Sample records for reducing environmental damage

  1. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Williamson, Richard L.; Lloyd, W. R.; Rashid, Mark M.

    2003-06-01

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point o f penetration of the opposing surface. Ultimately we aim to also quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will investigate the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to guide safe retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001.

  2. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Lloyd, W. R.

    2002-06-01

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stages, aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point of penetration of the opposing surface. We also aim to quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will quantify the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to justify life extension through retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001.

  3. Reducing Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2006-06-05

    This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

  4. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  5. How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk

    E-print Network

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g. financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses (i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification, ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For this, we develop a branching proce...

  6. Assessing United States hurricane damage under different environmental conditions

    E-print Network

    Maheras, Anastasia Francis

    2012-01-01

    Hurricane activity between 1979 and 2011 was studied to determine damage statistics under different environmental conditions. Hurricanes cause billions of dollars of damage every year in the United States, but damage ...

  7. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  8. Title: Reducing the earthquake damage to facades and partitions: an integrated low-damage approach

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Title: Reducing the earthquake damage to facades and partitions: an integrated after an earthquake, even when the structural damage is minor. The poor performance of building facades and partitions in recent earthquakes has led

  9. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  10. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  11. THE ECO-INDICATING OF THE BLACK SEA ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IZMAIL KANTARZHI

    The following EI 99 damage categories are considered: damage to human health, damage to ecosystem quality, resource extraction. Pollution of the Black Sea has to be included to all three categories. Eco-indicator is the single number, showing the environmental load of each studied process and making possible of a comparison between them. It's also possible to use EI for assessment

  12. Reversed scan direction reduces electron beam damage in EBSD maps.

    PubMed

    Kidder, S; Prior, D

    2014-08-01

    The deleterious effects of electron beam damage on high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps of undeformed quartz are significantly reduced by scanning in the direction opposite to that dictated by widely used EBSD acquisition software. Higher quality electron backscatter patterns are produced when the electron beam moves progressively down the sample (the apparent 'up' direction in the resulting maps) for all step sizes where beam damage affects EBSD map quality (? ?0.4 ?m in this study). The relative improvement associated with downward scanning increases as step size is reduced. A comparison of high-resolution maps made in experimentally deformed quartz demonstrates that downward scanning reduces by a factor of ?2 the lower limit in step size relative to maps scanned in the conventional direction. The electron beam damages quartz at its point of entry, forming ?0.1-?m diameter bumps visible in Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Downward scanning produces better results because it minimizes the flux of electrons through these loci of damaged crystal. PMID:24943109

  13. Environmentally friendly cows–reducing our environmental hoof print

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of natural resources impacts the environment in five areas: 1) Energy, 2) Water, 3) Nutrients, 4) Greenhouse gases and 5) Biodiversity. The greatest opportunities for decreasing environmental impacts of the Holstein cow would seem to be enhancing utilization of nutrients and reducing emissio...

  14. Nifedipine pretreatment reduces vibration-induced vascular damage.

    PubMed

    Curry, Brian D; Govindaraju, Sandya R; Bain, James L W; Zhang, Lin Ling; Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S; Riley, Danny A

    2005-11-01

    A rat-tail vibration model of hand-arm vibration was employed to test whether preemptive administration of nifedipine (5 mg/kg) to block vasoconstriction prevents vibration-induced arterial damage. The tails of vibrated and nifedipine-pretreated vibrated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed continuously to 4 h of 60-HZ vibration at 49 m/s(2) rms. In nonvibrated anesthetized rats, the ventral tail arteries were bathed for 15 min in situ in 1 mM epinephrine or 1 mM norepinephrine to induce structural changes indicative of intense vasoconstriction. Arteries were processed for light and electron microscopy 45 min after treatment. Compared to sham control, 4-h vibration significantly (P < 0.01) reduced lumen size, generated endothelial disruption (7.0 +/- 2.6%), elevated nuclear factor of activated T cells c3 (NFATc3) expression in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and increased smooth muscle cell vacuolization. The findings demonstrate that blockage of vibration-induced vasoconstriction with nifedipine prevents acute vascular damage. Smooth muscle and endothelial cells structurally altered by vasoconstriction are rendered susceptible to damage by vibration. PMID:15991251

  15. Reducing environmental pollution using animal feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Graham, H; Simmins, P H; Sands, J

    2003-01-01

    The global livestock population is estimated to be close to 4 billion animals, and to produce around 500 million tons of manure annually (Baidoo, 2003). This is expected to increase in the future with the projected greater demand for meat for human consumption. The problem of manure disposal is exacerbated by the concentration of animal production in increasingly large units, to obtain economies of scale and keep up with the demand for cheap food. The primary environmentalfactors are manure volume, manure nitrogen and phosphorus contents, methane production and odour (Jongbloed and Lenis, 1998). Legislation in many regions now restricts the amount of manure that can be applied per hectare, to prevent environmental pollution (Centner, 2001; Pellini and Morris, 2001). There are a number of strategies the animal production industry can take to reduce environmental impact. These include taking steps to improve the efficiency of conversion of feed into edible products, reduce feed wastage and formulate diets that more closely satisfy animal requirements for specific nutrients. At present 50-80% of the nitrogen and phosphorus fed to animals are not utilized but are excreted via manure and urine to the environment (Baidoo, 2003). Biotechnology could play a very important role in reducing the environmental impact of animal production. Examples include the development of animals more efficient at converting nutrients into edible products, and of higher quality, more digestible feedstuffs. Biotechnology can also be used to produce a range of feed additives that can improve the efficiency of animal production, including for example recombinant somatrophin, amino acids and enzymes. This paper summarizes a series of four experiments looking at the effects of microbial xylanase or phytase supplementation on excretion in swine and poultry. This summary indicates that the inclusion of these enzymes in animal feeds can reduce manure volume by up to 14%, and nitrogen and phosphorus outputs by up to 13% and 70%, respectively. PMID:15296179

  16. HAS AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT APPROACH REDUCED BLACKBIRD DAMAGE TO SUNFLOWER?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE M. LINZ; BRIAN D. PEER; H. JEFFREY HOMAN; RYAN L. WIMBERLY; DAVID L. BERGMAN; WILLIAM J. BLEIER

    Since the mid-1970s many new and modified damage abatement methods have been implemented to reduce blackbird damage to ripening sunflower in the northern Great Plains. Concurrently, estimates were made of breeding blackbird densities and sunflower damage to track changes in population size and chart progress toward reducing damage. Breeding density estimates were made at both the regional and county levels,

  17. Toxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    results in loss of GhoT toxicity, ghost cell production and membrane damage while retaining the poleToxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine perhaps enable cells to reduce their metabolism to weather environmental challenges although

  18. Methods to reduce lint cleaner waste and damage

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, W.S.

    2000-04-01

    New technology to automatically engage/disengage grid bars in saw-type lint cleaners to reduce fiber waste and associated fiber damage was evaluated in five studies. The number of active grid bars in the studies varied from 0 to 10, and as the number of grid bars increased, fiber loss and damage increased. Typically for a single 5-grid bar lint cleaner, about 50% of the material that was removed was removed by the first two grid bars; for two lint cleaners, about 40% of the material was removed by the first two grid bars. Short fiber content and neps increased over 30% as grid bars increased from 2 to 10, and mill performance was degraded. Material removed from lint by saw-type lint cleaners is strongly related to variety, growing conditions and harvesting, and ranged from 6.1 to 17.5 kg (13.4 to 38.6 lb) per bale when two lint cleaners were used. In a 39,000 bale field study where lint cleaning was optimized by a computerized process control system, fiber loss from two grid bars (3.6 kg or 8 lb/bale) was about 25% of that from five grid bars (13.6 kg or 30 lb/bale).

  19. Effective materials for reducing damage rates to PWR pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Abrefah, J.; Olander, D.; Shayer, Z. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Among the proposed measures for reducing the damage rate to pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessels are the following: 1. replacement of fuel rods in peripheral fuel assemblies with dummy rods-the [open quotes]fuel replacement[close quotes] (FR) approach; 2. insertion of neutron reflecting and attenuating materials between the core baffle and the core barrel-the [open quotes]reflector-shield[close quotes] (RS) approach; 3. attachment of shielding patches to the thermal shield-the [open quotes]thermal shield[close quotes] approach. The material commonly proposed for all three approaches is stainless steel (SS). While searching for optimal compact shield compositions, Gilai et al. found that a combination of tungsten and titanium hydride is significantly more effective than SS for attenuating fusion and fission neutrons. A preliminary feasibility study later indicated that tungsten and titanium-hydride can, indeed, make a more effective reflector shield than SS.

  20. Increasing sowing depth to reduce mouse damage to winter crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R Brown; Grant R Singleton; Colin R Tann; Ivan Mock

    2003-01-01

    Plagues of house mice (Mus domesticus) can cause severe economic damage to grain crops in southern Australia when their populations peak at sowing of winter-growing crops in autumn. Mice damage crops by locating and digging out newly sown seeds. If damage is high, farmers have to re-sow their crop. A trial was conducted to examine the effect of increasing sowing

  1. CLIMATE POLICY OUTCOMES IN GERMANY Environmental Performance and Environmental Damage

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    sewage). But in other areas, serious problems have persisted and even accelerated (such as, threats. This article addresses a persistent environmental problem, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Studies become more affluent and technologically advanced (for example, SO2 emissions or water pollution from

  2. Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50–200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca2+ influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

  3. [Hazardous environmental factors causing renal damage in children].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Quan; Yi, Zhu-Wen

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous environmental factors invade the body through multiple routes, including ingestion, inhalation and absorption by contact with the skin and mucous membrane. They are from various sources and soil, water, air, building and decorative materials, foods and daily necessities are the main carriers. According to their physical and chemical properties and morphological characteristics, these hazardous factors are classified as metals, inorganic matter, organic matter, radioactive substances, biological toxins, viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and parasites. They cause diseases through blood and urine and also have kidney susceptibility. This article suggests that pediatricians should fully understand the characteristics and seriousness of hazardous environmental factors that cause renal damage, and pay attention to the prevention and control of these factors so as to minimize renal damage in children. PMID:24750822

  4. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Kreibich, H., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2013) Detailed insights into the influence of flood-coping appraisals on mitigation behaviour. Global Environmental Change. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.05.009. Kreibich, H., Thieken, A. H., Petrow, T., Müller, M., Merz, B. (2005): Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures - Lessons Learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002. NHESS, 5, 1, 117-126. Kreibich, H., Christenberger, S., Schwarze, R. (2011) Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods. NHESS, 11, 2, 309-321.

  5. Environmental liability and reducing corporate exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, S.T.; Meyer, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    As public concern continues to focus on environmental safety, the government responds with an ever-expanding web of environmental regulation of business and industry. The federal, state, and local laws enacted to protect the environment impose numerous obligations on managers and directors. Failure to comply with these environmental regulatory schemes may result in harsh civil and criminal penalties. Liability is also associated with real property transactions. Past and present owners as well as other parties involved in real estate transactions may be liable for contamination and be required to pay tremendous cleanup costs. To protect themselves from such liability, companies must be familiar with the law and adopt a comprehensive and ongoing in-house environmental management program. This chapter will focus on potential liability and the use of environmental audits to meet the ever-increasing legal obligations.

  6. Can antioxidant vitamins materially reduce oxidative damage in humans?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R McCall; Balz Frei

    1999-01-01

    Endogenous oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA is thought to be an important etiologic factor in aging and the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and cataract formation. The pathology associated with these diseases is likely to occur only after the production of reactive oxygen species has exceeded the body’s or cell’s capacity to protect itself and

  7. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  8. Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G.; Mattioli, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

  9. Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust.

    PubMed

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G; Mattioli, Flavia; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

  10. Environmentally harmonized CF3I plasma for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Samukawa; Yoshinari Ichihashi; Hiroto Ohtake; Eiichi Soda; Shuichi Saito

    2008-01-01

    Low-damage, high-rate, and highly selective low-k etching can be simultaneously satisfied using a plasma with an environmentally harmonized gas chemistry (CF3I). Such a CF3I plasma can drastically reduce the irradiation damage by ultraviolet (UV) photons during low-k etching, because the intensity of UV in CF3I plasma is much lower than that in conventional CF4 plasma. The etching selectivity of SiOCH

  11. Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at

    E-print Network

    Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College Summary selected the mission: "To reduce Dartmouth College's fossil carbon emissions." We believe this mission's responsibility to educate others about how it is reducing its fossil carbon emissions and encourage them to do

  12. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  13. Application of a value-based equivalency method to assess environmental damage compensation under the European Environmental Liability Directive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Martin-Ortega; Roy Brouwer; Harry Aiking

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) establishes a framework of liability based on the ‘polluter-pays’ principle to prevent and remedy environmental damage. The ELD requires the testing of appropriate equivalency methods to assess the scale of compensatory measures needed to offset damage. The aim of this paper is to contribute to fill the existing knowledge gap on the application of the

  14. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

  15. Radiation damage in protein crystals is reduced with a micron-sized X-ray beam

    PubMed Central

    Sanishvili, Ruslan; Yoder, Derek W.; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Xu, Shenglan; Vogt, Stefan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg A.; Corcoran, Stephen; Benn, Richard; Nagarajan, Venugopalan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation damage is a major limitation in crystallography of biological macromolecules, even for cryocooled samples, and is particularly acute in microdiffraction. For the X-ray energies most commonly used for protein crystallography at synchrotron sources, photoelectrons are the predominant source of radiation damage. If the beam size is small relative to the photoelectron path length, then the photoelectron may escape the beam footprint, resulting in less damage in the illuminated volume. Thus, it may be possible to exploit this phenomenon to reduce radiation-induced damage during data measurement for techniques such as diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging that use X-rays to probe both crystalline and noncrystalline biological samples. In a systematic and direct experimental demonstration of reduced radiation damage in protein crystals with small beams, damage was measured as a function of micron-sized X-ray beams of decreasing dimensions. The damage rate normalized for dose was reduced by a factor of three from the largest (15.6 ?m) to the smallest (0.84 ?m) X-ray beam used. Radiation-induced damage to protein crystals was also mapped parallel and perpendicular to the polarization direction of an incident 1-?m X-ray beam. Damage was greatest at the beam center and decreased monotonically to zero at a distance of about 4 ?m, establishing the range of photoelectrons. The observed damage is less anisotropic than photoelectron emission probability, consistent with photoelectron trajectory simulations. These experimental results provide the basis for data collection protocols to mitigate with micron-sized X-ray beams the effects of radiation damage. PMID:21444772

  16. 2012 Environmental Performance Index: Environmental Health Objective The 2012 EPI builds on measures relevant to the goal of reducing environmental

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    2012 Environmental Performance Index: Environmental Health Objective The 2012 EPI builds on measures relevant to the goal of reducing environmental stresses to human health, which are grouped into one objective category named environmental health. The objective weight is 30% of the overall EPI

  17. Reducing Rally Car Damage in Forests Partnership-working with the

    E-print Network

    Reducing Rally Car Damage in Forests Partnership-working with the Motor Sport Association shows how years with special stage car rallies attracting top competitors from across the globe. Events range from that changing the pattern of tread on the tyres used by high performance rally cars would reduce the level

  18. Proposed definition of environmental damage illustrated by the cases of genetically modified crops and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Robert; Heink, Ulrich; Kowarik, Ingo

    2010-06-01

    The introduction of non-native plant species and the release of genetically modified (GM) crops can induce environmental changes at gene to ecosystem levels. Regulatory frameworks such as the Convention on Biological Diversity or the EU Deliberate Release Directive aim to prevent environmental damage but do not define the term. Although ecologists and conservationists often refer to environmental effects of GM crops or invasive species as damage, most authors do not disclose their normative assumptions or explain why some environmental impacts are regarded as detrimental and others are not. Thus far, a concise definition of environmental damage is missing and is necessary for a transparent assessment of environmental effects or risks. Therefore, we suggest defining environmental damage as a significant adverse effect on a biotic or abiotic conservation resource (i.e., a biotic or abiotic natural resource that is protected by conservational or environmental legislation) that has an impact on the value of the conservation resource, the conservation resource as an ecosystem component, or the sustainable use of the conservation resource. This definition relies on three normative assumptions: only concrete effects on a conservation resource can be damages; only adverse effects that lead to a decrease in the value of the conservation resource can be damages; and only significant adverse effects constitute damage to a conservation resource. Applying this definition within the framework of environmental risk assessment requires further normative determinations, for example, selection of a threshold to distinguish between adverse and significant adverse effects and approaches for assessing the environmental value of conservation resources. Such determinations, however, are not part of the definition of environmental damage. Rather they are part of the definition's operationalization through assessment procedures, which must be grounded in a comprehensible definition of environmental damage. PMID:20015260

  19. Environmental enrichment protects the retina from early diabetic damage in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L; González Fleitas, María Florencia; Chianelli, Mónica S; Fernandez, Diego C; Sande, Pablo H; Rosenstein, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials), retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-?, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-? levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats. PMID:25004165

  20. Environmental Enrichment Protects the Retina from Early Diabetic Damage in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L.; González Fleitas, María Florencia; Chianelli, Mónica S.; Fernandez, Diego C.; Sande, Pablo H.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials), retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-?, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-? levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats. PMID:25004165

  1. Polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxidation in Virginia pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

    2005-01-01

    Polyamines play an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions including salt and osmotic stresses. In this investigation, the responses of polyamines to salt-induced oxidative stress were studied in callus cultures and plantlets in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Our results demonstrated that polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing

  2. Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Quinn E; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G; Woods, Sarah B; Seo, Arnold Y; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M

    2013-05-01

    A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

  3. Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Quinn E.; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.; Woods, Sarah B.; Seo, Arnold Y.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R.; Humphries, Murray M.

