WasteLinking Recycling to Environmentally Responsible Consumerism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of several communities was conducted to investigate the public’s response to solid waste issues. This study examines the relation between respondents’ beliefs about environmentally responsible consumerism and environmental attitudes, motives, and self-reported recycling behavior. The study addressed (a) the public’s perception of environment-related product attributes; (b) a sociodemographic characterization of environmentally concerned consumers; and (c) the depiction of

Angela Ebreo; James Hershey; Joanne Vining

1999-01-01

82

Reduced-order modeling for mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient method for nonlinear vibration analysis of mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages is presented. The main objective is to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. Firstly, in order to reduce the input information needed for component mode synthesis (CMS), the whole model of an impeller is obtained by rotation transformation based on the finite element model of a sector model. Then, a hybrid-interface method of CMS is employed to generate a reduced-order model (ROM) for the cracked impeller. The degrees of freedom on the crack surfaces are retained in the ROM to simulate the crack breathing effects. A novel approach for computing the inversion of large sparse matrix is proposed to save memory space during model order reduction by partitioning the matrix into many smaller blocks. Moreover, to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the resonant frequencies, the bilinear frequency approximation is used to estimate the resonant frequencies of the mistuned impeller with a crack. Additionally, statistical analysis is performed using the Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of the resonant frequencies versus crack length at different mistuning levels. The results show that the most significant effect of mistuning and cracks on the vibration response is the shift and split of the two resonant frequencies with the same nodal diameters. Finally, potential quantitative indicators for detection of crack of centrifugal impellers are discussed.

Wang, Shuai; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia

2014-12-01

83

Colonic release and reduced intestinal tissue damage of coated tablets containing naproxen inclusion complex.  

PubMed

A colonic-release delivery system containing naproxen inclusion complex with 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (2-HPbetaCD) was originally proposed. The core tablets consisting of the naproxen inclusion complex and disintegrants (Ac-Di-Sol), Primojel), Avicel) or Polyplasdone) were formed by direct compression, and then coated with the polymers, either pH-dependent Eudragit S100 and/or pH-independent Eudragit RS100 with plasticizers like dibutyl sebacate (DBS) and aluminum tristearate (AT). The in vitro release characteristics were evaluated in simulated gastric fluid for 2h and then subsequently in simulated intestinal fluid for 12h. The potential histological changes were also evaluated after direct dosing of suspensions of naproxen alone and powdered mixtures of inclusion complex-loaded tablet into rat intestinal segments. No distinct colonic release was observed when disintegrants were excluded in the single-layered coated tablets regardless of coated structures, giving a zero-order fashion over 12h. The coated tablet with double-layered structures of Eudragit S100 and Eudragit RS100 was not also applicable. In contrast, colonic release was achieved when the core tablet containing inclusion complex and disintegrant was coated with only Eudragit S100 in a single-layered structure. The colonic-release tablet was resistant in gastric fluid for 2h and for 2-4h in intestinal fluid, followed by rapid release of the drug after a total of 4-6h of lag time depending on the type of disintegrants. The lag time was advanced in case of DBS while delayed in case of AT. On histological examination, the inclusion complex-loaded suspension caused less intestinal tissue damage than naproxen alone. Based on these findings, the colonic-release tablet with enteric coatings which contains inclusion complex and disintegrants could be useful to deliver drugs like naproxen to the lower small intestine and upper colon with increased dissolution and reduced intestinal tissue damage. PMID:17928177

Piao, Zong-Zhu; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Beom-Jin

2008-02-28

84

Forest canopy damage and recovery in reduced-impact and conventional selective logging in eastern Para, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated ground and canopy damage and recovery following conventional logging and reduced-impact logging (RIL) of moist tropical forest in the eastern Amazon of Brazil. Paired conventional and RIL blocks were selectively logged with a harvest intensity of approximately 23m3ha?1 (geometric volume) in the dry seasons (July–December) of 1996 and 1998. Ground damage (roads+skid trails+log decks) in the conventional logging

Rodrigo Pereira Jr; Johan Zweede; Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller

2002-01-01

85

Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink  

PubMed Central

Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

2012-01-01

86

Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.  

PubMed

Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

Meagher, Rebecca K; Mason, Georgia J

2012-01-01

87

Potential Bud Bank Responses to Apical Meristem Damage and Environmental Variables: Matching or Complementing Axillary Meristems?  

PubMed Central

Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems. PMID:24516587

Klimesova, Jitka; Malikova, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Smilauer, Petr

2014-01-01

88

The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Flow versus Stock Pollution: The Neglect of Future Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we offer a possible explanation for the empirical finding that the pollution-income relationship (PIR) for flow pollutants is an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), i.e. inverted-U shaped, but that the PIR for stock pollutants is monotonically rising. We analyse an overlapping generations model with two pollutants: The flow pollutant causes immediate damages, but the stock pollutant harms the

Christoph Martin Lieb

2004-01-01

89

Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes.  

PubMed

Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance. PMID:25071194

Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E; Butterly, Matthew S; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E

2014-08-12

90

Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection  

PubMed Central

Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ?2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ?$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

2013-01-01

91

Cadmium: Simulation of environmental control strategies to reduce exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of selected environmental control strategies on human dietary and respiratory exposure to environmental cadmium (Cd) have been simulated. For each control strategy, mean Cd dietary and respiratory exposures are presented for a twenty-year simulation period. Human exposures related to cadmium are associated with both process waste disposal and product disposal. Dietary exposure is by far the dominant mechanism for Cd intake. Dietary exposure related to aqueous discharges is primarily a result of municipal sludge landspreading, whereas that associated with emissions to the atmosphere derives mainly from the deposition on cropland of airborne particulates from product incineration. Only relatively small dietary exposure reductions are possible through restrictions on any single Cd use. Combinations of waste management and environmental control measures promise greater reductions in dietary and respiratory exposure than those achievable through use restrictions.

Yost, K. J.; Miles, L. J.; Greenkorn, R. A.

1981-07-01

92

Reducing environmental impacts through non-uniform loading of casks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to provide a scoping-level estimate of the reduction in environmental impacts that could be realized by the use of spent nuclear fuel transportation and storage casks designed and certified for nonuniform loading, as compared to very similar casks designed and certified using current, uniform-loading assumptions. The environmental impacts considered are the total number of cask loadings required, and the radiological impact of those loadings. The results described in this paper are for transportation casks, but the conclusions also apply to storage casks.

McLeod, N.B. [E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1996-12-01

93

Modelling the benefits of flood emergency management measures in reducing damages: a case study on Sondrio, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.

Molinari, D.; Ballio, F.; Menoni, S.

2013-08-01

94

The long amplicon quantitative PCR for DNA damage assay as a sensitive method of assessing DNA damage in the environmental model, Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)*  

PubMed Central

DNA damage is an important mechanism of toxicity for a variety of pollutants, and therefore, is often used as an indicator of pollutant effects in ecotoxicological studies. Here, we adapted a PCR-based assay for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage for use in an important environmental model, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). We refer to this assay as the large amplicon quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR) assay. To validate this method in killifish, DNA damage was measured in liver, brain, and muscle of fish dosed with 10 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene. This exposure caused 0.4-0.8 lesions/10 kb. We also measured DNA damage in liver and muscle tissues from killifish inhabiting a Superfund site, confirming the utility of this method for biomonitoring. In both cases, damage levels were comparable in nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Since extensive nDNA sequence data are not readily available for many environmentally relevant species, but mitochondrial genomes are frequently fully sequenced, this assay can be adapted to examine mtDNA damage in virtually any species with little development. Therefore, we argue that this assay will be a valuable tool in assessing DNA damage in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:18706522

Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Meyer, Joel N.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

2009-01-01

95

Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success  

PubMed Central

Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop–escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival. PMID:20236968

Combes, S. A.; Crall, J. D.; Mukherjee, S.

2010-01-01

96

Assessment of propfan propulsion systems for reduced environmental impact  

E-print Network

Current aircraft engine designs tend towards higher bypass ratio, low-speed fan designs for improved fuel burn, reduced emissions and noise. Alternative propulsion concepts include counter-rotating propfans (CRPs) which ...

Peters, Andreas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

97

Dimethylformamide improves the in vitro characteristics of thawed stallion spermatozoa reducing sublethal damage.  

PubMed

A total of 42 ejaculates were used in the experiment; six ejaculates per stallion, obtained from seven Pure Spanish stallions (PRE), were split and frozen in freezing media with different concentrations and combinations of cryoprotectant (CPA): (i) Cáceres (skim milk based extender) containing 2.5% glycerol (2.5GL), (ii) Cáceres containing 1.5% glycerol and 1.5% dimethylformamide (1.5%GL-1.5%DMFA), (iii) Cáceres extender supplemented with 1.5% glycerol and 2.5% dimethylformamide (1.5%GL-2.5%DMFA) and (iv) Cáceres extender supplemented with 4% dimethylformamide (4%DMFA). After at least 4 weeks of storage in liquid nitrogen (LN), straws were thawed and semen analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry (membrane lipid architecture (Merocyanine 540), integrity and sublethal damage (YoPro-1) and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1)). After thawing, better results were observed in samples frozen in 4%DMFA or in combinations of 1.5%GL-2.5%DMFA, in fact total motility increased by 16% in the 4%DMFA group compared to 2.5%GL (P < 0.05). Also, there was an increment in the percentage of progressive motile sperm in the 1.5%GL-2.5%DMFA group (9.8% 2.5GL vs 19% in the 1.5%GL-2.5%DMFA group p < 0.05); also, samples frozen in the 4%DMFA group had more intact (YoPro-1 negative) sperm post-thawing, 29.3% in 2.5%GL vs 36.7% in 4%DMFA group (p < 0.05). Membrane lipid architecture was not affected by any of the cryoprotectants tested, while samples frozen in 4%DFMA had a lower percentage of mitochondria with lower membrane potential. It is concluded that DMFA improves the outcome of cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa mainly reducing sublethal cryodamage. PMID:22384798

Morillo Rodriguez, A; Balao da Silva, C; Macías-García, B; Gallardo Bolaños, J M; Tapia, J A; Aparicio, I M; Ortega-Ferrusola, C; Peña, F J

2012-12-01

98

Reduced subventricular zone proliferation and white matter damage in juvenile ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Hydrocephalus is a neurological condition characterized by altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow with enlargement of ventricular cavities in the brain. A reliable model of hydrocephalus in gyrencephalic mammals is necessary to test preclinical hypotheses. Our objective was to characterize the behavioral, structural, and histological changes in juvenile ferrets following induction of hydrocephalus. Fourteen-day old ferrets were given an injection of kaolin (aluminum silicate) into the cisterna magna. Two days later and repeated weekly until 56 days of age, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to assess ventricle size. Behavior was examined thrice weekly. Compared to age-matched saline-injected controls, severely hydrocephalic ferrets weighed significantly less, their postures were impaired, and they were hyperactive prior to extreme debilitation. They developed significant ventriculomegaly and displayed white matter destruction. Reactive astroglia and microglia detected by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1 immunostaining were apparent in white matter, cortex, and hippocampus. There was a hydrocephalus-related increase in activated caspase 3 labeling of apoptotic cells (7.0 vs. 15.5%) and a reduction in Ki67 labeling of proliferating cells (23.3 vs. 5.9%) in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Reduced Olig2 immunolabeling suggests a depletion of glial precursors. GFAP content was elevated. Myelin basic protein (MBP) quantitation and myelin biochemical enzyme activity showed early maturational increases. Where white matter was not destroyed, the remaining axons developed myelin similar to the controls. In conclusion, the hydrocephalus-induced periventricular disturbances may involve developmental impairments in cell proliferation and glial precursor cell populations. The ferret should prove useful for testing hypotheses about white matter damage and protection in the immature hydrocephalic brain. PMID:23769908

Di Curzio, Domenico L; Buist, Richard J; Del Bigio, Marc R

2013-10-01

99

A microdevice to locally electroporate embryos with high efficiency and reduced cell damage.  

PubMed

The ability to follow and modify cell behaviour with accurate spatiotemporal resolution is a prerequisite to study morphogenesis in developing organisms. Electroporation, the delivery of exogenous molecules into targeted cell populations through electric permeation of the plasma membrane, has been used with this aim in different model systems. However, current localised electroporation strategies suffer from insufficient reproducibility and mediocre survival when applied to small and delicate organisms such as early post-implantation mouse embryos. We introduce here a microdevice to achieve localised electroporation with high efficiency and reduced cell damage. In silico simulations using a simple electrical model of mouse embryos indicated that a dielectric guide-based design would improve on existing alternatives. Such a device was microfabricated and its capacities tested by targeting the distal visceral endoderm (DVE), a migrating cell population essential for anterior-posterior axis establishment. Transfection was efficiently and reproducibly restricted to fewer than four visceral endoderm cells without compromising cell behaviour and embryo survival. Combining targeted mosaic expression of fluorescent markers with live imaging in transgenic embryos revealed that, like leading DVE cells, non-leading ones send long basal projections and intercalate during their migration. Finally, we show that the use of our microsystem can be extended to a variety of embryological contexts, from preimplantation stages to organ explants. Hence, we have experimentally validated an approach delivering a tailor-made tool for the study of morphogenesis in the mouse embryo. Furthermore, we have delineated a comprehensive strategy for the development of ad hoc electroporation devices. PMID:24821988

Mazari, Elsa; Zhao, Xuan; Migeotte, Isabelle; Collignon, Jérôme; Gosse, Charlie; Perea-Gomez, Aitana

2014-06-01

100

Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills  

SciTech Connect

The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes.

Fritz, D.E. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Steen, A.E. [American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

101

Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

Mayer, R.M., E-mail: r.m.mayer@reading.ac.uk [Sciotech Projects, Sciotech Office, Engineering Building, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Poulikakos, L.D., E-mail: lily.poulikakos@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lees, A.R., E-mail: Andy.Lees@dft.gsi.gov.uk [Department for Transport, Statistics Roads Division, Gt. Minster House, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR (United Kingdom); Heutschi, K., E-mail: kurt.heutschi@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kalivoda, M.T., E-mail: kalivoda@psia.at [psiA-Consult GmbH, Lastenstrasse 38/1, A-1230 Vienna (Austria); Soltic, P., E-mail: patrik.soltic@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2012-01-15

102

Antioxidant Enzymes Reduce DNA Damage and Early Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells in Aortic Valve Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeling of the microstructure of the cusp characterize aortic valve sclerosis, the early phase of calcific aortic valve disease. These events are associated with activation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) toward an osteogenic-like phenotype. Because ROS cause DNA damage and transcriptional activation we investigated the relationship between ROS, DNA damage response, and transdifferentiation of VICs. Methods and Results Human aortic valve cusps and patient-matched VICs were collected from 39 patients both with and without calcific aortic valve disease. VICs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1–1 mmol/L) after cell transduction with extracellular superoxide dismutase/catalase adenoviruses and characterized for DNA-damage response, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and calcification. ROS induce relocalization of phosphorylated ?H2AX, MRE11, and XRCC1 proteins with expression of osteogenic signaling molecule RUNX2 via AKT. We report a sustained activation of ?H2AX in aortic valve sclerosis-derived VICs suggesting their impaired ability to repair DNA damage. Adenovirus superoxide dismutase/catalase transduction decreases ROS-induced DNA damage and VIC transdifferentiation in aortic valve sclerosis-derived cells. Finally, adenoviral transduction with catalase reverts ROS-mediated calcification and cellular transdifferentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the ROS-induced DNA damage response is dysfunctional in early asymptomatic stages of calcific aortic valve disease. We unveiled an association among ROS, DNA-damage response, and cellular transdifferentiation, reversible by antioxidant enzymes delivery. PMID:23241403

Branchetti, Emanuela; Sainger, Rachana; Poggio, Paolo; Grau, Juan B.; Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Chorny, Michael; Lai, Eric; Gorman, Robert C.; Levy, Robert J.; Ferrari, Giovanni

2014-01-01

103

Assessment of the repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine, was assessed at both the molecular and cellular level. At the molecular level, after in vitro incubation with parent or reduced RSU-1069, plasmid DNA was transfected into Escherichia coli (AB1157) with subsequent selection for gene expression. For equivalent levels of DNA strand breakage following such

P. ONeill; Siobhan M. T. Cunniffe

1989-01-01

104

A novel postharvest UV-C treatment to reduce chilling injury (membrane damage, browning and chlorophyll degradation) in banana peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the mode of action of UV-C to alleviate CI in banana. Banana [Musa (AAA group), Cavendish subgroup cv. Cavendish] fruits were treated with UV-C at dosages of 0.03kJm?2 prior to storage at 8 or 25°C. UV-C treatment reduced both the incidence and severity of banana fruits stored under low temperature. UV-C treatment reduced membrane damage indicated by lower

Nutthachai Pongprasert; Yoshihiko Sekozawa; Sumiko Sugaya; Hiroshi Gemma

2011-01-01

105

Relationships between Traumatic Symptoms and Environmental Damage Conditions among Children 8 Months after the 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate relationships between traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions among children who survived the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Methods The subjects were 12,524 children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), a self-completion questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, was distributed to the children and a questionnaire regarding environmental damage conditions affecting the children was distributed to their teachers. Of 12,524 questionnaires distributed, an effective response was obtained from 11,692 (93.3%). Results The PTSSC-15 score was significantly higher in females than in males among 4th to 6th grade students in elementary schools and among junior high school students. In terms of traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions, with the exception of kindergartners, children who had their houses damaged or experienced separation from family members had a significantly higher PTSSC-15 score than children who did not experience environmental damage. Except for kindergartners and 4th- to 6th-grade elementary school students, children who experienced evacuation had a significantly higher PTSSC-15 score. Conclusions This study demonstrated relationships between traumatic symptoms and environmental damage conditions in children who had suffered from the disaster. Factors examined in studying the relationship between environmental damage conditions and traumatic symptoms were gender, age, house damage, evacuation experience, and bereavement experience. It was critical not only to examine the traumatic symptoms of the children but also to collect accurate information about environmental damage conditions. PMID:23209817

Usami, Masahide; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kodaira, Masaki; Watanabe, Kyota; Aoki, Momoko; Katsumi, Chiaki; Matsuda, Kumi; Makino, Kazunori; Iijima, Sonoko; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Ushijima, Hirokage; Saito, Kazuhiko

2012-01-01

106

Reducing Mechanical Formation Damage by Minimizing Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure in Tight Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tight gas reservoirs incur problems and significant damage caused by low permeability during drilling, completion, stimulation and production. They require advanced improvement techniques to achieve flow gas at optimum rates. Water blocking damage (phase Trapping/retention of fluids) is a form of mechanical formation damage mechanism, which is caused by filtrate invasion in drilling operations mostly in fracturing. Water blocking has a noticeable impact on formation damage in gas reservoirs which tends to decrease relative permeability near the wellbore. Proper evaluation of damage and the factors which influence its severity is essential to optimize well productivity. Reliable data regarding interfacial tension between gas and water is required in order to minimize mechanical formation damage potential and to optimize gas production. This study was based on the laboratory experiments of interfacial tension by rising drop method between gas-brine, gas-condensate and gas-brine. The results showed gas condensate has low interfacial tension value 6 - 11 dynes/cm when compared to gas-brine and gas- diesel which were 44 - 58 dynes/cm and 14 - 19 dynes/cm respectively. In this way, the capillary pressure of brine-gas system was estimated as 0.488 psi, therefore diesel-gas system was noticed about 0.164 psi and 0.098 psi for condensate-gas system. A forecast model was used by using IFT values to predict the phase trapping which shows less severe phase trapping damage in case of condensate than diesel and brine. A reservoir simulation study was also carried out in order to better understand the effect of hysteresis on well productivity and flow efficiency affected due to water blocking damage in tight gas reservoirs.

Ahmed, Arshad; Talib Shuker, Muhannad; Rehman, Khalil; Bahrami, Hassan; Memon, Muhammad Khan

2013-12-01

107

Commercial Aircraft Design for Reduced Noise and Environmental Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the noise and global warming effects produced by current commercial aircraft. It also describes\\u000a noise and pollution sources, and proposes technologies to mitigate them.\\u000a \\u000a The paper will then describe some estimates of the financial costs of aircraft pollution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Significant environmental progress can only be made by more radical aircraft and engine configurations. A low-noise design\\u000a methodology will

S. Mistry; Howard Smith; John P. Fielding

108

Autoregressive modeling with state-space embedding vectors for damage detection under operational and environmental variability  

SciTech Connect

A nonlinear time series approach is presented to detect damage in systems by using a state-space reconstruction to infer the geometrical structure of a deterministic dynamical system from observed time series response at multiple locations. The unique contribution of this approach is using a Multivariate Autoregressive (MAR) model of a baseline condition to predict the state space, where the model encodes the embedding vectors rather than scalar time series. A hypothesis test is established that the MAR model will fail to predict future response if damage is present in the test condition, and this test is investigated for robustness in the context of operational and environmental variability. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated using acceleration time series from a base-excited 3-story frame structure.

Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Figueiredo, Eloi [UNIV OF PORTO; Todd, Michael [UCSD; Flynn, Eric [UCSD

2010-01-01

109

Assessment of the repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine  

SciTech Connect

The cellular repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine, was assessed at both the molecular and cellular level. At the molecular level, after in vitro incubation with parent or reduced RSU-1069, plasmid DNA was transfected into Escherichia coli (AB1157) with subsequent selection for gene expression. For equivalent levels of DNA strand breakage following such treatment it is evident from the relative transformation frequencies that interactions with reduced RSU-1069 lead to DNA damage consistent with bifunctional action of a metabolite(s). At the cellular level, the cytoxicity of RSU-1069 was determined for a series of repair deficient mutants of E. coli under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The differential aerobic:hypoxic cytotoxicity ratio is approximately 3. We conclude that the repair of cellular DNA damage induced by RSU-1069 involves activation of the gene products under the control of the recA gene and not those under the control of the ada gene. The ability of cellular systems to repair damage induced by RSU-1069 may play a significant role in determining its efficiency to act as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and a hypoxia selective cytotoxin.

O'Neill, P.; Cunniffe, S.M.

1989-04-01

110

Selection of facility location under environmental damage priority and using ELECTRE method.  

PubMed

In the recent years, the environmental problems have reached to a vital extent, which is pushing the boundaries and far beyond daily evaluations. Industrial plants, the energy sources and uncontrolled release of pollutant gases (SO2, CO2 etc.) in the production stage have the greatest share in the occurrence of unfavorable environmental conditions. For this reason, the dimension of the problems that may arise in the production stage of industrial plants is directly related to the selection of facility location. In this study, geographical regions (a total of 7 regions) of our country have been analyzed in terms of environmental values based on their basins and the unfavorable environmental problems that are currently being experienced. Considered as such, with the directives of an expert group composed of nature scientists, the criteria and alternative areas are determined using the data gathered on ecosystem, basin characteristics, and land types. Since the primary goal is to keep the environmental damages at the minimum level, comprehensive definition of the problem is constructed by consultation of the expert group and the criteria are determined. Considering the fact that it will prevent the drawbacks generated by making decisions depending on certain stereotypes toa great extent, ELECTRE (Elimination and Choice Translating Reality English - Elimination Et Choix Traduisant la Realite) method is used to determine in which geographic region our country's industrial plants should be located. PMID:21882659

Gundogdu, Ceren Erdin

2011-03-01

111

Cedar Bay `pushes envelope` to reduce environmental impact  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how after a change in ownership, the facility was completed ahead of the original schedule and is delivering on all the promises made to keep the project alive. That Cedar Bay generating plant is operating at all is a triumph of ingenuity and perseverance over the frustration that many developers experience in today`s adversarial climate for constructing powerplants. To keep the project alive, US Generating Co took the project over in August 1993 when construction was 40% complete, forcing it to strike a whole new bargain with the community. In addition, US Gen, along with the original engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Multipower Associates, had to accommodate more than one round of radical changes to basic plant-design parameters--such as the amount of process steam required by the thermal host and the quality of the raw water--late in the project-design and equipment-procurement phases. As a result, numerous innovations in minimizing environmental impact are being demonstrated-especially with respect to recycling of industrial waste water, zero-discharge water management, ash management, and low-emissions operation of large circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers.

NONE

1995-04-01

112

Consumption of vegetables reduces genetic damage in humans: first results of a human intervention trial with carotenoid-rich foods.  

PubMed

A human intervention study with vegetable products has been performed in twenty three healthy, non smoking males aged 27-40. It was the aim of the study to assess whether consumption of vegetables containing different carotenoids could protect against DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage. The subjects consumed their normal diets, but abstained from vegetables high in carotenoids throughout the study period. After a 2 week depletion period, they received daily 330 ml tomato juice with 40 mg lycopene (weeks 3 and 4), 330 ml carrot juice with 22.3 mg beta-carotene and 15.7 mg alpha-carotene (weeks 5 and 6), and 10 g dried spinach powder (in water or milk) with 11.3 mg lutein (weeks 7 and 8). Blood was collected weekly and DNA damage was detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes with the 'COMET' assay. Oxidised DNA bases were detected by including an incubation step with endonuclease III. The supplementation of the diet with tomato, carrot or spinach products resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous levels of strand breaks in lymphocyte DNA. Oxidative base damage was significantly reduced during the carrot juice intervention. These findings support the hypothesis that carotenoid containing plant products exert a cancer-protective effect via a decrease in oxidative and other damage to DNA in humans. PMID:9328185

Pool-Zobel, B L; Bub, A; Müller, H; Wollowski, I; Rechkemmer, G

1997-09-01

113

Author's personal copy Strain-induced damage reduces echo intensity changes in tendon  

E-print Network

. Ultrasonic sound waves can be used not only to image tissues in the body, but they can also give information mechanical properties. Tendon damage leads to a reduction in mechanical strength and altered biomechanical while ultrasonic echo intensity (average gray scale brightness in a B-mode image) is recorded using

Lakes, Roderic

114

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H\\/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigate the effect of dietary Royal Jelly (RJ) on tissue DNA oxidative damage and on the life span of C3H\\/HeJ mice. In C3H\\/HeJ mice that were fed a dietary supplement of RJ for 16 weeks, the levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, were significantly reduced in kidney DNA and serum. Secondly, we determined

Shin-ichiro Inoue; Satomi Koya-Miyata; Shimpei Ushio; Kanso Iwaki; Masao Ikeda; Masashi Kurimoto

2003-01-01

115

Title: Digital Infrastructure: Reducing Energy Cost and Environmental Impacts of Information Processing and Communications Systems  

E-print Network

Title: Digital Infrastructure: Reducing Energy Cost and Environmental Impacts of Information Processing and Communications Systems Abstract: Creating a Sustainable Information and Communication Infrastructure Modern society's dependence on information and communication infrastructure (ICI) is so deeply

116

Reduced damage threshold for tungsten using combined steady state and transient sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Divertor wall materials in future fusion devices will be subject to both high flux steady state plasma and transient ELM striking which could limit the lifetime of these plasma facing materials. A pulsed plasma source was therefore developed to reproduce these conditions. Laser irradiation of similar pulse length has been used to disambiguate between the effects of particle and heat loads compared with transient heating alone. A lowered threshold for damage of tungsten was observed in the case of simultaneous transient and steady state loads compared to transients alone, while surface damage was also enhanced with repeated laser irradiation following steady plasma exposure, compared to the two processes individually, indicating a synergistic enhancement of surface modification due to plasma exposure.

Morgan, T. W.; Zielinski, J. J.; Hensen, B. J.; Xu, H. Y.; Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.

2013-07-01

117

A Flexure-Based Steerable Needle: High Curvature With Reduced Tissue Damage  

PubMed Central

In the quest to design higher curvature bevel-steered needles, kinked bevel-tips have been one of the most successful approaches yet proposed. However, the price to be paid for enhancing steerability in this way has been increased tissue damage, since the prebent tip cuts a local helical path into tissue when axially rotated. This is problematic when closed-loop control is desired, because the controller will typically require the needle to rotate rapidly, and it is particularly problematic when duty cycling (i.e., continual needle spinning) is used to adjust curvature. In this paper, we propose a new flexure-based needle tip design that provides the enhanced steerability of kinked bevel-tip needles, while simultaneously minimizing tissue damage. PMID:23204267

Burgner, Jessica; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Webster, Robert J.

2013-01-01

118

Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) treatment before knee extensor\\u000a eccentric exercise on indirect markers of muscle damage. Thirty-six healthy men were randomized in LLLT group (n = 18) and placebo group (n = 18). After LLLT or placebo treatment, subjects performed 75 maximal knee extensors eccentric contractions (five sets of\\u000a 15 repetitions;

Bruno Manfredini Baroni; Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior; Thiago De Marchi; André Luiz Lopes; Mirian Salvador; Marco Aurélio Vaz

2010-01-01

119

Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures  

DOEpatents

Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01

120

Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

Bae, Hyunhoe

2012-01-01

121

Ingenol mebutate field-directed treatment of UVB-damaged skin reduces lesion formation and removes mutant p53 patches.  