    2013-01-01

    A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically-based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically-demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

  4. Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Antioxidant and micronutrient-rich milk formula reduces lead poisoning and related oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Hui; Song, Aihua; Jiao, Jingjing

    2013-07-01

    Lead poisoning is a global environmental disease that induces lifelong adverse health effects. The effect of a milk formula consisting of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), vitamin C (Vc), calcium lactate (CaLac), ferrous sulfate (FeSO?) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO?) on the reduction of lead and lead-induced oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice was studied. The lead-reducing effect of milk formula was investigated via a 7-week toxicokinetics study and a tissue distribution level examination. The ameliorating effect of milk formula on lead-induced oxidative damage was investigated. Results demonstrated current milk formula could effectively reduce blood lead levels (BLLs) and lead distribution levels of liver, kidneys, thighbones and brain in mice based on metal ion-mediated antagonism and chelation mechanisms. This milk formula could not only protect lead-susceptible tissues against lead poisoning, but also maintain normal absorption and distribution of essential elements in vivo. Meanwhile, current milk formula could prevent the reduction of ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALAD) activity and enhancement of free erythrocyte protoporphyrins (FEP) levels in blood erythrocytes of mice. Also, this formula could indirectly protect blood cell membranes against lead-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that current optimized milk formula effectively reduces lead poisoning and lead-induced in vivo oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice. PMID:23537597

  6. Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Rin Lim; Sangwon Suh; Jung-Hoon Kim; Hung Suck Park

    2010-01-01

    Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for

  7. Reduced Environmental Stimulation Techniques and Control of Psychological Dependencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, G. David

    Three areas of research have supported the conceptual relevance of Reduced Environmental Stimulation (RES) techniques in the management of psychological dependencies. First, preliminary studies through the late l960's indicated that relatively short periods of RES had a facilitative effect on the type of subject who might be most vulnerable to…

  8. Antenatal allopurinol reduces hippocampal brain damage after acute birth asphyxia in late gestation fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Kaandorp, Joepe J; Derks, Jan B; Oudijk, Martijn A; Torrance, Helen L; Harmsen, Marline G; Nikkels, Peter G J; van Bel, Frank; Visser, Gerard H A; Giussani, Dino A

    2014-02-01

    Free radical-induced reperfusion injury is a recognized cause of brain damage in the newborn after birth asphyxia. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduces free radical synthesis and crosses the placenta easily. Therefore, allopurinol is a promising therapeutic candidate. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal treatment with allopurinol during fetal asphyxia limits ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage to the fetal brain in ovine pregnancy. The I/R challenge was induced by 5 repeated measured compressions of the umbilical cord, each lasting 10 minutes, in chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.8 of gestation. Relative to control fetal brains, the I/R challenge induced significant neuronal damage in the fetal hippocampal cornu ammonis zones 3 and 4. Maternal treatment with allopurinol during the I/R challenge restored the fetal neuronal damage toward control scores. Maternal treatment with allopurinol offers potential neuroprotection to the fetal brain in the clinical management of perinatal asphyxia. PMID:23793473

  9. Damage Characterization Method for Structural Health Management Using Reduced Number of Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of validated multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools, technologies, and techniques to enable detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation in the presence of adverse conditions during flight will provide effective solutions to deal with safety related challenges facing next generation aircraft. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage (cracks) due to fatigue and low velocity foreign impacts that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. Hence, development of efficient methodologies to determine the presence, location, and severity of damage in critical structural components is highly important in developing efficient structural health management systems.

  10. Polyphenolic apple juice extracts and their major constituents reduce oxidative damage in human colon cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sandra; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Janzowski, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Apple juice containing high amounts of antioxidative polyphenols might protect the intestine against oxidative cell damage. We investigated the preventive effectiveness of polyphenolic juice extracts of different origins (cider and table apples) in comparison to their major constituents in human colon cell lines (Caco-2, HT29). Parameters studied were (oxidative) DNA damage (Comet assay), glutathione level (photometric kinetic assay), cellular redox status (dichlorofluorescein assay) and antioxidant capacity. The extracts (50-250 microg/mL) modulated DNA damage and redox status in a concentration-dependent manner at 24-h incubation. The pomace extraction technology, applied for juice preparation, and the preferential selection of cider apple varieties influenced the polyphenolic pattern and increased the biological effectiveness of the extracts. The preventive potential of major juice constituents (1-100 microM, 24 h) strongly differed: rutin, epicatechin and caffeic acid clearly reduced (oxidative) DNA damage (Caco-2), chlorogenic acid efficiently decreased cellular reactive oxygen species level (HT29, Caco-2). The aglyca quercetin and phloretin exhibited the highest preventive/antioxidant capacity in all assays. The stability of the compounds inversely correlated with their preventive effectiveness and might contribute to the observed cell specific sensitivities. In conclusion, apple juice extracts distinctly reduce oxidative cell damage in human colon cell lines, an effect, which in part can be accounted for by their major constituents. PMID:16317784

  11. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-01-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  12. Modified otter trawl legs to reduce damage and mortality of benthic organisms in North East Atlantic fisheries (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyonnet, B.; Grall, J.; Vincent, B.

    2008-07-01

    Despite a consensus about the significant damages to marine benthos and commercial fish stocks induced by mobile fishing gear, the extent and intensity of this practice have currently grown all over the world. The main problems of fisheries management are the capture and killing of juvenile and undersized fish and thus restrictions mainly concern mesh size in cod-end. However another recurrent problem and non-negligible is the by-catch of undersize commercial fish and of non-target species. Hence, regulations to reduce such by-catch have formed a part of fisheries management techniques since the early 20th century. As a consequence, successful developments and technical modification have been used to reduce capture of undersized fish and discards (i.e. mesh size, separator panels, and sorting grids) in the last decades. Technical modification concerning reduction of damage and mortality to benthic communities are less documented. Most of the tentative to replace tickler chain, panels or legs by other systems have failed, while results showed a decrease in non-target catch, and a decrease in commercial catch was observed. This paper presents fishing experiments with modified otter trawl aimed at reducing discard rates and direct mortality of benthic infauna and epifauna without affecting the level of landings (i.e. a comparison of environmental effects caused by a conventional otter trawl compared to a modified otter trawl with enlighten experimental legs). Catch composition, by-catch and short-term effects to macro- and megafauna communities of both fishing gear (conventional and modified) were investigated. Results show that no differences for commercial catch biomass or for benthic communities' structure were observed. Moreover, by-catch analysis showed no difference while significant higher damage and direct mortality were observed for target and non-target species caught by the normal otter trawl compared to those caught by the modified one. Consequently, although limited, the severity of the damage appears to be linked with the type of trawl-legs used. The modified otter trawl permits to decrease damage and mortality to captured and non-captured organism and thus to reduce impacts to exploited marine ecosystems. These results are of interest and appear attractive in the framework of marine ecosystems preservation and conservation, as well as of fisheries management.

  13. Strain-induced Damage Reduces Echo Intensity Changes in Tendon during Loading

    PubMed Central

    Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tendon functionality is related to its mechanical properties. Tendon damage leads to a reduction in mechanical strength and altered biomechanical behavior, and therefore leads to compromised ability to carry out normal functions such as joint movement and stabilization. Damage can also accumulate in the tissue and lead to failure. A noninvasive method with which to measure such damage potentially could quantify structural compromise from tendon injury and track improvement over time. In this study, tendon mechanics are measured before and after damage is induced by “overstretch” (strain exceeding the elastic limit of the tissue) using a traditional mechanical test system while ultrasonic echo intensity (average gray scale brightness in a B-mode image) is recorded using clinical ultrasound. The diffuse damage caused by overstretch lowered the stress at a given strain in the tissue and decreased viscoelastic response. Overstretch also lowered echo intensity changes during stress relaxation and cyclic testing. As the input strain during overstretch increased, stress levels and echo intensity changes decreased. Also, viscoelastic parameters and time-dependent echo intensity changes were reduced. PMID:22542220

  14. Elevated CO2 reduces leaf damage by insect herbivores in a forest community.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Rachel G; Hamilton, Jason G; Mohan, Jacqueline E; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; Delucia, Evan H

    2005-07-01

    By altering foliage quality, exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric CO(2) potentially affects the amount of herbivore damage experienced by plants. Here, we quantified foliar carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C : N ratio, phenolic levels, specific leaf area (SLA) and the amount of leaf tissue damaged by chewing insects for 12 hardwood tree species grown in plots exposed to elevated CO(2) (ambient plus 200 microl l(-1)) using free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) over 3 yr. The effects of elevated CO(2) varied considerably by year and across species. Elevated CO(2) decreased herbivore damage across 12 species in 1 yr but had no detectable effect in others. Decreased damage may have been related to lower average foliar N concentration and SLA and increased C : N ratio and phenolic content for some species under elevated compared with ambient CO(2). It remains unclear how these changes in leaf properties affect herbivory. Damage to the leaves of hardwood trees by herbivorous insects may be reduced in the future as the concentration of CO(2) continues to increase, perhaps altering the trophic structure of forest ecosystems. PMID:15948843

  15. Environmental hypoxia but not minor shell damage affects scope for growth and body condition in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.).

    PubMed

    Sanders, Trystan; Widdicombe, Steve; Calder-Potts, Ruth; Spicer, John I

    2014-04-01

    The effects of short-term (7 d) exposure to environmental hypoxia (2.11 mg O? L?¹; control: 6.96 mg O? L?¹) and varying degrees of shell damage (1 or 2, 1 mm diameter holes; control: no holes) on respiration rate, clearance rate, ammonia excretion rate, scope for growth (SFG) and body condition index were investigated in adult blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). There was a significant hypoxia-related reduction in SFG (>6.70 to 0.92 J g?¹ h?¹) primarily due to a reduction in energy acquisition as a result of reduced clearance rates during hypoxia. Shell damage had no significant affect on any of the physiological processes measured or the SFG calculated. Body condition was unaffected by hypoxia or shell damage. In conclusion, minor physical damage to mussels had no effect on physiological energetics but environmental hypoxia compromised growth, respiration and energy acquisition presumably by reducing feeding rates. PMID:24485768

  16. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ...damage natural resources including sensitive...or harm to human health caused...requesting public and resource management agencies...swine management strategy. APHIS will...continue without expansion and national...for management strategies to be addressed...effects on tribal resources and...

  17. Hyperbaric Oxygen Reduces Blood-Brain Barrier Damage and Edema After Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Veltkamp; Dirk A. Siebing; Li Sun; Sabine Heiland; Katja Bieber; Hugo H. Marti; Simon Nagel; Stefan Schwab; Markus Schwaninger

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been shown to protect the brain parenchyma against transient focal cerebral ischemia, but its effects on the ischemic microcirculation are largely unknown. We examined the potential of HBO to reduce postischemic blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and edema. Methods—Wistar rats and C57\\/BL6 mice underwent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 2 hours. Forty

  18. Toxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine triphosphate and to reduce growth under stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yao; Soo, Valerie W C; Islam, Sabina; McAnulty, Michael J; Benedik, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-06-01

    Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems perhaps enable cells to reduce their metabolism to weather environmental challenges although there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. Escherichia coli?GhoT/GhoS is a TA system in which toxin GhoT expression is reduced by cleavage of its messenger RNA (mRNA) by antitoxin GhoS, and TA system MqsR/MqsA controls GhoT/GhoS through differential mRNA decay. However, the physiological role of GhoT has not been determined. We show here through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and fluorescent stains that GhoT reduces metabolism by damaging the membrane and that toxin MqsR (a 5'-GCU-specific endoribonuclease) causes membrane damage in a GhoT-dependent manner. This membrane damage results in reduced cellular levels of ATP and the disruption of proton motive force (PMF). Normally, GhoT is localized to the pole and does not cause cell lysis under physiological conditions. Introduction of an F38R substitution results in loss of GhoT toxicity, ghost cell production and membrane damage while retaining the pole localization. Also, deletion of ghoST or ghoT results in significantly greater initial growth in the presence of antimicrobials. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GhoT reduces metabolism by reducing ATP and PMF and that this reduction in metabolism is important for growth with various antimicrobials. PMID:24373067

  19. Current ideas to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Vissink, A; van Luijk, P; Langendijk, J A; Coppes, R P

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced hyposalivation is still a major problem after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Current and promising new thoughts to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary gland tissue are explored. The main cause underlying radiation-induced hyposalivation is a lack of functional saliva-producing acinar cells resulting from radiation-induced stem cell sterilization. Current methods to prevent that damage are radiation techniques to reduce radiation-injury to salivary gland tissue, surgical techniques to relocate salivary glands to a region receiving a lower cumulative radiation dose, and techniques to make salivary gland cells more resistant to radiation injury. These preventive techniques cannot be applied in all cases, also reduce tumor sensitivity, or do not result in a sufficient amelioration of the dryness-related complaints. Therefore, alternative methods on techniques to salvage salivary glands that are damaged by radiation are explored with promising results, such as stem cell therapies and gene transfer techniques to allow the radiation-injured salivary gland tissue to secrete water. PMID:24581290

  20. Agricultural chemical application practices to reduce environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bode, L E

    1990-01-01

    Current practices of applying agricultural chemicals play a major role in the environmental health concerns of agriculture. Those who mix, load, and handle the concentrated formulations run the greatest risk of exposure but field hands and others can encounter significant levels of pesticides. Drift can be a major source of contamination to residents, wildlife, and water sources. Improved methods of application and ways of reducing the total amount of pesticide applied can help reduce environmental contamination. Chemigation, direct injection, closed system handling, and fertilizer impregnation are examples of technology that affect the efficiency of applying agricultural chemicals. An area of beneficial research is related to leak and spill technology. Current surveys indicate that point sources such as spills, mixing and loading areas, back-siphoning, and direct routes for surface water movement into the ground are often a major cause of pesticides reaching groundwater. The commercial dealer/applicator provides storage, handling, mixing, and loading for large amounts of chemicals and has received limited guidance regarding the products. Education remains an important element of any rural environmental health strategy. With appropriate information about pesticide risks and groundwater, people will be better equipped to address environmental concerns. By design, agricultural chemicals are biologically active and, in most cases, toxic. Thus, they pose potential risks to humans, wildlife, water, and the environment in general. The magnitude of the risks depends to some degree on the methods and techniques used to apply the chemicals. Pesticides are applied by persons possessing a variety of skills, using equipment ranging from hand-operated systems to aircraft. PMID:2248252

  1. Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibition Reduces Vascular Damage and Modulates Innate Immune Responses in Murine Models of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jason S.; Luo, Wei; O’Dell, Alexander A.; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Zhao, Wenpu; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Guo, Chiao; Grenn, Robert C.; Thompson, Paul R.; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation promotes vascular damage, thrombosis, and activation of interferon-?-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in diseased arteries. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition is a strategy that can decrease in vivo NET formation. Objective To test whether peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition, a novel approach to targeting arterial disease, can reduce vascular damage and inhibit innate immune responses in murine models of atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Apolipoprotein-E (Apoe)?/? mice demonstrated enhanced NET formation, developed autoantibodies to NETs, and expressed high levels of interferon-? in diseased arteries. Apoe?/? mice were treated for 11 weeks with daily injections of Cl-amidine, a peptidylarginine deiminase inhibitor. Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition blocked NET formation, reduced atherosclerotic lesion area, and delayed time to carotid artery thrombosis in a photochemical injury model. Decreases in atherosclerosis burden were accompanied by reduced recruitment of netting neutrophils and macrophages to arteries, as well as by reduced arterial interferon-? expression. Conclusions Pharmacological interventions that block NET formation can reduce atherosclerosis burden and arterial thrombosis in murine systems. These results support a role for aberrant NET formation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through modulation of innate immune responses. PMID:24425713

  2. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-12-31

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10{sup 6} SM{sup 3}) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment.