PubMed

Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer worldwide and is primarily caused by chronic UV exposure. Here, we describe the topical field-directed treatment of SKH1/hr mice with UVB-damaged skin with ingenol mebutate, a new topical drug shown to be effective for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). Application of 0.05% ingenol mebutate gel to photo-damaged skin resulted in a ?70% reduction in the number of skin lesions that subsequently emerged compared with placebo treatment. Ingenol mebutate treatment also reduced the number of mutant p53 keratinocyte patches by ?70%. The treatment resulted in epidermal cell death, acute inflammation, recruitment of neutrophils, hemorrhage, and eschar formation, all of which resolved over several weeks. Ingenol mebutate field-directed treatment might thus find utility in the removal of subclinical precancerous cells from UV-damaged skin. Field-directed treatment may be particularly suitable for patients who have AKs surrounded by UV-damaged skin. PMID:22189786

Cozzi, Sarah-Jane; Ogbourne, Steven M; James, Cini; Rebel, Heggert G; de Gruijl, Frank R; Ferguson, Blake; Gardner, Joy; Lee, Thuy T; Larcher, Thibaut; Suhrbier, Andreas

2012-04-01

122

Thin film structure to reduce radiation damage in x-ray lithography  

SciTech Connect

A method to decrease radiation damage to VLSI devices when using x-ray lithography is described. To decrease the x-ray radiation reaching the device SiO/sub 2/ gates, an x-ray absorbing thin film is interposed between the resist and the device structure. Tungsten has been shown to meet all the requirements for the absorbing layer material. In particular, a RIE technique to obtain straight profiles in tungsten using a conventional CF/sub 4//O/sub 2/ mixture is described in the paper. In addition, the dosimeter film technique utilized to calibrate the x-ray source is described in the appendix.

Maldonado, J.R.; Reisman, A.; Lezec, H.; Bumble, B.; Williams, C.K.; Iyer, S.S.

1987-01-01

123

Oxidative damage of aromatic dipeptides by the environmental oxidants NO2? and O3.  

PubMed

Irreversible oxidative damage at both aromatic side chains and dipeptide linkage occurs in the aromatic N- and C-protected dipeptides 7-11 upon exposure to the environmental pollutants NO2? and O3. The reaction proceeds through initial oxidation of the aromatic ring by in situ generated NO3?, or by NO2?, respectively, which leads to formation of nitroaromatic products. The indole ring in Phe-Trp undergoes oxidative cyclization to a pyrroloindoline. An important reaction pathway for dipeptides with less oxidisable aromatic side chains proceeds through fragmentation of the peptide bond with concomitant acyl migration. This process is likely initiated by an ionic reaction of the amide nitrogen with the NO2? dimer, N2O4. PMID:25207524

Gamon, L F; White, J M; Wille, U

2014-11-01

124

Radiation Damage in Minerals: From Point Defects to Amorphization. Mineralogical and Environmental Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minerals exhibit radiation damage, produced by the decay of substituted U and Th or by high-energy radiation emitted by short-lived radionuclides transported by fluids. We will present three domains of application. At low radiation doses, point defects are created, often associated to impurities. This results in the coloration of many minerals, such as fluorite, quartz or tourmaline. Thermal annealing of these color centers may constrain the formation conditions of nonradioactive minerals. Heavy metal impurities, such as cadmium -an element of great environmental importance- may be decorated by these defects and localized in the crystal lattice. Clay minerals represent another field of application of radiation damage. Their high specific surface area makes them sensitive to the geochemical radiation background and suitable for use as a dosimeter for past natural irradiation. Kaolinites from the Pena Blanca natural analogue present defect concentration, which varies by almost three orders of magnitude within the deposit. Using a calibration based on an experimental irradiation and time constraints on kaolinite age, the paleodose may be related to the overall migration of the radionuclides over time. This methodology gives an original time-integrated assessment of the transfer of radionuclides. The third example will be taken on the influence of metamictization on the weathering of zircons, with chemical ages ranging between 0.15 Ga and 2.8 Ga. The maximum degree of radiation damage observed in the zircons sampled from Brazilian laterites, coincides with the first percolation threshold of the metamictization. Zircon geochemistry indicates that, during long-lasting exposure to weathering, the chemical durability of zircon decreases above this threshold. This may arise from the original structure of metamict zircon, which modifies the peculiar surface properties of this mineral. Future applications concern the influence of structural defects on physicochemical properties of minerals such as clays, under irradiation conditions simulating engineered barriers, a major concern in nuclear waste management. Facilities, as those developed at the University of Michigan, will greatly facilitate these advances.

Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Balan, E.; Morin, G.

2006-05-01

125

Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: results from an intervention study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and experimental evidence increasingly suggests coffee consumption to be correlated to prevention or delay of degenerative diseases connected with oxidative cellular stress. In an intervention study comprising 33 healthy volunteers, we examined DNA-protective and antioxidative effects exerted in vivo by daily ingestion of 750 mL of freshly brewed coffee rich in both green coffee bean constituents as well as roast products. The study design encompassed an initial 4 wk of wash-out, followed by 4 wk of coffee intake and 4 wk of second wash-out. At the start and after each study phase blood samples were taken to monitor biomarkers of oxidative stress response. In addition, body weight/composition and intake of energy/nutrients were recorded. In the coffee ingestion period, the primary endpoint, oxidative DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay (± FPG), was markedly reduced (p<0.001). Glutathione level (p<0.05) and GSR-activity (p<0.01) were elevated. Body weight (p<0.01)/body fat (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.001)/nutrient (p<0.001-0.05) intake were reduced. Our results allow to conclude that daily consumption of 3-4 cups of brew from a special Arabica coffee exerts health beneficial effects, as evidenced by reduced oxidative damage, body fat mass and energy/nutrient uptake. PMID:21462335

Bakuradze, Tamara; Boehm, Nadine; Janzowski, Christine; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Albert, Franz W; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

2011-05-01

126

Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: a scenario analysis.  

PubMed

This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze, C., Hordijk, L., Costa, C., 2008. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting company and options for control. Environmental Modelling & Software 23 (2) 147-168] we included the model description and explored the model by applying it to a plant in which no reduction options are assumed to be implemented (so-called zero case, reflecting the current practice in the plant). Here, we perform a systematic analysis of reduction options. We analysed seven types of reduction strategies, assuming the simultaneous implementation of different reduction options. These strategies are analysed with respect to their potential to reduce emissions, environmental impact and costs associated with the implementation of options. These strategies were found to differ largely in their potential to reduce the environmental impact of the plant (10-87%), as well as in the costs associated with the implementation of options (-268 to +277keuro/year). We were able to define 11 strategies, reducing the overall environmental impact by more than 50%. Of these, two have net negative costs, indicating that the company may in fact earn money through their implementation. PMID:18342428

Neto, Belmira; Kroeze, Carolien; Hordijk, Leen; Costa, Carlos; Pulles, Tinus

2009-02-01

127

Environmental Assessment: Reducing Aquatic Rodent Damage Through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife, which increases the potential for conflicting human/wildlife in...

2005-01-01

128

Modeling insecticide protection versus forest management approaches to reducing balsam fir sawfly and hemlock looper damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decision support system (DSS) for improved management decision making and to reduce impacts of forest insect outbreaks was developed and implemented for two defoliators, hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria Guen.) and balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Harris), in District 15, a 336,805ha forest managed by Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Ltd. in western Newfoundland, Canada. Over the past 15years,

Javed Iqbal; Chris R. Hennigar; David A. MacLean

129

Economics of cattail ( Typha spp.) control to reduce blackbird damage to sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benefit\\/cost analysis of cattail (Typha spp.) control to reduce sunflower depredation by blackbirds was conducted to identify trade-offs and to estimate the efficacy of chemical treatment. Although reductions in populations of certain species, such as upland game, may occur with cattail control, populations of other species such as waterfowl, may be enhanced. With all factors considered, both sunflower producers

J. A. Leitch; G. M. Linz; J. F. Baltezore

1997-01-01

130

Dexamethasone and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Reduce Oxidative Stress-Related DNA Damage in Differentiating Osteoblasts  

PubMed Central

The process of osteoblast differentiation is regulated by several factors, including RUNX2. Recent reports suggest an involvement of RUNX2 in DNA damage response (DDR), which is important due to association of differentiation with oxidative stress. In the present work we explore the influence of two RUNX2 modifiers, dexamethasone (DEX) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), in DDR in differentiating MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts challenged by oxidative stress. The process of differentiation was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) reduced the rate of differentiation. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of the process of osteoblasts differentiation, increased in a time-dependent manner and TBH further increased this activity. This may indicate that additional oxidative stress, induced by TBH, may accelerate the differentiation process. The cells displayed changes in the sensitivity to TBH in the course of differentiation. DEX increased ALP activity, but 1,25-D3 had no effect on it. These results suggest that DEX might stimulate the process of preosteoblasts differentiation. Finally, we observed a protective effect of DEX and 1,25-D3 against DNA damage induced by TBH, except the day 24 of differentiation, when DEX increased the extent of TBH-induced DNA damage. We conclude that oxidative stress is associated with osteoblasts differentiation and induce DDR, which may be modulated by RUNX2-modifiers, DEX and 1,25-D3. PMID:25244015

Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Wysokinski, Daniel; Tokarz, Paulina; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska, Joanna; Blasiak, Janusz

2014-01-01

131

Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : I. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus).  

PubMed

The effectiveness of predator odors (fecal, urine, and anal scent gland) in suppressing feeding damage by snowshoe hares was investigated in pen bioassays at the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. A total of 28 bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on hare consumption of willow browse and coniferous seedlings. Lynx and bobcat feces, weasel anal gland secretion, and lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, fox, and wolverine urines resulted in the most effective suppression of hare feeding damage. Novel odors of domestic dog urine and 2-methylbutyric acid did not reduce feeding. A field bioassay with lodgepole pine seedlings and weasel scent provided significant results comparable to the pen bioassays. The short-term (up to seven days) effectiveness of these treatments was more likely due to evaporative loss of the active repellent components of a given odor than habituation of hares to the stimulus. Predator odors as repellents have a biological basis compared with the anthropomorphic origins of commercial repellents. When encapsulated in weather-proof controlled-release devices, these odors could provide long-term protection for forestry plantations and agricultural crops which experience hare/rabbit feeding damage. PMID:24310275

Sullivan, T P; Nordstrom, L O; Sullivan, D S

1985-07-01

132

Baifuzi reduces transient ischemic brain damage through an interaction with the STREX domain of BKCa channels  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a long-term disability and one of the leading causes of death. However, no successful therapeutic intervention is available for the majority of stroke patients. In this study, we explored a traditional Chinese medicine Baifuzi (Typhonium giganteum Engl.). We show, at first, that the ethanol extract of Baifuzi exerts neuroprotective effects against brain damage induced by transient global or focal cerebral ischemia in rats and mice. Second, the extract activated large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa) channels, and BKCa channel blockade suppressed the neuroprotection of the extract, suggesting that the BKCa is the molecular target of Baifuzi. Third, Baifuzi cerebroside (Baifuzi-CB), purified from its ethanol extract, activated BKCa channels in a manner similar to that of the extract. Fourth, the stress axis hormone-regulated exon (STREX) domain of the BKCa channel directly interacted with Baifuzi-CB, and its deletion suppressed channel activation by Baifuzi-CB. These results indicate that Baifuzi-CB activated the BKCa channel through its direct interaction with the STREX domain of the channel and suggests that Baifuzi-CB merits exploration as a potential therapeutic agent for treating brain ischemia. PMID:21364615

Chi, S; Cai, W; Liu, P; Zhang, Z; Chen, X; Gao, L; Qi, J; Bi, L; Chen, L; Qi, Z

2010-01-01

133

Immunobiotic lactobacilli reduce viral-associated pulmonary damage through the modulation of inflammation-coagulation interactions.  

PubMed

The exacerbated disease due to immune- and coagulative-mediated pulmonary injury during acute respiratory viruses infection results in severe morbidity and mortality. Identifying novel approaches to modulate virus-induced inflammation-coagulation interactions could be important alternatives for treating acute respiratory viruses infections. In this study we investigated the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 on lung TLR3-mediated inflammation, and its ability to modulate inflammation-coagulation interaction during respiratory viral infection. Our findings reveal for the first time that a probiotic bacterium is able to influence lung immune-coagulative reaction triggered by TLR3 activation, by modulating the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as expression of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in the lung. We also demonstrated that the preventive treatment with the probiotic bacteria beneficially modulates the fine tune balance between clearing respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus) and controlling immune-coagulative responses in the lung, allowing normal lung function to be maintained in the face of a viral attack. Our data also pinpoint a crucial role for IL-10 in the immune protection induced by L. rhamnosus CRL1505 during respiratory viral infections. These observations might be helpful to propose new preventive or therapeutic approaches to better control virus-inflammatory lung damage using probiotic functional foods. PMID:24394565

Zelaya, Hortensia; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Chiba, Eriko; Marranzino, Gabriela; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Agüero, Graciela; Villena, Julio

2014-03-01

134

Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: a mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rain- bow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyoph- onus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of unin- fected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltra-

R Kocan; S LaPatra; J Gregg; J Winton; P Hershberger

2006-01-01

135

Modeling vibratory damage with reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates a coupled computational analysis framework that uses reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method to model vibratory induced stress near local defects. The application area of interest is the life prediction of thin gauge structural components exhibiting nonlinear, path-dependent dynamic response. Full-order finite element models of these structural components can require prohibitively large amounts of processor time. Recent developments in nonlinear reduced-order models have demonstrated efficient computation of the dynamic response. These models are relatively insensitive to small imperfections. Conversely, the generalized finite element method provides the ability to model local defects without geometric dependency on the mesh. A more robust version of the method, with numerically built enrichment functions, provides a multiple-scale modeling capability through direct coupling of global and local finite element models. Replacing the component finite element model with a reduced-order model allows for efficient computation of dynamic response while providing the necessary information to drive local, solid analyses which can zoom in on regions containing stress risers or cracks. This paper describes the coupling of these approaches to enable fatigue and crack propagation predictions. Numerical/experimental examples are provided.

O'Hara, Patrick J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

2014-12-01

136

Alendronate induces gastric damage by reducing nitric oxide synthase expression and NO/cGMP/K(ATP) signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Chronic use of alendronate has been linked to gastrointestinal tract problems. Our objective was to evaluate the role of the NO/cGMP/KATP signaling pathway and nitric oxide synthase expression in alendronate-induced gastric damage. Rats were either treated with the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg), or the NO synthase (NOS) substrate, L-arginine (L-Arg; 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg). Some rats were pretreated with either ODQ (a guanylate cyclase inhibitor; 10 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (KATP channels blocker; 10 mg/kg). In other experiments, rats were pretreated with L-NAME (non-selective NOS inhibitor; 10 mg/kg), 1400 W (selective inducible NOS [iNOS] inhibitor; 10 mg/kg), or L-NIO (a selective endothelial NOS [eNOS] inhibitor; 30 mg/kg). After 1 h, the rats were treated with alendronate (30 mg/kg) by gavage for 4 days. SNP and L-Arg prevented alendronate-induced gastric damage in a dose-dependent manner. Alendronate reduced nitrite/nitrate levels, an effect that was reversed with SNP or L-Arg treatment. Pretreatment with ODQ or glibenclamide reversed the protective effects of SNP and L-Arg. L-NAME, 1400 W, or L-NIO aggravated the severity of alendronate-induced lesions. In addition, alendronate reduced the expression of iNOS and eNOS in the gastric mucosa. Gastric ulcerogenic responses induced by alendronate were mediated by a decrease in NO derived from both eNOS and iNOS. In addition, our findings support the hypothesis that activation of the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway is of primary importance for protection against alendronate-induced gastric damage. PMID:24831353

Silva, Renan O; Lucetti, Larisse T; Wong, Deysi V T; Aragão, Karoline S; Junior, Eudmar M A; Soares, Pedro M G; Barbosa, André Luiz R; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R

2014-08-31

137

alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.  

PubMed

One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention. PMID:19558415

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

2009-10-01

138

Royal Jelly prolongs the life span of C3H/HeJ mice: correlation with reduced DNA damage.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigate the effect of dietary Royal Jelly (RJ) on tissue DNA oxidative damage and on the life span of C3H/HeJ mice. In C3H/HeJ mice that were fed a dietary supplement of RJ for 16 weeks, the levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, were significantly reduced in kidney DNA and serum. Secondly, we determined the effect of dietary RJ on the life span in C3H/HeJ mice. The 50% mice survivals of intermediate- (about 6 mg/kg weight) and high-dose groups (about 60 mg/kg weight) were reached at significantly longer times than that of the control group according to the generalized Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). The average survival times were 88 weeks for the control group vs. 79 weeks for the low-dose group (about 0.6 mg/kg weight), 112 weeks for the intermediate-dose group and 110 weeks for the high-dose group, respectively, showing that RJ extended the average survival time by about 25% compared to the control group. However, RJ did not extend the total life span. These results indicated that dietary RJ increased the average life span of C3H/HeJ mice, possibly through the mechanism of reduced oxidative damage. PMID:12954483

Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Koya-Miyata, Satomi; Ushio, Shimpei; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Kurimoto, Masashi

2003-09-01

139

Hypothermia modulates cytokine responses after neonatal rat hypoxic-ischemic injury and reduces brain damage.  

PubMed

While hypothermia (HT) is the standard-of-care for neonates with hypoxic ischemic injury (HII), the mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective effect are poorly understood. We examined ischemic core/penumbra and cytokine/chemokine evolution in a 10-day-old rat pup model of HII. Pups were treated for 24?hr after HII with HT (32?; n?=?18) or normothermia (NT, 35?; n?=?15). Outcomes included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurobehavioral testing, and brain cytokine/chemokine profiling (0, 24, 48, and 72?hr post-HII). Lesion volumes (24?hr) were reduced in HT pups (total 74%, p?reduced interleukin-1? (IL-1?) at all time points (p?reduces total and penumbral lesion volumes (at 24 and 48?hr), potentially by decreasing IL-1? without affecting SDF-1. Disassociation between the increasing trend in HII volumes from 48 to 72?hr post-HII when IL-1? levels remained low suggests that after rewarming, mechanisms unrelated to IL-1? expression are likely to contribute to this delayed increase in injury. Additional studies should be considered to determine what these mechanisms might be and also to explore whether extending the duration or degree of HT might ameliorate this delayed increase in injury. PMID:25424430

Yuan, Xiangpeng; Ghosh, Nirmalya; McFadden, Brian; Tone, Beatriz; Bellinger, Denise L; Obenaus, Andre; Ashwal, Stephen

2014-10-01

140

Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

2014-01-01

141

INCREASING SAFETY AND REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE RISK FROM AGING HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

There exists a paramount need for improved understanding of the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stage...

142

Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

1992-01-01

143

On the use of targeting to reduce moral hazard in agri-environmental schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the role of targeting in the context of agri-environmental schemes involving monitoring and penalties and well suited to a geographically-based distinction between participants. By separating participants into a target and a non-target group the aim of targeting is to reduce the moral hazard problem. The paper analyses three approaches to targeting and the focus is on reducing

Rob W. Fraser

2003-01-01

144

Study of genetic damage in the Japanese oyster induced by an environmentally-relevant exposure to diuron: evidence of vertical transmission of DNA damage.  

PubMed

Pesticides represent a major proportion of the chemical pollutants detected in French coastal waters and hence a significant environmental risk with regards to marine organisms. Commercially-raised bivalves are particularly exposed to pollutants, among them pesticides, as shellfish farming zones are subject to considerable pressure from agricultural activities on the mainland. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the genotoxic effects of diuron exposure on oyster genitors and (2) the possible transmission of damaged DNA to offspring and its repercussions on oyster fitness. To investigate these points, oysters were exposed to concentrations of diuron close to those detected in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (two 7-day exposure pulses at 0.4 and 0.6 ?g L(-1)) during the gametogenesis period. Genomic abnormalities were characterized using two complementary approaches. The Comet assay was applied for the measurement of early and reversible primary DNA damage, whereas flow cytometry was used to assess the clastogenic and aneugenic effect of diuron exposure. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were used in exposed and assay tanks to confirm the waterborne concentration of diuron reached during the experiment. The results obtained by the Comet assay clearly showed a higher level of DNA strand breaks in both the hemocytes and spermatozoa of diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of damaged genetic material to gamete cells could be responsible for the genetic damage measured in offspring. Indeed, flow cytometry analyses showed the presence of DNA breakage and a significant decrease in DNA content in spat from diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of DNA damage to the offspring could be involved in the negative effects observed on offspring development (decrease in hatching rate, higher level of larval abnormalities, delay in metamorphosis) and growth. In this study, the vertical transmission of DNA damage was so highlighted by subjecting oyster genitors to short exposures to diuron at medium environmental concentrations. The analysis of POCIS showed that oysters were exposed to integrated concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 ?g L(-1), emphasizing the relevance of the results obtained and the risk associated to chemical contamination for oyster recruitment and fitness. PMID:24291084

Barranger, A; Akcha, F; Rouxel, J; Brizard, R; Maurouard, E; Pallud, M; Menard, D; Tapie, N; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Benabdelmouna, A

2014-01-01

145

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids  

PubMed Central

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wackers, Felix L.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Olson, Dawn M.; Ruberson, John R.; Romeis, Jorg

2013-01-01

146

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  

PubMed

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

2013-05-01

147

ENVIRONMENTAL TEDCHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TO REDUCE THE RISK OF USING INNOVATIVE COATING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The papeer discusses the use of environmental technology verification (ETV) to reduce the risk of using innovative coating technologies. It presents key concepts of the ETV program, reviews the scope of the ETV program's coatings and coating equipment pilot (CCEP) and its use of ...

148

The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation – A comprehensive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their proven usefulness in agriculture, they possess potential in solving environmental problems. Some examples are highlighted. PGPB may prevent soil erosion in arid zones by improving growth of desert plants in reforestation programs; in turn, this reduces dust pollution. PGPB supports restoration of mangrove ecosystems that

Luz E. de-Bashan; Juan-Pablo Hernandez; Yoav Bashan

149

Shaping the Terms of Competition: Environmental Regulation and Corporate Strategies to Reduce Diesel Vehicle Emissions  

E-print Network

Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christine Bik-Kay Ng B.S., Civil and Environmental Engineering University Strategies to Reduce Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christine Bik-Kay Ng Submitted to the Engineering Systems. This research explains the conditions under which competitive regulatory strategies are pursued in the diesel

de Weck, Olivier L.

150

Test validation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability and damage tolerance modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will establish a process for using a computational approach, validated at a specimen level, to predict reliably in the future component level performance without resorting to extensive testing.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.

2014-03-01

151

Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. PMID:23684439

Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

2013-05-01

152

Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.  

PubMed

We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

2014-10-01

153

Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. Methods This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. Results A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. Conclusions There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these. PMID:23663285

2013-01-01

154

Environmental Flows Can Reduce the Encroachment of Terrestrial Vegetation into River Channels: A Systematic Literature Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

Miller, Kimberly A.; Webb, J. Angus; de Little, Siobhan C.; Stewardson, Michael J.

2013-11-01

155

Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and wrenching floods. Our integrated model combines hydrologic, land use, environmental and economic data. The combination of the cadastral data with the flood characteristics (flow, depth, duration) for various periods of return enables to draw damage maps expressed as function of flood characteristics (Penning-Rowsell et al. 2005). This methodology also enables to illustrate consequences of risk prevention measures. We can thus measure the value of information in the alert system of Civil Protection Agency, give information on risks for urban development plans and simulate the consequences of hydraulic interventions like river bed cleaning. This methodology would then contribute to match with the requirements of the 2007 EU flood risk Management Directive (2007/60/CE).

Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

2012-04-01

156

Effects of water-damaged homes after flooding: health status of the residents and the environmental risk factors.  

PubMed

We evaluated the health status of residents and the environmental risk factors of housing after flooding. Questionnaires were distributed to 595 selected households (one adult resident per household) in six areas in Japan which were severely flooded between 2004 and 2010. A total of 379 responses were obtained. Indoor dampness and visible mold growth significantly increased in homes with greater flood damage. The incidence of respiratory, dermal, ocular, and nasal symptoms one week after flooding was significantly higher in flooded homes compared with non-flooded homes, the incidence of psychological disorders was significantly high for six months after flooding, and the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly high six months after flooding. Significant risk factors for respiratory and nasal symptoms included proximity to industrial and waste incineration plants. Our results suggest that rapid action should be taken after flooding to ensure adequate public health and environmental hygiene in the water-damaged homes. PMID:23802658

Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Hasegawa, Kenichi; Osawa, Haruki

2014-04-01

157

The Potential of Five Winter-grown Crops to Reduce Root-knot Nematode Damage and Increase Yield of Tomato  

PubMed Central

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel

2010-01-01

158

Civil liability for oil pollution damage: examining the evolving scope for environmental compensation in the international regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The civil liability regime for ship-source oil pollution enables national victims of oil spill damage to make financial claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in certain circumstances, the global oil cargo industry. This paper examines the evolving—and contested—parameters of environmental liability set by the international oil pollution liability conventions, focusing on the admissibility of reinstatement costs and the

Michael Mason

2003-01-01

159

Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology

C. T. Hendrickson; D. H. Matthews; M. Ashe; P. Jaramillo; F. C. McMichael

2010-01-01

160

Low-damage low-k etching with an environmentally friendly CF{sub 3}I plasma  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of etching Cu/low-k interconnects by using a low global warming potential CF{sub 3}I plasma was studied. Low-damage etching was done and porous SiOC (p-SiOC, k<2.6) film with low roughness was produced. Exposing p-SiOC film to CF{sub 3}I plasma was found to suppress the decrease in the CH{sub 3} group and the increase in the k value compared to those of conventional CF{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 6} plasmas. These effects are due to the low UV intensity and small amount of F radicals of CF{sub 3}I plasma. The authors also found that the etching profile of CF{sub 3}I plasma was comparable with that of CF{sub 4} plasma. Since the etching selectivity (p-SiOC/ArF photoresist) of CF{sub 3}I plasma is higher than that of CF{sub 4} plasma, the remaining photoresist thickness increases after etching, thus suppressing line edge roughness (LER). The decreased LER mitigated degradation of IV and time dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics in Cu interconnects. They also found that the roughness on the bottom surface of the p-SiOC trench was reduced. These benefits are due to CF{sub 3}I plasma's low reactivity with the carbon in photoresists and p-SiOC films. Based on these findings, they believe that the environmentally friendly CF{sub 3}I gas has great promise as a p-SiOC etching material.

Soda, Eiichi; Kondo, Seiichi; Saito, Shuichi; Ichihashi, Yoshinari; Sato, Aiko; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji [Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies, Inc., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2008-07-15

161

The doubtful environmental benefit of reduced maximum sulfur limit in international shipping fuel.  

PubMed

On January 1st, 2012, the maximum limit for sulfur concentration in marine fuels on the high seas was lowered from 4.50% to 3.50% by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). It was one of a series of planned steps toward reducing the negative environmental and health impacts of international shipping. This study investigates the effectiveness of the IMO regulation in reducing global sulfur emissions. We found a reduction in global average sulfur concentration of only 0.07% points from 2011 to 2012. On the positive side, we also found that only 2.3% of the bunkerings were noncompliant in 2012, that is, exceeded the new 3.50% sulfur concentration cap. The analysis furthermore suggests that compliance with the new regulation is achieved by blending high sulfur fuel with lower sulfur fuel, rather than by removing high sulfur fuel from the market or removing the excess sulfur. The main conclusion is that the regulation has been effective in reducing the maximum sulfur concentration but has not been very effective in reducing the average sulfur concentration. Thus, the regulation may have resulted in local environmental benefits but has not resulted in global benefits with respect to global sulfur emissions from international shipping. PMID:23713707

Mestl, Thomas; Løvoll, Grunde; Stensrud, Erik; Le Breton, Arnaud

2013-06-18

162

Environmental damage in human lymphocytes: Final report, January 1, 1983-September 30, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Our overall objectives have been to develop better assays for chromosome damage in human populations and to use these assays in order to gain a deeper understanding of the sources of that damage. Our primary emphasis recently has been on the micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes because it provides a relatively simple, rapid and reliable measure of chromosome damage. Perhaps our most important accomplishments have been to demonstrate that fact, to improve the assay by controlling for cell division, to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the assay, and to apply it to an investigation of theeffects of low level radiation exposure.

Norman, A.

1986-01-01

163

Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (gly-gly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the gly-gly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping

2014-04-01

164

Zinc inhibits glutamate release via activation of pre-synaptic K channels and reduces ischaemic damage in rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Zinc is concentrated in certain CNS excitatory tracts, especially in hippocampal mossy fibres where it has been suggested to modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. Using rat mossy fibre synaptosomes depolarized by 4-aminopyridine, we show here that low zinc concentrations restore the membrane potential and reduce glutamate release. Both effects arose from activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP), since they were mimicked by the KATP opener diazoxide and antagonized by the KATP blocker tolbutamide. Using recombinant channels expressed in COS-7 cells, we confirmed that micromolar zinc did activate KATP of the type found in hippocampus. We tested the hypothesis that this action of zinc could be beneficial during an ischaemic challenge by using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. When zinc was applied at micromolar concentrations during a brief anoxic-hypoglycaemic episode, it significantly attenuated the ensuing neuronal death, whereas chelation of endogenous zinc markedly aggravated cell damage. Protective effect of zinc was mediated through KATP, as was shown by using the opener diazoxide and the blocker tolbutamide. Thus, by activating pre-synaptic KATP channels, zinc protects neurones from hyper-excitation, excessive transmitter release and exitotoxicity, and may thus act as an endogenous neuroprotector in conditions such as epilepsy or stroke. PMID:15312179

Bancila, Victor; Nikonenko, Irina; Dunant, Yves; Bloc, Alain

2004-09-01

165

Interventions to reduce tourniquet-related ischaemic damage in orthopaedic surgery: a qualitative systematic review of randomised trials.  

PubMed

Ischaemia of the extremity from the use of a tourniquet and the subsequent reperfusion contribute to the release of reactive oxygen species. This release may result in injury to remote organs. We performed a qualitative systematic review exploring the interventions used to prevent tourniquet-related oxidative damage in adults undergoing orthopaedic surgery, and the possible relationship between biochemical oxidative stress markers and postoperative clinical outcomes. Seventeen randomised controlled studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Most trials were of low methodological quality and only two studies reported postoperative clinical outcomes. Nine studies tested anaesthetics (propofol, dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and spinal anaesthesia); four studies tested antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine, vitamin C, and mannitol); and four studies tested ischaemic pre-conditioning. Fifteen studies showed a significant reduction in biochemical oxidative stress markers. We conclude that propofol and ischaemic pre-conditioning, in particular, appear to show some benefit at reducing oxidative stress following operations under tourniquet; the correlation between a reduction in oxidative stress and postoperative clinical outcomes should be further investigated in the future. PMID:24800642

Halladin, N L; Zahle, F V; Rosenberg, J; Gögenur, I

2014-09-01

166

Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles  

PubMed Central

The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles. PMID:25289186

Rubega, Margaret A.; Sustaita, Diego

2014-01-01

167

Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling  

SciTech Connect

In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens. The High Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

Edward Marks

2005-09-09

168

Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.  

PubMed

The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

Menzies, Kevin

2014-08-13

169

Evaluation of DNA damage induced by environmental exposure to mercury in Liza aurata using the comet assay.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is one of the major aquatic contaminants even though emissions have been reduced over the years. Despite the relative abundance of investigations carried out on Hg toxicity, there is a scarcity of studies on its DNA damaging effects in fish under realistic exposure conditions. This study assessed the Hg genotoxicity in Golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) at Laranjo basin, a particularly contaminated area of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) well known for its Hg contamination gradient. (1) Fish were seasonally caught at Laranjo basin and at a reference site (S. Jacinto), and (2) animals from the reference site were transplanted and caged (at bottom and surface), for 3 days, in two different locations within Laranjo basin. Using the comet assay, blood was analyzed for genetic damage and apoptotic cell frequency. The seasonal survey showed greater DNA damage in the Hg-contaminated area for all sampling seasons excluding winter. The temporal variation pattern of DNA lesions was: summer approximately autumn > winter > spring. Fish caged at Laranjo also exhibited greater DNA damage than those caged at the reference site, highlighting the importance of gill uptake on the toxicity of this metal. No increased susceptibility to apoptosis was detected in either wild or caged fish, indicating that mercury damages DNA of blood cells by a nonapoptotic mechanism. Both L. aurata and the comet assay proved to be sensitive and suitable for genotoxicity biomonitoring in mercury-contaminated coastal systems. PMID:19458991

Pereira, Carla Sofia Alves; Guilherme, Sofia Isabel Antunes Gomes; Barroso, Carlos Miguel Miguez; Verschaeve, Luc; Pacheco, Mário Guilherme Garcês; Mendo, Sónia Alexandra Leite Velho

2010-01-01

170

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

SciTech Connect

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

2011-04-20

171

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduced gastric damage in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated Mongolian gerbils  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori prior to usage of NSAIDs, by investigating gastric inflammatory activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthesis in H pylori-infected, and H pylori-eradicated gerbils followed by administration of indomethacin and rofecoxib. METHODS: Six-week-old male gerbils were orally inoculated with H pylori. Seven weeks later, anti-H pylori triple therapy and vehicle were given to gerbils respectively and followed by oral indomethacin (2 mg/kg.d) or rofecoxib (10 mg/kg.d) for 2 wk. We examined the area of lesions, gastric inflammatory activity, PGE2 synthesis and MPO activity in the stomach. RESULTS: In indomethacin and rofecoxib-treated gerbils, the following results were obtained in H pylori-infected group vs H pylori-eradicated group respectively: hyperplasia area of the stomach (mm2): 82.4±9.2 vs 13.9±3.5 (P<0.05), 30.5±5.1 vs 1.3±0.6 (P<0.05); erosion and ulcer area (mm2): 14.4±4.9 vs 0.86±0.5 (P<0.05), 1.3±0.6 vs 0.4±0.3 (P<0.05); score of gastritis: 7.0±0.0 vs 3.6±0.5 (P<0.05), 7.0±0.0 vs 2.7±0.5 (P<0.05); MPO activity (?mol H2O2/min/g tissue): 104.7±9.2 vs 9.0±2.3 (P<0.05), 133.5±15.0 vs 2.9±0.7 (P<0.05); PGE2 synthesis (pg/mg wet weight/min): 299.2±81.5 vs 102.8±26.2 (P<0.05), 321.4±30.3 vs 11.9±4.8 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Eradication of H pylori reduced gastric damage of NSAID-treated Mongolian gerbils. Rofecoxib caused less severe gastric damage than indomethacin in H pylori-eradicated gerbils. PMID:15609406

Chang, Chun-Chao; Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lien, Gi-Shih; Lou, Horng-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Ruey; Fang, Chia-Lang; Pan, Shiann

2005-01-01

172

A laboratory-based comparison of a molluscicide and an alternative food source (red clover) as means of reducing slug damage to winter wheat.  

PubMed

Slugs are major pests of many crops in the UK, including winter wheat, yet current methods of control are often unreliable. This study investigates the potential use of red clover, as an alternative food source, to reduce the amount of damage caused to winter wheat by the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Two laboratory-based studies, each conducted over a 7-day period, investigated the effects of red clover seedlings and commercial metaldehyde pellets on damage to winter wheat seeds and seedlings. The results indicate that metaldehyde applications, in the form of commercially available pellets, resulted in significantly greater protection to wheat seeds compared with red clover, whereas metaldehyde and red clover were equally as effective in reducing damage to wheat seedlings. A further laboratory experiment investigated the effect of two slug population densities (48 and 16 adults m(-2)) and high and low red clover seed rates (125% and 75% of a standard rate) on damage to wheat seeds. Results showed that, at the highest slug population density, red clover sown at 125% of the standard rate gave 99% protection to wheat seeds, compared with the 75% seed rate which gave 55%. At the lower slug population density, both seed rates of red clover resulted in similar levels of protection. Implications for the potential use of red clover as an alternative food source for reducing damage to winter wheat in field conditions are discussed. PMID:15838932

Brooks, Andrew S; Wilcox, Andrew; Cook, Richard T; Crook, Mitchell J

2005-07-01

173

Time evolution of damage due to environmentally assisted aging in a fiber bundle model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage growth in composite materials is a complex process which is of interest in many fields of science and engineering. We consider this problem in a fiber bundle model where fibers undergo an aging process due to the accumulation of damage driven by the locally acting stress in a chemically active environment. By subjecting the bundle to a constant external load, fibers fail either when the load on them exceeds their individual intrinsic strength or when the accumulated internal damage exceeds a random threshold. We analyze the time evolution of the breaking process under low external loads where aging of fibers dominates. In the mean field limit, we show analytically that the aging system continuously accelerates in a way which can be characterized by an inverse power law of the event rate with a singularity that defines a failure time. The exponent is not universal; it depends on the details of the aging process. For localized load sharing, a more complex damage process emerges which is dominated by distinct spatial regions of the system with different degrees of stress concentration. Analytical calculations revealed that the final acceleration to global failure is preceded by a stationary accumulation of damage. When the disorder is strong, the accelerating phase has the same functional behavior as in the mean field limit. The analytical results are verified by computer simulations.

Lennartz-Sassinek, S.; Main, I. G.; Danku, Z.; Kun, F.

2013-09-01

174

Role of Telematics in Reducing the Negative Environmental Impact of Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With development of society increase the demand for the movement of people and goods. From years the transportation expand rapidly and is crucial to economic development. Unfortunately, it is also an economic sector with the most harmful effects on the environment. The various modes of transport in different extent impact negative on the environment, which depends mainly on the technical-operating conditions. The up-to-date telematics systems provide the transport industry a revolutionary opportunity to effectively manage. Appropriate use of these systems can help to substantially improve the efficiency of transport and its operating costs, in consequence lead to reduce the negative environmental impact of transport.

Mikulski, Jerzy; Kwa?ny, Aleksandra

175

Humus-reducing microorganisms and their valuable contribution in environmental processes.  

PubMed

Humus constitutes a very abundant class of organic compounds that are chemically heterogeneous and widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Evidence accumulated during the last decades indicating that humic substances play relevant roles on the transport, fate, and redox conversion of organic and inorganic compounds both in chemically and microbially driven reactions. The present review underlines the contribution of humus-reducing microorganisms in relevant environmental processes such as biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of greenhouse gases emission in anoxic ecosystems, redox conversion of industrial contaminants in anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, and on the microbial production of nanocatalysts and alternative energy sources. PMID:24220793

Martinez, Claudia M; Alvarez, Luis H; Celis, Lourdes B; Cervantes, Francisco J

2013-12-01

176

Co-benefits & Co-damages of environmental policies: using the principles of Industrial Ecology in Environmental Policy making. With the case of PVC  

E-print Network

Since environmental policy measures may have many impacts that are linked to each other in both physical and socio-economic respect, the need for tools for assess this variety of impacts is growing. In this paper the main aim is to describe the need for the development of a methodology to identify, categorize and quantify the environmental co-benefits and co-damage of environmental policies. The focus on such side effects is in this paper translated as using the systems perspective, a core concept in the field of Industrial Ecology. Using the Industrial Ecology framework will introduce or strengthen the focus on material flows in society as an addition to current Integrated Assessment tools like RAINS and IMAGE. To provide a practical framework in which the methodology will be developed a case is chosen from the realm of the chlorine industry: policy measures related to PVC. The PVC case is used to show the need for a systems perspective when evaluating the effects of environmental policy measures. If PVC is banned from certain applications alternative materials will be used with environmental effects of their own. Furthermore, the production of PVC is linked to other parts of the chlorine industry via the use of HCl in the oxychlorination process. A strong reduction in the production of PVC would have to result in either large solid waste flows or changes in production processes. Furthermore, PVC is linked to chemical waste treatment and, via the production of chlorine, to the production and use of caustic.

René Kleijn; Ester Van Der Voet

177

Characterization of microbially Fe(III)-reduced nontronite: Environmental cell-transmission electron microscopy study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microstructural changes induced by the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in nontronite by Shewanella oneidensis were studied using environmental cell (EC)-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conventional TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Direct observations of clays by EC-TEM in their hydrated state allowed for the first time an accurate and unambiguous TEM measurement of basal layer spacings and the contraction of layer spacing caused by microbial effects, most likely those of Fe(III) reduction. Non-reduced and Fe(III)-reduced nontronite, observed by EC-TEM, exhibited fringes with mean d001 spacings of 1.50 nm (standard deviation, ?? = 0.08 nm) and 1.26 nm (?? = 0.10 nm), respectively. In comparison, the same samples embedded with Nanoplast resin, sectioned by microtome, and observed using conventional TEM, displayed layer spacings of 1.0-1.1 nm (non-reduced) and 1.0 nm (reduced). The results from Nanoplast-embedded samples are typical of conventional TEM studies, which have measured nearly identical layer spacings regardless of Fe oxidation state. Following Fe(III) reduction, both EC- and conventional TEM showed an increase in the order of nontronite selected area electron diffraction patterns while the images exhibited fewer wavy fringes and fewer layer terminations. An increase in stacking order in reduced nontronite was also suggested by XRD measurements. In particular, the ratio of the valley to peak intensity (v/p) of the 1.7 nm basal 001 peak of ethylene glycolated nontronite was measured at 0.65 (non-reduced) and 0.85 (microbially reduced).

Kim, J. -W.; Furukawa, Y.; Daulton, T. L.; Lavoie, D.; Newell, S. W.

2003-01-01

178

Advanced Glycation End-Products Reduce Collagen Molecular Sliding to Affect Collagen Fibril Damage Mechanisms but Not Stiffness  

PubMed Central

Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) contribute to age-related connective tissue damage and functional deficit. The documented association between AGE formation on collagens and the correlated progressive stiffening of tissues has widely been presumed causative, despite the lack of mechanistic understanding. The present study investigates precisely how AGEs affect mechanical function of the collagen fibril – the supramolecular functional load-bearing unit within most tissues. We employed synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and carefully controlled mechanical testing after introducing AGEs in explants of rat-tail tendon using the metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO). Mass spectrometry and collagen fluorescence verified substantial formation of AGEs by the treatment. Associated mechanical changes of the tissue (increased stiffness and failure strength, decreased stress relaxation) were consistent with reports from the literature. SAXS analysis revealed clear changes in molecular deformation within MGO treated fibrils. Underlying the associated increase in tissue strength, we infer from the data that MGO modified collagen fibrils supported higher loads to failure by maintaining an intact quarter-staggered conformation to nearly twice the level of fibril strain in controls. This apparent increase in fibril failure resistance was characterized by reduced side-by-side sliding of collagen molecules within fibrils, reflecting lateral molecular interconnectivity by AGEs. Surprisingly, no change in maximum fibril modulus (2.5 GPa) accompanied the changes in fibril failure behavior, strongly contradicting the widespread assumption that tissue stiffening in ageing and diabetes is directly related to AGE increased fibril stiffness. We conclude that AGEs can alter physiologically relevant failure behavior of collagen fibrils, but that tissue level changes in stiffness likely occur at higher levels of tissue architecture. PMID:25364829

Fessel, Gion; Li, Yufei; Diederich, Vincent; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Schneider, Philipp; Sell, David R.; Monnier, Vincent M.; Snedeker, Jess G.

2014-01-01

179

Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey results are presented from 65 parents, students over 12 years, teachers, and other school employees using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. It shows the results of years of neglect of infrastructure for children and reveals disturbing new information about the environmental health of school…

Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

180

Effects of environmental air pollution on endogenous oxidative DNA damage in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies conducted in metropolitan areas have demonstrated that exposure to environmental air pollution is associated with increases in mortality. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) are the major source of genotoxic activities of organic mixtures associated with respirable particulate matter, which is a constituent of environmental air pollution. In this study,we wanted to evaluate the relationship between exposure to these

Rajinder Singh; Balvinder Kaur; Ivan Kalina; Todor A. Popov; Tzveta Georgieva; Seymour Garte; Blanka Binkova; Radim J. Sram; Emanuela Taioli; Peter B. Farmer

2007-01-01

181

Damage mechanisms induced by cyclic ply-stresses in carbon–epoxy laminates: Environmental effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify and to describe the damage mechanisms of CFRP composite laminates subjected to thermal cycling. Thermal cycling tests are performed in different atmospheres, more or less oxidative (air or oxygen) or neutral (nitrogen). Microscopic observations and weight measurements of cross-ply laminates samples, put in light a significant oxidation of the matrix when tests are carried out

M. C. Lafarie-Frenot

2006-01-01

182

Removing of Formation Damage and Enhancement of Formation Productivity Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals  

E-print Network

Topography (CT) scans were used to determine the effectiveness of these fluids in stimulation calcite and dolomite cores and removing the damage from sandstone cores. The sandstone cores used in this study contain from 1 to 18 wt percent illite (swellable...

Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Nasr Eldin

2012-07-16

183

Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach  

PubMed Central

Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area. PMID:22754580

Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

2012-01-01

184

Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

2013-03-01

185

Evaluation of Flight Control™ and Mesurol ® as repellents to reduce horned lark ( Eremophila alpestris) damage to lettuce seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted enclosure trials near Huron, CA in the San Joaquin Valley from 12 to 23 January 1999 to determine the efficacy of Flight Control™ (50% anthraquinone) and Mesurol® (75% methiocarb) in preventing horned lark damage to lettuce seedlings. Flight Control™ (FC) and Mesurol® were evaluated as foliar sprays at application rates of 2.79 and 2.27kgha?1, respectively. Horned lark damage

Darryl L York; John L Cummings; Richard M. Engeman; James E Davis

2000-01-01

186

Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.  

PubMed

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

Burger, Joanna

2008-08-01

187

Configuring the mesh size, side taper and wing depth of penaeid trawls to reduce environmental impacts.  

PubMed

The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the '41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or 'long' and ?28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or 'short' and ?35o) and wing depths ('deep'-97 T vs 'shallow'-60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings--by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

Broadhurst, Matt K; Sterling, David J; Millar, Russell B

2014-01-01

188

Application of ecosystem-based analytic tools to evaluate natural resource damage and environmental impact assessments in the ROPME Sea Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the fragmented political jurisdictions, and substantive environmental damages from petroleum spillage, human development and other anthropogenic perturbations, a need exists for developing a coordinated set of protocols and approaches for determining impacts to activities exerting extra-territorial environmental and ecological pressures on coastal and offshore natural resources in the ROPME Sea Area (RSA; also known as the Gulf), as well

Timothy J. Reilly; Deborah French McCay; Jon R. Grant; Jill Rowe

2012-01-01

189

Optical damage in reduced Z-cut LiNbO{sub 3} crystals caused by longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects  

SciTech Connect

The marked optical damage was observed in thin Z-cut plates of the deeply reduced nominally pure LiNbO{sub 3} crystals, when a 514.5-nm-laser beam with ordinary polarization was focused on the {+-}Z face. The longitudinal photovoltaic and pyroelectric effects are shown to be responsible for most of the important peculiarities of the optical damage dynamics. The anisotropy in the behavior between the +Z and -Z faces has been explained by interference of the different kinds of pyroelectric and photovoltaic effects to the space-charge field with an altering relative sign.

Kostritskii, S. M. [RPC Optolink, Sosnovaya al., d. 6 A, str.2, NPL-3-1, Zelenograd, Moscow, 124489 (Russian Federation); Aillerie, M. [LMOPS, University Paul Verlaine of Metz and Supelec, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France)

2012-01-01

190

Damage Characteristics in Notched Carbon Fiber Composites Subjected to Fatigue Loading—Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several destructive and non-destructive methods were used to study the effect of ab sorbed moisture and\\/or heat on the tension-compression fatigue properties of notched, 0°\\/±45°, carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The main objective was the understanding of the nature of fatigue damage around notches (sharp slits and circular holes), under hot and\\/or wet conditions. The fatigue performance of the notched

J. Morton; S. Kellas; S. M. Bishop

1988-01-01

191

Assessment of the economic magnitude of environmental damage from acid precipitation in the Adirondacks  

SciTech Connect

This research represents one of a few initial attempts to quantify economic damages resulting from increased acidification of lakes and ponds ostensibly due to acidic deposition. The focus of this research is the loss in economic welfare resulting from diminished recreational angling opportunities within the Adirondack fishery. An amended travel-cost model was applied to a survey of licensed anglers in New York State to determine the economic value of the fishery prior to the general acknowledgement of widespread acidification damages. Data pertaining to those water bodies that have become acidified were used together with the parameters of the empirical model to generate the change in visitation and economic value resulting from increased acidification. Annual losses in economic value due to the acidification-related reduction in recreational angling opportunities were estimated to be in the range of $1.6 to 3.2 million. These estimates should be interpreted as a lower bound of the actual social losses incurred annually from acidification damages to this freshwater ecosystem. 6 references.

Menz, F.C.; Mullen, J.K.

1983-05-01

192

Reducing the environmental impacts of intermodal transportation: a multi-criteria analysis based on ELECTRE and AHP methods  

E-print Network

Reducing the environmental impacts of intermodal transportation: a multi-criteria analysis ({sawadogo, anciaux}@univ-metz.fr2 ) Abstract: Nowadays, the impacts of transportation systems on the environment and the society are undeniable. Considering the great environmental awakenings at the planetary

Boyer, Edmond

193

Abstract Plants defend themselves against herbivores via resistance, which reduces damage, and tolerance, which minimizes the negative effects of damage. Theory  

E-print Network

Aspen � Compensation � Defoliation � Growth � Herbivory � Plant defense � Woody plant M. T. Stevens � D and tolerance are two principal forms of plant defense against herbivores. Plant resistance reduces herbivore plants are selected against. This cost­benefit dynamic may explain why genetic variation for defense

Waller, Donald M.

194

Environmental enrichment restores CA1 hippocampal LTP and reduces severity of seizures in epileptic mice.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) in a seizure-prone mouse model in which the genetic disruption of the presynaptic protein Bassoon leads to structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus and causes early spontaneous seizures mimicking human neurodevelopmental disorders. One-month EE starting at P21 reduced seizure severity, preserved long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse synaptic responses in the hippocampal CA1 neuronal population and prevented the reduction of spine density and dendrite branching of pyramidal neurons. These data demonstrate that EE exerts its therapeutic effect by normalizing multiple aspects of hippocampal function and provide experimental support for its use in the optimization of existent treatments. PMID:24858730

Morelli, Emanuela; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Pendolino, Valentina; Bagetta, Vincenza; Pignataro, Annabella; Fejtova, Anna; Costa, Cinzia; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo

2014-11-01

195

Environmental Stimulation Does Not Reduce Impulsive Choice in ADHD: A "Pink Noise" Study.  

PubMed

Objective: The preference for sooner smaller over larger later rewards is a prominent manifestation of impulsivity in ADHD. According to the State Regulation Deficit (SRD) model, this impulsive choice is the result of impaired regulation of arousal level and can be alleviated by adding environmental stimulation to increase levels of arousal. Method: To test this prediction, we studied the effects of adding background "pink noise" on impulsive choice using a classical and new adjusting choice delay task in a sample of 25 children with ADHD and 28 controls. Results: Children with ADHD made more impulsive choices than controls. Adding noise did not reduce impulsive choice in ADHD. Conclusion: The findings add to the existing evidence on impulsive choice in ADHD, but no evidence is found for the SRD model's explanation of this behavioral style. Alternative explanations for impulsive choice in ADHD are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23511552

Metin, Baris; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R; van der Meere, Jaap J; Gasthuys, Roos; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2013-03-27

196

Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.

1973-01-01

197

Environmental enrichment reduces the impact of novelty and motivational properties of ethanol in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the consequences of environmental enrichment on the impact of novelty and motivational properties of ethanol in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a validated model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This rat strain displays increased sensitivity to distinct classes of abused drugs, which makes it an interesting model for the study of the association between ADHD and drug abuse. Female SHR reared from weaning to adulthood in standard (SE) or enriched (EE) environment were tested on novelty-induced locomotion, saccharin consumption, ethanol consumption (forced and free-choice schedules) and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). SHR reared in an EE showed reduced novelty-induced locomotion, consumed less saccharin and ethanol in a forced schedule and showed less ethanol preference in a free-choice schedule compared to SE rats. Moreover, EE rats did not develop CPP, whereas SE rats developed preference for ethanol (1.2g/kg). These results show that exposure to stimuli mimicking positive life experiences (environmental enrichment) induces persistent changes in the reward/motivational system of female SHR, suggesting an important role of the familiar environment during early stages of the neurodevelopment on the co-morbidity of ADHD and drug abuse. PMID:19962407

de Carvalho, Cristiane Ribeiro; Pandolfo, Pablo; Pamplona, Fabrício Alano; Takahashi, Reinaldo Naoto

2010-03-17

198

Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.?DATA SOURCES—Literature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.?STUDY SELECTION—Review and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a synthesis of these studies as contrasted with a quantitative meta-analysis.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions designed for residential/child ETS exposure control have included policy/legal regulations, minimal clinical services, and counselling services. Divorce court and adoption services have limited custody to protect children from ETS exposure. Controlled trials of clinicians' one time counselling services have shown null results. One controlled trial found that repeated physician ETS counselling increased parent cessation. Three trials found that repeated counselling/shaping procedures reduced quantitative estimates of ETS exposure in asthmatic children.?CONCLUSIONS—Insufficient controlled studies of repeated session counselling procedures have been completed to determine efficacy for ETS exposure reduction, but evidence is promising. One time minimal interventions appear ineffective, but large scale studies may be warranted. No studies have been conducted to assess court or adoption agency regulations; no community ordinances for regulating residential ETS exposure have been invoked. Ethical and enforcement issues are discussed.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; passive smoking; interventions; counselling PMID:10841590

Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.

2000-01-01

199

Structural Evolution of Environmentally Responsive Cationic Liposome–DNA Complexes with a Reducible Lipid Linker  

PubMed Central

Environmentally responsive materials, i.e., materials that respond to changes in their environment with a change in their properties or structure, are attracting an increasing amount of interest. We recently designed and synthesized a series of cleavable multivalent lipids (CMVLn, with n = 2 to 5 the number of positive headgroup charges at full protonation) with a disulfide bond in the linker between cationic headgroup and hydrophobic tails. The self-assembled complexes of the CMVLs and DNA are a prototypical environmentally responsive material, undergoing extensive structural rearrangement when exposed to reducing agents. We investigated the structural evolution of CMVL–DNA complexes at varied complex composition, temperature and incubation time using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A related lipid with a stable linker, TMVL4, was used as a control. In a nonreducing environment CMVL–DNA complexes form the lamellar (L?C) phase, with DNA rods sandwiched between lipid bilayers. However, new self-assembled phases form when the disulfide linker is cleaved by dithiothreitol or the biologically relevant reducing agent glutathione. The released DNA and cleaved CMVL headgroups form a “loosely organized” phase, giving rise to a characteristic broad SAXS correlation profile. CMVLs of high headgroup charge also form condensed DNA bundles. Intriguingly, the cleaved hydrophobic tails of the CMVLs reassemble into tilted chain-ordered L?? phases upon incubation at physiological temperature (37 °C), as indicated by characteristic WAXS peaks. X-ray scattering further reveals that two of the three phases (L?F, L?L, and L?I) comprised by the L?? phase coexist in these samples. The described system may have applications in lipid-based nanotechnologies. PMID:22616637

Shirazi, Rahau S.; Ewert, Kai K.; Silva, Bruno F. B.; Leal, Cecilia; Li, Youli; Safinya, Cyrus R.

2012-01-01

200

Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions  

E-print Network

Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological ...

Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-

2006-01-01

201

Molecular and genetic damage in humans from environmental pollution in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXTREME environmental pollution such as that found in the highly industrialized Silesian region of Poland has been associated with increased risk of cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes1,2. Among the most prevalent carcinogenic and mutagenic air pollutants in Silesia are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which are largely produced by industrial and residential combustion of coal1. Molecular epidemiology aims to prevent

Frederica P. Perera; Kari Hemminki; Ewa Gryzbowska; Grazyna Motykiewicz; Jadwiga Michalska; Regina M. Santella; Tie-Lan Young; Christopher Dickey; Paul Brandt-Rauf; Immaculata Devivo; William Blaner; Wei-Yann Tsai; Mieczyslaw Chorazy

1992-01-01

202

Coexistence of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles: enhancing or reducing environmental risks?  

PubMed

Due to their bactericidal and photocatalytic characteristics, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in the fields of environment and physiology. Once these untreated nanoparticles are released into an aquatic environment and encounter one another, there is more uncertainty about their fate and ecotoxicological risks compared with the single nanoparticles. To expand our knowledge of the health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles, we investigated the possible risk of the co-existence of TiO2 NPs and Ag NPs in an aquatic environment using ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) as an aquatic animal model. In this study, silver ion (Ag(+)) release and physicochemical properties, as well as their effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, were monitored. Continuous illumination (12,000 lx) led to the 20.0% decrease in Ag(+) release in comparison with dark conditions, while TiO2 NPs and continuous illumination resulted in decreasing the Ag(+) concentration to 64.3% in contrast with Ag NPs-only suspensions. Toxicity tests indicated that different illumination modes exerted distinct effects of TiO2 NPs on the toxicity of Ag NPs: no effects, antagonism and synergism in dark, natural light and continuous light, respectively. In the presence of 1.5mg/L (18.8 ?M) TiO2 NPs, the toxicity of 1.5 mg/L (13.9 ?M) Ag NPs was reduced by 28.7% and increased by 6.93% in natural light and 12,000 lx of continuous light, respectively. After culturing in 12,000 lx continuous light for 24h, SOD activity of the light control surged to 1.96 times compared to the dark control (P<0.001). TiO2 NPs induced a reduction of CAT activity by an average of (36.1±1.7) % in the light. In the natural light reductions in the toxicity of Ag, NPs decrease Ag(+) concentrations via adsorption of Ag(+) onto TiO2 NPs surfaces. The enhancement of Ag NPs toxicity can contribute to the formation of activated TiO2-Ag NPs complexes in continuous light. The existence of TiO2 NPs in various illumination modes changed the surface chemistry of Ag NPs and then led to different toxicity effects. TiO2 NPs reduce the environmental risks of Ag NPs in natural light, but in continuous light, TiO2 NPs enhance the environmental risks of Ag NPs. PMID:24907921

Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng; Zhang, Hongwu

2014-09-01

203

Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.  

PubMed

1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment. PMID:23815735

Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

2013-01-01

204

Carnitine reduces the lipoperoxidative damage of the membrane and apoptosis after induction of cell stress in experimental glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological damage caused by glaucoma is associated to a high intraocular pressure. The ocular hypertone is most likely due to a defective efflux of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye. Ocular hypertension causes apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells and overexpression of molecular markers typical of cell stress response and apoptosis. In this work, we report

N Calandrella; C De Seta; G Scarsella; G Risuleo

2010-01-01

205

Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves reduced  

E-print Network

Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23 Lung cancers (LCs) are among the most common human malignancies worldwide.1 Despite the use

Cai, Long

206

The administration of food supplemented with cocoa powder during nutritional recovery reduces damage caused by oxidative stress in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition contributes to the development of oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The selective administration\\u000a of nutrients tends to show positive results in individuals who have suffered from malnutrition. To determine the effect of\\u000a the administration of cocoa powder on the peroxidation of lipids and glutathione level during the nutritional recovery in\\u000a brain, rats of 21 days old were subjected

Gerardo Barragán Mejía; David Calderón Guzmán; Hugo Juárez Olguín; Nancy Hernández Martínez; Edna García Cruz; Aline Morales Ramírez; Norma Labra Ruiz; Gabriela Esquivel Jiménez; Norma Osnaya Brizuela; Raquel García Álvarez; Esperanza Ontiveros Mendoza

207

Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems.  