  3. Soft Perches in an Aviary System Reduce Incidence of Keel Bone Damage in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Ariane; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J.; Würbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  4. Soft perches in an aviary system reduce incidence of keel bone damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, Ariane; Fröhlich, Ernst K F; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J; Würbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  5. Economic measurement of energy related environmental damages. Workshop summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yokell

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of this workshop were to point out the weaknesses in SERI's proposed method of quantifying the environmental benefits and costs of solar energy and to suggest improvements. Weaknesses were indeed highlighted, though only a few suggestions for improvement were provided. The weaknesses in the SERI project'S methodology are of three types, corresponding to the three generic steps

  6. Reduced inflammation accompanies diminished myelin damage and repair in the NG2 null mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which blood-derived immune cells and activated microglia damage myelin in the central nervous system. While oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are essential for generating oligodendrocytes for myelin repair, other cell types also participate in the damage and repair processes. The NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by OPCs, pericytes, and macrophages/microglia. In this report we investigate the effects of NG2 on these cell types during spinal cord demyelination/remyelination. Methods Demyelinated lesions were created by microinjecting 1% lysolecithin into the lumbar spinal cord. Following demyelination, NG2 expression patterns in wild type mice were studied via immunostaining. Immunolabeling was also used in wild type and NG2 null mice to compare the extent of myelin damage, the kinetics of myelin repair, and the respective responses of OPCs, pericytes, and macrophages/microglia. Cell proliferation was quantified by studies of BrdU incorporation, and cytokine expression levels were evaluated using qRT-PCR. Results The initial volume of spinal cord demyelination in wild type mice is twice as large as in NG2 null mice. However, over the ensuing 5 weeks there is a 6-fold improvement in myelination in wild type mice, versus only a 2-fold improvement in NG2 null mice. NG2 ablation also results in reduced numbers of each of the three affected cell types. BrdU incorporation studies reveal that reduced cell proliferation is an important factor underlying NG2-dependent decreases in each of the three key cell populations. In addition, NG2 ablation reduces macrophage/microglial cell migration and shifts cytokine expression from a pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory phenotype. Conclusions Loss of NG2 expression leads to decreased proliferation of OPCs, pericytes, and macrophages/microglia, reducing the abundance of all three cell types in demyelinated spinal cord lesions. As a result of these NG2-dependent changes, the course of demyelination and remyelination in NG2 null mice differs from that seen in wild type mice, with both myelin damage and repair being reduced in the NG2 null mouse. These studies identify NG2 as an important factor in regulating myelin processing, suggesting that therapeutic targeting of the proteoglycan might offer a means of manipulating cell behavior in demyelinating diseases. PMID:22078261

  7. Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  8. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  9. Vole-feeding damage and forest plantation protection: Large-scale application of diversionary food to reduce damage to newly planted trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Sullivan; Druscilla S. Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Forest and agricultural crops periodically experience feeding damage from herbivorous rodents such as voles of the genera Microtus and Clethrionomys. This problem has a long history, which needs a management solution that is both economically and ecologically viable. This study tested the hypothesis that large-scale (6–16ha) application of diversionary food would reduce vole-feeding damage to newly planted trees. Four overwinter

  10. Optical damage dynamics in reduced nominally pure LiNbO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Aillerie, M.; Chikh-Bled, B.; Sevostyanov, O. G.

    2010-11-01

    The dynamics of the optical damage in the chemically reduced LiNbO3 has been investigated, when a laser beam is externally focused into a bulk crystal. The temporal evolution of the transmitted power P was recorded, using the closed-aperture pseudo-Z-scan method. We define the three specific levels of the transmitted power that occur at different times during experiment: P0 and P1 are the initial and minimal values of the transmitted power during first stage of experiment, when the usual fast rise of optical damage causes decrease of the transmitted power due to laser beam defocusing, while P2 is the steady-state value after the long-term exposure, when a sequent slow increase of the transmitted power is observed, indicating on the self-compensation of optical damage. This compensation becomes undetectable, when the input light intensity I within focal area is smaller than some specific value ranged from 4 to 90 W/cm2 (? = 644 nm), depending on the chemical reduction degree. At intensities above such a threshold the self-compensation increases monotonically with I.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation promotes erythrocyte antioxidant defense and reduces protein nitrosative damage in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Martorell, M; Capó, X; Bibiloni, Mdel M; Sureda, A; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Batle, J M; Llompart, I; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of long-term docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on the erythrocyte fatty acid profile and oxidative balance in soccer players after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male athletes (age 20.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to a placebo group that consumed an almond-based beverage (n = 6), or to an experimental group that consumed the same beverage enriched with DHA (n = 9) for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken in resting conditions at the beginning and after 8 weeks of nutritional intervention and training in resting and in post-exercise conditions. Oxidative damage markers (malonyldialdehyde, carbonyl and nitrotyrosine indexes) and the activity and protein level of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase) were assessed. The results showed that training increased antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes. The experimental beverage increased DHA from 34.0 ± 3.6 to 43.0 ± 3.6 nmol/10(9) erythrocytes. DHA supplementation increased the catalytic activity of superoxide dismutase from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 10.5 ± 0.35 pkat/10(9) erythrocytes, and brought about a reduction in peroxidative damage induced by training or exercise. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DHA changed the erythrocyte membrane composition, provided antioxidant defense and reduced protein peroxidative damage in the red blood cells of professional athletes after an 8-week training season and acute exercise. PMID:25503390

  12. Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2015-04-01

    Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

  13. C1 Esterase Inhibitor Reduces Lower Extremity Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Associated Lung Damage

    PubMed Central

    Duehrkop, Claudia; Banz, Yara; Spirig, Rolf; Miescher, Sylvia; Nolte, Marc W.; Spycher, Martin; Smith, Richard A. G.; Sacks, Steven H.; Rieben, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Methods and Findings Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n?=?6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n?=?4), vehicle (n?=?7), or NaCl (n?=?8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle. Conclusions C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application. PMID:23991040

  14. Reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition after eccentric muscle damage in human elbow flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Bradley M; Semmler, John G

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effect of eccentric exercise on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) after damage to elbow flexor muscles. Nine young (22.5 ± 0.6 yr; mean ± SD) male subjects performed maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexor muscles until maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force was reduced by ?40%. TMS was performed before, 2 h after, and 2 days after exercise under Rest and Active (5% MVC) conditions with motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the biceps brachii (BB) muscle. Peripheral electrical stimulation of the brachial plexus was used to assess maximal M-waves, and paired-pulse TMS with a 3-ms interstimulus interval was used to assess changes in SICI at each time point. The eccentric exercise resulted in a 34% decline in strength (P < 0.001), a 41% decline in resting M-wave (P = 0.01), changes in resting elbow joint angle (10°, P < 0.001), and a shift in the optimal elbow joint angle for force production (18°, P < 0.05) 2 h after exercise. This was accompanied by impaired muscle strength (27%, P < 0.001) and increased muscle soreness (P < 0.001) 2 days after exercise, which is indicative of muscle damage. When the test MEP amplitudes were matched between sessions, we found that SICI was reduced by 27% in resting and 23% in active BB muscle 2 h after exercise. SICI recovered 2 days after exercise when muscle pain and soreness were present, suggesting that delayed onset muscle soreness from eccentric exercise does not influence SICI. The change in SICI observed 2 h after exercise suggests that eccentric muscle damage has widespread effects throughout the motor system that likely includes changes in motor cortex. PMID:22837166

  15. Medical malpractice reform: noneconomic damages caps reduced payments 15 percent, with varied effects by specialty.

    PubMed

    Seabury, Seth A; Helland, Eric; Jena, Anupam B

    2014-11-01

    The impact of medical malpractice reforms on the average size of malpractice payments in specific physician specialties is unknown and subject to debate. We analyzed a national sample of malpractice claims for the period 1985-2010, merged with information on state liability reforms, to estimate the impact of state noneconomic damages caps on average malpractice payment size for physicians overall and for ten different specialty categories. We then compared how the effects differed according to the restrictiveness of the cap ($250,000 versus $500,000). We found that, overall, noneconomic damages caps reduced average payments by $42,980 (15 percent), compared to having no cap at all. A more restrictive $250,000 cap reduced average payments by $59,331 (20 percent), and a less restrictive $500,000 cap had no significant effect, compared to no cap at all. The effect of the caps overall varied according to specialty, with the largest impact being on claims involving pediatricians and the smallest on claims involving surgical subspecialties and ophthalmologists. PMID:25339633

  16. S-methylmethionine reduces cell membrane damage in higher plants exposed to low-temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Ilona; Páldi, Emil; Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magdolna; Lásztity, Demeter

    2008-09-29

    S-methylmethionine (SMM), an important intermediate compound in the sulphur metabolism, can be found in various quantities in majority of plants. The experiments were designed to determine the extent to which SMM is able to preserve cell membrane integrity or reduce the degree of membrane damage in the course of low-temperature stress. By measuring electrolyte leakage (EL), it was proved that SMM treatment reduced cell membrane damage, and thus EL, during low-temperature stress in both the leaves and roots of peas, maize, soy beans and eight winter wheat varieties with different levels of frost resistance. Investigations on the interaction between SMM and polyamine biosynthesis revealed that SMM increased the quantities of agmatine (Agm) and putrescine (Put) as well as that of spermidine (Spd), while it had no effect on the quantity of spermine (Spn). Using a specific inhibitor, methylglyoxal-bis-guanyl hydrazone (MGBG), it was proved that the polyamine metabolic pathway starting from methionine played no role in the synthesis of Spd or Spn, so there must be an alternative pathway for the synthesis of SMM-induced polyamines. PMID:18242766

  17. Treatment with carnosine reduces hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huizhen; Guo, Shang; Zhang, Linlin; Jia, Liting; Zhang, Zhan; Duan, Hongbao; Zhang, Jingbin; Liu, Jingyan; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-03-15

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, and there is currently no effective therapy for HIBD. Carnosine plays a neuroprotective role in adult brain damage. We have previously demonstrated that carnosine pretreatment protects against HIBD in a neonatal rat model. Therefore, we hypothesized that treatment with carnosine would also have neuroprotective effects. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced in rats on postnatal days 7-9 (P7-9). Carnosine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 250mg/kg at 0h, 24h, and 48h after hypoxia-ischemia was induced. The biochemical markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated at 72h after hypoxia-ischemia was induced, Brain learning and memory function performance were observed using the Morris water maze test on postnatal days 28-33 (P28-33). Treatment with carnosine post-HIBD significantly reduced the concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandinF2alpha in brain tissue and decreased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in the hippocampus CA1 region and cortex as well as the mitochondria caspase-3 protein expression. Furthermore, carnosine also improved the cognitive function of P28-33 rats, whose cognitive function decline was due to HIBD. These results demonstrate that carnosine treatment after HIBD can reduce the brain injury, improving brain function. Carnosine could be an attractive candidate for treating HIBD. PMID:24463179

  18. Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    DING, MEI; SI, DAOYUAN; ZHANG, WENQI; FENG, ZHAOHUI; HE, MIN; YANG, PING

    2014-01-01

    Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. PMID:25371725

  19. ESTIMATING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES FROM SURFACE MINING OF COAL IN APPALACHIA: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A coherent methodology for economic valuation of the environmental damage from surface mining is presented in this report. The empirical case study was conducted in the watershed of the North Fork of the Kentucky River, a mountainous region which includes parts of six counties, f...

  20. Pomegranate extract attenuates unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced renal damage by reducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Cakir, Suleyman Sami; Polat, Emre Can; Dursun, Murat; Cekmen, Mustafa; Somay, Adnan; Ozbay, Nurver

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Ureteral obstruction may cause permanent kidney damage at late period. We know that the pomegranate extract (PE) play a strong role on removal of free oxygen radicals and prevention of oxidative stress. In the current study study, we evaluated the effect of PE on kidney damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Settings and Design: A total of 32 rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was a control, Group 2 was a sham, Group 3 was rats with UUO and Group 4 was rats with UUO that were given PE (oral 100 ?L/day). After 14 days, rats were killed and their kidneys were taken and blood analysis was performed. Subjects and Methods: Tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis scoring were determined histopathologically in a part of kidneys; nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were determined in the other part of kidneys. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were performed by the Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: There was no difference significantly for urea-creatinine levels between groups. Pathologically, there was serious tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrosis in Group 3, and there was significantly decreasing for tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrosis in Group 4 (P < 0.005). Furthermore, there was significantly increasing for NO and MDA levels; decreasing for GSH levels in Group 3 compared the other groups (P < 0.005). Conclusions: We think that the PE prevents kidney damage by decreasing oxidative stress in kidney.

  1. A Modified Catheterization Procedure to Reduce Bladder Damage when Collecting Urine Samples from Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Tetsuo; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; SATO, Say; SEKI, Makoto; NISHIKI, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection. PMID:24561376

  2. Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: A mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; LaPatra, S.; Gregg, J.; Winton, J.; Hershberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyophonus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of uninfected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltration of immune cells and fibrotic (granuloma) tissue surrounding the parasite. Diminished swimming stamina is hypothesized to be due to cardiac failure resulting from the combination of parasite-damaged heart muscle and low myocardial oxygen supply during sustained aerobic exercise. Loss of stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected salmonids could explain the poor performance previously reported for wild Chinook and sockeye salmon stocks during their spawning migration. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bascietto, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US). RCRA/CERCLA Div.; Dunford, R.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (US); Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)

    1993-06-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

  4. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduces neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changhui; Merza, Mohammed; Luo, Lingtao; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is known to be a rate-limiting step in mediating tissue injury in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the signalling mechanisms controlling inflammation and organ damage in AP remain elusive. Herein, we examined the role of Ras signalling in AP. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a Ras inhibitor (farnesylthiosalicylic acid, FTS) before infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic and lung tissues as well as blood were collected 24h after pancreatitis induction. Pretreatment with FTS decreased serum amylase levels by 82% and significantly attenuated acinar cell necrosis, tissue haemorrhage and oedema formation in taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the inflamed pancreas by 42%. In addition, administration of FTS decreased pancreatic levels of CXC chemokines as well as circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-mobility group box 1 in animals exposed to taurocholate. Moreover, treatment with FTS reduced taurocholate-induced MPO levels in the lung. Inhibition of Ras signalling had no effect on neutrophil expression of Mac-1 in mice with pancreatitis. Moreover, FTS had no direct impact on trypsin activation in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. These results indicate that Ras signalling controls CXC chemokine formation, neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in severe AP. Thus, our findings highlight a new signalling mechanism regulating neutrophil recruitment in the pancreas and suggest that inhibition of Ras signalling might be a useful strategy to attenuate local and systemic inflammation in severe AP. PMID:25460024

  5. Reduced-order modeling for mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia

    2014-12-01

    An efficient method for nonlinear vibration analysis of mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages is presented. The main objective is to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. Firstly, in order to reduce the input information needed for component mode synthesis (CMS), the whole model of an impeller is obtained by rotation transformation based on the finite element model of a sector model. Then, a hybrid-interface method of CMS is employed to generate a reduced-order model (ROM) for the cracked impeller. The degrees of freedom on the crack surfaces are retained in the ROM to simulate the crack breathing effects. A novel approach for computing the inversion of large sparse matrix is proposed to save memory space during model order reduction by partitioning the matrix into many smaller blocks. Moreover, to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the resonant frequencies, the bilinear frequency approximation is used to estimate the resonant frequencies of the mistuned impeller with a crack. Additionally, statistical analysis is performed using the Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of the resonant frequencies versus crack length at different mistuning levels. The results show that the most significant effect of mistuning and cracks on the vibration response is the shift and split of the two resonant frequencies with the same nodal diameters. Finally, potential quantitative indicators for detection of crack of centrifugal impellers are discussed.

  6. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    PubMed

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Šmilauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems. PMID:24516587

  7. Title: Digital Infrastructure: Reducing Energy Cost and Environmental Impacts of Information Processing and Communications Systems

    E-print Network

    Title: Digital Infrastructure: Reducing Energy Cost and Environmental Impacts of Information Infrastructure Modern society's dependence on information and communication infrastructure (ICI) is so deeply

  8. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

  9. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Mason, Georgia J

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

  10. North American ginseng protects against muscle damage and reduces neutrophil infiltration after an acute bout of downhill running in rats.

    PubMed

    Estaki, Mehrbod; Noble, Earl G

    2015-02-01

    Eccentric muscle contractions such as those experienced during downhill running are associated with inflammation, delayed-onset of muscle soreness, myofiber damage, and various functional deficits. North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and thus may offset some of this exercise-induced damage. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that intervention with North American ginseng would reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed (300 mg/(kg·day)(-1)) of either an alcohol (AL) or aqueous (AQ) extract of North American ginseng for 14 days before a single bout of downhill running and were compared with matching nonexercised (C) groups. Plasma creatine kinase levels were significantly reduced in both ginseng treated groups compared with the C group that received a water placebo (p < 0.002). Further, the AQ but not AL group also showed attenuated morphological signs of damage (hemotoxylin and eosin) as well as reduced levels of infiltrating neutrophils (HIS48) in the soleus muscle (p < 0.001). In summary, supplementation with an AQ but not AL extract of North American ginseng was able to reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. PMID:25531801

  11. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection

    PubMed Central

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ?2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ?$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

  12. Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E; Butterly, Matthew S; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2014-08-12

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance. PMID:25071194

  13. Activation of Toll-like receptors by intestinal microflora reduces radiation-induced DNA damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhi-Dong; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Shen, Li-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling by intestinal microflora-derived bacterial products plays a key role in injury defence for the host. We investigated the role of TLRs activated by intestinal microflora in radiation-induced DNA damage in mice. We analyzed DNA damage induced by 2Gy ?-ray radiation in an intestinal commensal bacteria-depleted mouse model (CD group), in which TLRs (TLR2/6, TLR4 and TLR5) ligand levels in serum were reduced. Chromosomal aberrations were measured in bone marrow cells and peripheral blood leukocyte comet assays were performed. DNA damage was increased in the CD group compared with the control group. Treatment of mice with TLR agonists (CBLB502, LPS and lipopeptide) 1h before radiation resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage. Genes induced by TLR5 activation were analyzed; activation of TLRs regulated the expression of Gadd45b, Sod2, and Rad21, which are involved in DNA damage repair. In summary, our data indicate that TLRs activation by intestinal microflora reduces DNA damage induced by radiation and regulates expression of several DNA repair genes. PMID:25440907

  14. Modelling the benefits of flood emergency management measures in reducing damages: a case study on Sondrio, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, D.; Ballio, F.; Menoni, S.

    2013-08-01

    The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.

  15. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success

    PubMed Central

    Combes, S. A.; Crall, J. D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop–escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival. PMID:20236968

  16. Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitherman, Robert

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide practical information to owners, operators, and occupants of office and commercial buildings on the vulnerabilities posed by earthquake damage to nonstructural items and the means available to deal with these potential problems. Examples of dangerous nonstructural damages that have occurred in past…

  17. Assessment of propfan propulsion systems for reduced environmental impact

    E-print Network

    Peters, Andreas, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Current aircraft engine designs tend towards higher bypass ratio, low-speed fan designs for improved fuel burn, reduced emissions and noise. Alternative propulsion concepts include counter-rotating propfans (CRPs) which ...

  18. A microdevice to locally electroporate embryos with high efficiency and reduced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Mazari, Elsa; Zhao, Xuan; Migeotte, Isabelle; Collignon, Jérôme; Gosse, Charlie; Perea-Gomez, Aitana

    2014-06-01

    The ability to follow and modify cell behaviour with accurate spatiotemporal resolution is a prerequisite to study morphogenesis in developing organisms. Electroporation, the delivery of exogenous molecules into targeted cell populations through electric permeation of the plasma membrane, has been used with this aim in different model systems. However, current localised electroporation strategies suffer from insufficient reproducibility and mediocre survival when applied to small and delicate organisms such as early post-implantation mouse embryos. We introduce here a microdevice to achieve localised electroporation with high efficiency and reduced cell damage. In silico simulations using a simple electrical model of mouse embryos indicated that a dielectric guide-based design would improve on existing alternatives. Such a device was microfabricated and its capacities tested by targeting the distal visceral endoderm (DVE), a migrating cell population essential for anterior-posterior axis establishment. Transfection was efficiently and reproducibly restricted to fewer than four visceral endoderm cells without compromising cell behaviour and embryo survival. Combining targeted mosaic expression of fluorescent markers with live imaging in transgenic embryos revealed that, like leading DVE cells, non-leading ones send long basal projections and intercalate during their migration. Finally, we show that the use of our microsystem can be extended to a variety of embryological contexts, from preimplantation stages to organ explants. Hence, we have experimentally validated an approach delivering a tailor-made tool for the study of morphogenesis in the mouse embryo. Furthermore, we have delineated a comprehensive strategy for the development of ad hoc electroporation devices. PMID:24821988

  19. The effect of environmental exposure to pyrethroids and DNA damage in human sperm.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Sobala, Wojciech; Piskunowicz, Marta; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with sperm DNA damage. Between January 2008 and April 2011 286 men under 45 years of age with a normal sperm concentration of 15-300?10(6)/ml [WHO 2010] were recruited from an infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland. Participants were interviewed and provided urine, saliva, and semen samples. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA), and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analyzed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm DNA damage was assessed using a flow cytometry based on sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). A positive association was observed between CDCCA >50th percentile and the percentage of medium DNA fragmentation index (M DFI) and percentage of immature sperms (HDS) (p?=?0.04, p?=?0.04 respectively). The level of 3PBA >50th percentile in urine was positively related to the percentage of high DNA fragmentation index (H DFI) (p?=?0.03). The TDCCA, DBCA levels, and the sum of pyrethroid metabolites were not associated with any sperm DNA damage measures. Our results suggest that environmental pyrethroid exposure may affect sperm DNA damage measures index indicated the reproductive effects of pyrethroid exposure on adult men. In view of the importance of human reproductive health and the widespread usage of pyrethroids, it is important to further investigate these correlations. PMID:25376306

  20. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, D.E. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Steen, A.E. [American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes.

  1. Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.M., E-mail: r.m.mayer@reading.ac.uk [Sciotech Projects, Sciotech Office, Engineering Building, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Poulikakos, L.D., E-mail: lily.poulikakos@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lees, A.R., E-mail: Andy.Lees@dft.gsi.gov.uk [Department for Transport, Statistics Roads Division, Gt. Minster House, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR (United Kingdom); Heutschi, K., E-mail: kurt.heutschi@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kalivoda, M.T., E-mail: kalivoda@psia.at [psiA-Consult GmbH, Lastenstrasse 38/1, A-1230 Vienna (Austria); Soltic, P., E-mail: patrik.soltic@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

  2. Oral sodium bicarbonate reduces proximal renal tubular peptide catabolism, ammoniogenesis, and tubular damage in renal patients.

    PubMed

    Rustom, R; Grime, J S; Costigan, M; Maltby, P; Hughes, A; Taylor, W; Shenkin, A; Critchley, M; Bone, J M

    1998-03-01

    Oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is widely used to treat acidosis in patients with renal failure. However, no data are available in man on the effects on proximal renal tubular protein catabolism or markers of tubular injury. We have developed methods to allow such studies, and both increased tubular catabolism of 99mTc-labelled aprotinin (Apr*), as well as tubular damage were found in association with increased ammonia (NH3) excretion in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria. We now examine the effects of reducing renal ammoniogenesis, without altering proteinuria, using oral NaHCO3 in 11 patients with mild/moderate renal impairment and proteinuria. Renal tubular catabolism of Apr* was measured before and after NaHCO3 by renal imaging (Kidney uptake, K% of dose) and urinary excretion of free 99mTcO4- (metabolism, Met% of dose/h) over 26 h. Fractional degradation (Frac) was calculated from Met/K (/h). Fresh urine was also analyzed for NH3 excretion every fortnight from 6/52 before treatment. Total urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucose-aminidase (NAG) and the more tubulo-specific NAG "A2" were measured. 51CrEDTA clearance and 99mTc-MAG 3 TER were also assessed. After NaHCO3 Met over 26 h was significantly reduced (from 1.3 +/- 0.2% of dose/h to 0.9 +/- 0.1% dose/hr, p < 0.005), as was Frac of Apr* (from 0.06 +/- .006/h to 0.04 +/- 0.005/hr, p < 0.003). NH3 excretion also fell significantly (from 0.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/h to 0.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/h, p < 0.007), as did both total urinary NAG (from 169 mumol/24 h, 74-642 mumol/24 h to 79 mumol/ 24 h, 37-393 mumol/24 h, p < 0.01), and the NAG 'A2' isoenzyme (from 81.5 mumol/24 h, 20-472 mumol/24 h to 35.0 mumol/24 h, 6-388 mumol/24 h, p < 0.001). Proteinuria remained unaltered, and there was no change in blood pressure nor in glomerular haemodynamics. Oral NaHCO3 may thus pro-tect the proximal renal tubule and help delay renal disease progression. PMID:9574465

  3. Assessment of the repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, P.; Cunniffe, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    The cellular repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine, was assessed at both the molecular and cellular level. At the molecular level, after in vitro incubation with parent or reduced RSU-1069, plasmid DNA was transfected into Escherichia coli (AB1157) with subsequent selection for gene expression. For equivalent levels of DNA strand breakage following such treatment it is evident from the relative transformation frequencies that interactions with reduced RSU-1069 lead to DNA damage consistent with bifunctional action of a metabolite(s). At the cellular level, the cytoxicity of RSU-1069 was determined for a series of repair deficient mutants of E. coli under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The differential aerobic:hypoxic cytotoxicity ratio is approximately 3. We conclude that the repair of cellular DNA damage induced by RSU-1069 involves activation of the gene products under the control of the recA gene and not those under the control of the ada gene. The ability of cellular systems to repair damage induced by RSU-1069 may play a significant role in determining its efficiency to act as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and a hypoxia selective cytotoxin.

  4. Reducing seed damage by soybean bugs by growing small-seeded soybeans and delaying sowing time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Wada; Nobuyuki Endo; Masakazu Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of seed size and planting time on seed damage by soybean bugs in the field over 2 years. Kyushu-143, a small-seeded soybean with many pods, suffered less damage at harvest by soybean bugs than the large-seeded cultivars Fukuyutaka and Sachiyutaka. We attributed the field tolerance of Kyushu-143 to large numbers of “spare” seeds that could compensate

  5. Reducing Mechanical Formation Damage by Minimizing Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure in Tight Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Arshad; Talib Shuker, Muhannad; Rehman, Khalil; Bahrami, Hassan; Memon, Muhammad Khan

    2013-12-01

    Tight gas reservoirs incur problems and significant damage caused by low permeability during drilling, completion, stimulation and production. They require advanced improvement techniques to achieve flow gas at optimum rates. Water blocking damage (phase Trapping/retention of fluids) is a form of mechanical formation damage mechanism, which is caused by filtrate invasion in drilling operations mostly in fracturing. Water blocking has a noticeable impact on formation damage in gas reservoirs which tends to decrease relative permeability near the wellbore. Proper evaluation of damage and the factors which influence its severity is essential to optimize well productivity. Reliable data regarding interfacial tension between gas and water is required in order to minimize mechanical formation damage potential and to optimize gas production. This study was based on the laboratory experiments of interfacial tension by rising drop method between gas-brine, gas-condensate and gas-brine. The results showed gas condensate has low interfacial tension value 6 - 11 dynes/cm when compared to gas-brine and gas- diesel which were 44 - 58 dynes/cm and 14 - 19 dynes/cm respectively. In this way, the capillary pressure of brine-gas system was estimated as 0.488 psi, therefore diesel-gas system was noticed about 0.164 psi and 0.098 psi for condensate-gas system. A forecast model was used by using IFT values to predict the phase trapping which shows less severe phase trapping damage in case of condensate than diesel and brine. A reservoir simulation study was also carried out in order to better understand the effect of hysteresis on well productivity and flow efficiency affected due to water blocking damage in tight gas reservoirs.

  6. Influence of environmental pH on the interaction and repair of heat and radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.L.; Boone, M.L.M.; Ensley, B.A.; Gillette, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    Madcap-37 cells derived from a mouse mammary tumor were heated and/or irradiated in vitro at pH 7.4 to 7.5 or 6.5 to 6.7. An acidic medium increased cytotoxicty resulting from hyperthermic treatment, but only after extended heating (e.g., 100 min at 42.5/sup 0/C). Cell lethality resulting from treatment by the combined modalities was also increased when the environmental pH was decreased. The increase in lethality was a result of an acidic environment increasing hyperthermic radiosensitization. The recovery from heat (60 min at 42.5/sup 0/C) and radiation (500 rad) damage was independent of environmental pH if the irradiation preceded heating. However, an acidic environment prolonged the duration of hyperthermic radiosensitization when heat preceded radiation.

  7. Commercial Aircraft Design for Reduced Noise and Environmental Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mistry; Howard Smith; John P. Fielding

    This chapter describes the noise and global warming effects produced by current commercial aircraft. It also describes\\u000a noise and pollution sources, and proposes technologies to mitigate them.\\u000a \\u000a The paper will then describe some estimates of the financial costs of aircraft pollution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Significant environmental progress can only be made by more radical aircraft and engine configurations. A low-noise design\\u000a methodology will

  8. Overview of the Progress in Reducing Environmental Effects on Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot weather can have negative impacts on feedlot cattle by reducing animal performance and compromising animal well-being. In most circumstances, animals adapt with amazing ease – balancing their heat production (maintenance energy, production levels, feed intake and activity) with their ability to ...

  9. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT THROUGH SYSTEMATIC PRODUCT EVOLUTION1

    E-print Network

    to the trend scenario) while reducing CO2 emissions only slightly (by 5.13 percent, relative to trend. With the highest share of PHEVs (6.14%) across all the scenarios, CO2 emissions are down by 3.14% under all #12;scenarios. And HEVs, PHEVs and Smart Cars are estimated to represent a major share

  10. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight. PMID:25152862

  11. Consumption of vegetables reduces genetic damage in humans: first results of a human intervention trial with carotenoid-rich foods.