PubMed

Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30-60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550-600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service. PMID:19223587

Ju, Xiao-Tang; Xing, Guang-Xi; Chen, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xue-Jun; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Yin, Bin; Christie, Peter; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2009-03-01

208

Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-? oligomers in aged mice  

PubMed Central

Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-? (A?) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble A? oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain A? oligomers and increased synthesis of the A?-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

2013-01-01

209

DNA damage-inducible genes as biomarkers for exposures to environmental agents.  

PubMed Central

A biodosimetric approach to determine alpha-particle dose to the respiratory tract epithelium from known exposures to radon has been developed in the rat. Cytotoxicity assays have been used to obtain dose-conversion factors for cumulative exposures typical of those encountered by underground uranium miners. However, this approach is not sensitive enough to derive dose-conversion factors for indoor radon exposures. The expression of DNA damage-inducible genes is being investigated as a biomarker of exposure to radon progeny. Exposure of cultures of A549 cells to alpha particles resulted in an increase in the protein levels of the DNA damage-inducible genes, p53, Cip1, and Gadd45. These protein changes were associated with a transient arrest of cells passing through the cell cycle. This arrest was typified by an increase in the number of cells in the G1 and G2 phases and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. The effect of inhaled alpha particles (radon progeny) in rats was examined in the epithelial cells of the lateral well of the anterior nasal cavity. Exposures to radon progeny resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. These cell-cycle changes were concomitant with an increase in the number of cells containing DNA strand breaks. These results suggest a commonality between cell-cycle events in vitro and in vivo following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to ionizing radiation, A549 cells were exposed to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, methyl methanesulphonate, crocidolite asbestos, and glass microfiber. These studies showed that physical and chemical agents induce different expression patterns of p53, Cip1, and Gadd153 proteins and they could be used to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic materials such as asbestos and glass microfiber. The measurement of gene expression in A549 cells may provide a means to identify a broad spectrum of physical and chemical toxicants encountered in the environment. PMID:9255580

Johnson, N F; Carpenter, T R; Jaramillo, R J; Liberati, T A

1997-01-01

210

Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities  

SciTech Connect

An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

Not Available

1980-03-01

211

Putting consumers first in design for sustainable behaviour: a case study of reducing environmental impacts of cold appliance use  

Microsoft Academic Search

To slow down the increasing environmental degradation, design for sustainable behaviour (DfSB) has emerged in sustainable design aiming to promote behavioural change through design innovations to reduce environmental and social impacts from the demand side or consumer side. This paper presents a practice-based journey to investigate the process and results of the application of social-psychological theories into sustainable design. Focusing

Tang Tang; Tracy Bhamra

2012-01-01

212

Long-Term Effects of Chromatin Remodeling and DNA Damage in Stem Cells Induced by Environmental and Dietary Agents  

PubMed Central

The presence of histones acts as a barrier to protein access; thus chromatin remodeling must occur for essential processes such as transcription and replication. In conjunction with histone modifications, DNA methylation plays critical roles in gene silencing through chromatin remodeling. Chromatin remodeling is also interconnected with the DNA damage response, maintenance of stem cell properties, and cell differentiation programs. Chromatin modifications have increasingly been shown to produce long-lasting alterations in chromatin structure and transcription. Recent studies have shown environmental exposures in utero have the potential to alter normal developmental signaling networks, physiologic responses, and disease susceptibility later in life during a process known as developmental reprogramming. In this review we discuss the long-term impact of exposure to environmental compounds, the chromatin modifications that they induce, and the differentiation and developmental programs of multiple stem and progenitor cell types altered by exposure. The main focus is to highlight agents present in the human lifestyle that have the potential to promote epigenetic changes that impact developmental programs of specific cell types, may promote tumorigenesis through altering epigenetic marks, and may be transgenerational, for example, those able to be transmitted through multiple cell divisions. PMID:24579784

Bariar, Bhawana; Vestal, C. Greer; Richardson, Christine

2014-01-01

213

Quality control in the application of flow cytometry to studies of environmentally-induced genetic damage  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometry (FCM) has been used to demonstrate altered DNA content in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals exposed to radionuclides, PAHs and other contaminants. However, artifacts resulting from sample preparation, handling, variations in instrument parameters or other factors may confound such measurements. Some artifacts resemble genotoxic responses and so could lead to erroneous positive conclusions. As part of ongoing studies of effects of various pollutants on DNA content in fishes, the authors tested sample handling and preparation methods for the induction of artifacts. The authors describe QA/QC methods, including control of staining, conditions, doublet discrimination by comparison of peak versus integral fluorescence, internal DNA standards, and the use of time versus fluorescence plots. Consistent application of these practices is essential to obtain valid measurements of DNA content in environmental samples, and neglect of these can result in poor quality data and the acceptance of incorrect hypotheses.

McCreedy, C.D.; Robinson, J.P.; Dallas, C.E.; Jagoe, C.H.

1999-07-01

214

Resistance to Bleomycin in Cancer Cell Lines Is Characterized by Prolonged Doubling Time, Reduced DNA Damage and Evasion of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Background To establish, characterize and elucidate potential mechanisms of acquired bleomycin (BLM) resistance using human cancer cell lines. Seven BLM-resistant cell lines were established by exposure to escalating BLM concentrations over a period of 16-24 months. IC50 values and cell doubling times were quantified using a real time cytotoxicity assay. COMET and ?-H2AX assays, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assessment further investigated the mechanisms of BLM resistance in these cell lines. Results Compared with parental cell lines, real time cytotoxicity assays revealed 7 to 49 fold increases in IC50 and a mean doubling time increase of 147 % (range 64 %-352%) in BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05 for both). Higher maintenance BLM concentrations were associated with higher IC50 and increased doubling times (p<0.05). Significantly reduced DNA damage (COMET and ?-H2AX assays), G2/M arrest, and apoptosis (p<0.05 for each set of comparison) following high-dose acute BLM exposure was observed in resistant sub-clones, compared with their BLM-sensitive parental counterparts. Three weeks of BLM-free culturing resulted in a partial return to BLM sensitivity in 3/7 BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05). Conclusion Bleomycin resistance may be associated with reduced DNA damage after bleomycin exposure, resulting in reduced G2/M arrest, and reduced apoptosis. PMID:24349265

Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Cheng, Dangxiao; Qiu, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhuo; Moore, Malcolm; Bristow, Robert G.; Xu, Wei; Der, Sandy; Liu, Geoffrey

2013-01-01

215

Replication of damaged genomes.  

PubMed

Cellular DNA is continuously assaulted by chemical and physical agents that arise from both endogenous metabolic processes as well as exogenous insults. Commonly encountered environmental agents include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic amines, the ultraviolet component of sunlight, and ionizing radiation, among many others. Although the kinds of damages and the mechanisms involved in their interaction with DNA vary widely, genotoxic agents alter the structure of DNA in ways that may result in permanent alterations in the DNA sequence or in cell death. To avoid these consequences, cells have evolved countermeasures to reduce the biological consequences of DNA damage. These mechanisms are highly conserved and are present in all eukaryotic cells. In general, cellular responses include the detection of damage, signal transduction to halt cell cycle progression, and the recruitment of repair mechanisms that are tailored to the specific kind of damage. If replication-blocking damage remains when cells enter S-phase, then tolerance mechanisms in the form of complex recombination mechanisms or translesion DNA synthesis using accessory DNA polymerases exist. These mechanisms complete the replication of damaged genomes and suppress cytotoxicity, but at the potential cost of mutagenesis and genomic instability. This review focuses on error-prone mechanisms, including a discussion of the Y-family of DNA polymerases, current concepts of DNA polymerase switching mechanisms, and their relevance to cancer and cancer prevention. PMID:22181702

Klarer, Alden C; McGregor, W

2011-01-01

216

Plant Flavone Apigenin Binds to Nucleic Acid Bases and Reduces Oxidative DNA Damage in Prostate Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has been linked to prostate carcinogenesis as human prostate tissue is vulnerable to oxidative DNA damage. Apigenin, a dietary plant flavone, possesses anti-proliferative and anticancer effects; however, its antioxidant properties have not been fully elucidated. We investigated sub-cellular distribution of apigenin, it’s binding to DNA and protective effects against H2O2-induced DNA damage using transformed human prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells and prostate cancer LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 cells. Exposure of cells to apigenin exhibited higher accumulation in RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, compared to PC-3 and DU145 cells. The kinetics of apigenin uptake in LNCaP cells was estimated with a Km value of 5 µmole/L and Vmax of 190 pmoles/million cells/h. Sub-cellular fractionation demonstrated that nuclear matrix retains the highest concentration of apigenin (45.3%), followed by cytosol (23.9%), nuclear membranes (17.9%) and microsomes (12.9%), respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of apigenin with calf-thymus DNA exhibited intercalation as the dominant binding mode to DNA duplex. Apigenin exposure resulted in significant genoprotective effects in H2O2-stressed RWPE-1 cells by reduction in reactive oxygen species levels. In addition, apigenin exposure suppressed the formation of 8-hydroxy-2? deoxyguanosine and protected exposed cells from apoptosis. Our studies demonstrate that apigenin is readily taken up by normal prostatic epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells, and is incorporated into their nuclei, where its intercalation with nucleic acid bases may account for its antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. PMID:24614817

Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-01-01

217

Unilateral nephrectomy 24 hours after bilateral kidney irradiation reduces damage to the function and structure of the remaining kidney  

SciTech Connect

The effect of unilateral nephrectomy 24 h after irradiation on renal function and death with renal insufficiency as well as histopathological changes in the kidney was assessed. Single doses totaling 8-18 Gy were given bilaterally to unanesthetized female and male C3Hf/Kam mice. Renal function damage was assayed by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and hematocrit (Hct). Histological damage was quantified by two parameters: kidney area and number of surviving tubule cells along the renal capsule. The number of glomeruli was scored as an indication of the number of nephrons. Changes in the two functional parameters did not appear sooner after irradiation in the nephrectomized mice than in the non-nephrectomized mice. Rather, less impairment of function was measured by both parameters in the nephrectomized mice but only after radiation doses greater than 12 Gy. The LD{sub 50} at 424 days after irradiation was also higher in the nephrectomized mice than in the mice receiving only irradiation, 13.98 Gy (95% confidence limits = 12.03, 15.93) and 11.71 Gy (95% confidence limits = 10.4, 13.1), respectively, in agreement with the data on function. Unilateral nephrectomy alone induced a 10% increase in size of the contralateral kidney. The dose-response curve for the kidney area from nephrectomized mice was parallel to and displaced above that for non-nephrectomized mice, indicating that the increase in renal mass occurred independent of and was not compromised by radiation. Unilateral nephrectomy alone induced no increase in the number of proximal tubules in the contralateral kidney. 30 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Liao, Z.X.; Travis, E.L. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

218

Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave, risk of mortality was higher in the black community, and in those living in certain types of low-income and multi-tenant housing. Interventions in the built environment to promote urban heat island mitigation can reduce ambient temperatures, potentially reducing heat-related mortality rates in vulnerable populations, electricity consumption and air pollutant emissions, and slow ozone formation, an important health stressor. These mitigation measures may also serve as adaptive responses for a range of potential future climate conditions. Here we review current research that assesses the health, air quality, and energy conservation benefits in cities from these interventions in the built environment, and discuss the techniques and research objectives of a new pilot community-based project to mitigate the heat island effect in the South Bronx, New York City through implementation of vegetated and high albedo roofing on residential and institutional buildings. Recent studies use mesoscale climate models and a variety of land-use and land-cover scenarios to project the effects of increasing vegetative fraction and albedo within metropolitan regions and to evaluate the impacts of measures that may serve both as adaptive responses to current conditions and mitigation for future climate variability. Through this perspective, we address the questions: What urban design approaches make for resilient cities in a changing environment? What costs and benefits may be expected by the adoption of heat island mitigation techniques within the New York metropolitan region?

Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

2005-12-01

219

The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter in Environmental Mercury Methylation by Sulfate- Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylmercury (MeHg) production in the environment is controlled by many factors, including biogeochemical controls on mercury bioavailability. Strong focus has been placed on the role of sulfide concentration in determining mercury speciation and cellular uptake. However, in natural waters, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is both ubiquitous and important in influencing mercury speciation and bioavailability. We revisit this issue with experimental results from methylation assays of sulfate-reducing bacteria with a pure culture, and through synchrotron-based characterization of mercury in simulated natural waters. Pure cultures of Desulfobulbus propionicus, a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) capable of fermentative growth, were allowed to methylate a mercury isotopic tracer present at <100 ng/L and equilibrated with ~1 ?M aqueous sulfide and ~40 mg/L DOM. Fermentative growth conditions allowed control over ambient sulfide concentrations to favor the predicted dominance of dissolved HgS0. The DOM used was a hydrophobic fraction isolated from Florida Everglades surface water. Results showed that 5-10% of the mercury isotopic tracer was methylated in both DOM-amended and DOM-free cultures. In DOM-amended cultures, 10-20% greater cell growth was observed, suggesting an apparent slower rate of methylation in DOM-free cultures and a beneficial contribution of DOM to cell growth. We note that as much as ~10% of ambient mercury associated with DOM was also methylated, possibly explaining the observed difference in methylation rates in terms of dilution of the total bioavailable mercury pool for DOM-amended cultures. Our observations suggest that, in some cases, DOM- partitioned mercury is subject to microbial methylation at environmentally significant rates. The nature of mercury- sulfide-DOM interaction was investigated in separate experiments. No precipitation was observed in solutions containing DOM and equimolar Hg2+ and aqueous sulfide at concentrations supersaturated with respect to metacinnabar. The equilibrated Hg-S-DOM solution was loaded on hydrophobic chromatography resin and subjected to 100 ?M glutathione extraction. Spectra from DOM-partitioned mercury-sulfide exhibited high similarity to metacinnabar despite the absence of precipitation. Lower mercury concentrations and better resins are being tested in order to evaluate the role of DOM-associated nanoparticulate or colloidal metacinnabar in mercury bioavailability for methylation by SRB.

Moreau, J. W.; Roden, E. E.; Gerbig, C.; Kim, C. S.; Aiken, G. R.; Dewild, J. F.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

2007-12-01

220

Enalapril and moexipril protect from free radical-induced neuronal damage in vitro and reduce ischemic brain injury in mice and rats.  

PubMed

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been demonstrated to protect spontaneously hypertensive rats from cerebral ischemia. The present study investigated the protective effect of enalapril and moexipril in models of permanent focal cerebral ischemia in normotensive mice and rats. To elucidate the mechanism of neuroprotection the influence of these angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on glutamate-, staurosporine- or Fe2+/3+-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and neuronal cell death in primary cultures from chick embryo telencephalons was studied. Treatment with moexipril or enalapril dose-dependently reduced the percentage of damaged neurons, as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation induced by glutamate, staurosporine or Fe2+/3+. Furthermore, moexipril and enalapril attenuated staurosporine-induced neuronal apoptosis as determined by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258. In mice, 1 h pretreatment with enalapril (0.03 mg/kg) or moexipril (0.3 mg/kg) significantly reduced brain damage after focal ischemia as compared to control animals. Additionally, moexipril (0.01 mg/kg) was able to reduce the infarct volume in the rat model after focal cerebral ischemia. The results of the present study indicate that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors enalapril and moexipril promote neuronal survival due to radical scavenging properties. PMID:10408248

Ravati, A; Junker, V; Kouklei, M; Ahlemeyer, B; Culmsee, C; Krieglstein, J

1999-05-28

221

Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

2013-03-01

222

Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : III. Montane and meadow voles (Microtus montanus andMicrotus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of the major anal-gland compounds from the stoat (Mustela erminea) and fecal and urine compounds from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in generating an avoidance response by montane voles (Microtus montanus), as well as suppressing feeding by montane and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) voles on apple trees in orchards. In trap bioassays, a 1?1 mixture of 2-propylthietane and 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane significantly reduced vole captures. Other mixtures of stoat compounds reduced the number of new voles captured but not total individuals. 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a component of fox feces, significantly reduced vole captures in one of two bioassays. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) did not show a negative response to any predator odor. In overwinter field bioassays, mixtures of 2-propylthietane and 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane clearly reduced vole feeding on apple trees in four test blocks. 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline and a synthetic fox urine mixture also significantly reduced vole attack in respective orchard blocks. Similarly, the intensity of vole feeding, in terms of amount of bark and vascular tissues removed from trees, was reduced by 60% to 97% in predator odor treatments compared with the control. Our study reports the first long-term (four to five months) use of synthetic semiochemicals as area repellents for crop protection from vole feeding damage. PMID:24277015

Sullivan, T P; Crump, D R; Sullivan, D S

1988-01-01

223

Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for effective measures can be taken to prevent clinical nephropathies.

Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

2003-05-01

224

Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

2011-01-01

225

The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

2013-01-01

226

Toxic Chemical Reduction Initiatives In response to the mandate of Executive Order 13514 and NIH's Environmental goal to reduce toxic  

E-print Network

's Environmental goal to reduce toxic chemical use, NIH embarked on a mission to identify and target additional Phase Hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) Disposable sterile items Mercury Single vial fixative for concentration, permanent stain, EIA, IFA and PCR procedures PROTO-Fix CLR Parasitology Fixative Z-5 Fixative Mercury cont

Baker, Chris I.

227

Targeted grazing to reduce tillage in organic dryland systems: Environmental, ecological, and economic assessment of reintegrating animal and crop production  

E-print Network

of management system on lamb performance, health and quality. The successful candidate will evaluate the impact networks. As part of this project, the successful candidate will assess insect diversity and impactTargeted grazing to reduce tillage in organic dryland systems: Environmental, ecological

Lawrence, Rick L.

228

Accelerated Repair and Reduced Mutagenicity of DNA Damage Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Human Bronchial Cells Transfected with E.coli Formamidopyrimidine DNA Glycosylase  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP). Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na+K+-ATPase locus (ouar) were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells’ capacity to repair damaged DNA. PMID:24498234

Foresta, Mara; Izzotti, Alberto; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Poggi, Alessandro; Vecchio, Donatella; Frosina, Guido

2014-01-01

229

Vitamin C protects against Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and damage without reducing its effectiveness in C57BL/6 mice xenografted with lewis lung carcinoma.  

PubMed

Vitamin C (vit C) has been shown to diminish cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in healthy rats and mice. However, little is known whether vit C has similar actions and enhances the anticancer effect of CP in tumor-bearing mice. Herein, C57BL/6 mice were implanted (s.c.) with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) for 9 days before intraperitoneal administration with CP (5 mg/kg) in the presence or absence of low- (200 mg/kg) and high- (1000 mg/kg) dose vit C twice a week for an additional 28 days. Results reveal that vit C or CP treatment alone significantly inhibited tumor growth, although vit C in combination with CP did not further inhibit tumor growth, as compared to CP treatment alone. In addition, CP significantly induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage, as evidenced by increased plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as levels of lipid peroxidation and carbonyls, decreased ratios of GSH/GSSG in liver and kidney. Vit C significantly reversed these undesirable side effects induced by CP, and most of these actions of vit C were dose-dependent. Overall, we conclude that vit C can protect against CP-induced nephrotoxicity and damage without reducing CP's effectiveness in LLC-bearing mice. PMID:25157954

Chen, Ming-Feng; Yang, Chih-Min; Su, Cheng-Ming; Hu, Miao-Lin

2014-10-01

230

Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cruciferous vegetable (CV) consumption is associ- ated with a reduced risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of watercress (a CV) supplementation on biomarkers related to cancer risk in healthy adults. Design:Asingle-blind,randomized,crossoverstudywasconducted in 30 men and 30 women (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers) with a mean age of

Chris IR Gill; Sumanto Haldar; Lindsay A Boyd; Richard Bennett; Joy Whiteford; Michelle Butler; Jenny R Pearson; Ian Bradbury; Ian R Rowland

231

Senescence, and phytotoxin, insect, fungal and mechanical damage: factors reducing convective gas-flows in Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premature senescence, insect bore holes and callus development in the gas-transport pathways were each shown to impair convective (pressurised) gas-flows in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel.Premature senescence resulting from aphid and fungal attack, and possibly from the uptake of soil-borne phytotoxins, was found on average to have reduced the gas-flow potential of living culms by at least 70%. This

J. Armstrong; W. Armstrong; I. B. Armstrong; G. R. Pittaway

1996-01-01

232

May cause environmental damage the diversion of the Danube in the Szigetköz area, Hungary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary The floodplain area between the main channel of Danube and its branch river Mosoni-Duna is called the Szigetköz. This wetland area has special flora and fauna, and it is a natural protection area. Underneath of the Szigetköz, there are a thick (several hundreds meters) sedimentary sequence, the so called Kisalföld Quaternary Aquifer. This aquifer system is fed by the surface river system of Danube and supplies excellent quality drinking water for several hundred thousands of people in Hungary and Slovakia. The Szigetköz Monitoring Network was established in 1991 to describe the environmental effects of the B?s-Nagymaros Dam System, which was partly built in 1992 on the Slovakian part of the Danube. The dam diverts three-quarter of the Danube runoff to a 40 km long artificial concrete channel north of the original river bed. The effect of this diversion is spectacular on the wetland area. Water level in the meandering channels have decreased significantly, part of the wetland area frequently becomes dry. The natural flow pattern has disappeared. As a consequence, the channel characteristics of the river network, therefore the flow pattern, the quantity and quality of surface and subsurface water on the upper region of the Danube have significantly changed. The aim of our research is to describe the relationship between surface water and groundwater and considering the variable geology of the area, to describe trends in chemistry and to find the possible reasons for extreme values. Also to detect possible connection between the extreme values and the changes in flow pattern caused by the human intervention. Water sample pairs from surface water and shallow and deeper ground water were taken in every season at 18 locations. To sample shallow ground-water 1,5 m long, screened metal probes were derived into the sediment at the possible nearest point to the surface water. On the field pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, and in the wells redox potential were measured. Samples were taken for further laboratory analyses (major and trace components, nitrate. The chemical parameters of surface and subsurface water show seasonal changes, due to the changes of temperature, of precipitation, of biological and microbiological activity. At the monitoring points along the main channel the surface and subsurface water is closely related, and the velocity of groundwater can be calculated by the seasonal periodical dislocation. At the monitoring points on the north-western part of the study area (point 1), subsurface water replenished by the rivers, and water level in the probes follow the surface water level changes with short shift. Practically water quality is the same in the probe as in the surface. It is the same on the south-eastern part of the study area, where the diverted channel rejoins to the original river channel (point 10). The middle section (at points 4 and 5) of the study area, water level in the probes is higher than surface water level. Also concentrations of some chemical components are higher in the subsurface water here. These components are typically the results of water - sediment interaction. Based on these observations, the study area can be differentiated by the hydrochemical composition for losing and gaining sections. At the monitoring points along the meandering sub-branch system, water in the probes is reductive, the connection between surface and subsurface water is week, furthermore at some point is non-existent. At some points surface water has slow flow, or it is even stagnant. This means reductive environments, and high concentrations of some components, especially at the monitoring points of 31 and 41. For example, concentrations of ammonium, sulphate, phosphate, magnesium, iron, manganese are extremely high in the shallow groundwater. Originally the Danube supplied fresh, oxygen-rich water to the area, while nowadays at these locations surface water and subsurface water almost has no connection, and these sections of river bed already turned muddy, and organic material

Novak, Brigitta

2009-04-01

233

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15

234

Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia  

PubMed Central

Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3 h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2 weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes. PMID:23772679

Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua

2013-01-01

235

The use of an alternative food source (red clover) as a means of reducing slug pest damage to winter wheat: towards field implementation.  

PubMed

Slugs are major pests of many crops in the UK, including winter wheat, yet current methods of control are often unreliable. The aim of this study was to investigate three issues key to the successful field implementation of a control strategy that uses red clover as an alternative food source to reduce the amount of damage caused to winter wheat by the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). A series of three experiments was designed to assess this aim. Firstly, under laboratory conditions, red clover was consumed in greater quantities than wheat, even when wheat was presented as a novel food. Secondly, red clover had no significant effects on the emergence and early growth of wheat in a polytunnel experiment. Both these results are crucial to the successful implementation of a strategy that uses red clover as an alternative food source. Lastly, the results of a field experiment were consistent with the results of the polytunnel experiment, in that red clover did not significantly affect wheat emergence. However, plots in which red clover was left to grow until the time of wheat harvest resulted in significantly lower (43%) wheat yields than plots without red clover. These results suggest that red clover must be removed from the field after the wheat has passed its vulnerable seedling stage. Recommendations for the potential use of red clover as an alternative food source for reducing damage to winter wheat in field conditions are discussed and opportunities for further work are suggested. PMID:16475236

Brooks, Andrew S; Wilcox, Andrew; Cook, Richard T; James, Katherine L; Crook, Mitchell J

2006-03-01

236

Strengthening Community Capacity to Participate in Making Decisions to Reduce Disproportionate Environmental Exposures  

PubMed Central

Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

2011-01-01

237

The Role of PharmEcovigilance in Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals  

EPA Science Inventory

The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The pharmaceutical and healthcare industries have an environmental footprint because the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the environment as contaminants ...

238

Inhibition of Src phosphorylation reduces damage to the blood-brain barrier following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.  

PubMed

The disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by cerebral ischemia determines the extent of injury and patient prognosis. Inhibitors of Src can markedly minimize the infarct size and preserve neurological function. The Src protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor, PP2, protects the rat brain against ischemic injury, possibly through the reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression and the upregulation of claudin-5 expression, which preserves the integrity of the BBB. In this study, the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)-Src, VEGFA and claudin-5 were determined to investigate the changes occurring in the levels of these proteins and to determine the benefits of PP2 treatment following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Our study included a sham-operated group, an I/R group, a vehicle-treated group (V) and a PP2-treated group (PP2). We found that the rats in the PP2 group exhibited greater preservation of neurological function and reduced VEGFA and p-Src protein expression compared with the rats in the I/R and V groups. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of claudin-5 were markedly higher in the PP2 group than in the I/R group or the V group after 3 days of reperfusion. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the co-localized immunostaining of fibrinogen and claudin-5 was reduced in the PP2 group, which suggests that the exudation of fibrinogen in this group was less than that in the I/R and V groups. Furthermore, the reduced co-localization of immunostaining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and claudin-5 indicated that the rats in the PP2 group had only a slight disruption of the BBB. These findings suggested that PP2 treatment attenuated the disruption of the BBB following ischemia and minimized the neurological deficit; these effects were associated with a decreased VEGFA expression and an increased claudin-5 expression. Members of the Src PTK family may be critical targets for the protection of the BBB following cerebral ischemia. PMID:25269821

Bai, Yongsheng; Xu, Guanghui; Xu, Mengxue; Li, Qi; Qin, Xinyue

2014-12-01

239

Inhibition of Src phosphorylation reduces damage to the blood-brain barrier following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats  

PubMed Central

The disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by cerebral ischemia determines the extent of injury and patient prognosis. Inhibitors of Src can markedly minimize the infarct size and preserve neurological function. The Src protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor, PP2, protects the rat brain against ischemic injury, possibly through the reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression and the upregulation of claudin-5 expression, which preserves the integrity of the BBB. In this study, the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)-Src, VEGFA and claudin-5 were determined to investigate the changes occurring in the levels of these proteins and to determine the benefits of PP2 treatment following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Our study included a sham-operated group, an I/R group, a vehicle-treated group (V) and a PP2-treated group (PP2). We found that the rats in the PP2 group exhibited greater preservation of neurological function and reduced VEGFA and p-Src protein expression compared with the rats in the I/R and V groups. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of claudin-5 were markedly higher in the PP2 group than in the I/R group or the V group after 3 days of reperfusion. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the co-localized immunostaining of fibrinogen and claudin-5 was reduced in the PP2 group, which suggests that the exudation of fibrinogen in this group was less than that in the I/R and V groups. Furthermore, the reduced co-localization of immunostaining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and claudin-5 indicated that the rats in the PP2 group had only a slight disruption of the BBB. These findings suggested that PP2 treatment attenuated the disruption of the BBB following ischemia and minimized the neurological deficit; these effects were associated with a decreased VEGFA expression and an increased claudin-5 expression. Members of the Src PTK family may be critical targets for the protection of the BBB following cerebral ischemia. PMID:25269821

BAI, YONGSHENG; XU, GUANGHUI; XU, MENGXUE; LI, QI; QIN, XINYUE

2014-01-01

240

Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

Turso, James; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan

2004-01-01

241

Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : IV. Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides).  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of the major anal-gland compounds from the stoat (Mustela erminea) and ferret (M. putorius) in generating an avoidance response by northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) in tree fruit orchards in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada. A secondary objective assessed the impact of additional predator odors on gopher avoidance behavior in laboratory bioassays. In field bioassays, a 1: 1 mixture of 2-propylthietane and 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane, as well as 3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dithiolane, placed in gopher burrows did not reduce the number of gophers colonizing treatment versus control grids in orchard blocks. However, these predator gophers did dramatically alter the distribution of gophers. Significantly more gophers were captured at perimeter than nonperimeter trap stations on treatment versus control grids in two of three orchards. In all orchards, significantly more gophers were captured at perimeter stations after the predator odors had been placed in burrows than prior to the start of the experiment. Gophers clearly avoided 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a component of fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces, but did not avoid 2,2-dimethylthietane from the mink (M. vison) or 3-methyl-3-butenyl methyl sulfide from fox urine in laboratory bioassays. Poor avoidance was also recorded for 3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dithiolane, although this may be due to the state of polymerization of this compound. An improved formulation is required to dispense these semiochemicals in controlled-release devices within orchards and other forest-agricultural areas. PMID:24277016

Sullivan, T P; Crump, D R; Sullivan, D S

1988-01-01

242

Environmental controls on iron?oxidising, sulfur?oxidising and sulfate?reducing bacteria in mine wastes, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic and modern tailings piles and waste dumps in east Otago (South Island) and the Coromandel Peninsula (North Island) of New Zealand encompass a wide range of physico?chemical environmental conditions, and host chemolitho(auto)trophs (iron? and sulfur?oxidising bacteria, IOB and SOB respectively) and sulfate?reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfide mineral grains are only marginally altered, even after up to 100 years of surficial

Debra A. Chappell; Dave Craw

2003-01-01

243

Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.DATA SOURCESLiterature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.STUDY SELECTIONReview and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a

Melbourne F Hovell; Joy M Zakarian; Dennis R Wahlgren; Georg E Matt

2000-01-01

244

Food transport refrigeration - Approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food transport refrigeration is a critical link in the food chain not only in terms of maintaining the tem- perature integrity of the transported products but also its impact on energy consumption and CO2 emis- sions. This paper provides a review of (a) current approaches in road food transport refrigeration, (b) estimates of their environmental impacts, and (c) research on

S. A. Tassou; G. De-Lille; Y. T. Ge

2008-01-01

245

FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

246

Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be

Graham D. Fairhurst; Matthew D. Frey; James F. Reichert; Izabela Szelest; Debbie M. Kelly; Gary R. Bortolotti; Peter Csermely

2011-01-01

247

Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  

PubMed

Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

2014-07-01

248

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: REDUCING WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COST IN THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents the economics of wastewater reduction and materials recovery technologies in the electroplating industry. t serves as a companion publication to the Environmental Regulations and Technology document covering the same industry (625/10-85/001a). apital and op...