    PubMed

    Pool-Zobel, B L; Bub, A; Müller, H; Wollowski, I; Rechkemmer, G

    1997-09-01

    A human intervention study with vegetable products has been performed in twenty three healthy, non smoking males aged 27-40. It was the aim of the study to assess whether consumption of vegetables containing different carotenoids could protect against DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage. The subjects consumed their normal diets, but abstained from vegetables high in carotenoids throughout the study period. After a 2 week depletion period, they received daily 330 ml tomato juice with 40 mg lycopene (weeks 3 and 4), 330 ml carrot juice with 22.3 mg beta-carotene and 15.7 mg alpha-carotene (weeks 5 and 6), and 10 g dried spinach powder (in water or milk) with 11.3 mg lutein (weeks 7 and 8). Blood was collected weekly and DNA damage was detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes with the 'COMET' assay. Oxidised DNA bases were detected by including an incubation step with endonuclease III. The supplementation of the diet with tomato, carrot or spinach products resulted in a significant decrease in endogenous levels of strand breaks in lymphocyte DNA. Oxidative base damage was significantly reduced during the carrot juice intervention. These findings support the hypothesis that carotenoid containing plant products exert a cancer-protective effect via a decrease in oxidative and other damage to DNA in humans. PMID:9328185

  12. Chronic Predation Risk Reduces Escape Speed by Increasing Oxidative Damage: A Deadly Cost of an Adaptive Antipredator Response

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2014-01-01

    Prey organisms evolved a multitude of plastic responses to avoid being eaten by predators. Besides the evolution of plastic morphological responses to escape predation, prey also evolved a set of physiological stress responses to avoid dying because of chronic predator stress per se due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. As physiological stress theory predicts increased energy consumption and the inhibition of essential nonemergency body functions, we tested whether chronic predation risk may increase oxidative damage thereby generating negative effects on escape performance. Specifically, we evaluated whether predation risk reduces escape swimming speed in damselfly larvae and whether this operates through stress-associated increases in oxidative damage. Counterintuitively and in contrast with many empirical studies, chronic predation risk decreased escape performance. This is however entirely consistent with the expectation of it being a long-term cost of responding to predation risk (e.g. by increasing respiration or upregulating the stress protein levels). The decreased swimming speed could be explained by an increased oxidative damage to proteins, thereby providing one of the poorly studied ecological links between oxidative damage and whole-animal performance. This likely widespread, understudied cost of chronic predation risk may provide an important pathway of non-consumptive predator effects on prey population dynamics. Moreover, it could play an evolutionary role by acting as a selective force causing prey organisms to adjust the magnitude of the physiological stress response and should be considered when evaluating life history trade-offs thought to be mediated by oxidative damage. PMID:24968142

  13. Carvedilol promotes neurological function, reduces bone loss and attenuates cell damage after acute spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da; Huang, Ying; Li, Bin; Jia, Changqing; Liang, Feng; Fu, Qin

    2015-02-01

    Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to permanent functional deficits via mechanical injury and secondary mechanisms, but the therapeutic strategy for SCI is limited. Carvedilol has been shown to possess multiple biological and pharmacological properties. The of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of carvedilol in SCI rats. An acute SCI rat model was established and neurological function was tested. After carvedilol (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) treatment for 21 days, the status of osteoporosis, neuron damage, astrocyte activation, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in rats. Carvedilol significantly improved locomotor activity that was decreased by SCI. In addition, carvedilol promoted bone growth by regulating the expression of nuclear factor-?B ligand (receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand; RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), inactivating osteoclasts and thereby increasing bone mineral density in tibias. In addition, carvedilol reduced SCI-induced neural damage, increased neuron number and reduced astrocyte activation in the spinal cord. Furthermore, the production and mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 were significantly reduced, reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity were markedly increased and malondialdehyde content was markedly decreased in the spinal cords of carvedilol-treated rats. These results indicate that carvedilol exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in SCI rats. In addition, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand was reduced by carvedilol treatment, which, in turn, reduced cleaved caspase 3 expression and finally decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the spinal cord. In conclusion, carvedilol promotes neurological function, reduces bone loss and attenuates cell damage after acute SCI in rats. PMID:25424914

  14. A padding method to reduce edge effects for enhanced damage identification using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Lorenzo; Basu, Biswajit; Spagnoli, Andrea; Broderick, Brian M.

    2015-02-01

    Vibration response based structural damage identification by spatial wavelet analysis is widely considered a powerful tool in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). This work deals with the issue of border distortions in wavelet transform that can mask tiny damages close to the boundary of a structure. Since traditional padding methods (e.g., zero-padding, symmetric padding, linear padding) are often not satisfactory, a simple and computationally inexpensive signal extension method, based on fitting polynomial functions and continuity conditions at the extrema, is proposed. The method is applied to analyze noisy mode shapes and static deflection of cracked cantilever and simply supported beams. The effectiveness and the versatility of the method in localizing tiny damages close to clamped, free or hinged beam boundaries is demonstrated. Furthermore, an extensive comparison with the linear padding method and Messina's isomorphism methods is carried out.

  15. 14-3-3? reduces DNA damage by interacting with and stabilizing proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejuan; Dan, Songsong; Xie, Yingying; Qin, Huanhuan; Tang, Donge; Liu, Xiaohui; He, Qing-Yu; Liu, Langxia

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a processivity factor of DNA replication which plays critical roles in the regulation of DNA replication and repair. In this study, we show that PCNA interacts directly in vitro and in cells with 14-3-3?, an adaptor protein that regulates cell growth and response to DNA damage in eukaryotes. The interaction is mediated by at least two PCNA-binding sites on 14-3-3?, one of which is a novel non-canonical PIP (PCNA interacting protein) box. We find that DNA damages induced by UVC irradiation and MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) can enhance both the interaction of these two proteins and their co-localization with chromatin. Functional analyses suggest that 14-3-3? stabilizes PCNA possibly by regulating its ubiquitination, which impacts on DNA damage repair and cell viability. PMID:25169136

  16. Vegetative environmental buffers for reducing downwind odor and VOCs from tunnel-ventilated swine barn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have investigated methods for reducing odor emissions from livestock buildings for decades, yet few technologies have proven effective. Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEBs), which are specially designed combinations of trees, shrubs and grasses, have shown promise in recent years for ...

  17. THE ENVIRONMENTAL COST OF REDUCING AGRICULTURAL FINE PARTICULATE (PM2.5) DUST EMISSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels. Non-attainment findings are scheduled for release in 2010. State environmental protection agencies in state...

  18. Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hyunhoe

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

  19. Reduced histone biosynthesis and chromatin changes arising from a damage signal at telomeres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick J O'Sullivan; Stefan Kubicek; Stuart L Schreiber; Jan Karlseder

    2010-01-01

    During replicative aging of primary cells morphological transformations occur, the expression pattern is altered and chromatin changes globally. Here we show that chronic damage signals, probably caused by telomere processing, affect expression of histones and lead to their depletion. We investigated the abundance and cell cycle expression of histones and histone chaperones and found defects in histone biosynthesis during replicative

  20. Baifuzi reduces transient ischemic brain damage through an interaction with the STREX domain of BKCa channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Chi; W Cai; P Liu; Z Zhang; X Chen; L Gao; J Qi; L Bi; L Chen; Z Qi

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a long-term disability and one of the leading causes of death. However, no successful therapeutic intervention is available for the majority of stroke patients. In this study, we explored a traditional Chinese medicine Baifuzi (Typhonium giganteum Engl.). We show, at first, that the ethanol extract of Baifuzi exerts neuroprotective effects against brain damage induced by transient global or

  1. Onions showing reduced damage by thrips and iris yellow spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of a USDA SCRI project were to understand better the epidemiology of the virus and to identify onion populations that suffer less damage under severe pressure from thrips and IYSV. Research demonstrated that North American isolates of IYSV were not all identical, indicating that the virus ...

  2. Pest tradeoffs in technology: Reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have now reported increased levels of non Bt-targeted secondary pests in Bt crops. We carried out a series of greenhouse and field experiments comparing aphid populations on Bt-and non Bt-cotton that were damaged by the Bt-targeted caterpillar, Heliothis virescens. We found in bo...

  3. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  4. Efficacy of plastic mesh tubes in reducing herbivory damage by the invasive nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an urban restoration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheffels, Trevor R.; Systma, Mark D.; Carter, Jacoby; Taylor, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of stream corridors is becoming an increasingly important component of urban landscape planning, and the high cost of these projects necessitates the need to understand and address potential ecological obstacles to project success. The nutria(Myocastor coypus) is an invasive, semi-aquatic rodent native to South America that causes detrimental ecological impacts in riparian and wetland habitats throughout its introduced range, and techniques are needed to reduce nutria herbivory damage to urban stream restoration projects. We assessed the efficacy of standard Vexar® plastic mesh tubes in reducing nutria herbivory damage to newly established woody plants. The study was conducted in winter-spring 2009 at Delta Ponds, a 60-ha urban waterway in Eugene, Oregon. Woody plants protected by Vexar® tubes demonstrated 100% survival over the 3-month initial establishment period, while only 17% of unprotected plantings survived. Nutria demonstrated a preference for black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp trichocarpa) over red osier dogwood (Cornussericea) and willow (Salix spp). Camera surveillance showed that nutria were more active in unprotected rather than protected treatments. Our results suggest that Vexar® plastic mesh tubing can be an effective short-term herbivory mitigation tool when habitat use by nutria is low. Additionally, planting functionally equivalent woody plant species that are less preferred by nutria, and other herbivores, may be another method for reducing herbivory and improving revegetation success. This study highlights the need to address potential wildlife damage conflicts in the planning process for stream restoration in urban landscapes.

  5. The mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate reduces histamine release and status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Valle-Dorado, María Guadalupe; Santana-Gómez, César Emmanuel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra Adela; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-05-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate changes in the histamine release, mast cell number and neuronal damage in hippocampus induced by status epilepticus. We also evaluated if sodium cromoglycate, a stabilizer of mast cells with a possible stabilizing effect on the membrane of neurons, was able to prevent the release of histamine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate during the status epilepticus. During microdialysis experiments, rats were treated with saline (SS-SE) or sodium cromoglycate (CG-SE) and 30 min later received the administration of pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus. Twenty-four hours after the status epilepticus, the brains were used to determine the neuronal damage and the number of mast cells in hippocampus. During the status epilepticus, SS-SE group showed an enhanced release of histamine (138.5%, p = 0.005), GABA (331 ± 91%, p ? 0.001) and glutamate (467%, p ? 0.001), even after diazepam administration. One day after the status epilepticus, SS-SE group demonstrated increased number of mast cells in Stratum pyramidale of CA1 (88%, p < 0.001) and neuronal damage in dentate gyrus, CA1 and CA3. In contrast to SS-SE group, rats from the CG-SE group showed increased latency to the establishment of the status epilepticus (p = 0.048), absence of wet-dog shakes, reduced histamine (but not GABA and glutamate) release, lower number of mast cells (p = 0.008) and reduced neuronal damage in hippocampus. Our data revealed that histamine, possibly from mast cells, is released in hippocampus during the status epilepticus. This effect may be involved in the subsequent neuronal damage and is diminished with sodium cromoglycate pretreatment. PMID:25578265

  6. The Psychosocial Impact of the Environmental Damage Caused by the MT Merapi Eruption on Survivors in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2014-12-01

    The eruption of Indonesia's Mount Merapi volcano in 2010 caused extensive environmental degradation. Settlements and hundreds of hectares of farmlands were buried under volcanic ash. Until now, there has been no research on the psychosocial impact of living in an environment damaged by a volcanic eruption. We studied and compared the psychosocial impact of environmental damage on volcano survivors from two subdistricts-Cangkringan and Pakem. Cangkringan survivors affected by the 2010 eruption continue to live in a damaged environment. The Pakem subdistrict was damaged by eruptions of Mt Merapi in the 1990s but there is no recent damage to their environment. The Indonesian-Environmental Distress Scale (I-EDS), a translated revision of the original Environmental Distress Scale (EDS), was used to collect data. Exploratory statistical methods and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relative contributions of demographic variables on the psychosocial impact of living in an environment damaged by volcanic eruption. A total of 348 survivors of the Mt Merapi eruption participated in the survey. The mean I-EDS score for Cangkringan district was 15.8 (SD 1.6; range 11.8-19.8) compared to 14.6 (SD 1.3; range 11.8-18.3) for Pakem district (P < 0.001). This result was confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis showing further that older respondents (P < 0.001), unemployed and retired respondents (P = 0.007), and respondents with no formal school education (P = 0.037) had lower I-EDS scores compared to the respective reference groups. Survivors of the Mt Merapi eruption who continue to live in the environment damaged by the 2010 volcanic eruption experience environmental distress. Relevant interventions should target those from low sosioeconomic groups to deal with the distress. PMID:24763946

  7. A quantum mechanical scheme to reduce radiation damage in electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner [Institute of Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich CH-8057 (Switzerland)

    2006-04-17

    We show that radiation damage to unstained biological specimens is not an intractable problem in electron microscopy. When a structural hypothesis of a specimen is available, quantum mechanical principles allow us to verify the hypothesis with a very low electron dose. Realization of such a concept requires precise control of the electron wave front. Based on a diffractive electron optical implementation, we demonstrate the feasibility of this new method by both experimental and numerical investigations.

  8. Ozonized sunflower oil reduces oxidative damage induced by indomethacin in rat gastric mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Zamora; R. González; D. Guanche; N. Merino; S. Menéndez; F. Hernández; Y. Alonso; S. Schulz

    2008-01-01

    .\\u000a Objective and design:  This study was carried out in order to investigate the potential cytoprotective effects of ozonized sunflower oil (OSO) in\\u000a the damage of rat gastric mucosa induced by indomethacin and also to elucidate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS),\\u000a lipid peroxidation and some constituents of antioxidant defense such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in these

  9. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  10. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  11. Radiation Damage in Minerals: From Point Defects to Amorphization. Mineralogical and Environmental Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Balan, E.; Morin, G.

    2006-05-01

    Minerals exhibit radiation damage, produced by the decay of substituted U and Th or by high-energy radiation emitted by short-lived radionuclides transported by fluids. We will present three domains of application. At low radiation doses, point defects are created, often associated to impurities. This results in the coloration of many minerals, such as fluorite, quartz or tourmaline. Thermal annealing of these color centers may constrain the formation conditions of nonradioactive minerals. Heavy metal impurities, such as cadmium -an element of great environmental importance- may be decorated by these defects and localized in the crystal lattice. Clay minerals represent another field of application of radiation damage. Their high specific surface area makes them sensitive to the geochemical radiation background and suitable for use as a dosimeter for past natural irradiation. Kaolinites from the Pena Blanca natural analogue present defect concentration, which varies by almost three orders of magnitude within the deposit. Using a calibration based on an experimental irradiation and time constraints on kaolinite age, the paleodose may be related to the overall migration of the radionuclides over time. This methodology gives an original time-integrated assessment of the transfer of radionuclides. The third example will be taken on the influence of metamictization on the weathering of zircons, with chemical ages ranging between 0.15 Ga and 2.8 Ga. The maximum degree of radiation damage observed in the zircons sampled from Brazilian laterites, coincides with the first percolation threshold of the metamictization. Zircon geochemistry indicates that, during long-lasting exposure to weathering, the chemical durability of zircon decreases above this threshold. This may arise from the original structure of metamict zircon, which modifies the peculiar surface properties of this mineral. Future applications concern the influence of structural defects on physicochemical properties of minerals such as clays, under irradiation conditions simulating engineered barriers, a major concern in nuclear waste management. Facilities, as those developed at the University of Michigan, will greatly facilitate these advances.

  12. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D.; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  13. Transient systemic mtDNA damage leads to muscle wasting by reducing the satellite cell pool

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Pickrell, Alicia M.; Rossi, Susana G.; Pinto, Milena; Dillon, Lloye M.; Hida, Aline; Rotundo, Richard L.; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2013-01-01

    With age, muscle mass and integrity are progressively lost leaving the elderly frail, weak and unable to independently care for themselves. Defined as sarcopenia, this age-related muscle atrophy appears to be multifactorial but its definite cause is still unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in this process. Using a novel transgenic mouse model of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that presents a premature aging-like phenotype, we studied the role of mtDNA damage in muscle wasting. We caused DSBs in mtDNA of adult mice using a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial-targeted endonuclease, mito-PstI. We found that a short, transient systemic mtDNA damage led to muscle wasting and a decline in locomotor activity later in life. We found a significant decline in muscle satellite cells, which decreases the muscle's capacity to regenerate and repair during aging. This phenotype was associated with impairment in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and assembly at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), also associated with muscle aging. Our data suggests that systemic mitochondrial dysfunction plays important roles in age-related muscle wasting by preferentially affecting the myosatellite cell pool. PMID:23760083

  14. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Burger

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical\\/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of

  15. USING THE DNA ALKALINE UNWINDING ASSAY TO DETECT DNA DAMAGE IN LABORATORY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED CELLS AND TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. n preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. ultured mammalian fib...