249

The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways  

PubMed Central

Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution. PMID:24822073

Goti?, Marijan

2014-01-01

250

The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400?mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx? were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400?mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx? induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100?mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400?mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

Moraes, Janaina P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

2013-01-01

251

The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) reduces urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100-400?mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100-400?mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100?mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400?mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

Moraes, Janaína P; Pereira, Denyson S; Matos, Alexandre S; Santana, Danielle G; Santos, Cliomar A; Estevam, Charles S; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A

2013-01-01

252

Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects\\u000a of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated\\u000a water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was

M. A. Sitzlar; M. A. Mora; J. G. W. Fleming; F. W. Bazer; J. W. Bickham; C. W. Matson

2009-01-01

253

An Effective, Economical Method of Reducing Environmental Noise in the Vivarium  

PubMed Central

High levels of ambient noise can have detrimental effects on laboratory animal wellbeing and may affect experimental results. In addition, excessive noise can reduce technician comfort and performance. This study was performed to determine whether inexpensive, passive acoustic noise abatement measures could meaningfully reduce noise levels. Sound level measurements for various activities were obtained in the incoming processing room for pigs before and after installing gypsum acoustic paneling, covering metal-to-metal contact points with strips of adhesive-backed rubber, and replacing hard plastic wheels on transport carts with neoprene wheels. The modifications reduced the overall average noise level by 8.1 dB. Average noise levels for each activity were all less than 85 dB after the modifications. Average noise levels can be reduced effectively and economically with passive abatement methods. Intermittent spikes in noise are more difficult to control and may require attention to the individual activity. PMID:21838981

Young, Maggie T; French, Alan L; Clymer, Jeffrey W

2011-01-01

254

Treatment with Tyrosine, a Neurotransmitter Precursor, Reduces Environmental Stress in Humans,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acutely stressful situations can disrupt behavior and deplete brain norepinephrine and dopamine, catecholaminergic neurotransmitters. In animals, administration of tyrosine, a food constituent and precursor of the catecholamines, reduces these behavioral ...

H. R. Lieberman, L. E. Banderet

1988-01-01

255

An effective, economical method of reducing environmental noise in the vivarium.  

PubMed

High levels of ambient noise can have detrimental effects on laboratory animal wellbeing and may affect experimental results. In addition, excessive noise can reduce technician comfort and performance. This study was performed to determine whether inexpensive, passive acoustic noise abatement measures could meaningfully reduce noise levels. Sound level measurements for various activities were obtained in the incoming processing room for pigs before and after installing gypsum acoustic paneling, covering metal-to-metal contact points with strips of adhesive-backed rubber, and replacing hard plastic wheels on transport carts with neoprene wheels. The modifications reduced the overall average noise level by 8.1 dB. Average noise levels for each activity were all less than 85 dB after the modifications. Average noise levels can be reduced effectively and economically with passive abatement methods. Intermittent spikes in noise are more difficult to control and may require attention to the individual activity. PMID:21838981

Young, Maggie T; French, Alan L; Clymer, Jeffrey W

2011-07-01

256

Solar Powered air conditioning as a solution to reduce environmental pollution in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tunisia, during the summer, the demand for electricity greatly increases because of the extensive use of air-conditioning systems. This is a source of major problems in the country’s electricity supply and contributes to an increase of CO2 emissions causing the environmental pollution and global warming. On the other hand, vapor compression air conditioning systems have impacts on stratospheric ozone

Moncef Balghouthi; Mohamed Hachemi Chahbani; Amenallah Guizani

2005-01-01

257

Reducing the environmental impact of kraft pulp bleaching: A cost benefit analysis  

SciTech Connect

The goal of minimizing the production and discharge of toxic, persistent chlorinated organic compounds associated with chlorine-based bleaching of kraft pulp can be achieved without necessary implementation of oxygen delignification. The environmental and economic impacts of various process options are discussed from the point of view of implementation in the near future to meet the impending Cluster Rules and in the perspective of long-term process development needs for the pulp and paper industry.

Lancaster, L.M.; Renard, J.J.; Phillips, R.B. [International Paper, Mobile, AL (United States)

1995-12-31

258

Evaluation of distributed environmental control systems for improving IAQ and reducing energy consumption in office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are incapable of providing control over individual\\u000a environments or adjusting fresh air supply based on the dynamic occupancy of individual rooms in an office building. This\\u000a paper introduces the concept of distributed environmental control systems (DECS) and shows that improvement in indoor air\\u000a quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency can be achieved by

Dustin W. Demetriou; H. Ezzat Khalifa

2009-01-01

259

Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas.  

PubMed

Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. PMID:18670880

Sitzlar, M A; Mora, M A; Fleming, J G W; Bazer, F W; Bickham, J W; Matson, C W

2009-01-01

260

Radiation damage  

E-print Network

a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

1998-01-01

261

The Master of Science in Environmental Architecture—An Appropriate Response to Reducing Greenhouse Gasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past decade, politicians have applied different shades of "green-wash" to global environmental issues in order to help juggle their positions in the political spectrum. This has created the illusion that effective measures are being pursued in the public interest for both this and future generation(s). The reality is, however, that nearly of all these initiatives are "input focused" and the various States of the Environment reports confirm that, despite decades of endeavour and large financial investment, there is little return on investment and that the rate of environmental degradation, particularly of the global atmosphere, continues to increase. Despite fierce posturing from the global warming sceptics, it seems that finally, the long-term data indices of global warming are being accepted seriously and politicians around the world are responding by investing public funds in the quest for options. This paper contends that with global warming the major trends will be inexorable but the manifestations complex so humans will need to embrace uncertainty and manage change. Innovation and cooperation across all disciplines and the cooperation of the entire political and social spectrum will be required to solve the ecological disasters that have already begun to unfold and accelerate in frequency. It looks from a strategic viewpoint at how specialist education can catalyse change and play an important role in managing the change. The case study used in this analysis is the RISE Master of Science Course in Environmental Architecture. It explores the implications of linking to converging interests from other emerging course streams for Engineering and other Built Environment disciplines such as Planning, Project Management and Interior design as well as socio-economic disciplines and the integrative discipline of Systems Dynamics.

Baverstock, Garry; Parker, Ian

2007-10-01

262

Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336  

SciTech Connect

There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink{sup R} technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO{sup TM} automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

263

Biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Amazon region - the situation of contemporary period and strategies for reduce these environmental changes  

SciTech Connect

The forest removal is a major contributor to local, regional and global environmental changes. Many of the tropical`s species are gravely threatened Numerous studies suggest that from 1970 to 1990 between 5 and 20 percent of the tropical`s species were committed to extinction. In 1995, the deforested lands in Brazilian Amazon account an amount Superior to 470,000 Km{sup 2}, old deforestation included, for a total surface of tropical`s rain forest of 3.4 and 3.8 million square kilometres. In 1990`s, the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere (as CO{sub 2}) from Brazilian Amazon deforestation was 3.5 % to 4.9 % and 250 % to 360 % of the World and Brazilian annual emission from fossil fuels, respectively. On the other hand, if deforestation is stopped and replaced with a rational forest management, a reuse of degraded lands for agro-forestry and biomass production for energy and industrial purposes, we can reduce the pressure on forests lands and the net carbon flux will be reversed. In this paper, we discuss the relations with biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region in the last thirty years and find suggest the principal`s strategies to reduce this environmental`s destruction.

Freitas, M.A.V. de; Aquino, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.

1997-12-31

264

ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

Insecticide levels and application costs supplied by 31 entomological experts, plus estimates of the other costs involved with various insect control strategies, indicate that many insect control strategies that may significantly reduce insecticide use on cotton and corn may be m...

265

Crystal Structure of Venus, a Yellow Fluorescent Protein with Improved Maturation and Reduced Environmental Sensitivity*  

E-print Network

Crystal Structure of Venus, a Yellow Fluorescent Protein with Improved Maturation and Reduced necessitated further mutagenesis studies of these proteins. Venus, a new variant with improved maturation the crystal structure of Venus at 2.2 Ã? resolution, which enabled us to correlate its novel features

Ikura, Mitsuhiko

266

Does environmental enrichment reduce stress? An integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers provides a novel perspective.  

PubMed

Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

Fairhurst, Graham D; Frey, Matthew D; Reichert, James F; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M; Bortolotti, Gary R

2011-01-01

267

Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective  

PubMed Central

Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

2011-01-01

268

Xanthohumol, a main prenylated chalcone from hops, reduces liver damage and modulates oxidative reaction and apoptosis in hepatitis C virus infected Tupaia belangeri.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tupaia belangeri (Tupaia) represents an important model of HCV infection. Xanthohumol (XN), a major prenylated chalcone from hops, has various biological activities including hepatopreventive and anti-viral activities. In this study, Tupaias infected with HCV RNA positive serum were used to evaluate the effects of XN on liver damage, oxidative reaction, apoptosis and viral protein expression in liver tissues. The Tupaias inoculated with HCV positive serum had elevated serum aminotransferase levels and inflammation, especially hepatic steatosis, and HCV core protein expression in liver tissue. In the animals inoculated with HCV positive serum, XN significantly decreased aminotransferase levels, histological activity index, hepatic steatosis score and transforming growth factor ?1 expression in liver tissue compared with the animals without XN intervention. XN reduced HCV core protein expression in liver tissue compared with those without XN intervention but the difference was not significant. XN significantly decreased malondialdehyde, potentiated superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced Bax expression, promoted Bcl-xL and inhibited caspase 3 activity in liver tissues compared with the animals without XN intervention. These results indicate that XN may effectively improve hepatic inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis induced by HCV in Tupaias primarily through inhibition of oxidative reaction and regulation of apoptosis and possible suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation. The anti-HCV potential of XN needs further investigation. PMID:23669332

Yang, Mingbo; Li, Na; Li, Fang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Xi; Han, Qunying; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Cuiling; Liu, Zhengwen

2013-08-01

269

Surf City and North Topsail Beach North Carolina, Coastal Storm Damage Reduction; Integrated Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact  

E-print Network

Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement FINAL USACE Response to Independent External Peer Review Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement. The Final Report from IEPR was issued 16 April 2010

US Army Corps of Engineers

270

A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of the schematic method is validated by comparing its benchmark results on 104 chemicals with that from the conventional Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. This dissertation concludes with discussions on environmental impact assessment of nanotechnologies and sustainability management of nano-particles. As nano-manufacturing is emerging for wide industrial applications, improvement and expansion of the system approach would be valuable for use in the environmental management of nano-manufacturing and in the risk control of nano-particles in the interests of public health and the environment.

Yuan, Yingchun

271

The economic value of reducing environmental health risks: Contingent valuation estimates of the value of information  

SciTech Connect

Obtaining economically consistent values for changes in low probability health risks continues to be a challenge for contingent valuation (CV) as well as for other valuation methods. One of the cited condition for economic consistency is that estimated values be sensitive to the scope (differences in quantity or quality) of a good described in a CV application. The alleged limitations of CV pose a particular problem for environmental managers who must often make decisions that affect human health risks. This paper demonstrates that a well-designed CV application can elicit scope sensitive values even for programs that provide conceptually complex goods such as risk reduction. Specifically, it finds that the amount sport anglers are willing to pay for information about chemical residues in fish varies systematically with informativeness--a relationship suggested by the theory of information value.

Krieger, D.J. [Krieger (D.J.), Bath, MI (United States)] [Krieger (D.J.), Bath, MI (United States); Hoehn, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lancing (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics] [Michigan State Univ., East Lancing (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics

1999-05-01

272

The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement  

SciTech Connect

The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

William T. Hartwell

2007-05-21

273

Early MEK1/2 Inhibition after Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Outcome by Preventing Delayed Vasoconstrictor Receptor Upregulation  

PubMed Central

Background Global cerebral ischemia following cardiac arrest is associated with increased cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, contributing to delayed neuronal cell death and neurological detriments in affected patients. We hypothesize that upregulation of contractile ETB and 5-HT1B receptors, previously demonstrated in cerebral arteries after experimental global ischemia, are a key mechanism behind insufficient perfusion of the post-ischemic brain, proposing blockade of this receptor upregulation as a novel target for prevention of cerebral hypoperfusion and delayed neuronal cell death after global cerebral ischemia. The aim was to characterize the time-course of receptor upregulation and associated neuronal damage after global ischemia and investigate whether treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 can prevent cerebrovascular receptor upregulation and thereby improve functional outcome after global cerebral ischemia. Incomplete global cerebral ischemia was induced in Wistar rats and the time-course of enhanced contractile responses and the effect of U0126 in cerebral arteries were studied by wire myography and the neuronal cell death by TUNEL. The expression of ETB and 5-HT1B receptors was determined by immunofluorescence. Results Enhanced vasoconstriction peaked in fore- and midbrain arteries 3 days after ischemia. Neuronal cell death appeared initially in the hippocampus 3 days after ischemia and gradually increased until 7 days post-ischemia. Treatment with U0126 normalised cerebrovascular ETB and 5-HT1B receptor expression and contractile function, reduced hippocampal cell death and improved survival rate compared to vehicle treated animals. Conclusions Excessive cerebrovascular expression of contractile ETB and 5-HT1B receptors is a delayed response to global cerebral ischemia peaking 3 days after the insult, which likely contributes to the development of delayed neuronal damage. The enhanced cerebrovascular contractility can be prevented by treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, diminishes neuronal damage and improves survival rate, suggesting MEK1/2 inhibition as a novel strategy for early treatment of neurological consequences following global cerebral ischemia. PMID:24642693

Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Larsen, Stine Schmidt; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Edvinsson, Lars

2014-01-01

274

Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise-management program handbook. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

Feather, T.D.; Shekell, T.K.

1991-06-01

275

Environmental enrichment reduces the function of D1 dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex of the rat.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment produces changes in spontaneous and psychostimulant-induced motor activity. Dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), through the activation of D1 receptors, has been suggested to play a role in modulating motor activity. The present study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on spontaneous motor activity, prefrontal acetylcholine release following local D1 receptor stimulation and D1 receptor expression in the PFC. Male wistar rats (3 months of age) were housed in enriched or isolated conditions during 90 days. Animals were then implanted with guide cannulae to perform microdialysis experiments in the PFC. Spontaneous motor activity and acetylcholine extracellular concentrations were monitored simultaneously. Also spontaneous motor activity was measured in an open field. On completion of the experiments, the density of D1 receptors in the PFC was studied by immunocytochemistry. Rats housed in an enriched environment showed significantly lower spontaneous motor activity in the open field compared to isolated animals. Perfusion of the D1 agonist SKF38393 (50 microM; 40 min) in the PFC produced long lasting increases of spontaneous motor activity and of local dialysate concentrations of acetylcholine in both groups of rats. However, increases of both motor activity and acetylcholine concentrations were significantly lower in enriched compared to isolated animals. Moreover, the density of D1 receptors in the PFC was significantly reduced in animals housed in an enriched environment. These results are the first evidence suggesting that environmental enrichment during adult life changes the function of D1 dopamine receptors in the PFC. PMID:16955373

Del Arco, A; Segovia, G; Canales, J J; Garrido, P; de Blas, M; García-Verdugo, J M; Mora, F

2007-01-01

276

Multi-scale path planning for reduced environmental impact of aviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future air traffic management system capable of rerouting aircraft trajectories in real-time in response to transient and evolving events would result in increased aircraft efficiency, better utilization of the airspace, and decreased environmental impact. Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is used within a receding horizon framework to form aircraft trajectories which mitigate persistent contrail formation, avoid areas of convective weather, and seek a minimum fuel solution. Areas conducive to persistent contrail formation and areas of convective weather occur at disparate temporal and spatial scales, and thereby require the receding horizon controller to be adaptable to multi-scale events. In response, a novel adaptable receding horizon controller was developed to account for multi-scale disturbances, as well as generate trajectories using both a penalty function approach for obstacle penetration and hard obstacle avoidance constraints. A realistic aircraft fuel burn model based on aircraft data and engine performance simulations is used to form the cost function in the MILP optimization. The performance of the receding horizon algorithm is tested through simulation. A scalability analysis of the algorithm is conducted to ensure the tractability of the path planner. The adaptable receding horizon algorithm is shown to successfully negotiate multi-scale environments with performance exceeding static receding horizon solutions. The path planner is applied to realistic scenarios involving real atmospheric data. A single flight example for persistent contrail mitigation shows that fuel burn increases 1.48% when approximately 50% of persistent contrails are avoided, but 6.19% when 100% of persistent contrails are avoided. Persistent contrail mitigating trajectories are generated for multiple days of data, and the research shows that 58% of persistent contrails are avoided with a 0.48% increase in fuel consumption when averaged over a year.

Campbell, Scot Edward

277

Glutamine and Alanyl-Glutamine Increase RhoA Expression and Reduce Clostridium difficile Toxin-A-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Cell Damage  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Glutamine (Gln) is a major fuel for the intestinal cell population. Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) is a dipeptide that is highly soluble and well tolerated. IEC-6 cells were used in the in vitro experiments. Cell morphology was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell proliferation was assessed by WST-1 and Ki-67 and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Cytoskeleton was evaluated by immunofluorescence for RhoA and F-actin. RhoA was quantified by immunoblotting. TcdA induced cell shrinkage as observed by AFM, SEM, and fluorescent microscopy. Additionally, collapse of the F-actin cytoskeleton was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. TcdA decreased cell volume and area and increased cell height by 79%, 66.2%, and 58.9%, respectively. Following TcdA treatment, Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation, significantly increased RhoA by 65.5% and 89.7%, respectively at 24?h. Ala-Gln supplementation increased cell proliferation by 137.5% at 24?h and decreased cell apoptosis by 61.4% at 24?h following TcdA treatment. In conclusion, TcdA altered intestinal cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization, decreased cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis. Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation reduced intestinal epithelial cell damage and increased RhoA expression. PMID:23484083

Santos, Ana A. Q. A.; Braga-Neto, Manuel B.; Oliveira, Marcelo R.; Freire, Rosemeire S.; Barros, Eduardo B.; Santiago, Thiago M.; Rebelo, Luciana M.; Mermelstein, Claudia; Warren, Cirle A.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Brito, Gerly A. C.

2013-01-01

278

Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium  

PubMed Central

Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 ?gmL?1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology.

Batool, Rida; Yrjala, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

2014-01-01

279

Phototoxicity and Environmental Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)—Light-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation, and DNA Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of mutagenic and tumorigenic environmental contaminants. Although the mechanisms by which PAHs induce cancer in experimental animals have been extensively studied and the metabolic activation pathways have been determined, the environmental fate of PAHs and the phototoxicity exerted by PAHs, as well as their photoreaction products formed in the environment, have received much

Peter P. Fu; Qingsu Xia; Xin Sun; Hongtao Yu

2012-01-01

280

78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico...Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico...injuries resulting from the November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the Gulf of...

2013-03-18

281

Phenobarbital at low dose exerts hormesis in rat hepatocarcinogenesis by reducing oxidative DNA damage, altering cell proliferation, apoptosis and gene expression.  

PubMed

Our recent research indicated that phenobarbital (PB) may inhibit the development of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated pre-neoplastic lesions at low doses in a rat liver medium-term bioassay (Ito test), while high doses exhibit promoting activity. This raises the question of whether treatment with low doses of PB might reduce cancer risk. For clarification, male 6-week-old F344 rats were treated with PB at doses of 0, 2, 15 and 500 p.p.m. in the diet for 10 or 33 weeks after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with DEN. In a second, short-term experiment, animals were given PB at doses of 2, 4, 15, 60 and 500 p.p.m. for 8 days. Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci and liver tumors was inhibited at 2 p.p.m. Generation of oxidative DNA damage marker, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), cellular proliferation within the areas of GST-P positive foci and apoptosis in background liver parenchyma were suppressed. Suppression of 8-OHdG formation by PB at low dose might be related to the enhanced mRNA expression of 8-OHdG repair enzyme, oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1). Moreover, as detected by cDNA microarray analysis, PB treatment at low dose enhanced mRNA expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), an enzyme involved in the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and suppressed MAP kinase p38 and other intracellular kinases gene expression. On the contrary, when PB was applied at a high dose, GST-P positive foci numbers and areas, tumor multiplicity, hydroxyl radicals and 8-OHdG levels were greatly elevated with the increase in CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A2 mRNA, protein, activity and gene expression of GST, nuclear tyrosine phosphatase, NADPH- cytochrome P-450 reductase and guanine nucleotide binding protein G(O) alpha subunit. These results indicate that PB exhibits hormetic effect on rat hepatocarcinogenesis initiated with DEN by differentially altering cell proliferation, apoptosis and oxidative DNA damage at high and low doses. PMID:12807726

Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Morimura, Keiichirou; Wei, Min; Shen, Jun; Imaoka, Susumu; Funae, Yoshihiko; Fukushima, Shoji

2003-08-01

282

Damage from dissection is associated with reduced neuro-musclar transmission and gap junction coupling between circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum, in vitro.  

PubMed

Excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials of circular smooth muscle cells in guinea pig ileum and colon are suppressed 30-90 min after setting up in vitro preparations. We have previously shown this "unresponsive" period is associated with a transient loss of dye coupling between smooth muscle cells, which subsequently recovers over the ensuing 30-90 min; junction potentials recover in parallel with dye coupling (Carbone et al., 2012). Here, we investigated which components of dissection trigger the initial loss of coupling. Intracellular recordings were made from circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum with micropipettes containing 5% carboxyfluorescein. After allowing 90-120 min for junction potentials to reach full amplitude, we re-cut all 4 edges of the preparation more than 1 mm from the recording sites. This caused a reduction in the amplitude of IJPs from 17.2 ± 0.7 mV to 9.5 ± 1.5 mV (P < 0.001, n = 12) and a significant reduction in dye coupling. Both recovered within 60 min. We repeated this experiment (n = 4), recording both 1 and 4 mm from the cut edge: both sites were equally affected by re-cutting the sides of the preparation. Equilibrated preparations were stretched to 150% of their original length, this had no significant effect on junction potentials or dye coupling. Setting up preparations in low calcium solution did not prevent the initial suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. Application of 3 ?M indomethacin (n = 3), 10 ?M ketotifen (n = 4) or 10 ?M forskolin during dissection did not prevent the suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. If dissection damage was reduced, by leaving the mucosa and submucosa attached to the circular muscle, IJPs showed less initial suppression than in preparations where the layers were dissected off. We conclude that physical damage to the gut wall triggers loss of gap junction coupling and neuromuscular transmission, this is not due to stretch, influx of calcium ions, release of prostaglandins or mast cell degranulation. The mechanisms underlying this potent effect remain to be determined. PMID:25202280

Carbone, Simona E; Wattchow, David A; Spencer, Nick J; Hibberd, Timothy J; Brookes, Simon J H

2014-01-01

283

Using a nutrition model to implement the NRCS Feed Management Standard to reduce the environmental impact of a concentrated cattle feeding operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental hurdles to sustainable livestock production Livestock farms are under increasing pressure to reduce manure nutrient excretions and nutrient accumulation on agricultural land in order to meet environmental regulations. To date, nutrient management regulations in New York (NY) and other states in the US have addressed the Clean Water Act through implementation of the National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) 590

D. G. Fox; T. P. Tylutki; L. O. Tedeschi; P. E. Cerosaletti

2006-01-01

284

Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity an...

D. Zhu, D. S. Fox, J. Hurst, M. Halbig, M. Jaskowiak, R. Bhatt

2014-01-01

285

Using Community Advisory Boards to Reduce Environmental Barriers to Health in American Indian Communities, Wisconsin, 2007-2012  

PubMed Central

Background American Indian communities have a high prevalence of chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Innovative community-based approaches are needed to identify, prioritize, and create sustainable interventions to reduce environmental barriers to healthy lifestyles and ultimately improve health. Community Context Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based and community-based intervention to increase healthy lifestyles on Wisconsin American Indian reservations. This intervention arose from a long-standing partnership between University of Wisconsin researchers and 3 of these American Indian communities. Methods In each community, community advisory boards (CABs) were established by the residents and university partners. CAB meetings were open and held at various times and locations to increase member participation. CABs featured continual, snowball recruitment; internal and external expert consultation; and coordination with standing tribal committees. Meetings initially focused on understanding community supports for and barriers to healthy lifestyles but quickly turned toward community action for change. Outcome CAB interventions decreased environmental barriers to health at each site and improved options for healthy lifestyle choices. Over 5 years, 71 CAB meetings occurred with a total of 1,070 participants. Successful CAB interventions included planting community gardens and an apple orchard, conducting gardening and canning workshops, instituting food-related policies and dog control regulations, building an environmentally friendly playground, and providing access to recreational facilities. The CABs are now self-sustaining. Interpretation CABs can be highly effective action teams capable of improving community environments. Our experience shows that academic researchers can partner with community residents to generate programs and policies that will expand access to local food, increase people’s choices for engaging in physical activity, and encourage local policy changes that improve overall community health. PMID:25232747

Scott, Jamie R.; Prince, Ron; Williamson, Amy

2014-01-01

286

Reduced mitochondrial ROS, enhanced antioxidant defense, and distinct age-related changes in oxidative damage in muscles of long-lived Peromyscus leucopus.  

PubMed

Comparing biological processes in closely related species with divergent life spans is a powerful approach to study mechanisms of aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that longer-lived species would have lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and/or an increased antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced oxidative damage with age than in shorter-lived species. In this study, we measured ROS generation in the young adult animals of the long-lived white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (maximal life span potential, MLSP = 8 yr) and the common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus (C57BL/6J strain; MLSP = 3.5 yr). Consistent with the hypothesis, our results show that skeletal muscle mitochondria from adult P. leucopus produce less ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) compared with M. musculus. Additionally, P. leucopus has an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 1 at young age. P. leucopus compared with M. musculus display low levels of lipid peroxidation (isoprostanes) throughout life; however, P. leucopus although having elevated protein carbonyls at a young age, the accrual of protein oxidation with age is minimal in contrast to the linear increase in M. musculus. Altogether, the results from young animals are in agreement with the predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging with the exception of protein carbonyls. Nonetheless, the age-dependent increase in protein carbonyls is more pronounced in short-lived M. musculus, which supports enhanced protein homeostasis in long-lived P. leucopus. PMID:23325454

Shi, Yun; Pulliam, Daniel A; Liu, Yuhong; Hamilton, Ryan T; Jernigan, Amanda L; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sloane, Lauren B; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Ungvari, Zoltan; Austad, Steven N; Van Remmen, Holly

2013-03-01

287

l-arginine and aminoguanidine reduce colonic damage of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats: Potential modulation of nuclear factor-?B/p65.  

PubMed

The transcription factor, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a key inducer of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of l-arginine (Arg; nitric oxide precursor) and aminoguanidine (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) against acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats, and the potential role of NF-?B. Colitis was induced by intrarectal inoculation of rats with 4% acetic acid for three consecutive days. The effect of Arg and aminoguanidine on nitric oxide levels was assessed by Greiss assay and protein expression of NF-?B/p65, and inducible nitric oxide synthase was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. Slides were examined using ImageJ, and results reported as the percent area positive for each marker. Intrarectal AA caused a significant increase in bodyweight loss and colon weights. Arg at 100 mg/day for 7 days before induction of colitis diminished the changes in both bodyweight loss and colon weights. Furthermore, Arg attenuated the colonic tissues macroscopic and microscopic damage induced by acetic acid. In addition, i.p. AG 100 mg/kg given during and after induction of colitis recovered the colonic ulcerative lesion induced by AA. Arg can protect against colonic inflammation; an effect that probably be attributed to its nitric oxide-donating property, resulting in modulatory effects on the expression of NF-?B/p65 in the colon tissues. The results suggested that Arg might reduce the inflammation associated with colitis as confirmed by histopathological investigations. Arg might inhibit AA-induced colitis through the NF-?B/nitric oxide pathway. PMID:25224370

Farghaly, Hanan Sm; Thabit, Romany H

2014-10-01

288

Reduced mitochondrial ROS, enhanced antioxidant defense, and distinct age-related changes in oxidative damage in muscles of long-lived Peromyscus leucopus  

PubMed Central

Comparing biological processes in closely related species with divergent life spans is a powerful approach to study mechanisms of aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that longer-lived species would have lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and/or an increased antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced oxidative damage with age than in shorter-lived species. In this study, we measured ROS generation in the young adult animals of the long-lived white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (maximal life span potential, MLSP = 8 yr) and the common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus (C57BL/6J strain; MLSP = 3.5 yr). Consistent with the hypothesis, our results show that skeletal muscle mitochondria from adult P. leucopus produce less ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) compared with M. musculus. Additionally, P. leucopus has an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 1 at young age. P. leucopus compared with M. musculus display low levels of lipid peroxidation (isoprostanes) throughout life; however, P. leucopus although having elevated protein carbonyls at a young age, the accrual of protein oxidation with age is minimal in contrast to the linear increase in M. musculus. Altogether, the results from young animals are in agreement with the predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging with the exception of protein carbonyls. Nonetheless, the age-dependent increase in protein carbonyls is more pronounced in short-lived M. musculus, which supports enhanced protein homeostasis in long-lived P. leucopus. PMID:23325454

Shi, Yun; Pulliam, Daniel A.; Liu, Yuhong; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Jernigan, Amanda L.; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sloane, Lauren B.; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Ungvari, Zoltan; Austad, Steven N.

2013-01-01

289

[CD38 protein reduces LPS/D-galactosamine-induced acute damage of liver tissues via down-regulating inflammatory cytokine expressions].  

PubMed

Objective To investigate the role of CD38 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced acute hepatic injury in mice and explore the potential mechanism. Methods A mouse model of acute hepatic injury was induced by an intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of D-GalN and LPS. C57BL/6 wide-type mice (WT) and CD38 gene knockout mice (CD38 KO) were randomly divided into normal control group, early model group (2 hours after i.p. of LPS/D-GalN) and late model group (6 hours after i.p. of LPS/D-GalN), respectively. Two and six hours after administration of D-GalN/LPS, WT mice and CD38 KO mice were sacrificed, and the blood and liver tissue were collected. Serum was used to detect the alanine aminotransferases (ALT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST) levels. The injury of liver was assessed by HE staining. The expressions of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and IFN-? were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared with the WT mice, CD38 KO mice presented significant increases of serum ALT and AST, mRNA expressions of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and IFN-?, as well as hepatocellular necrosis and bleeding in liver tissues after LPS/D-GalN induction. Conclusion CD38 protein effectively reduces the LPS/D-GalN-induced damage of liver tissues via depressing the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the death of liver cells. PMID:25270198

Wu, Yongqiang; Liang, Long; Shi, Guixiu

2014-10-01

290

Comet assay application in environmental monitoring: DNA damage in human leukocytes and plant cells in comparison with bacterial and yeast tests.  

PubMed

Urban airborne particulate is a complex mixture of air pollutants, many of which have not been identified. However, short-term mutagenesis tests together with chemicophysical parameter analysis are able to better assess air quality and genotoxic load. The findings of continuous monitoring (January 1991-August 1998) of urban air genotoxicity of a Po Valley town (Italy) on Salmonella typhimurium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are reported. During this period, various measures (catalytic devices, unleaded fuels, annual vehicle overhaul, etc.) to improve air-dispersed pollutant control were enforced. However, a continuous presence of genotoxic compounds is shown and more qualitative than quantitative changes are evident. We also demonstrate the ability of the Comet assay to detect DNA-damaging agents in airborne particulate samples. We applied the test to human leukocytes and, with major improvements, to plant cells (Allium cepa roots and epigean tissues of Impatiens balsamina). The first findings on human leukocytes confirm the sensitivity of this assay, its peculiarity and its applicability in assessing genotoxicity in environmental samples. The capability of plants to show the response of multicellular organisms to environmental pollutants largely counterbalances a probable lowering in sensitivity. Moreover, application of the Comet test to epigean tissues could be useful in estimating the bioavailability of and genotoxic damage by air pollutants, including volatile compounds (ozone, benzene, nitrogen oxides, etc.) to higher plants. PMID:10567029

Poli, P; Buschini, A; Restivo, F M; Ficarelli, A; Cassoni, F; Ferrero, I; Rossi, C

1999-11-01

291

An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation  

PubMed Central

Background Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems. Methods We performed a decision analysis in a poorly studied area, trip aggregation, and studied decisions from the perspective of two different stakeholders, the passenger and society. We modelled the impact and potential of composite traffic, a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, where a centralised system would collect the information on all trip demands online, would merge the trips with the same origin and destination into public vehicles with eight or four seats, and then would transmit the trip instructions to the passengers' mobile phones. Results We show here that in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health, environmental, and other detrimental impacts of car traffic typically by 50–70%, and if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, and within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies. Conclusion Composite traffic provides new degrees of freedom in urban decision-making in identifying novel solutions to the problems of urban traffic. PMID:16309549

Tuomisto, Jouni T; Tainio, Marko

2005-01-01

292

Examining a home environmental strategy to reduce availability of legal products that can be misused by youth.  

PubMed

This article presents results from a study of a home environmental strategy (HES) designed to reduce availability of harmful legal products (HLPs) in the home that can be used by youth to get high. HLPs include inhalants, prescription and nonprescription drugs, and household products that can be ingested to get high. Availability is one of the most consistent predictors of substance use among youth. Parents of 5th- to 7th-grade students in four Alaskan communities participated in telephone interviews as part of a larger study of a multicomponent community prevention model (CPM) that included a HES. The strategy was designed to encourage parents to reduce availability of HLPs by removing them from the home, and by locking up and monitoring the supplies of HLPs in the home. Data from 402 parents at Wave 1 and 371 parents at Wave 2 were analyzed using hierarchical non-Linear modeling (HNLM). Results show there was a significant decrease in HLPs in the home from Wave 1 to Wave 2, mostly inhalants and prescription and nonprescription drugs. Parents also reported a significant increase in locking up prescription and nonprescription drugs in the home. Parents' direct exposure to the HES was marginally associated with the change over time in HLP availability in the home. Indirect exposure through others and media was not associated with this change. Study lessons learned and conclusions are highlighted. PMID:22943304

Collins, David A; Johnson, Knowlton W; Shamblen, Stephen R

2012-10-01

293

The Nexus between ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessment under CERCLA: introduction to a Society of Environmental Toxicology and ChemistryTechnical Workshop.  

PubMed

A SETAC Technical Workshop titled "The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Understanding and Improving the Common Scientific Underpinnings," was held 18-22 August 2008 in Gregson, Montana, USA, to examine the linkage, nexus, and overlap between ecological risk assessment (ERA) and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Experts from a broad range of relevant scientific, legal, and policy disciplines convened to 1) ascertain the potential for improved scientific harmonization of the processes of ERA and NRDA; 2) identify where statutory, regulatory, or scientific constraints might exist that would constrain or preclude the harmonization of the 2 processes; 3) determine approaches that might overcome these constraints; and 4) recommend research or potential changes in regulatory policies that might serve to improve both processes. This is the introduction to a series of 3 papers that describe the findings and conclusions of this workshop. Although unanimity was not achieved on all technical, legal, or policy questions posed to the participants, some consensus areas did arise. First, there appear to be few if any legal constraints to using the environmental data collected for ERA or NRDA for both processes. Second, although it is important to recognize and preserve the distinctions between ERA and NRDA, opportunities for data sharing exist, particularly for the characterization of environmental exposures and derivation of ecotoxicological information. Thus, effective coordination is not precluded by the underlying science. Where a cooperative, interactive process is involved among the response agencies, the natural resource trustees, and the responsible party(s), technical, legal or regulatory constraints can be minimized. Finally, one approach that might enhance the potential applicability of data collected for the ERA is to consider ecosystem services in the development of assessment endpoints. These points are explained in greater detail in the series of papers published herein. PMID:19545185

Stahl, Ralph G; Gouguet, Ron; Charters, David; Clements, Will; Gala, Will; Haddad, Robert; Helm, Roger; Landis, Wayne; Maki, Al; Munns, Wayne R; Young, Dale

2009-10-01

294

Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD/VCD players and copiers in China  

SciTech Connect

With the popularization of household electrical appliances and the rapid development of office automation and networking, a huge number of consumer electronic devices, computers, copiers, and fax machines have been put into use in China over the last two decades. These products almost all use a certain amount of standby power--the power that is consumed when a device is connected but not performing its primary function. The rapid growth of standby energy consumption due to these products--and the consequent environmental problems--has attracted more and more attentions from researchers and from many government and international agencies. Numerous countries have developed policies and measures to restrict and reduce standby energy consumption (US EPA, 2004, IEA, 2001, and GEEA, 2004). However, standby energy consumption is still a new concept for Chinese consumers and the phenomenon of ''unconscious waste of energy'' is still very common in the people's daily life and work. With the goal of reducing China's standby energy consumption, China Certification Center for Energy Conservation Products (CECP) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have, under the sponsorship of the Energy Foundation (EF), entered into a collaboration to develop technical requirements for CECP's labeling program for consumer electronics and office equipment. These technical requirements will be used to qualify products for CECP's energy efficiency endorsement label in China. In the phase I of this collaborative project, CECP and LBNL conducted technical and economic research on televisions and printers in China. Based on the results of this research, CECP developed specifications for, and carried out corresponding energy conservation certifications for these two products. CECP's standby power certification program has made impressive gains in China. Leading manufacturers, such as Haier, Hesons, TCL, Chuangwei, Lenovo, EPSON, Fujitsu, and Brother have participated in CECP's certification activities. Media events organized by CECP have greatly improved the country's awareness of standby power loss. Reducing standby power loss has been formally incorporated into China's energy efficiency policy portfolio and in China's collaboration with the international community on the subject of energy efficiency (IEA, 2001). In phase II of the program, CECP's main task was to assess the market for DVD/VCD (Digital Versatile/Video Disc and Video Compact Disc) players and copiers to analyze the economic and technical benefits of energy conservation potential, and to develop technical specifications for DVD/VCD players and copiers, with technical assistance from LBNL. Having built on the success of Phase I, CECP paid great attention to the appraisal of market conditions and the economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power loss in DVD/VCD players and copiers, and solicited inputs from stakeholders before finalizing the product certification requirements. This paper summarizes the expected energy conservation and environmental benefits due to the implementation of certification programs for DVD/VCD players and copiers in China.

Lin, Jiang; Li, Tienan; Li, Aizhen; Zhang, Guoqing

2004-06-01

295

Reduced brown adipose tissue thermogenesis during environmental interactions in transgenic rats with ataxin-3-mediated ablation of hypothalamic orexin neurons.  

PubMed

Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to substantial increases in body temperature evoked by threatening or emotional stimuli. BAT thermogenesis also contributes to increases in body temperature that occur during active phases of the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC), as part of normal daily life. Hypothalamic orexin-synthesizing neurons influence many physiological and behavioral variables, including BAT and body temperature. In conscious unrestrained animals maintained for 3 days in a quiet environment (24-26°C) with ad libitum food and water, we compared temperatures in transgenic rats with ablation of orexin neurons induced by expression of ataxin-3 (Orx_Ab) with wild-type (WT) rats. Both baseline BAT temperature and baseline body temperature, measured at the onset of BRAC episodes, were similar in Orx_Ab and WT rats. The time interval between BRAC episodes was also similar in the two groups. However, the initial slopes and amplitudes of BRAC-related increases in BAT and body temperature were reduced in Orx_Ab rats. Similarly, the initial slopes and amplitudes of the increases in BAT temperatures induced by sudden exposure to an intruder rat (freely moving or confined to a small cage) or by sudden exposure to live cockroaches were reduced in resident Orx_Ab rats. Constriction of the tail artery induced by salient alerting stimuli was also reduced in Orx_Ab rats. Our results suggest that orexin-synthesizing neurons contribute to the intensity with which rats interact with the external environment, both when the interaction is "spontaneous" and when the interaction is provoked by threatening or salient environmental events. PMID:25324552

Mohammed, Mazher; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Blessing, William

2014-10-15

296

Farming and Other Stakeholders in a Tropical Highland: Towards Less Environmentaly Damaging and More Sustainable Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of smallholder agriculture in many tropical highlands often results in serious environmental damage. The challenge is to reduce such damage and to achieve improved and more sustainable livelihoods. The Cameron Highlands and nearby uplands of Malaysia offer an opportunity to study how farmers adapt. Most have intensified production since the 1970s, some have expanded their holdings, and some have

C. J. Barrow; N. W. Chan; T. Bin Masron

2010-01-01

297

Genotoxic stress in plants: Shedding light on DNA damage, repair and DNA repair helicases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cells are constantly exposed to environmental agents and endogenous processes that inflict damage to DNA and cause genotoxic stress, which can reduce plant genome stability, growth and productivity. Plants are most affected by solar UV-B radiation, which damage the DNA by inducing the formation of two main UV photoproducts such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone

Narendra Tuteja; Parvaiz Ahmad; Brahma B. Panda; Renu Tuteja

2009-01-01

298

Remediation of ecosystems damaged by environmental contamination: Applications of ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration in Central and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the applicability of ecological engineering to pollution problems prevalent in present-day Central and Eastern Europe, a SCOPE-UNEP sponsored workshop was held in Estonia in November 1995. The workshop was undertaken specifically to obtain information from and to train planners, managers and scientists in the region. These `countries in transition' face, in many respects, unique environmental problems as a

W. J Mitsch; Ü Mander

1997-01-01

299

Exogenous sodium nitroprusside and glutathione alleviate copper toxicity by reducing copper uptake and oxidative damage in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) regulate a variety of physiological processes and stress responses; however, their involvement in mitigating Cu toxicity in plants has not been extensively studied. This study investigated the interactive effect of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and GSH on Cu homeostasis and Cu-induced oxidative damage in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 12-day-old seedlings were subjected to 100 ?M CuSO4 alone and in combination with 200 ?M SNP (an NO donor) and 200 ?M GSH. Cu exposure for 48 h resulted in toxicity symptoms such as stunted growth, chlorosis, and rolling in leaves. Cu toxicity was also manifested by a sharp increase in lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), proline (Pro) content, and rapid reductions in biomass, chlorophyll (Chl), and relative water content (RWC). Cu-caused oxidative stress was evident by overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide (O2 (•-)) and H2O2). Ascorbate (AsA) content decreased while GSH and phytochelatin (PC) content increased significantly in Cu-stressed seedlings. Exogenous SNP, GSH, or SNP?+?GSH decreased toxicity symptoms and diminished a Cu-induced increase in LOX activity, O2 (•-), H2O2, MDA, and Pro content. They also counteracted a Cu-induced increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II activities, which paralleled changes in ROS and MDA levels. These seedlings also showed a significant increase in catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and AsA and PC content compared with the seedlings stressed with Cu alone. Cu analysis revealed that SNP and GSH restricted the accumulation of Cu in the roots and leaves of Cu-stressed seedlings. Our results suggest that Cu exposure provoked an oxidative burden while reduced Cu uptake and modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems by adding SNP and GSH play an important role in alleviating Cu toxicity. Furthermore, the protective action of GSH and SNP?+?GSH was more efficient than SNP alone. PMID:24752795

Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Seraj, Zeba Islam; Fujita, Masayuki

2014-11-01

300

The outdoor air quality flag program in central California: a school-based educational intervention to potentially help reduce children's exposure to environmental asthma triggers.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel school-based, visual environmental public health educational intervention intended to help reduce the exposure of children-and adults-to outdoor air pollution, including known environmental asthma triggers like ozone and particles. The overarching goal was to enhance the learning, recreational, and work environments of students and staff. The specific purpose of the Asthma-Friendly Outdoor (Ambient) Air Quality Flag Program was to establish an education and communication tool for Central California communities that would accomplish two things: (1) Establish permanent local policy change to existing operating procedures in school districts and schools to help reduce the exposure of students, teachers, staff, and nearby communities to outdoor environmental asthma triggers and (2) provide education on air quality and potential health effects of exposure to air pollutants. Data on the program from its initial years are presented. To date, the following important lessons have been learned: (1) Science-based, simple, visual, low-cost school-based educational interventions to help reduce human exposure to outdoor environmental asthma triggers (i.e., ozone, particles, and pollens) can work in socioeconomically and ethnically diverse urban and rural or agricultural communities, and (2) local health and environmental justice groups such as asthma coalitions can successfully lead school-based environmental interventions to help improve children's quality of life. PMID:17941400

Shendell, Derek G; Rawling, Mary-Michal; Foster, Christine; Bohlke, Alicia; Edwards, Bobbie; Rico, Susie A; Felix, Justina; Eaton, Sandra; Moen, Stephanie; Roberts, Eric M; Love, Mary Beth

2007-10-01

301

Toxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine  

E-print Network

physiology such as biofilm formation (Ren et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2008), phage inhibition (Pecota and Wood of antimicrobials. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GhoT reduces meta- bolism by reducing ATP and PMF and that this reduc- tion in metabolism is important for growth with various antimicrobials. Introduction In contrast

Wood, Thomas K.

302

Assisting People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Actively Reducing Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Gyration Air Mouse through a Controlled Environmental Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing

Shih, Ching-Hsiang

2011-01-01

303

EVALUATION OF IMMOBILIZED REDOX INDICATORS AS REVERSIBLE, IN SITU REDOX SENSORS FOR DETERMINING FE(III)-REDUCING CONDITIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. (R828772)  

EPA Science Inventory

An in situ methodology based on immobilized redox indicators has been developed to determine when Fe(III)-reducing conditions exist in environmental systems. The redox indicators thionine (Thi, formal potential at pH 7 ( E 70') equals 66 mV), tol...

304

Environmentally \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A sustainable industrial growth will influence the cement and concrete industry in many respects as the construction industry has environmental impact due to high consumption of energy and other resources. One important issue is the use of environmental-friendly concrete (\\

Carola Edvardsen

305

Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these

D. E. Jr. Roush; D. E. Beaver

1998-01-01

306

?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (P¼0·004, d ¼ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (P¼0·005, d ¼ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P¼0·08, d ¼ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John

2013-08-28

307

Impact of apoptotic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on attenuating organ damage and reducing mortality in Rat sepsis syndrome induced by cecal puncture and ligation  

PubMed Central

Background We tested whether apoptotic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (A-ADMSCs) were superior to healthy (H)-ADMSCs at attenuating organ damage and mortality in sepsis syndrome following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Methods Adult male rats were categorized into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (CLP), group 3 [CLP?+?H-ADMSC administered 0.5, 6, and 18 h after CLP], group 4 [CLP?+?A-ADMSC administered as per group 3]. Results Circulating peak TNF-? level, at 6 h, was highest in groups 2 and 3, and higher in group 4 than group 1 (p?damage parameters of liver (AST, ALT), kidney (creatinine) and lung (arterial oxygen saturation) also displayed a similar pattern to TNF-? levels (all p?damage and improved prognosis in rats with sepsis syndrome. PMID:23217183

2012-01-01

308

Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation  

SciTech Connect

Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

Roush, D.E. Jr. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beaver, D.E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Coll. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences

1998-06-01

309

Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) containing the herbicide atrazine were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in terms of their herbicidal activity and genotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of three months, considering the variables: size, polydispersion index, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. Tests on plants were performed with target (Brassica sp.) and non-target (Zea mays) organisms, and the nanoparticle formulations were shown to be effective for the control of the target species. Experiments using soil columns revealed that the use of nanoparticles reduced the mobility of atrazine in the soil. Application of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay demonstrated that the nanoparticle systems were able to reduce the genotoxicity of the herbicide. The formulations developed offer a useful means of controlling agricultural weeds, while at the same time reducing the risk of harm to the environment and human health. PMID:24508945

Pereira, Anderson E S; Grillo, Renato; Mello, Nathalie F S; Rosa, Andre H; Fraceto, Leonardo F

2014-03-15

310

The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747

Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

2013-01-01

311

Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions  

PubMed Central

A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repair is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase ?, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL. PMID:24631220

Cunniffe, Siobhan; O'Neill, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; Lomax, Martine E.

2014-01-01

312

A micro-environmental intervention to reduce the harms associated with drug-related overdose: Evidence from the evaluation of Vancouver's safer injection facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundConventional drug overdose prevention strategies have been criticised for failing to address the macro- and micro-environmental factors that shape drug injecting practices and compromise individual ability to reduce the risks associated with drug-related overdose. This in turn has led to calls for interventions that address overdose risks by modifying the drug-using environment, including the social dynamics within them. Safer injection

Thomas Kerr; Will Small; David Moore; Evan Wood

2007-01-01

313

Withdrawal from repeated treatment with amphetamine reduces novelty-seeking behavior and enhances environmental habituation in mice.  

PubMed

Anhedonia associated with a dysphoric state is an important feature of amphetamine withdrawal in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of amphetamine withdrawal on two motivation-related behaviors in mice: novelty seeking and environmental habituation. Because anxiety can interfere with the behavioral outcome of other tasks, amphetamine-withdrawn mice were also evaluated in the elevated plus maze. Swiss male mice (three months old) were treated with 2.0mg/kg amphetamine for 13 days, every other day, in their home cages (a total of seven injections). Twenty-four hours after withdrawal from drug treatment, mice were tested in a free-choice novelty apparatus containing one familiar and one novel compartment or in the elevated plus maze. Novelty-seeking behavior was assessed by comparing the time spent in the novel compartment vs. the familiar compartment, whereas environmental habituation was concomitantly evaluated by the time-response curve of total locomotion (novel+familiar). Novelty seeking was decreased during amphetamine withdrawal, and this result was not associated with changes in the anxiety-like behavior of mice. Additionally, amphetamine withdrawal enhanced environmental habituation. The concomitant decrease in novelty seeking and the increase in environmental habituation seem to be related to amphetamine withdrawal-induced anhedonia. Thus, the model proposed here could be used as a tool for the study of mechanisms and potential treatment of the anhedonic behavioral consequences of psychostimulant withdrawal. PMID:21875614

Fukushiro, Daniela F; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Aramini, Tatiana C F; Saito, Luis P; Costa, Jacqueline M; Josino, Fabiana S; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

2011-11-01

314

dl-3-n-Butylphthalide prevents oxidative damage and reduces mitochondrial dysfunction in an MPP +-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP+)-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). NBP was extracted from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. (Chinese celery). MPP+ treatment of PC12 cells caused reduced viability, formation of reactive oxygen, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results

Jin-zhong Huang; Ying-zhu Chen; Min Su; Hui-fen Zheng; Ya-ping Yang; Jing Chen; Chun-Feng Liu

2010-01-01

315

Copper/zinc chelation by clioquinol reduces spinal cord white matter damage and behavioral deficits in a murine MOG-induced multiple sclerosis model.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of clioquinol (CQ), a metal chelator, on multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55)) in female mice. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were analyzed. CQ (30mg/kg) was given by gavage once per day for the entire experimental course. CQ profoundly reduced the daily clinical score and incidence rate of EAE mice. The CQ-mediated inhibition of the clinical course of EAE was accompanied by suppression of demyelination and reduced infiltration by encephalitogenic immune cells including CD4, CD8, CD20 and F4/80 positive cells. CQ also remarkably inhibited EAE-associated BBB disruption and MMP-9 activation. Autophagy contributes to clearance of aggregated proteins in astrocytes and neurons. The present study found that EAE increased the induction of autophagy and CQ further increased this expression. Furthermore, the present study found that post-treatment with CQ also reduced the clinical score of EAE and spinal cord demyelination. These results demonstrate that CQ inhibits the clinical features and neuropathological changes associated with EAE. The present study suggests that transition metals may be involved in several steps of multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. PMID:23360710

Choi, Bo Young; Jang, Bong Geom; Kim, Jin Hee; Seo, Jae-Nam; Wu, Guang; Sohn, Min; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Suh, Sang Won

2013-06-01

316

Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

NONE

1995-08-01

317

Single Administration of Tripeptide ?-MSH(11-13) Attenuates Brain Damage by Reduced Inflammation and Apoptosis after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neuroinflammatory processes promote neuronal cell loss. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is a neuropeptide with immunomodulatory properties, which may offer neuroprotection. Due to short half-life and pigmentary side-effects of ?-MSH, the C-terminal tripeptide ?-MSH(11–13) may be an anti-inflammatory alternative. The present study investigated the mRNA concentrations of the precursor hormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and of melanocortin receptors 1 and 4 (MC1R/MC4R) in naive mice and 15 min, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Regulation of POMC and MC4R expression did not change after trauma, while MC1R levels increased over time with a 3-fold maximum at 12 h compared to naive brain tissue. The effect of ?-MSH(11–13) on secondary lesion volume determined in cresyl violet stained sections (intraperitoneal injection 30 min after insult of 1 mg/kg ?-MSH(11–13) or 0.9% NaCl) showed a considerable smaller trauma in ?-MSH(11–13) injected mice. The expression of the inflammatory markers TNF-? and IL-1? as well as the total amount of Iba-1 positive cells were not reduced. However, cell branch counting of Iba-1 positive cells revealed a reduced activation of microglia. Furthermore, tripeptide injection reduced neuronal apoptosis analyzed by cleaved caspase-3 and NeuN staining. Based on the results single ?-MSH(11–13) administration offers a promising neuroprotective property by modulation of inflammation and prevention of apoptosis after traumatic brain injury. PMID:23940690

Schaible, Eva-Verena; Steinstrasser, Arne; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje; Luh, Clara; Sebastiani, Anne; Kornes, Frida; Pieter, Dana; Schafer, Michael K.; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C.

2013-01-01

318

Slam Haplotype 2 Promotes NKT But Suppresses V?4+ T-Cell Activation in Coxsackievirus B3 Infection Leading to Increased Liver Damage But Reduced Myocarditis  

PubMed Central

There are two major haplotypes of signal lymphocytic activation molecule (Slam) in inbred mouse strains, with the Slam haplotype 1 expressed in C57Bl/6 mice and the Slam haplotype 2 expressed in most other commonly used inbred strains, including 129 mice. Because signaling through Slam family receptors can affect innate immunity [natural killer T cell (NKT) and ?-? T-cell receptor], and innate immunity can determine susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, the present study evaluated the response of C57Bl/6 and congenic B6.129c1 mice (expressing the 129-derived Slam locus) to CVB3. CVB3-infected C57Bl/6 male mice developed increased myocarditis but reduced hepatic injury compared with infected B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice also had increased ??+ and CD8+interferon-?+ cells but decreased numbers of NKT (T-cell receptor ? chain + mCD1d tetramer+) and CD4+FoxP3+ cells compared with B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with CVB3 and treated with either ?-galactosylceramide, an NKT cell-specific ligand, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/PBS). Mice treated with ?-galactosylceramide showed significantly reduced myocarditis. Liver injuries, as determined by alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma, were increased significantly, confirming that NKT cells are protective for myocarditis but pathogenic in the liver. PMID:23195432

Huber, Sally Ann; Roberts, Brian; Moussawi, Mohamad; Boyson, Jonathan E.

2014-01-01

319

Adverse effects of reduced oxygen tension on the proliferative capacity of rat kidney and insulin-secreting cell lines involve DNA damage and stress responses  

SciTech Connect

Standard cell culture conditions do not reflect the physiological environment in terms of oxygen tension (20% vs 3%). The effects of lowering oxygen tension on cell proliferation in culture can be beneficial as well as detrimental depending on the cell line studied, but the molecular mechanism underlying such effects is not fully understood. We observed that the proliferative capacity of the rat cell lines NRK and INS-1 was inhibited when cultured under 3% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen. Suppression of proliferation in NRK cells was accompanied by induction of DNA double strand breaks whereas in INS-1 cells it was accompanied by up-regulation of p53 and p27. Although Sirt1 was up-regulated in both cell lines by 3% oxygen the effects on antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, CuZnSOD and catalase) were cell line specific. Marked up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected in both NRK and INS-1 cells when cultured in 3% oxygen. HO-1 expression can be readily induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide in culture. These results suggest that reduced oxygen tension suppresses the proliferative capacity of these two cell lines through a stress response that is similar to an oxidative stress response but the molecular events that lead to the reduced cell proliferation are cell line specific.