  16. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Sathre; Eric Masanet; Jennifer Cain; Mikhail Chester

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, \\u000amaintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as

  17. Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

  18. Dexamethasone and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Reduce Oxidative Stress-Related DNA Damage in Differentiating Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Wysoki?ski, Daniel; Tokarz, Paulina; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska, Joanna; Blasiak, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The process of osteoblast differentiation is regulated by several factors, including RUNX2. Recent reports suggest an involvement of RUNX2 in DNA damage response (DDR), which is important due to association of differentiation with oxidative stress. In the present work we explore the influence of two RUNX2 modifiers, dexamethasone (DEX) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), in DDR in differentiating MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts challenged by oxidative stress. The process of differentiation was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) reduced the rate of differentiation. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of the process of osteoblasts differentiation, increased in a time-dependent manner and TBH further increased this activity. This may indicate that additional oxidative stress, induced by TBH, may accelerate the differentiation process. The cells displayed changes in the sensitivity to TBH in the course of differentiation. DEX increased ALP activity, but 1,25-D3 had no effect on it. These results suggest that DEX might stimulate the process of preosteoblasts differentiation. Finally, we observed a protective effect of DEX and 1,25-D3 against DNA damage induced by TBH, except the day 24 of differentiation, when DEX increased the extent of TBH-induced DNA damage. We conclude that oxidative stress is associated with osteoblasts differentiation and induce DDR, which may be modulated by RUNX2-modifiers, DEX and 1,25-D3. PMID:25244015

  19. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  20. DNA damage in grasshoppers' larvae--comet assay in environmental approach.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Maria; Orzechowska, Helena; K?dziorski, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Dole?ych, Bogdan

    2014-02-01

    The comet assay that provides a quantitative measure of the DNA-strand breaks may be used for assessing the 'genotoxic potential' of the environment. Young adults of Chorthippus brunneus (Orthoptera), collected at three sites in Southern Poland, differing in the level of pollution, particularly with heavy metals: Pilica (reference), Olkusz (moderately polluted) and Szopienice (heavily polluted) - were allowed to mate under laboratory conditions that were free from any pollution. Egg-pods were collected and, after diapause, brain cells from one-day old larvae were used for the comet assay. We compared the level of DNA damage in the larvae originating from these sites and also measured time-dependent DNA repair after single 10min. application of H2O2 (20?M final concentration). The DNA damage was relatively low in larval cells irrespectively of the site pollution their parents came from. However, measured comet parameters - tail DNA content (TDNA), tail length (TL), and olive tail moment (OTM) - were significantly higher in larvae originating from the Szopienice site than in those from the reference site. Incubation of cells with H2O2 resulted in significantly higher values of the comet parameters in the insects from all the study sites with the highest ones observed in the offspring of grasshoppers from Szopienice. Moreover, DNA repair, following the treatment, did not occur in the latter group. These data contribute to almost unexplored subject of genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in insects. They are discussed in the light of the concept of adaptive strategies in energy allocation depending on the level of biotope pollution. PMID:24216265

  1. Deciphering maize genetics and ecology to reduce insect damage and aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases, which reduce yield and impose health threats via mycotoxin contaminations, are critical impediments for maize production in the southern US states. To address this problem a combination of basic and applied research approaches are being conducted by the interdis...

  2. Leaf variegation is associated with reduced herbivore damage in Hydrophyllum virginianum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brandon E. Campitelli; Ivana Stehlik; John R. Stinchcombe

    2008-01-01

    Leaf variegation refers to local regions of the upper surface of a leaf having reduced or obstructed chlorophyll, which results in whitish spots. These lighter spots may compromise the photosynthetic efficiency of a leaf, and many com- peting hypotheses have been put forward to explain why this patterning may be adaptive. It has been suggested that varie- gation is either

  3. Modeling insecticide protection versus forest management approaches to reducing balsam fir sawfly and hemlock looper damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javed Iqbal; Chris R. Hennigar; David A. MacLean

    A decision support system (DSS) for improved management decision making and to reduce impacts of forest insect outbreaks was developed and implemented for two defoliators, hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria Guen.) and balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Harris), in District 15, a 336,805ha forest managed by Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Ltd. in western Newfoundland, Canada. Over the past 15years,

  4. Partially flexible MEMS neural probe composed of polyimide and sucrose gel for reducing brain damage during and after implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Myounggun; Cho, Jeiwon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Jung, Dahee; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Shin, Sehyun; Cho, Il-Joo

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a flexible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) neural probe that minimizes neuron damage and immune response, suitable for chronic recording applications. MEMS neural probes with various features such as high electrode densities have been actively investigated for neuron stimulation and recording to study brain functions. However, successful recording of neural signals in chronic application using rigid silicon probes still remains challenging because of cell death and macrophages accumulated around the electrodes over time from continuous brain movement. Thus, in this paper, we propose a new flexible MEMS neural probe that consists of two segments: a polyimide-based, flexible segment for connection and a rigid segment composed of thin silicon for insertion. While the flexible connection segment is designed to reduce the long-term chronic neuron damage, the thin insertion segment is designed to minimize the brain damage during the insertion process. The proposed flexible neural probe was successfully fabricated using the MEMS process on a silicon on insulator wafer. For a successful insertion, a biodegradable sucrose gel is coated on the flexible segment to temporarily increase the probe stiffness to prevent buckling. After the insertion, the sucrose gel dissolves inside the brain exposing the polyimide probe. By performing an insertion test, we confirm that the flexible probe has enough stiffness. In addition, by monitoring immune responses and brain histology, we successfully demonstrate that the proposed flexible neural probe incurs fivefold less neural damage than that incurred by a conventional silicon neural probe. Therefore, the presented flexible neural probe is a promising candidate for recording stable neural signals for long-time chronic applications.

  5. Effect of various environmental parameters on the recovery of sublethally salt-damaged and acid-damaged Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Gnanou Besse, N; Dubois Brissonnet, F; Lafarge, V; Leclerc, V

    2000-12-01

    The influence of supplementing the culture medium with magnesium sulphate, D-glucose, L-cysteine, catalase or lithium chloride, of incubation temperature and of oxygen availability on the recovery of salt- or acid-damaged Listeria monocytogenes, was studied on a solid repair medium according to a Hadamard matrix, with seven parameters varying between a high and a low level. The most important factors for repair of stressed Listeria were further studied with complete factorial design experiments. Results show that conditions promoting resuscitation of acid- or salt-injured cells are stress-specific, and differ in part from those described in the literature for heat-stressed Listeria. PMID:11123467

  6. Testing NMDA receptor block as a therapeutic strategy for reducing ischaemic damage to CNS white matter

    PubMed Central

    Bakiri, Yamina; Hamilton, Nicola B.; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur; Attwell, David

    2010-01-01

    Damage to oligodendrocytes caused by glutamate release contributes to mental or physical handicap in periventricular leukomalacia, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis and stroke, and has been attributed to activation of AMPA/kainate receptors. However, glutamate also activates unusual NMDA receptors in oligodendrocytes, which can generate an ion influx even at the resting potential in a physiological [Mg2+]. Here we show that the clinically licensed NMDA receptor antagonist memantine blocks oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors at concentrations achieved therapeutically. Simulated ischaemia released glutamate which activated NMDA receptors, as well as AMPA/kainate receptors, on mature and precursor oligodendrocytes. Although blocking AMPA/kainate receptors alone during ischaemia had no effect, combining memantine with an AMPA/kainate receptor blocker, or applying the NMDA blocker MK-801 alone, improved recovery of the action potential in myelinated axons after the ischaemia. These data suggest NMDA receptor blockers as a potentially useful treatment for some white matter diseases and define conditions under which these blockers may be useful therapeutically. Our results highlight the importance of developing new antagonists selective for oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors based on their difference in subunit structure from most neuronal NMDA receptors. PMID:18046734

  7. Baifuzi reduces transient ischemic brain damage through an interaction with the STREX domain of BKCa channels

    PubMed Central

    Chi, S; Cai, W; Liu, P; Zhang, Z; Chen, X; Gao, L; Qi, J; Bi, L; Chen, L; Qi, Z

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a long-term disability and one of the leading causes of death. However, no successful therapeutic intervention is available for the majority of stroke patients. In this study, we explored a traditional Chinese medicine Baifuzi (Typhonium giganteum Engl.). We show, at first, that the ethanol extract of Baifuzi exerts neuroprotective effects against brain damage induced by transient global or focal cerebral ischemia in rats and mice. Second, the extract activated large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa) channels, and BKCa channel blockade suppressed the neuroprotection of the extract, suggesting that the BKCa is the molecular target of Baifuzi. Third, Baifuzi cerebroside (Baifuzi-CB), purified from its ethanol extract, activated BKCa channels in a manner similar to that of the extract. Fourth, the stress axis hormone-regulated exon (STREX) domain of the BKCa channel directly interacted with Baifuzi-CB, and its deletion suppressed channel activation by Baifuzi-CB. These results indicate that Baifuzi-CB activated the BKCa channel through its direct interaction with the STREX domain of the channel and suggests that Baifuzi-CB merits exploration as a potential therapeutic agent for treating brain ischemia. PMID:21364615

  8. Efforts to reduce mortality to hydroelectric turbine-passed fish: locating and quantifying damaging shear stresses.

    PubMed

    Cada, Glenn; Loar, James; Garrison, Laura; Fisher, Richard; Neitzel, Duane

    2006-06-01

    Severe fluid forces are believed to be a source of injury and mortality to fish that pass through hydroelectric turbines. A process is described by which laboratory bioassays, computational fluid dynamics models, and field studies can be integrated to evaluate the significance of fluid shear stresses that occur in a turbine. Areas containing potentially lethal shear stresses were identified near the stay vanes and wicket gates, runner, and in the draft tube of a large Kaplan turbine. However, under typical operating conditions, computational models estimated that these dangerous areas comprise less than 2% of the flow path through the modeled turbine. The predicted volumes of the damaging shear stress zones did not correlate well with observed fish mortality at a field installation of this turbine, which ranged from less than 1% to nearly 12%. Possible reasons for the poor correlation are discussed. Computational modeling is necessary to develop an understanding of the role of particular fish injury mechanisms, to compare their effects with those of other sources of injury, and to minimize the trial and error previously needed to mitigate those effects. The process we describe is being used to modify the design of hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival. PMID:16485161

  9. Optimization of phytoplankton preservative concentrations to reduce damage during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Das, Subhajit; Bhattacharya, Tanima; De, Minati; Maiti, Tusharkanti; Kumar De, Tarun

    2014-04-01

    A study was performed to establish the optimal concentration of traditional preservatives or fixatives such as formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine, in order to preserve phytoplankton samples for long-term storage without the introduction of artifacts or other physical aberrations. The goal of the study was to avoid any visible morphological changes to the preserved cells, minimizing the errors induced by traditional preservative concentrations, and ensuring better accuracy of ecological analyses. We found that both formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine have adverse effects on the preservation of samples. Trichodesmium erythraeum was found to be most susceptible to the effects of acidic Lugol's iodine, since it displayed the highest degree of chain fragmentation when this preservative was used. However, we found that 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde, 2.5% (v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine, and 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde+2.5%(v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine combined were most promising, with the latter the most effective even after 3 weeks of preservation. This study also revealed that, in general, the centric diatom species were more sensitive to long-term preservation than their pennate counterparts. The present study is significant as it sheds light on the damage endured by phytoplankton cells during long-term preservation, which can lead to erroneous and biased results upon analyses. The optimal concentration of preservative established experimentally from a wide variety of concentrations caused comparatively moderate changes to the cell dimensions as well as effectively prevented microbial contamination. PMID:24749881

  10. 1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces several types of UV-induced DNA damage and contributes to photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Song, Eric J; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Cole, Louise; Stern, Harvey; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L; Reeve, Vivienne E; Mason, Rebecca S

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D production requires UVB. In turn, we have shown that vitamin D compounds reduce UV-induced damage, including inflammation, sunburn, thymine dimers, the most frequent type of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, immunosuppression, and photocarcinogenesis. Our previous studies have shown most of the photoprotective effects by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) occurred through the nongenomic pathway because similar protection was seen with an analog, 1?,25-dihydroxylumistrol3 (JN), which has little ability to alter gene expression and also because a nongenomic antagonist of 1,25(OH)2D3 abolished protection. In the current study, we tested whether this photoprotective effect would extend to other types of DNA damage, and whether this could be demonstrated in human ex vivo skin, as this model would be suited to pre-clinical testing of topical formulations for photoprotection. In particular, using skin explants, we examined a time course for thymine dimers (TDs), the most abundant DNA photolesion, as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is a mutagenic DNA base lesion arising from UV-induced oxidative stress, and 8-nitroguanosine (8-NG). Nitric oxide products, known markers for chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis, are also induced by UV. This study showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced TD and 8-NG as early as 30min post UV, and 8-oxodG at 3h post UV, confirming the photoprotective effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 against DNA photoproducts in human skin explants. At least in part, the mechanism of photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D3 is likely to be through the reduction of reactive nitrogen species and the subsequent reduction in oxidative and nitrosative damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23165145

  11. Study of genetic damage in the Japanese oyster induced by an environmentally-relevant exposure to diuron: evidence of vertical transmission of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Barranger, A; Akcha, F; Rouxel, J; Brizard, R; Maurouard, E; Pallud, M; Menard, D; Tapie, N; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Benabdelmouna, A

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides represent a major proportion of the chemical pollutants detected in French coastal waters and hence a significant environmental risk with regards to marine organisms. Commercially-raised bivalves are particularly exposed to pollutants, among them pesticides, as shellfish farming zones are subject to considerable pressure from agricultural activities on the mainland. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the genotoxic effects of diuron exposure on oyster genitors and (2) the possible transmission of damaged DNA to offspring and its repercussions on oyster fitness. To investigate these points, oysters were exposed to concentrations of diuron close to those detected in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (two 7-day exposure pulses at 0.4 and 0.6 ?g L(-1)) during the gametogenesis period. Genomic abnormalities were characterized using two complementary approaches. The Comet assay was applied for the measurement of early and reversible primary DNA damage, whereas flow cytometry was used to assess the clastogenic and aneugenic effect of diuron exposure. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were used in exposed and assay tanks to confirm the waterborne concentration of diuron reached during the experiment. The results obtained by the Comet assay clearly showed a higher level of DNA strand breaks in both the hemocytes and spermatozoa of diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of damaged genetic material to gamete cells could be responsible for the genetic damage measured in offspring. Indeed, flow cytometry analyses showed the presence of DNA breakage and a significant decrease in DNA content in spat from diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of DNA damage to the offspring could be involved in the negative effects observed on offspring development (decrease in hatching rate, higher level of larval abnormalities, delay in metamorphosis) and growth. In this study, the vertical transmission of DNA damage was so highlighted by subjecting oyster genitors to short exposures to diuron at medium environmental concentrations. The analysis of POCIS showed that oysters were exposed to integrated concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 ?g L(-1), emphasizing the relevance of the results obtained and the risk associated to chemical contamination for oyster recruitment and fitness. PMID:24291084

  12. The Curry Spice Curcumin Reduces Oxidative Damage and Amyloid Pathology in an Alzheimer Transgenic Mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giselle P. Lim; Teresa Chu; Fusheng Yang; Walter Beech; Sally A. Frautschy; Greg M. Cole

    2001-01-01

    Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is character- ized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemi- ological studies suggest reduced AD risk associates with long- term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw mouse model (Tg2576), excessive use of NSAIDs targeting cyclooxygenase I can cause gastrointestinal, liver, and

  13. Cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rice leaves is reduced by polyamines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Ting Hsu; Ching Huei Kao

    2007-01-01

    The protective effect of polyamines against Cd toxicity of rice (Oryza sativa) leaves was investigated. Cd toxicity to rice leaves was determined by the decrease in protein content. CdCl2 treatment results in (1) increased Cd content, (2) induction of Cd toxicity, (3) increase in H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, (4) decrease in ascorbic acid (ASC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents,

  14. Modeling vibratory damage with reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Patrick J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates a coupled computational analysis framework that uses reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method to model vibratory induced stress near local defects. The application area of interest is the life prediction of thin gauge structural components exhibiting nonlinear, path-dependent dynamic response. Full-order finite element models of these structural components can require prohibitively large amounts of processor time. Recent developments in nonlinear reduced-order models have demonstrated efficient computation of the dynamic response. These models are relatively insensitive to small imperfections. Conversely, the generalized finite element method provides the ability to model local defects without geometric dependency on the mesh. A more robust version of the method, with numerically built enrichment functions, provides a multiple-scale modeling capability through direct coupling of global and local finite element models. Replacing the component finite element model with a reduced-order model allows for efficient computation of dynamic response while providing the necessary information to drive local, solid analyses which can zoom in on regions containing stress risers or cracks. This paper describes the coupling of these approaches to enable fatigue and crack propagation predictions. Numerical/experimental examples are provided.

  15. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.

    PubMed

    Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1-14. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:25376148

  16. Hypothermia Modulates Cytokine Responses After Neonatal Rat Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury and Reduces Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiangpeng; Ghosh, Nirmalya; McFadden, Brian; Tone, Beatriz; Bellinger, Denise L.; Obenaus, Andre

    2014-01-01

    While hypothermia (HT) is the standard-of-care for neonates with hypoxic ischemic injury (HII), the mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective effect are poorly understood. We examined ischemic core/penumbra and cytokine/chemokine evolution in a 10-day-old rat pup model of HII. Pups were treated for 24?hr after HII with HT (32?; n?=?18) or normothermia (NT, 35?; n?=?15). Outcomes included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurobehavioral testing, and brain cytokine/chemokine profiling (0, 24, 48, and 72?hr post-HII). Lesion volumes (24?hr) were reduced in HT pups (total 74%, p?reduced interleukin-1? (IL-1?) at all time points (p?reduces total and penumbral lesion volumes (at 24 and 48?hr), potentially by decreasing IL-1? without affecting SDF-1. Disassociation between the increasing trend in HII volumes from 48 to 72?hr post-HII when IL-1? levels remained low suggests that after rewarming, mechanisms unrelated to IL-1? expression are likely to contribute to this delayed increase in injury. Additional studies should be considered to determine what these mechanisms might be and also to explore whether extending the duration or degree of HT might ameliorate this delayed increase in injury. PMID:25424430

  17. Damage behavior in helium-irradiated reduced-activation martensitic steels at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fengfeng; Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Yao, Z.; Suo, Jinping

    2014-12-01

    Dislocation loops induced by helium irradiation at elevated temperatures in reduced-activation martensitic steels were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Steels were irradiated with 100 keV helium ions to 0.8 dpa between 300 K and 723 K. At irradiation temperatures Tirr ? 573 K, small defects with both Burger vectors b = 1/2<1 1 1> and b = <1 0 0> were observed, while at Tirr ? 623 K, the microstructure was dominated by large convoluted interstitial dislocation loops with b = <1 0 0>. Only small cavities were found in the steels irradiated at 723 K.

  18. Reduced Level of Ribonucleotide Reductase R2 Subunits Increases Dependence on Homologous Recombination Repair of Cisplatin-Induced DNA DamageS?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yashang; Lin, Fang; Belcourt, Michael F.; Li, Peining; Cory, Joseph G.; Glazer, Peter M.; Sartorelli, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the production of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) required for replicative and repair DNA synthesis. Mammalian RNR is a heteromeric enzyme consisting primarily of R1 and R2 subunits during the S phase of the cell cycle. We have shown previously that the presence of excess R2 subunits protects p53-deficient human colon cancer cells from cisplatin-induced DNA damage and replication stress. However, the mode of DNA repair influenced by changes in the level of the R2 subunit remained to be defined. In the present study, we demonstrated that depletion of BRCA1, an important factor of homologous recombination repair (HRR), preferentially sensitized stable R2-knockdown p53(?/?) HCT116 cells to the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and ?-H2AX induction. In accord with this finding, these R2-knockdown cells exhibited increased dependence on HRR, as evidenced by elevated levels of cisplatin-induced Rad51 foci and sister chromatid exchange frequency. Furthermore, stable knockdown of the R2 subunit also led to decreased cisplatin-induced gap-filling synthesis in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and a reduced dATP level in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. These results suggest that an increased level of the R2 subunit extends the availability of dATP in the G2/M phase to promote the repair of NER-mediated single-strand gaps that are otherwise converted into double-strand breaks in the subsequent S phase. We propose that HRR becomes important for recovery from cisplatin-DNA lesions when the postexcision process of NER is restrained by reduced levels of the R2 subunit and dATP in p53-deficient cancer cells. PMID:21875941

  19. Using Environmental Strategies to Reduce Drinking and Driving among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of several environmental strategies that have proven successful in reducing drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults and suggests that integrating such strategies into present institutional initiatives can create significant and enduring reductions in drinking and driving among this population. (Author)

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TEDCHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TO REDUCE THE RISK OF USING INNOVATIVE COATING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papeer discusses the use of environmental technology verification (ETV) to reduce the risk of using innovative coating technologies. It presents key concepts of the ETV program, reviews the scope of the ETV program's coatings and coating equipment pilot (CCEP) and its use of ...

  1. The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation – A comprehensive evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz E. de-Bashan; Juan-Pablo Hernandez; Yoav Bashan

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) are commonly used to improve crop yields. In addition to their proven usefulness in agriculture, they possess potential in solving environmental problems. Some examples are highlighted. PGPB may prevent soil erosion in arid zones by improving growth of desert plants in reforestation programs; in turn, this reduces dust pollution. PGPB supports restoration of mangrove ecosystems that

  2. Effectiveness of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) in reducing robberies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carri Casteel; Corinne Peek-Asa

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) approach in reducing robberies.Methods: CPTED evaluations were obtained through a comprehensive search mechanism. Two sets of inclusion criteria were used: 16 primary studies evaluated a CPTED program with a comparison period; 12 secondary studies presented some evidence of CPTED effects but

  3. 17?-estradiol ameliorates light-induced retinal damage in Sprague-Dawley rats by reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaolan; Wang, Baoying; Feng, Yan; Mo, Mingshu; Du, Fangying; Li, Hongbo; Yu, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered as a major cause of light-induced retinal neurodegeneration. The protective role of 17?-estradiol (?E2) in neurodegenerative disorders is well known, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we utilized a light-induced retinal damage model to explore the mechanism by which ?E2 exerts its neuroprotective effect. Adult male and female ovariectomized (OVX) rats were exposed to 8,000 lx white light for 12 h to induce retinal light damage. Electroretinogram (ERG) assays and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed that exposure to light for 12 h resulted in functional damage to the rat retina, histological changes, and retinal neuron loss. However, intravitreal injection (IVI) of ?E2 significantly rescued this impaired retinal function in both female and male rats. Based on the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) production (a biomarker of oxidative stress), an increase in retinal oxidative stress followed light exposure, and ?E2 administration reduced this light-induced oxidative stress. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase (qRT)-PCR indicated that the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) were downregulated in female OVX rats but were upregulated in male rats after light exposure, suggesting a gender difference in the regulation of these antioxidant enzyme genes in response to light. However, ?E2 administration restored or enhanced the SOD and Gpx expression levels following light exposure. Although the catalase (CAT) expression level was insensitive to light stimulation, ?E2 also increased the CAT gene expression level in both female OVX and male rats. Further examination indicated that the antioxidant proteins thioredoxin (Trx) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) are also involved in ?E2-mediated antioxidation and that the cytoprotective protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a key role in the endogenous defense mechanism against light exposure in a ?E2-independent manner. Taken together, we provide evidence that ?E2 protects against light-induced retinal damage via its antioxidative effect, and its underlying mechanism involves the regulation of the gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and Gpx) and proteins (Trx and Nrf2). Our study provides conceptual evidence in support of estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women to reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:25038876

  4. Andrographolide interferes quorum sensing to reduce cell damage caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xun; Zhang, Li-Yan; Wu, Shuai-Cheng; Xia, Fang; Fu, Yun-Xing; Wu, Yong-Li; Leng, Chun-Qing; Yi, Peng-Fei; Shen, Hai-Qing; Wei, Xu-Bin; Fu, Ben-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induce septicemia in chickens by invading type II pneumocytes to breach the blood-air barrier. The virulence of APEC can be regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Andrographolide is a QS inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Therefore, we investigate whether andrographolide inhibits the injury of chicken type II pneumocytes by avian pathogenic E. coli O78 (APEC-O78) by disrupting the bacterial QS system. The results showed that sub-MIC of andrographolide significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), F-actin cytoskeleton polymerization, and the degree of the adherence to chicken type II pneumocytes induced by APEC-O78. Further, we found that andrographolide significantly decreased the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity and the expression of virulence factors of APEC-O78. These results suggest that andrographolide reduce the pathogenicity of APEC-O78 in chicken type II pneumocytes by interfering QS and decreasing virulence. These results provide new evidence for colibacillosis prevention methods in chickens. PMID:25448450

  5. Reducing noise damage by using a mid-frequency sound conditioning stimulus.

    PubMed

    Canlon, B; Fransson, A

    1998-01-26

    Sound conditioning guinea pigs to a 6.3 kHz tone at 78 dB SPL for either 13 or 24 days provides significant physiological (auditory brain stem responses, ABR; and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, DPOAE) and morphological (cochleograms) protection against a subsequent traumatic exposure (6.3 kHz, 100 dB SPL for 24 h) delivered 2 h after sound conditioning. Threshold shifts (ABR, DPOAE) were significantly reduced and the degree of hair cell loss was minimal. When a 1 week pause was given between the end of the sound conditioning and the traumatic exposure, protection was still observed, but to a lesser degree. These findings demonstrate that mid-frequency sound conditioning protects against noise trauma and that the protective effect is maintained for at least 1 week. PMID:9507967

  6. Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Olson, Dawn M.; Ruberson, John R.; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

  7. Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.

    PubMed

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-05-01

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

  8. Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

  9. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model. PMID:14680076

  10. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Osés, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and wrenching floods. Our integrated model combines hydrologic, land use, environmental and economic data. The combination of the cadastral data with the flood characteristics (flow, depth, duration) for various periods of return enables to draw damage maps expressed as function of flood characteristics (Penning-Rowsell et al. 2005). This methodology also enables to illustrate consequences of risk prevention measures. We can thus measure the value of information in the alert system of Civil Protection Agency, give information on risks for urban development plans and simulate the consequences of hydraulic interventions like river bed cleaning. This methodology would then contribute to match with the requirements of the 2007 EU flood risk Management Directive (2007/60/CE).

  11. Acid fibroblast growth factor reduces rat intestinal mucosal damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion insult

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Ge, Shi-Li; Sun, Tong-Zhu; Li, Wen-Juan; Sheng, Zhi-Yong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the effects of acid fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) on apoptosis and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in differentiation or proliferation status to explore the protective mechanisms of aFGF. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control group (C, n?=?6), intestinal ischemia group (I, n?=?6), aFGF treatment group (A, n?=?48) and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion group (R, n?=?48). Apoptosis of intestinal mucosal cells was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression and distribution were detected with immunohistochemical method. Plasma levels of D-lactate were determined with modified Brandts method. RESULTS: In A group, administration of exogenous aFGF could improve intestinal histological structure and decrease plasma D-lactate levels at 2-12 h after the reperfusion compared with R group. The apoptotic rates and PCNA protein expressions were not increased until 2 h after reperfusion and were maximal at 12 h. After reperfusion for 2-12 h, the apoptotic rates were gradually augmented along the length of jejunal crypt-villus units. Administration of aFGF could significantly reduce the apoptotic response at 2-12 h after reperfusion (P<0.05). Apoptosis rates in villus and crypt epithelial cells in A group at 12 h after reperfusion were (62.5±5.5)% and (73.2±18.6)% of those in R group, respectively. Treatment of aFGF could apparently induce protein expression of PCNA in intestinal mucosal cells of A group compared with R group during 2-12 h after reperfusion (P<0.05). There were approximately 1.3- and 1.5-times increments of PCNA expression levels in villus and crypt cells in A group at 12 h after reperfusion compared with R group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Intestinal I/R insult could lead to histological structure change and apoptotic rate increment. The protective effects of aFGF against ischemia/reperfusion in rat intestinal mucosa might be partially due to its ability to inhibit ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and to promote cell proliferation of crypt cells and villus epithelial cells. PMID:16425419

  12. Environmental Flows Can Reduce the Encroachment of Terrestrial Vegetation into River Channels: A Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kimberly A.; Webb, J. Angus; de Little, Siobhan C.; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

  13. Civil liability for oil pollution damage: examining the evolving scope for environmental compensation in the international regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Mason

    2003-01-01

    The civil liability regime for ship-source oil pollution enables national victims of oil spill damage to make financial claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in certain circumstances, the global oil cargo industry. This paper examines the evolving—and contested—parameters of environmental liability set by the international oil pollution liability conventions, focusing on the admissibility of reinstatement costs and the

  14. The Potential of Five Winter-grown Crops to Reduce Root-knot Nematode Damage and Increase Yield of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

  15. Reducing the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination by using brackish groundwater resources.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to find out whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination are reduced when brackish groundwater is used instead of sea water. In order to answer this question, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used, and two water production plants are compared. The brackish groundwater scenario is based on a plant located in Almería (southern Spain), while the sea water scenario is based on literature data. Four impact categories and two environmental indicators, one of them related to brine discharge, are included. The results show that the key life-cycle issue of brackish groundwater desalination is electricity consumption, and since this is substantially reduced with regard to using sea water, the life-cycle impacts are found to be almost 50% lower. An uncertainty analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation shows that these environmental savings are significant for all impact categories. Potential local impacts provoked by brine discharge are also found to be lower, due to a reduced content of salts. It is concluded that, when and wherever possible, exploitation of brackish groundwater resources should be assigned priority to sea water resources as an input for reverse osmosis desalination, although it must be taken into account that groundwater, as opposed to sea water, is a limited resource. PMID:17826817

  16. Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (glygly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, xray diffraction, xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the glygly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. PMID:24598357

  17. Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (gly-gly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the gly-gly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  18. REC-2006—A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10?Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7?±?0.47, 12.96?±?1.64 and 3.3?±?0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of ?-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15?mg?kg?1 body weight) 1?h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156?±?0.576, 1.647?±?0.534 and 0.496?±?0.012, and an increase in ?-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60?min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair. PMID:20008078

  19. Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kevin

    2014-08-13

    The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

  20. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    SciTech Connect

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

    2011-04-20

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

  1. Evaluation of DNA Damage Induced by Environmental Exposure to Mercury in Liza aurata Using the Comet Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Sofia Alves Pereira; Sofia Isabel Antunes Gomes Guilherme; Carlos Miguel Miguez Barroso; Luc Verschaeve; Mário Guilherme Garcês Pacheco; Sónia Alexandra Leite Velho Mendo

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the major aquatic contaminants even though emissions have been reduced over the years. Despite the\\u000a relative abundance of investigations carried out on Hg toxicity, there is a scarcity of studies on its DNA damaging effects\\u000a in fish under realistic exposure conditions. This study assessed the Hg genotoxicity in Golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) at Laranjo

  2. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles

    PubMed Central

    Rubega, Margaret A.; Sustaita, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles. PMID:25289186

  3. Interventions to reduce tourniquet-related ischaemic damage in orthopaedic surgery: a qualitative systematic review of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Halladin, N L; Zahle, F V; Rosenberg, J; Gögenur, I

    2014-09-01

    Ischaemia of the extremity from the use of a tourniquet and the subsequent reperfusion contribute to the release of reactive oxygen species. This release may result in injury to remote organs. We performed a qualitative systematic review exploring the interventions used to prevent tourniquet-related oxidative damage in adults undergoing orthopaedic surgery, and the possible relationship between biochemical oxidative stress markers and postoperative clinical outcomes. Seventeen randomised controlled studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Most trials were of low methodological quality and only two studies reported postoperative clinical outcomes. Nine studies tested anaesthetics (propofol, dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and spinal anaesthesia); four studies tested antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine, vitamin C, and mannitol); and four studies tested ischaemic pre-conditioning. Fifteen studies showed a significant reduction in biochemical oxidative stress markers. We conclude that propofol and ischaemic pre-conditioning, in particular, appear to show some benefit at reducing oxidative stress following operations under tourniquet; the correlation between a reduction in oxidative stress and postoperative clinical outcomes should be further investigated in the future. PMID:24800642

  4. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Kevin R; Rubega, Margaret A; Sustaita, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles. PMID:25289186

  5. Phototoxicity and environmental transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-light-induced reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Sun, Xin; Yu, Hongtao