Chen Jianhua [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jhc36@cam.ac.uk; Jones, R. Huw; Tarry-Adkins, Jane; Smith, Noel H.; Ozanne, Susan E. [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

2008-10-01

320

Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg

2014-09-01

321

Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells leads to reduced inflammation and cartilage damage in murine antigen-induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating and painful disease leading to increased morbidity and mortality and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. The purpose of this study was to elucidate if mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injected in the joints of mice with arthritis are therapeutic, reducing joint swelling and cartilage destruction. Methods Murine mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of C57Bl/6 mice and expanded in culture. Cells were tested for immunophenotype and their ability to form colonies and to differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced by intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin into the knee joints of preimmunized C57Bl/6 mice. After one day, when peak swelling occurs, 500,000 mMSCs labelled with red fluorescent cell tracker CM-DiI were injected intra-articularly in the right knee joint. Left knee joints were treated as controls by receiving PBS injections. Differences between groups were calculated by Mann Whitney U test or unpaired t tests using GraphPad Prism software version 5. Results Knee joint diameter (swelling) was measured as a clinical indication of joint inflammation and this parameter was significantly less in MSC-treated mice compared to control-treated animals 48 hours after arthritis induction. This difference continued for ~7 days. CM-DiI-labelled MSCs were clearly visualised in the lining and sublining layers of synovium, in the region of the patella and femoral and tibial surfaces. By day 3, parameters indicative of disease severity, including cartilage depletion, inflammatory exudate and arthritic index were shown to be significantly reduced in MSC-treated animals. This difference continued for 7 days and was further confirmed by histological analysis. The serum concentration of tumour necrosis factor ? was significantly decreased following MSC administration. Conclusions Our results reveal that MSCs injected in the joints of mice with AIA are therapeutic, reducing inflammation, joint swelling and cartilage destruction. These cells also integrate into the synovium in AIA. PMID:24893776

2014-01-01

322

Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin administered into the intrathecal space reduces oxidative damage and neuron death after spinal cord injury: a comparison with methylprednisolone.  

PubMed

The metalloporphyrin Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) is a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic and a broad-spectrum scavenger of reactive species. Since MnTBAP may not cross the blood-brain barrier, this study evaluated the therapeutic potential of MnTBAP to treat spinal cord injury (SCI; 25 g x cm) by directly administering it into the intrathecal space of the rat spinal cord. The cells in spinal sections removed at 24 h post-SCI were immunohistochemically stained with anti-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a marker of membrane lipid peroxidation (MLP); anti-nitrotyrosine (Ntyr), a marker of protein nitration; and anti-neuron-specific enolase (NSE) antibodies. Immunostained neurons were counted for quantitative evaluation. Pre-treatment 30 min before SCI with 1 mg/kg MnTBAP or 4-h post-SCI treatment with 2.5 mg/kg MnTBAP administered into the intrathecal space significantly reduced MLP and protein nitration, and increased the number of surviving neurons compared to vehicle controls. However, post-SCI treatment with a standard regimen of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS; 30 mg/kg followed by 5.4 mg/kg for maintenance, iv administration), the only drug used for clinical treatment of SCI, not only did not reduce MLP and neuron loss, it increased protein nitration compared with vehicle controls (two-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] followed by the Tukey test). These results demonstrate that pre- and post-intrathecal treatments with the low doses of MnTBAP provide sustained neuroprotection by preventing oxidative stress and that post-treatment with MnTBAP is superior to post-treatment with MPSS in preventing oxidative stress and resulting neuron loss. PMID:17184187

Hachmeister, Jorge E; Valluru, Lokanatha; Bao, Feng; Liu, Danxia

2006-12-01

323

Dihydromethysticin from kava blocks tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumorigenesis and differentially reduces DNA damage in A/J mice.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that kava and its flavokavain-free Fraction B completely blocked 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice with a preferential reduction in NNK-induced O (6)-methylguanine (O (6)-mG). In this study, we first identified natural (+)-dihydromethysticin (DHM) as a lead compound through evaluating the in vivo efficacy of five major compounds in Fraction B on reducing O (6)-mG in lung tissues. (+)-DHM demonstrated outstanding chemopreventive activity against NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice with 97% reduction of adenoma multiplicity at a dose of 0.05mg/g of diet (50 ppm). Synthetic (±)-DHM was equally effective as the natural (+)-DHM in these bioassays while a structurally similar analog, (+)-dihydrokavain (DHK), was completely inactive, revealing a sharp in vivo structure-activity relationship. Analyses of an expanded panel of NNK-induced DNA adducts revealed that DHM reduced a subset of DNA adducts in lung tissues derived from 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL, the active metabolite of NNK). Preliminary 17-week safety studies of DHM in A/J mice at a dose of 0.5mg/g of diet (at least 10× its minimum effective dose) revealed no adverse effects, suggesting that DHM is likely free of kava's hepatotoxic risk. These results demonstrate the outstanding efficacy and promising safety margin of DHM in preventing NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice, with a unique mechanism of action and high target specificity. PMID:25053626

Narayanapillai, Sreekanth C; Balbo, Silvia; Leitzman, Pablo; Grill, Alex E; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Shaik, Ahmad Ali; Zhou, Bo; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Peterson, Lisa A; Lu, Junxuan; Hecht, Stephen S; Xing, Chengguo

2014-10-01

324

POPEYE: A river-load oriented model to evaluate the efficiency of environmental policy measures for reducing phosphorus losses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWatershed losses of phosphorus (P) have been a topic of concern for water resource managers over recent decades. To evaluate environmental policies or before implementing mitigation options at the watershed (catchment area) scale, stakeholders often need to analyze the patterns of point and diffuse sources of phosphorus. This information is often not easy to obtain in field conditions. Several statistical modeling approaches have been developed in recent years to respond to this basic operational demand. Point and diffuse sources are often evaluated from power functions established between phosphorus concentration and water discharge. Such models do not explicitly account for in-stream processes which control P concentrations in the hydrographic network and differentiate the P export dynamics of the various forms and inputs of P. To identify the phosphorus sources and evaluate their change in response to environmental policies, we developed a simple and loaded-oriented model (POPEYE - PhOsPhorus, Evaluation of the efficiencY of Environmental policy measures) that computes retention, settling and re-suspension rates of fine and coarse P fractions and their relation to P concentration of bed sediments. The model is calibrated to a long-term database (25 years), and describes the weekly water and chemical fluxes of a tributary of Lac Léman (Lake Geneva, Venoge river watershed, 240 km2). It adequately predicts observed values of fine and particulate phosphorus and reflects the gradual decrease of point and diffuse inputs over the studied period due to agricultural and sewage treatment policies implemented for the control of lake pollution.

Trevisan, Dominique; Quétin, Philippe; Barbet, Denis; Dorioz, Jean Marcel

2012-07-01

325

Integrated marine cultivation of Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) and salmon cages for reduced environmental impact and increased economic output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish farms produce large amounts of wastes, including dissolved inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen. To exploit these nutrients as a resource input, and at the same time reduce the risk for eutrophication of the environment, Gracilaria chilensis on ropes was co-cultivated with a salmon cage farm in southern Chile during two summer month. Gracilaria cultivated at 10 m distance from the

Max. Troell; C. Halling; A. Nilsson; A. H. Buschmann; N. Kautsky; L. Kautsky

1997-01-01

326

Revealing the binding structure of the protein corona on gold nanorods using synchrotron radiation-based techniques: understanding the reduced damage in cell membranes.  

PubMed

Regarding the importance of the biological effects of nanomaterials, there is still limited knowledge about the binding structure and stability of the protein corona on nanomaterials and the subsequent impacts. Here we designed a hard serum albumin protein corona (BSA) on CTAB-coated gold nanorods (AuNRs) and captured the structure of protein adsorption using synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy, microbeam X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy, and circular dichroism in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The protein adsorption is attributed to at least 12 Au-S bonds and the stable corona reduced the cytotoxicity of CTAB/AuNRs. These combined strategies using physical, chemical, and biological approaches will improve our understanding of the protective effects of protein coronas against the toxicity of nanomaterials. These findings have shed light on a new strategy for studying interactions between proteins and nanomaterials, and this information will help further guide the rational design of nanomaterials for safe and effective biomedical applications. PMID:24215358

Wang, Liming; Li, Jingyuan; Pan, Jun; Jiang, Xiumei; Ji, Yinglu; Li, Yufeng; Qu, Ying; Zhao, Yuliang; Wu, Xiaochun; Chen, Chunying

2013-11-20

327

Mild hypothermia in combination with minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma reduces inflammatory damage in patients via the nuclear factor-?B pathway  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma on the brain function of patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Seventy-six patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were divided into the minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MIHE) and mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MHMIHE) groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on the day of admission of the patient and one, three and seven days after the procedure were recorded. Perihematoma brain tissue morphology was observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) level was detected by ELISA. NIHSS scores in the MHMIHE group were significantly lower than those in the MIHE group on days three and seven. TNF-? and NF-?B levels peaked on day three, and the MHMIHE group had significantly lower levels of TNF-? and NF-?B than the MIHE group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma can effectively reduce inflammation and improve the brain function of patients. PMID:25371721

BI, YANPING; HUAN, YING; CAI, WEIDONG; WANG, XIA; LIANG, ZHIGANG; LIU, ZHAOKONG; DUAN, RUISHENG

2014-01-01

328

Deficiency of complement receptors CR2/CR1 in Cr2-/- mice reduces the extent of secondary brain damage after closed head injury  

PubMed Central

Complement activation at the C3 convertase level has been associated with acute neuroinflammation and secondary brain injury after severe head trauma. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that Cr2 -/- mice, which lack the receptors CR2/CD21 and CR1/CD35 for complement C3-derived activation fragments, are protected from adverse sequelae of experimental closed head injury. Adult wild-type mice and Cr2 -/- mice on a C57BL/6 genetic background were subjected to focal closed head injury using a standardized weight-drop device. Head-injured Cr2 -/- mice showed significantly improved neurological outcomes for up to 72 hours after trauma and a significantly decreased post-injury mortality when compared to wild-type mice. In addition, the Cr2 -/- genotype was associated with a decreased extent of neuronal cell death at seven days post-injury. Western blot analysis revealed that complement C3 levels were reduced in the injured brain hemispheres of Cr2 -/- mice, whereas plasma C3 levels remained unchanged, compared to wild-type mice. Finally, head-injured Cr2 -/- had an attenuated extent of post-injury C3 tissue deposition, decreased astrocytosis and microglial activation, and attenuated immunoglobulin M deposition in injured brains compared to wild-type mice. Targeting of these receptors for complement C3 fragments (CR2/CR1) may represent a promising future approach for therapeutic immunomodulation after traumatic brain injury. PMID:24885042

2014-01-01

329

The use of third-party review to reduce health and environmental hazards from surfactants and cleaning products in the janitorial industry.  

PubMed

The demand for environmentally preferable products is increasing in the area of Institutional and Industrial (I&I) cleaners. The GreenBlue Institute (GreenBlue) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Design for Environment (DfE) launched two programs to review surfactant ingredients and final cleaning products, with the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) conducting third-party reviews. The Local Hazardous Waste Management Program (LHWMP) in King County, Washington, has a strategic goal to reduce the risk of exposure of hazardous chemicals to vulnerable populations such as janitorial workers. This report summarizes the NSF partnership with GreenBlue, CleanGredients, and U.S. EPA's DfE to perform third-party reviews of cleaning product ingredients and its relevance to LHWMP's interest in reducing risks to workers in the janitorial industry. Due to information barriers, workers in the janitorial industry are at risk daily to these hazardous chemicals. The surfactant and formulator review program will make positive contributions towards the reduction of toxic chemical exposure to the employees of the janitorial industry. With proper communication and an increased use of less toxic cleaners, exposures to vulnerable populations can be reduced. PMID:19452830

Okumura, Kazuhiro

2009-05-01

330

Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals as the mechanism for reduced catechol degradation on hematite-silica surface under UV irradiation.  

PubMed

Iron is rich in soils, and is recently reported to form stable complexes with organic free radicals, generating environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs). The observation may challenge the common viewpoint that iron is an effective catalyst to facilitate the degradation of various organic chemicals. But no study was specifically designed to investigate the possible inhibited degradation of organic chemicals because of the formation of EPFRs in dry environment. We observed that catechol degradation under UV irradiation was decreased over 20% in silica particles coated with 1% hematite in comparison to uncoated silica particles. Stabilized semiquinone or quinine and phenol radicals were involved in HMT-silica system. EPFR formation was thus the reason for the reduced catechol degradation on HMT-silica surface under UV irradiation at ambient temperature. EPFRs should be incorporated in the studies of organic contaminants geochemical behavior, and will be a new input in their environmental fate modeling. PMID:24594596

Li, Hao; Pan, Bo; Liao, Shaohua; Zhang, Di; Xing, Baoshan

2014-05-01

331

Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David

2014-05-01

332

Gymnaster koraiensis and its major components, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and gymnasterkoreayne B, reduce oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or acetaminophen in HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

We investigated the protective effects of Gymnaster koraiensis against oxidative stress-induced hepatic cell damage. We used two different cytotoxicity models, i.e., the administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and acetaminophen, in HepG2 cells to evaluate the protective effects of G. koraiensis. The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DCQA), exerted protective effects in the t-BHP-induced liver cytotoxicity model. The EA fraction and DCQA ameliorated t-BHP-induced reductions in GSH levels and exhibited free radical scavenging activity. The EA fraction and DCQA also significantly reduced t-BHP-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the hexane fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound, gymnasterkoreayne B (GKB), exerted strong hepatoprotection in the acetaminopheninduced cytotoxicity model. CYP 3A4 enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by the extract, hexane fraction, and GKB. The hexane fraction and GKB ameliorated acetaminophen-induced reductions in GSH levels and protected against cell death. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(10): 513-518] PMID:24148773

Jho, Eun Hye; Kang, Kyungsu; Oidovsambuu, Sarangerel; Lee, Eun Ha; Jung, Sang Hoon; Shin, Il-Shik; Nho, Chu Won

2013-01-01

333

32P-postlabeling assay in mice of transplacental DNA damage induced by the environmental carcinogens safrole, 4-aminobiphenyl, and benzo(a)pyrene.  

PubMed

Transplacental exposure of fetuses to carcinogens is known to induce tumors in the offspring, often with a high incidence and short latency. While covalent adduction of DNA appears to be essential for tumor initiation, little is known about the binding of carcinogens to the DNA of fetal tissues. A sensitive 32P-postlabeling method enabled us to study the binding of the environmental carcinogens safrole (600 mumol/kg p.o.), 4-aminobiphenyl (800 mumol/kg), and benzo(a)pyrene (200 mumol/kg) to the DNA of various maternal and fetal tissues after administration of test carcinogens to pregnant ICR mice on day 18 of gestation. The results show that these carcinogens bound to the DNA of maternal and fetal liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain, intestine, skin, maternal uterus, and placenta, with organ-specific quantitative and qualitative differences. It was possible for the first time to analyze DNA adduct patterns in minute amounts of tissue, for example those available from fetal heart. The covalent binding index (mumol adducted nucleotides per mol of DNA nucleotides/mumol carcinogen administered per g body weight) 24 h after safrole treatment was estimated for the different organs and ranged from 0.1 to 247 and 0.1 to 5.8 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. Covalent binding index values of 0.2 to 13 and 0.1 to 0.3 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively, were found for 4-aminobiphenyl. Benzo(a)pyrene treatment yielded covalent binding index values of 0.6 to 6.5 and 0.3 to 0.7 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. In both maternal and fetal tissues, safrole exhibited preferential binding to liver DNA. 4-Aminobiphenyl bound preferentially to DNA of maternal liver and kidney but showed no preference among fetal tissues. Benzo(a)pyrene exhibited weak tissue preference in both maternal and fetal organs. For all of the compounds studied, the fetal adduct levels were generally lower than the corresponding maternal adduct levels, especially when the level of maternal adduction was high. The major finding was that several carcinogens of diverse structure or their metabolites readily crossed the placenta and gave rise to DNA adducts in fetal organs. The resulting DNA damage in rapidly proliferating tissues may play a critical role in transplacental carcinogenesis. PMID:3698023

Lu, L J; Disher, R M; Reddy, M V; Randerath, K

1986-06-01

334

Effect of environmental interventions to reduce exposure to asthma triggers in homes of low-income children in Seattle.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of community health workers (CHWs) assisting families in reducing exposure to indoor asthma triggers has not been studied. In all, 274 low-income asthmatic children were randomly assigned to high- or low-intensity groups. CHWs visited all homes to assess exposures, develop action plans and provide bedding encasements. The higher-intensity group also received cleaning equipment and five to nine visits over a year focusing on asthma trigger reduction. The asthma trigger composite score decreased from 1.56 to 1.19 (Delta=-0.37, 95% CI 0.13, 0.61) in the higher-intensity group and from 1.63 to 1.43 in the low-intensity group (Delta=-0.20, 95% CI 0.004, 0.4). The difference in this measure due to the intervention was significant at the P=0.096 level. The higher-intensity group also showed improvement during the intervention year in measurements of condensation, roaches, moisture, cleaning behavior, dust weight, dust mite antigen, and total antigens above a cut point, effects not demonstrated in the low-intensity group. CHWs are effective in reducing asthma trigger exposure in low-income children. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions and structural improvements on asthma trigger exposure and health. PMID:15118754

Takaro, Tim K; Krieger, James W; Song, Lin

2004-01-01

335

Greening the greenhouse grower. A behavioral analysis of a sector-initiated system to reduce the environmental load of greenhouses.  

PubMed

Growing plants and flowers in greenhouses is a commercial activity that imposes a burden on the environment. Recently a system of registration, control, and licensing has been developed by the sector of greenhouse growers in the Netherlands, acknowledged by the state. The current study was executed to understand the achievements of the greenhouse growers within this system. We applied a social-cognitive model to understand intentions to reduce emissions and predict actual pesticide use. The social-cognitive concepts from the model were measured in a questionnaire that was completed by 743 greenhouse growers. Factual information on these growers' pesticide use in 2004 and 2005 was provided by the agency responsible for the program, and could be linked to the questionnaire data. Using structural equation modeling we found that intention to reduce emission was primarily predicted by the attitude, descriptive norm, and self-efficacy. Actual pesticide use was predicted by the interaction of intention and response efficacy. Results can be used to improve communication with growers, focusing on the influential determinants of intention and behavior. PMID:21636211

Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

2011-10-01

336

Changing sources and environmental factors reduce the rates of decline of organochlorine pesticides in the Arctic atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive database of organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations measured at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, was analysed to assess longer-term trends in the Arctic atmosphere. Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) is employed to investigate the seasonal and cyclical behaviour of chlordanes, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and to isolate underlying inter-annual trends. Although a simple comparison of annual mean concentrations (1994-2005) suggest a decline for all of the OCs investigated, the longer-term trends identified by DHR only show a significant decline for p,p'-DDT. Indeed, HCB shows an increase from 2003-2005. This is thought to be due to changes in source types and the presence of impurities in current use pesticides, together with retreating sea ice affecting air-water exchange. Changes in source types were revealed by using isomeric ratios for the chlordanes and DDTs. Declining trends in ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) indicate a shift from primary sources, to more "weathered" secondary sources, whereas an increasing trend in o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate a shift from use of technical DDT to dicofol. Continued monitoring of these OC pesticides is required to fully understand the influence of a changing climate on the behaviour and environmental cycling of these chemicals in the Arctic as well as possible impacts from "new" sources.

Becker, S.; Halsall, C. J.; Tych, W.; Kallenborn, R.; Schlabach, M.; Manø, S.

2012-05-01

337

Reduction in fiber damage thresholds due to static fatigue  

SciTech Connect

Damage mechanisms may occur during the transmission of Q-switched, Nd/YAG laser pulses through fused silica fibers. Fiber end-face characteristics, laser characteristics, and aspects of the laser-to-fiber injection typically determine dominant damage mechanisms. However, an additional damage process has been observed at internal sites where fibers were experiencing significant local stresses due to fixturing or bends in the fiber path. A transmission reduction prior to damage was typically not measurable at these sites. Damage would not always occur during initial testing, but sometimes occurred later in time at laser levels that previously had been transmitted without damage. In these cases the time at stress appeared to be more important than the number of transmitted shots prior to damage. A possible relation between internal damage thresholds at stressed sites and the total time under stress is suggested by the fact that silica fibers experience static fatigue processes. These processes involve the slow growth of local defects under tensile stress at rates that depend upon environmental conditions. Defects reaching sufficient size and having appropriate location could be sites for reduced laser-induced damage thresholds. The present work looks into the possibility that static fatigue processes can affect damage thresholds. The experiments used a laser injection and fiber routing configuration that produced significantly elevated fluences within fiber core regions under tensile stress. In order to establish initial strength and fatigue properties for these fibers, a number of samples were used to generate time-to-failure data at various stress levels. Other fiber samples were subjected to conditions that greatly accelerated fatigue processes. Internal damage thresholds were then measured in these fibers and compared to thresholds measured in fresh fibers. Conclusive comparisons were frustrated by sample-to-sample and lot-to-lot variations in fiber defects.

Setchell, R.E.

1995-01-01

338

Non-Linear Analysis Indicates Chaotic Dynamics and Reduced Resilience in Model-Based Daphnia Populations Exposed to Environmental Stress  

PubMed Central

In this study we present evidence that anthropogenic stressors can reduce the resilience of age-structured populations. Enhancement of disturbance in a model-based Daphnia population lead to a repression of chaotic population dynamics at the same time increasing the degree of synchrony between the population's age classes. Based on the theory of chaos-mediated survival an increased risk of extinction was revealed for this population exposed to high concentrations of a chemical stressor. The Lyapunov coefficient was supposed to be a useful indicator to detect disturbance thresholds leading to alterations in population dynamics. One possible explanation could be a discrete change in attractor orientation due to external disturbance. The statistical analysis of Lyapunov coefficient distribution is proposed as a methodology to test for significant non-linear effects of general disturbance on populations. Although many new questions arose, this study forms a theoretical basis for a dynamical definition of population recovery. PMID:24809537

Ottermanns, Richard; Szonn, Kerstin; Preuss, Thomas G.; Ross-Nickoll, Martina

2014-01-01

339

Stability of U(VI) and Tc(VII) Reducing Microbial Communities to Environmental Perturbation: Development and Testing of a Thermodynamic Network Model  

SciTech Connect

Previously published research from in situ field experiments at the NABIR Field Research Center have shown that cooperative metabolism of denitrifiers and Fe(III)/sulfate reducers is essential for creating subsurface conditions favorable for U(VI) and Tc(VII) bioreduction (Istok et al., 2004). The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on the composition and functional stability of subsurface microbial communities. The overall scientific hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding reactions performed by broadly defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change. An interactive computer program was developed to calculate the overall growth equation and free energy yield for microorganisms that grow by coupling selected combinations of electron acceptor and electron donor half-reactions. Each group performs a specific function (e.g. oxidation of acetate coupled to reduction of nitrate); collectively the groups provide a theoretical description of the entire natural microbial community. The microbial growth data are combined with an existing thermodynamic data base for associated geochemical reactions and used to simulate the coupled microbial-geochemical response of a complex natural system to substrate addition or any other environmental perturbations.

McKinley, James P.; Istok, Jonathan

2005-06-01

340

Breeding for genetic improvement of forage plants in relation to increasing animal production with reduced environmental footprint.  

PubMed

Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency. PMID:22717231

Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M

2013-03-01

341

Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation. PMID:21466825

Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J

2011-10-31

342

Environmental Consequences of Invasive Species: Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Insecticide Use and the Role of Biological Control in Reducing Emissions  

PubMed Central

Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23977273

Heimpel, George E.; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D.; Ragsdale, David W.

2013-01-01

343

Sun Damage  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Sun Damage A A A The sun has a profound effect over years of exposure on the skin, causing premature ... changes. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun accounts for most premature skin aging. Many skin ...

344

The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be significant contributors to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of air pollution present in the urban environment for humans. Populations exposed to environmental air pollution show increased levels of PAH DNA adducts and it has been postulated that another contributing cause of carcinogenicity by environmental air pollution may be the production of reactive oxygen species

Rajinder Singh; Radim J. Sram; Blanka Binkova; Ivan Kalina; Todor A. Popov; Tzveta Georgieva; Seymour Garte; Emanuela Taioli; Peter B. Farmer

2007-01-01

345

The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resources Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Introduction to a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Techincal Workshop  

EPA Science Inventory

A SETAC Technical Workshop titled ?The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Understanding and Improving the Common Scientific Underpinnings,? was held 18?22 August 2008 in Gregson, Montana, USA, to examine the linkage, nexu...

346

Using DNA damage to monitor water environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA damage of aquatic organisms living in polluted environments can be used as a biomarker of the genotoxicity of toxic agents to organisms. This technique has been playing an important role in ecotoxicological study and environmental risk assessment. In this article, main types of DNA damage caused by pollutants in water environments were reviewed; methods of detecting DNA damage were also documented for water environmental monitoring.

Zhu, Liyan; Huang, Ying; Liu, Guangxing

2005-09-01

347

Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Food choices influence health status, but also have a great impact on the environment. The production of animal-derived foods has a high environmental burden, whereas the burden of refined carbohydrates, vegetables and fruit is low. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use of usual diet with mortality risk, and to estimate the effect of a modelled meat substitution scenario on health and the environment. Methods The usual diet of 40011 subjects in the EPIC-NL cohort was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. GHGE and land use of food products were based on life cycle analysis. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to determine relative mortality risk. In the modelled meat-substitution scenario, one-third (35 gram) of the usual daily meat intake (105 gram) was substituted by other foods. Results During a follow-up of 15.9 years, 2563 deaths were registered. GHGE and land use of the usual diet were not associated with all-cause or with cause-specific mortality. Highest vs. lowest quartile of GHGE and land use adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were respectively 1.00 (95% CI: 0.86-1.17) and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.89-1.23). Modelled substitution of 35 g/d of meat with vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, pasta-rice-couscous, or fish significantly increased survival rates (6-19%), reduced GHGE (4-11%), and land use (10-12%). Conclusions There were no significant associations observed between dietary-derived GHGE and land use and mortality in this Dutch cohort. However, the scenario-study showed that substitution of meat with other major food groups was associated with a lower mortality risk and a reduced environmental burden. Especially when vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, fish, or pasta-rice-couscous replaced meat. PMID:24708803

2014-01-01

348

Radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation damage workshop considered a variety of topics among which were the need for equivalent electron fluences in gallium arsenide, the possibility of 15 percent end-of-life efficiencies for silicon, increasing radiation resistance in gallium arsenide, annealing of radiation damage and the need for radiation damage studies in cascade cells. The workshop members agreed that a high priority should be assigned to obtaining equivalent electron fluences for gallium arsenide cells. It was suggested that 1 MeV would be a reasonable electron energy for this purpose. Special care should be given to proton irradiations particularly for energies below 1 MeV. In addition, omnidirectional rather than normal incidence protons should be used. It was also agreed that there was a need for obtaining damage coefficients in gallium arsenide. In silicon, there is a requirement for additional flight data, especially in proton dominated orbits. These data are needed to further check the accuracy of the 1 MeV equivalence fluences.

Weinberg, I.

1982-01-01

349

Environmental Economics Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kenneth Acks, publisher of the Environmental Damage Valuation Cost Benefit News, authors this glossary of environmental economics terms. In addition to concise definitions, the site also includes links to other glossaries and learning sites of interest to resource economists.

1998-01-01

350

Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain  

PubMed Central

Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas. As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities. PMID:23497078

2013-01-01

351

Utilization of multi?dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces in August 1990, has affected the environment of the Gulf region and of Kuwait in particular. The environmental consequences of military operations and burning of oil wells in 1991 severely affected the air and the marine environment in addition to the terrestrial ecosystems in Kuwait. The air environment received hundreds of thousands of

2007-01-01

352

Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT  

SciTech Connect

Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM{sub 10} emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO{sub 2} emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector.

Mirasgedis, S. [Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nimfon, Thission, 11810 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: seba@meteo.noa.gr; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P. [Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nimfon, Thission, 11810 Athens (Greece); Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A. [EPEM S.A., Acharnon 141 B, 10446 Athens (Greece); Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K. [LDK-ECO S.A., Thivaidos 21, 14564 Kifissia, Athens (Greece); Mavrotas, G. [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytexneiou 9, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece)

2008-01-15

353

IMPLEMENTING AN ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A Case Study of Environmental Training and Awareness at the Vancouver  

E-print Network

IMPLEMENTING AN ISO 14001 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A Case Study of Environmental Training an ISO 14001 environmental management system: A case study of environmental training and awareness of limiting environmental damage. Environmental management systems (EMSs), such as ISO 14001, provide

354

Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of ?shes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, ?sh were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, ?sh have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Signi?cant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was signi?cantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a signi?cant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a signi?cant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these ?sh exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

Brown, Kim H.; Schultz, Irv; Nagler, James J.

2007-11-01

355

5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body ?- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:22843381

Grace, Marcy B.; Singh, Vijay K.; Rhee, Juong G.; Jackson, William E.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H.

2012-01-01

356

The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A reduces nicotine-enhanced brain reward and nicotine-paired environmental cue functions  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that enhanced dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) may play a role in mediating the reward and reinforcement produced by addictive drugs and in the attentional processing of drug-associated environmental cues. The meso-accumbens DA system is selectively enriched with DA D3 receptors, a DA receptor subtype increasingly implicated in reward-related brain and behavioural processes. From a variety of evidence, it has been suggested that selective DA D3 receptor antagonism may be a useful pharmacotherapeutic approach for treating addiction. The present experiments tested the efficacy of SB-277011A, a selective DA D3 receptor antagonist, in rat models of nicotine-enhanced electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR), nicotine-induced conditioned locomotor activity (LMA), and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Nicotine was given subcutaneously within the dose range of 0.25–0.6 mg/kg (nicotine-free base). SB-277011A, given intraperitoneally within the dose range of 1–12 mg/kg, dose-dependently reduced nicotine-enhanced BSR, nicotine-induced conditioned LMA, and nicotine-induced CPP. The results suggest that selective D3 receptor antagonism constitutes a new and promising pharmacotherapeutic approach to the treatment of nicotine dependence. PMID:16942635

Pak, Arlene C.; Ashby, Charles R.; Heidbreder, Christian A.; Pilla, Maria; Gilbert, Jeremy; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L.

2013-01-01

357

Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part II. Oxidative damage.  

PubMed

Oxidative damage to macromolecules may have numerous negative health consequences. We measured oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids in 80 newborns and 79 mothers, analyzed the effect of mother's tobacco smoke exposure on oxidative stress, and assessed correlations between oxidative stress markers and bulky and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)-specific DNA adducts. Mean levels (+/-S.D.) of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) per 10(5) dG in the placenta were 2.85+/-0.78; we did not see a difference between 8-oxodG levels in newborns born to mothers exposed and unexposed to tobacco smoke. Protein carbonyl levels, a marker of protein oxidation, were comparable in the umbilical cord and in maternal venous blood plasma (17.4+/-3.2 and 17.6+/-4.2nmol/ml plasma in newborns and mothers, respectively, p=0.66). Lipid peroxidation measured as levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) in plasma was significantly higher in newborns than in mothers (362+/-129 and 252+/-130pg/ml in newborns and mothers, respectively, p<0.001). We did not find any effect of tobacco smoke exposure on either biomarker in any group. Levels of both protein carbonyls and 15-F(2t)-IsoP in cord blood significantly correlated with those in maternal plasma (p<0.001). 8-oxodG levels positively correlated with plasma carbonyls in cord plasma, as well as with cotinine levels (marker of tobacco smoke exposure) in maternal plasma. 8-oxodG levels also correlated with bulky DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA of newborns and mothers and with PAH-DNA adducts in the placenta. Our results showed higher lipid peroxidation in newborns than in mothers, close correlation of analyzed oxidative stress markers between newborns and mothers, and a relationship between oxidative stress and induction of DNA adducts. PMID:19433097

Rossner, P; Milcova, A; Libalova, H; Novakova, Z; Topinka, J; Balascak, I; Sram, R J

2009-10-01

358

Environmental Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental noise may be defined as unwanted sound that is caused by emissions from traffic (roads, air traffic corridors, and railways), industrial sites and recreational infrastructures, which may cause both annoyance and damage to health. Noise in the environment or community seriously affects people, interfering with daily activities at school, work and home and during leisure time.

Rumberg, Martin

359

Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage: An Adaptable, Hybrid, Multi-Stage, Energy-Recovery Approach to Reduce Carbon Intensity and Environmental Risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges of mitigating climate change and generating sustainable renewable energy are inseparable and can be addressed by synergistic integration of geothermal energy production with secure geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Pressure buildup can be a limiting factor for GCS and geothermal reservoir operations, due to a number of concerns, including the potential for CO2 leakage and induced seismicity, while pressure depletion can limit geothermal energy recovery. Water-use demands can also be a limiting factor for GCS and geothermal operations, particularly where water resources are already scarce. Economic optimization of geothermal-GCS involves trade-offs of various benefits and risks, along with their associated costs: (1) heat extraction per ton of delivered CO2, (2) permanent CO2 storage, (3) energy recovery per unit well (and working-fluid recirculation) costs, and (4) economic lifetime of a project. We analyze a hybrid, multi-stage approach using both formation brine and injected CO2 as working fluids to attempt to optimize the benefits of sustainable energy production and permanent CO2 storage, while conserving water resources and minimizing environmental risks. We consider a range of well-field patterns and operational schemes. Initially, the fluid production is entirely brine. After CO2 breakthrough, the fraction of CO2 in production, which is called the CO2 "cut", increases with time. Thus, brine is the predominant working fluid for early time, with the contribution of CO2 to heat extraction increasing with CO2 cut (and time). We find that smaller well spacing between CO2 injectors and producers favors earlier CO2 breakthrough and a more rapid rise in CO2 cut, which increases the contribution of recirculated CO2, thereby improving the heat extraction per ton of delivered CO2. On the other hand, larger well spacing increases permanent CO2 storage, energy production per unit well cost, while reducing the thermal drawdown rate, which extends the economic lifetime of a project. For the range of cases considered, we were never able to eliminate the co-production of brine; thus, brine management is likely to be important for reservoir operations, whether or not brine is considered as a candidate working fluid. Future work will address site-specific reservoir conditions and infrastructure factors, such as proximity to potential CO2 sources. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Buscheck, T. A.; Chen, M.; Lu, C.; Sun, Y.; Hao, Y.; Elliot, T. R.; Celia, M. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

2012-12-01

360

SEPARATION METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES - SPECIAL ISSUE: MEMBRANES AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...

361

/sup 32/P-postlabeling assay in mice of transplacental DNA damage induced by the environmental carcinogens safrole, 4-aminobiphenyl, and benzo(a)pyrene  

SciTech Connect

Transplacental exposure of fetuses to carcinogens is known to induce tumors in the offspring, often with a high incidence and short latency. While covalent adduction of DNA appears to be essential for tumor initiation, little is known about the binding of carcinogens to the DNA of fetal tissues. A sensitive /sup 32/P-postlabeling method enabled us to study the binding of the environmental carcinogens safrole (600 mumol/kg p.o.), 4-aminobiphenyl (800 mumol/kg), and benzo(a)pyrene (200 mumol/kg) to the DNA of various maternal and fetal tissues after administration of test carcinogens to pregnant ICR mice on day 18 of gestation. The results show that these carcinogens bound to the DNA of maternal and fetal liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain, intestine, skin, maternal uterus, and placenta, with organ-specific quantitative and qualitative differences. It was possible for the first time to analyze DNA adduct patterns in minute amounts of tissue, for example those available from fetal heart. The covalent binding index 24 h after safrole treatment was estimated for the different organs and ranged from 0.1 to 247 and 0.1 to 5.8 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. Covalent binding index values of 0.2 to 13 and 0.1 to 0.3 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively, were found for 4-aminobiphenyl. Benzo(a)pyrene treatment yielded covalent binding index values of 0.6 to 6.5 and 0.3 to 0.7 for maternal and fetal DNA, respectively. In both maternal and fetal tissues, safrole exhibited preferential binding to liver DNA. 4-Aminobiphenyl bound preferentially to DNA of maternal liver and kidney but showed no preference among fetal tissues. Benzo(a)pyrene exhibited weak tissue preference in both maternal and fetal organs.

Lu, L.J.; Disher, R.M.; Reddy, M.V.; Randerath, K.

1986-06-01

362

Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

2002-12-27

363

Reduced shedding regenerator and method  

DOEpatents

A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

2007-05-22

364

Risk and Damage As A Main Factors of Groundwater Vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It's well known that groundwater is widely used for potable water supply in compar- ison with surface water. However significant urbanization, intensive growth of indus- try, quite limited investments for reconstractision of existed manufactures and also imperfect environmental protective legislation, all these are the cause of ecosystem degradation. Because of these the problem of both preventing of change in groundwa- ter chemical composition and forecasting of negative processes caused by economical activity is the main at present. According to data of Ministry of Economy, the increas- ing of total production in all spheres of industry till 2004 is forecasted. All these lead to increasing of anthropogenic load on ecosystems. So, the problem of environmental risk assessment including groundwater is actual. The methodology of risk assessment includes natural groundwater protection and the damage cost. The first is based on the time calculation of contaminated water in- filtration through the soil and vadoze zone till groundwater level, i.e. assessment of groundwater vulnerability. The second (damage cost) is based on the cost value of measures aimed to the elimination of contamination aftereffects. Damage can be direct and indirect. The first appears as a result of direct destroying of buildings, agricultural areas, natural landscapes, people and animals death or sickness. and amount of direct damage is determined by expendures, necessary for reduction of objects. The second, indirect, damage is determined by product losses or other negative affects connected with supply lines, deterioration of ecological conditions. It is necessary to mark that risk assessment is very important for planning of hy- drotechnical, engineering and civil construction (e.g., construction and location of different buildings depending from hydrogeological and geological conditions; or- ganization of well-fields and etc.), because all these factors correctly estimated can eleminate or reduce most negative aftereffects.

Zakharova, Julia V.

365

ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOBIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental aquatic photobiology is most commonly known for its links to global climate change. Ozone depletion is, however, not the only factor that alters the effects of ultraviolet radiation on biological systems. Alterations in water clarity, by acidification, reduced disso...

366

Environmental Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environment Canada has developed a set of environmental indicators that are easily measurable and provide useful clues on the state of the environment. This Web site provides a listing of those indicators that Environment Canada monitors. For each indicator, there is a detailed description of the environmental indicator, how it relates to larger environmental problems, and what is being done to reduce the threat. A number of Web links are provided for further information on each indicator.

367

The combination of reducing agents\\/iron as environmentally friendlier alternatives for Co-based driers in the drying of alkyd paints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In answer to the increased demand for Co-free driers for alkyd based paints, a biomimetic approach has been used to find suitable and environmentally friendly alternatives for Co-based driers for alkyd paints. This approach was chosen due to the resemblance between the mechanisms by which alkyd paints dry and lipids are oxidized in biological systems. As a consequence, the combination

Fabrizio Miccichè; Eef Oostveen; Jacco van Haveren; Robert van der Linde

2005-01-01

368

Assisting Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Actively Reduces Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through Controlling Environmental Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the…

Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Yeh, Jui-Chi; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chang, Man-Ling

2011-01-01

369

How Serious Is the Damage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When surveys of faculty tell everyone that politically right-of-center voices are now much reduced or even in certain areas largely absent, people can be sure that the academy is damaged in at least one respect: the campus political and social climate will be unrealistic. Programs where this is central, such as political science and sociology,…

Ellis, John M.

2007-01-01

370

New Environmental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... feed, clothe, transport and house us. The New Environmental Health 7 Some chemicals also can cause nerve damage. This resulted, in the case of kepone, in workers at a plant suffering nervous tremors, twitching and flickering eyes. That’s ...

371

Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

2011-01-01

372

Environmental indices: theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

All existing environmental index systems, along with principles for their design, application and structure, are included in this book. Chapter I introduces environmental data, presenting simple communicative approaches such as environmental quality profiles. It also describes the national monitoring activities that generate these data and discusses the difficulty of constructing meaningful environmental damage functions. Chapter II presents a new conceptual

W. R. Ott

1978-01-01

373

Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations  

E-print Network

Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

2012-06-07

374

The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES): New Mars Science to Reduce Human Risk and Prepare for the Human Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Obtaining critical measurements for eventual human Mars missions while expanding upon recent Mars scientific discoveries and deriving new scientific knowledge from a unique near surface vantage point is the focus of the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES) exploration mission. The key element of ARES is an instrumented,rocket-powered, well-tested robotic airplane platform, that will fly between one to two kilometers above the surface while traversing hundreds of kilometers to collect and transmit previously unobtainable high spatial measurements relevant to the NASA Mars Exploration Program and the exploration of Mars by humans.

Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Wright, Henry S.; Killough, B. D.; Edwards, W. C.

2012-01-01

375

Environmental impact. Part I. Development of a semi-quantitatie parameter and its implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model which reduces the multiple causes of damage to the environment by human activities into one easily calculated semi-quantitative parameter is presented. The formulation is achieved by understanding an ecosystem disturbance in terms of its energy and material flows and superimposing on it the activities of man due to imported or exotic energy (food and fuel). Environmental impact is

2009-01-01

376

Environmental, legal and social implications of ocean urea fertilization: Sulu sea example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean urea fertilization is one geoengineering proposal aimed at not only reducing the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide but also increasing fish populations in nutrient poor areas of the ocean. Theoretically ocean fertilization promises great benefits but there is also the possibility of serious environmental damage to consider. The nature of ocean urea fertilization means it is more likely to

Julia Mayo-Ramsay

2010-01-01

377

Damage detection in sandwich composite materials using laser vibrometry in conjunction with nonlinear system identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiberglass sandwich panels are tested to study a vibration-based method for locating damage in composite materials. This method does not rely on a direct comparison of the natural frequencies, mode shapes, or residues in the forced vibration response data. Specifically, a nonlinear system identification based method for damage detection is sought that reduces the sensitivity of damage detection results to changes in vibration measurements due to variations in boundary conditions, environmental conditions, and material properties of the panel. Damage mechanisms considered include a disbond between the core and face sheet and a crack within the core. A panel is excited by a skewed piezoelectric actuator over a broad frequency range while a three-dimensional scanning laser vibrometer measures the surface velocity of the panel along three orthogonal axes. The forced frequency response data measured using the scanning laser vibrometer at multiple excitation amplitudes is processed to identify areas of the panel that exhibit significant nonlinear response characteristics. It is demonstrated that these localized nonlinearities in the panel coincide with the damaged areas of the composite material. Because changes in the measured frequency response functions due to nonlinear distortions associated with the damage can be identified without comparing the vibration data to a reference (baseline) signature of the undamaged material, this vibration technique for damage detection in composite materials exhibits less sensitivity to variations in the underlying linear characteristics than traditional methods. It is also demonstrated that the damage at a given location can be classified as either due to a disbond or core crack because these two types of damage produce difference signatures when comparing the multi-amplitude frequency response functions.

Underwood, Sara; Koester, David; Adams, Douglas E.

2009-03-01

378

Acquiring Water for Environmental Use in Australia: An Analysis of Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid counties, such as Australia, the storage and extractive use of water is causing significant environmental damage and\\u000a traditional economic objectives of efficiency and maximising financial returns from surface water resources are often at conflict\\u000a the long-term sustainability of riverine ecosystems. Policy options for acquiring water to improve environmental flow regimes\\u000a include (a) reducing announced allocations, (b) recouping a

John Tisdell

2010-01-01

379

Reduced diversity and high sponge abundance on a sedimented Indo-Pacific reef system: implications for future changes in environmental quality.  

PubMed

Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded) and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning. PMID:24475041

Powell, Abigail; Smith, David J; Hepburn, Leanne J; Jones, Timothy; Berman, Jade; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Bell, James J

2014-01-01

380

Reduced Diversity and High Sponge Abundance on a Sedimented Indo-Pacific Reef System: Implications for Future Changes in Environmental Quality  

PubMed Central

Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded) and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning. PMID:24475041

Powell, Abigail; Smith, David J.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Jones, Timothy; Berman, Jade; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Bell, James J.

2014-01-01

381

Economic measurement of environment damages  

SciTech Connect

The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

Krawiec, F.

1980-05-01

382

Additive effects of cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin II receptor blocker on reducing cardiorenal damage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Cilnidipine (Cil), which is an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been known to provide renal protection by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin–angiotensin system. In this study, we compared the effects of the combination of Cil and amlodipine (Aml), which is an L-type CCB, with an angiotensin (Ang) II receptor blocker on diabetic cardiorenal damage in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats. Seventeen-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomly assigned to receive Cil, Aml, valsartan (Val), Cil + Val, Aml + Val, or a vehicle (eight rats per group) for 22 weeks. Antihypertensive potencies were nearly equal among the CCB monotherapy groups and the combination therapy groups. The lowering of blood pressure by either treatment did not significantly affect the glycemic variables. However, exacerbations of renal and heart failure were significantly suppressed in rats administered Cil or Val, and additional suppression was observed in those administered Cil + Val. Although Val increased the renin–Ang system, Aml + Val treatment resulted in additional increases in these parameters, while Cil + Val did not show such effects. Furthermore, Cil increased the ratio of Ang-(1–7) to Ang-I, despite the fact that Val and Aml + Val decreased the Ang-(1–7) levels. These actions of Cil + Val might be due to their synergistic inhibitory effect on the activity of the SNS, and on aldosterone secretion through N-type calcium channel antagonism and Ang II receptor type 1 antagonism. Thus, Cil may inhibit the progression of cardiorenal disease in type 2 diabetes patients by acting as an N-type CCB and inhibiting the aldosterone secretion and SNS activation when these drugs were administered in combination with an Ang II receptor blocker. PMID:24970998

Mori, Yutaka; Aritomi, Shizuka; Niinuma, Kazumi; Nakamura, Tarou; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Junichi; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

2014-01-01

383

Additive effects of cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin II receptor blocker on reducing cardiorenal damage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Cilnidipine (Cil), which is an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been known to provide renal protection by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system. In this study, we compared the effects of the combination of Cil and amlodipine (Aml), which is an L-type CCB, with an angiotensin (Ang) II receptor blocker on diabetic cardiorenal damage in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats. Seventeen-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomly assigned to receive Cil, Aml, valsartan (Val), Cil + Val, Aml + Val, or a vehicle (eight rats per group) for 22 weeks. Antihypertensive potencies were nearly equal among the CCB monotherapy groups and the combination therapy groups. The lowering of blood pressure by either treatment did not significantly affect the glycemic variables. However, exacerbations of renal and heart failure were significantly suppressed in rats administered Cil or Val, and additional suppression was observed in those administered Cil + Val. Although Val increased the renin-Ang system, Aml + Val treatment resulted in additional increases in these parameters, while Cil + Val did not show such effects. Furthermore, Cil increased the ratio of Ang-(1-7) to Ang-I, despite the fact that Val and Aml + Val decreased the Ang-(1-7) levels. These actions of Cil + Val might be due to their synergistic inhibitory effect on the activity of the SNS, and on aldosterone secretion through N-type calcium channel antagonism and Ang II receptor type 1 antagonism. Thus, Cil may inhibit the progression of cardiorenal disease in type 2 diabetes patients by acting as an N-type CCB and inhibiting the aldosterone secretion and SNS activation when these drugs were administered in combination with an Ang II receptor blocker. PMID:24970998

Mori, Yutaka; Aritomi, Shizuka; Niinuma, Kazumi; Nakamura, Tarou; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Junichi; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

2014-01-01

384

Stability of U(VI)- and Tc(VII) reducing microbial communities to environmental perturbation: a thermodynamic network model and intermediate-scale experiments  

SciTech Connect

The project is a collaborative task with a larger project headed by Jack Istok at Oregon State University, which is conducted under the same title. The project was conceptualized as follows. A ''geochemical'' model of microbial communities was hypothesized, in which microbes were characterized as mineral species according to the chemical transformations they used for metabolic function. The iron-reducing bacteria, for example, would be represented by the iron reducing chemical reaction, including a specific electron donor, the fraction of the consumed donor used for biomass maintenance or growth, and a free energy for the reaction. The pseudomineral species would then be included in a standard geochemical model, and community succession could be calculated according to the thermodynamically favored microbially mediated reactions under progressive consumption of electron donors and receptors, and evolving geochemical conditions. The project includes relatively minor participation by the University of Oklahoma and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, with the major component at OSU. The PNNL project was funded to provide assistance to Dr. Istok in formulating the appropriate modeling approach and geochemical constraints on the modeling effort.

McKinley, James P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Istok, Jack; Krumholz, Lee

2006-06-01

385

Copper-catalyzed atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) and cyclization (ATRC) reactions in the presence of environmentally benign ascorbic acid as a reducing agent.  

PubMed

In recent years, copper-catalyzed atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) has emerged as a viable organic procedure for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds starting from alkyl halides and alkenes. Studies have primarily focused on the use of free-radical initiators to regenerate the copper(I) complex or activator in situ. Although these initiators led to a significant decrease in the amount of metal catalyst, they were much less effective for highly active alkenes that readily undergo free-radical polymerization. In this study, the non-radical reducing agent ascorbic acid (commonly known as Vitamin C) was effectively employed resulting in TONs as high as 15,200 in the homogenous ATRA of polyhalogenated compounds to ?-olefins, and enabling selective monoadduct formation for highly active alkenes such as acrylonitrile (TONs as high as 11,800). As low as 7-20 mol% of ascorbic acid relative to substrate was sufficient for all ATRA and ATRC reactions examined. Further, product isolations for all selected syntheses were quite facile and nearly quantitative, requiring only simple liquid-liquid extraction techniques. Reactions in the presence of ascorbic acid were also examined kinetically via (1)H NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. A half order rate dependence on reducing agent concentration was observed, but the first order kinetic plots became nonlinear as the concentration of ascorbic acid was increased. Finally, the use of ascorbic acid circumvented otherwise necessary purging techniques, successfully furthering the utility of these reactions in organic synthesis. PMID:20981391

Taylor, Matthew J W; Eckenhoff, William T; Pintauer, Tomislav

2010-12-21

386

CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage  

E-print Network

, and be pre- pared for some surprises. Ironically, the most effective government inter- ventions may become more affluent and technologically advanced (for example, SO2 emissions or water pollution from to biodiversity, resource use, waste generation, soil contamination, and road transportation).3 Anthropogenic

Qiu, Weigang

387

Bone Lesions and Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms » Bone Damage Bone Lesions and Damage Bone lesions from multiple myeloma ... have some degree of bone loss. Causes of bone destruction in myeloma Normally, osteoclasts function with bone- ...

388

Effect of Uncertainty of Identified Parameters on Structural Damage Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a study of the effect of the uncertainty of identified parameters on the damage detection of structure. The identified parameters, which are obtained by applying system identification algorithms to analyze the time-domain response data, have uncertainty due to noise, environmental change, etc. The damage of some structural elements may have less effect on the identified parameters than noise or environmental change, so some damage situations cannot be distinguished under these circumstances. An algorithm is presented to determine whether the considered damage can be distinguished. A twenty-bay truss structure is used to demonstrate and verify the study.

Davidson, Mario; Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Sathanthan, S.

1998-01-01

389

Fatigue life prediction of corrosion-damaged high-strength steel using an equivalent stress riser (ESR) model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue life of metallic aircraft structural components can be significantly reduced by environmentally induced corrosion. As part of a NAVAIR High Strength Steel Corrosion–Fatigue Assessment Program, methods were studied to predict the impact that corrosion-induced surface roughness has on the fatigue life of high-strength steel aircraft components. In order to adequately capture the corrosion damage features that cause fatigue

D. T. Rusk; W. Hoppe

2009-01-01

390

Concentrated grape juice (G8000™) reduces immunoexpression of iNOS, TNF-alpha, COX-2 and DNA damage on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced-colitis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by alternating periods of remission and active intestinal inflammation. Flavonoids exert several biological activities, which are mainly related to their ability to inhibit inflammatory process and/or to their antioxidant properties, and are able to regulate the immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether phenolic compounds present in grape juice could reduce the inflammatory effects induced by experimental colitis. A total of 41 male Wistar rats were randomized into seven groups, as follows: G1--Sham group: sham induced-colitis rats; G2--(2,4,6-rinitrobenzenesulfonic acid) TNBS group: nontreated induced-colitis; G3--2% grape juice control group; G4--1% grape juice 24h after TNBS colitis induction; G5--1% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; G6--2% grape juice 24h after colitis induction; G7--2% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. Genotoxicity was evaluated by comet assay. Immunohistochemistry was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method being analyzed in control (normal tissue) and "hot spot" areas i.e., presenting inflammatory process being graded as 1 (weak), 2 (moderate), or 3 (strong). Both parameters were evaluated in the cytoplasm of epithelial or inflammatory cells. TNF-immunoexpression and iNOS were reduced after drinking grape juice 24 h or after 7 days for all doses tested. COX-2 was reduced in the groups exposed to 1% grape juice 24 h or 7 days of exposure. The grape juice at 1% dose in the last 7 days of treatment as well as grape juice at 2% dose decreased the peripheral blood genotoxicity. Taken together, the grape juice mainly at 1% dose exerts anti-inflammatory effects in chronic colitis caused by TNBS as a result of down regulation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduction of genotoxicity in peripheral blood cells. PMID:24637249

Marchi, Patrícia; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-03-01

391

A Food Store-Based Environmental Intervention Is Associated with Reduced BMI and Improved Psychosocial Factors and Food-Related Behaviors on the Navajo Nation123  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher among American Indians (AIs) and is associated with increased rates of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. We implemented a 14-mo intervention trial (Navajo Healthy Stores) on the Navajo Nation that sought to increase availability of healthier foods in local food stores and to promote these foods at the point of purchase and through community media. We divided the Navajo Nation into 10 store regions, half of which were randomized to intervention and half to comparison. We evaluated the program by using a pre-post sample of systematically sampled adult Navajo consumers (baseline, n = 276; postintervention, n = 145). Intervention impact was examined by analyzing pre-post differences by intervention group and by intervention exposure level. When intervention and comparison groups were compared, only body mass index (BMI) showed a trend toward impact of the intervention (P = 0.06). However, greater exposure to the intervention was associated with significantly reduced BMI (P ? 0.05) and improved healthy food intentions (P ? 0.01), healthy cooking methods (P ? 0.05), and healthy food getting (P ? 0.01). With increasing exposure, the odds of improving overweight or obese status was 5.02 (95% CI: 1.48, 16.99; P ? 0.01) times the odds of maintaining or worsening overweight or obese status. In summary, a food store intervention was associated with reduced overweight/obesity and improved obesity-related psychosocial and behavioral factors among those persons most exposed to the intervention on an AI reservation. PMID:23864511

Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Elizabeth M.; He, Siran; Pardilla, Marla

2013-01-01

392

Rapid Disaster Damage Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiences from recent disaster events showed that detailed information derived from high-resolution satellite images could accommodate the requirements from damage analysts and disaster management practitioners. Richer information contained in such high-resolution images, however, increases the complexity of image analysis. As a result, few image analysis solutions can be practically used under time pressure in the context of post-disaster and emergency responses. To fill the gap in employment of remote sensing in disaster response, this research develops a rapid high-resolution satellite mapping solution built upon a dual-scale contextual framework to support damage estimation after a catastrophe. The target objects are building (or building blocks) and their condition. On the coarse processing level, statistical region merging deployed to group pixels into a number of coarse clusters. Based on majority rule of vegetation index, water and shadow index, it is possible to eliminate the irrelevant clusters. The remaining clusters likely consist of building structures and others. On the fine processing level details, within each considering clusters, smaller objects are formed using morphological analysis. Numerous indicators including spectral, textural and shape indices are computed to be used in a rule-based object classification. Computation time of raster-based analysis highly depends on the image size or number of processed pixels in order words. Breaking into 2 level processing helps to reduce the processed number of pixels and the redundancy of processing irrelevant information. In addition, it allows a data- and tasks- based parallel implementation. The performance is demonstrated with QuickBird images captured a disaster-affected area of Phanga, Thailand by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami are used for demonstration of the performance. The developed solution will be implemented in different platforms as well as a web processing service for operational uses.

Vu, T. T.

2012-07-01

393

Community organizing goes to college: A practice-based model of community organizing to implement environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking on college campuses  

PubMed Central

Community organizing is a successful method to leverage resources and build community capacity to identify and intervene upon health issues. However, published accounts documenting the systematic facilitation of the process are limited. This qualitative analysis explored community organizing using data collected as part of the Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC), a randomized community trial of 10 North Carolina colleges focused on reducing consequences of high-risk drinking among college students. We sought to develop and confirm use of a community-organizing model, based in practice, illustrating an authentic process of organizing campus and community stakeholders for public health change. Using the grounded theory approach, we analyzed and interpreted data from three waves of individual interviews with full-time community organizers on five SPARC intervention campuses. A five-phase community-organizing model was developed and its use was confirmed. This model may serve as a practical guide for public health interventions utilizing community-organizing approaches. PMID:20530638

Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lentz, Ashley W.; Wolfson, Mark

2013-01-01

394

Using market-based dispatching with environmental price signals to reduce emissions and water use at power plants in the Texas grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using electricity dispatching strategies to achieve a 50% nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reduction from electricity generating units was examined using the grid of the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas as a case study. Simulations of a hypothetical policy demonstrate that imposing higher NOx prices induces a switch from some coal-fired generation to natural gas generation, lowering NOx emissions. The simulation is for a day with relatively high electricity demand and accounts for transmission constraints. In addition to the lowering of the NOx emissions, there are co-benefits of the redispatching of generation from coal to natural gas, including reductions in the emissions of sulfur oxides (24%-71%), Hg (16%-82%) and CO2 (8.8%-22%). Water consumption was also decreased, by 4.4%-8.7%. Substantial reductions of NOx emissions can be achieved for an increased generation cost of 4-13%, which is due to the higher fuel price of gas relative to coal (assuming a price of 3.87 per MMBTU (MMBTU: million British thermal units) for natural gas, and 1.89 per MMBTU for coal). However, once the system has reduced NOx emissions by approximately 50%, there is little incremental reduction in emissions due to further increases in NOx prices.

Alhajeri, Nawaf S.; Donohoo, Pearl; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; King, Carey W.; Webster, Mort D.; Webber, Michael E.; Allen, David T.

2011-10-01

395

[Sperm DNA damage and assisted reproductive technology].  

PubMed

With the introduction of assisted reproductive technology (ART), sperm assessment has developed progressively, from conventional semen routine tests to novel cellular and molecular measures. Sperm DNA damage is a new marker of male fertility, whose genetic mechanism involves abnormal package and segregation of chromatin, oxidative stress, abnormal cell apoptosis, etc. Sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) is one of the common techniques to measure sperm DNA damage. Sperm DNA damage might be associated with the pregnancy outcome of ART, recurrent spontaneous abortion and potential genetic risk of ICSI offspring. Some treatment strategies might reduce the percentage of sperm DNA damage and increase the success rate of ART, including oral administration of antioxygen drugs, ICSI with testis sperm, sperm freezing and preservation, removing of etiological factors, traditional Chinese medicine, and so on. This review focuses on the mechanism and detection of sperm DNA damage, its association with reproductive outcomes,