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of mutagenic and tumorigenic environmental contaminants. Although the mechanisms by which PAHs induce cancer in experimental animals have been extensively studied and the metabolic activation pathways have been determined, the environmental fate of PAHs and the phototoxicity exerted by PAHs, as well as their photoreaction products formed in the environment, have received much less attention. In this review, the formation of oxygenated PAHs, PAH quinones, nitro-PAHs, and halogenated PAHs from photoreaction of environmental PAHs are addressed. Upon light irradiation, PAHs and all PAH photoreaction products can absorb light energy to reach photo-excited states, which react with molecular oxygen, medium, and coexisting chemicals to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive intermediates, such as oxygenated PAHs and free radicals. These intermediates, including ROS, induce lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage including DNA strand breakage, oxidation to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and DNA-adducts. Since these toxicological endpoints are associated with age-related diseases, including cancer, environmental PAHs concomitantly exposed to sunlight may potentially promote human skin damage, leading to ageing and skin cancers. Thus, we suggest that (i) in addition to the widely recognized metabolic pathways, more attention must be paid to photoreaction as an important activation pathway for PAHs, (ii) risk assessment of environmental PAHs should take into consideration the complex photochemical reactions leading to mixtures of products that are also phototoxic; and (iii) the study of structure-toxicity relationships should be expanded to cover the complex photoreactions and extrinsic factors that affect phototoxicity endpoints. PMID:22458855

  6. Modulation of Ischemia-Induced NMDAR1 Activation by Environmental Enrichment Decreases Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined whether enriched environment (EE) housing has direct neuroprotective effects on oxidative damage following transient global cerebral ischemia. Fifty-two adult male Wistar rats were included in the study and received either ischemia or sham surgery. Once fully awake, rats in each group were randomly assigned to either: EE housing or socially paired housing (CON). Animals remained in their assigned environment for 7 days, and then were killed. Our data showed that glutamate receptor expression was significantly higher in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group than in the ischemia EE group. Furthermore, the oxidative DNA damage, protein oxidation, and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group were significantly increased compared to the ischemia EE group. These results suggest that EE housing possibly modulated the ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity, which then attenuated the oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in the ischemia EE rats. PMID:21612313

  7. Bioenergetics of sulphate-reducing bacteria in relation to their environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, W A

    1998-01-01

    The cellular physiology of the sulphate-reducing bacteria, and of other sulphidogenic species, is determined by the energetic requirements consequent upon their respiratory mode of metabolism with sulphate and other oxyanions of sulphur as terminal electron acceptors. As a further consequence of their, relatively, restricted catabolic activities and their requirement for conditions of anaerobiosis, sulphidogenic bacteria are almost invariably found in nature as component organisms within microbial consortia. The capacity to generate significant quantities of sulphide influences the overall metabolic activity and species diversity of these consortia, and is the root cause of the environmental impact of the sulphidogenic species: corrosion, pollution and the souring of hydrocarbon reservoirs. PMID:10022064

  8. Humus-reducing microorganisms and their valuable contribution in environmental processes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Claudia M; Alvarez, Luis H; Celis, Lourdes B; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    Humus constitutes a very abundant class of organic compounds that are chemically heterogeneous and widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Evidence accumulated during the last decades indicating that humic substances play relevant roles on the transport, fate, and redox conversion of organic and inorganic compounds both in chemically and microbially driven reactions. The present review underlines the contribution of humus-reducing microorganisms in relevant environmental processes such as biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of greenhouse gases emission in anoxic ecosystems, redox conversion of industrial contaminants in anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, and on the microbial production of nanocatalysts and alternative energy sources. PMID:24220793

  9. Reduced clinic, emergency room, and hospital utilization after home environmental assessment and case management.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Charles S; Amado, Mercedes; Portnoy, Jay M

    2010-01-01

    Allergists often suspect home environmental conditions are contributors to allergic disease. Case management can be an effective tool in managing asthmatic patients. To describe the impact of home environmental assessments and case management on the medical care utilization of patients with allergic disease the following studies were conducted. This study was designed to retrospectively examine health care utilization of pediatric patients that had a home environmental assessment recommended by a pediatric allergist as part of a comprehensive case management program. Subjects were chosen from pediatric patients who received home assessment after referral for case management by pediatric allergy specialists in a hospital-based clinic as indicated by high emergency room (ER) and hospital utilization. Case management included education, clinic visits, environmental assessment, and a single person responsible for following the subject's care. Home assessment included airborne spore collections, surface collections, and dust collection for evaluation of antigens. There were 25 subjects. Seventy-two percent were asthmatic and 12% were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. In the year before entering the study these subjects experienced 47 ER visits, 22 hospitalizations, and 279 clinic visits. In the subsequent year they underwent 18 ER visits, 3 hospitalizations, and 172 clinic visits. Penicillium/Aspergillus levels were above 100 spores/m(3) of air in 94% of homes and above 1000 spores/m(3) in 74% of homes. Thirty-six percent of homes had Stachybotrys above 100 spores/m(3). Home environmental assessment and case management may reduce medical care utilization for children suffering from allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID:20819322

  10. Characterization of microbially Fe(III)-reduced nontronite: Environmental cell-transmission electron microscopy study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, J.-W.; Furukawa, Y.; Daulton, T.L.; Lavoie, D.; Newell, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    Microstructural changes induced by the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in nontronite by Shewanella oneidensis were studied using environmental cell (EC)-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conventional TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Direct observations of clays by EC-TEM in their hydrated state allowed for the first time an accurate and unambiguous TEM measurement of basal layer spacings and the contraction of layer spacing caused by microbial effects, most likely those of Fe(III) reduction. Non-reduced and Fe(III)-reduced nontronite, observed by EC-TEM, exhibited fringes with mean d001 spacings of 1.50 nm (standard deviation, ?? = 0.08 nm) and 1.26 nm (?? = 0.10 nm), respectively. In comparison, the same samples embedded with Nanoplast resin, sectioned by microtome, and observed using conventional TEM, displayed layer spacings of 1.0-1.1 nm (non-reduced) and 1.0 nm (reduced). The results from Nanoplast-embedded samples are typical of conventional TEM studies, which have measured nearly identical layer spacings regardless of Fe oxidation state. Following Fe(III) reduction, both EC- and conventional TEM showed an increase in the order of nontronite selected area electron diffraction patterns while the images exhibited fewer wavy fringes and fewer layer terminations. An increase in stacking order in reduced nontronite was also suggested by XRD measurements. In particular, the ratio of the valley to peak intensity (v/p) of the 1.7 nm basal 001 peak of ethylene glycolated nontronite was measured at 0.65 (non-reduced) and 0.85 (microbially reduced).

  11. Effects of environmental air pollution on endogenous oxidative DNA damage in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajinder Singh; Balvinder Kaur; Ivan Kalina; Todor A. Popov; Tzveta Georgieva; Seymour Garte; Blanka Binkova; Radim J. Sram; Emanuela Taioli; Peter B. Farmer

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies conducted in metropolitan areas have demonstrated that exposure to environmental air pollution is associated with increases in mortality. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) are the major source of genotoxic activities of organic mixtures associated with respirable particulate matter, which is a constituent of environmental air pollution. In this study,we wanted to evaluate the relationship between exposure to these

  12. Environmental management: integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-08-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

  13. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

  14. Solar ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in aquatic organisms: potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Häder, Donat-P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2005-04-01

    Continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increases in deleterious ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth's surface have fueled the interest in its ecological consequences for aquatic ecosystems. The DNA is certainly one of the key targets for UV-induced damage in a variety of aquatic organisms. UV radiation induces two of the most abundant mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs) and their Dewar valence isomers. However, aquatic organisms have developed a number of repair and tolerance mechanisms to counteract the damaging effects of UV on DNA. Photoreactivation with the help of the enzyme photolyase is one of the most important and frequently occurring repair mechanisms in a variety of organisms. Excision repair, which can be distinguished into base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER), also play an important role in DNA repair in several organisms with the help of a number of glycosylases and polymerases, respectively. In addition, mechanisms such as mutagenic repair or dimer bypass, recombinational repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and certain alternative repair pathways are also operative in various organisms. This review deals with the UV-induced DNA damage and repair in a number of aquatic organisms as well as methods of detecting DNA damage. PMID:15748649

  15. Advanced Glycation End-Products Reduce Collagen Molecular Sliding to Affect Collagen Fibril Damage Mechanisms but Not Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Fessel, Gion; Li, Yufei; Diederich, Vincent; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Schneider, Philipp; Sell, David R.; Monnier, Vincent M.; Snedeker, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) contribute to age-related connective tissue damage and functional deficit. The documented association between AGE formation on collagens and the correlated progressive stiffening of tissues has widely been presumed causative, despite the lack of mechanistic understanding. The present study investigates precisely how AGEs affect mechanical function of the collagen fibril – the supramolecular functional load-bearing unit within most tissues. We employed synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and carefully controlled mechanical testing after introducing AGEs in explants of rat-tail tendon using the metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO). Mass spectrometry and collagen fluorescence verified substantial formation of AGEs by the treatment. Associated mechanical changes of the tissue (increased stiffness and failure strength, decreased stress relaxation) were consistent with reports from the literature. SAXS analysis revealed clear changes in molecular deformation within MGO treated fibrils. Underlying the associated increase in tissue strength, we infer from the data that MGO modified collagen fibrils supported higher loads to failure by maintaining an intact quarter-staggered conformation to nearly twice the level of fibril strain in controls. This apparent increase in fibril failure resistance was characterized by reduced side-by-side sliding of collagen molecules within fibrils, reflecting lateral molecular interconnectivity by AGEs. Surprisingly, no change in maximum fibril modulus (2.5 GPa) accompanied the changes in fibril failure behavior, strongly contradicting the widespread assumption that tissue stiffening in ageing and diabetes is directly related to AGE increased fibril stiffness. We conclude that AGEs can alter physiologically relevant failure behavior of collagen fibrils, but that tissue level changes in stiffness likely occur at higher levels of tissue architecture. PMID:25364829

  16. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: a review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Baoluo

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8-150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. PMID:25644838

  17. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  18. Reduced carbon intensity in highly developed countries: environmental kuznets curves for carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornhuber, Kai; Rybski, Diego; Costa, Luis; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) postulates that pollution increases with the income per capita up to a maximum, above which it decreases with the further increase in income per capita, i.e. following an inverse U-shape in the pollution vs. income per capita. It is commonly believed that EKC occurs for "local" pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, but does not hold for CO2 emissions. This is attributed to the fact that while "local" pollutants cause a visible environmental damage on the local/regional scale (which authorities/governments seek to avoid), the consequences of CO2 emission have no immediate attributable local/regional consequences. We review EKC for CO2 exploring its relation between CO2 per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI) between 1990 and 2010 obtained from the World Bank database. We find evidence for a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita in highly developed countries. We propose a model according to which the emissions per capita of a country are composed of a component related to the actual state of development and a component related to the change of development. The model leads to four distinct cases of which two have EKC shape and two imply saturation. This outcome is in line with previously suggested qualitative relations. Our analysis indicates that the EKC shaped cases better describes the empirical values. We explore the less extreme version corresponding to the so-called conventional EKC and study the maximum of the fitted curve, providing a threshold-value for the HDI and a typical maximum value for the emissions per capita. We find that approx. 5 countries have crossed the CO2-HDI maximum, corresponding to approx. 1.5% of the world population.

  19. Synergistic DNA damage by oxidative stress (induced by H2O2) and nongenotoxic environmental chemicals in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lueken, A; Juhl-Strauss, U; Krieger, G; Witte, I

    2004-02-28

    Genotoxic combination effects of oxidative stress (induced by H2O2) and eight nongenotoxic environmental chemicals (4-chloroaniline, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, lindane, 2,4-dichloroacetic acid (2,4-D), m-xylene, glyphosate, nitrilotriacetic acid and n-hexanol) were determined in human fibroblasts. Genotoxicity was measured quantitatively by the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. The nongenotoxic chemicals were used in non cytotoxic concentrations. H2O2 was used in concentrations producing low (50 microM) and no cytotoxicity (40 microM). All environmental chemicals acted in a synergistic way with H2O2 except DMSO which effectively inhibited H2O(2)-induced DNA damage. The most effective enhancers were 4-chloroaniline, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, m-xylene, and n-hexanol. Synergistic effects of hexanol/H2O2 were still evident at a concentration of 0.09 noec (no observed effect concentration). In contrast to synergistic DNA damage in the cell antagonism was found measuring DNA breakage in isolated PM2 DNA. From the results we concluded that synergisms between H2O2 and nongenotoxic chemicals may be a general phenomenon which is not observed on the level of isolated DNA. PMID:14700526

  20. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingchun Yuan

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable

  1. Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ?28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ?35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  2. N-acetyl cysteine reduces chromosomal DNA damage in circulating lymphocytes during cardiac catheterization procedures: A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Grazia Andreassi; Angelo Cioppa; Samantha Manfredi; Maria Giovanna Neri; Ilenia Foffa; Eugenio Picano

    BackgroundN-acetylcysteine (NAC) is considered a promising radio-protector for its antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We examined the ability of NAC to confer protection against radiation-induced chromosomal DNA damage during cardiac catheterization procedures.

  3. Low-damage low-k etching with an environmentally friendly CFI plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Soda; Seiichi Kondo; Shuichi Saito; Yoshinari Ichihashi; Aiko Sato; Hiroto Ohtake; Seiji Samukawa

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of etching Cu\\/low-k interconnects by using a low global warming potential CFI plasma was studied. Low-damage etching was done and porous SiOC (p-SiOC, k<2.6) film with low roughness was produced. Exposing p-SiOC film to CFI plasma was found to suppress the decrease in the CH group and the increase in the k value compared to those of conventional

  4. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides reduce methotrexate-induced small intestinal damage in mice via induction of epithelial cell proliferation and migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-hua Chen; Zhi-bin Lin; Wei-dong Li

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To study the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced small intestinal damage in mice and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:BALB\\/c mice were used for in vivo study. The mice were administered with Gl-PS (50, 100, or 200 mg\\/kg, ig) for 10 d, and injected with MTX (50 mg\\/kg, ip) on d 7 and 8 to induce intestinal damage, and

  5. Evaluation of Flight Control™ and Mesurol ® as repellents to reduce horned lark ( Eremophila alpestris) damage to lettuce seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darryl L York; John L Cummings; Richard M. Engeman; James E Davis

    2000-01-01

    We conducted enclosure trials near Huron, CA in the San Joaquin Valley from 12 to 23 January 1999 to determine the efficacy of Flight Control™ (50% anthraquinone) and Mesurol® (75% methiocarb) in preventing horned lark damage to lettuce seedlings. Flight Control™ (FC) and Mesurol® were evaluated as foliar sprays at application rates of 2.79 and 2.27kgha?1, respectively. Horned lark damage

  6. Assessment of the economic magnitude of environmental damage from acid precipitation in the Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    Menz, F.C.; Mullen, J.K.

    1983-05-01

    This research represents one of a few initial attempts to quantify economic damages resulting from increased acidification of lakes and ponds ostensibly due to acidic deposition. The focus of this research is the loss in economic welfare resulting from diminished recreational angling opportunities within the Adirondack fishery. An amended travel-cost model was applied to a survey of licensed anglers in New York State to determine the economic value of the fishery prior to the general acknowledgement of widespread acidification damages. Data pertaining to those water bodies that have become acidified were used together with the parameters of the empirical model to generate the change in visitation and economic value resulting from increased acidification. Annual losses in economic value due to the acidification-related reduction in recreational angling opportunities were estimated to be in the range of $1.6 to 3.2 million. These estimates should be interpreted as a lower bound of the actual social losses incurred annually from acidification damages to this freshwater ecosystem. 6 references.

  7. Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.

  8. Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.?DATA SOURCES—Literature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.?STUDY SELECTION—Review and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a synthesis of these studies as contrasted with a quantitative meta-analysis.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions designed for residential/child ETS exposure control have included policy/legal regulations, minimal clinical services, and counselling services. Divorce court and adoption services have limited custody to protect children from ETS exposure. Controlled trials of clinicians' one time counselling services have shown null results. One controlled trial found that repeated physician ETS counselling increased parent cessation. Three trials found that repeated counselling/shaping procedures reduced quantitative estimates of ETS exposure in asthmatic children.?CONCLUSIONS—Insufficient controlled studies of repeated session counselling procedures have been completed to determine efficacy for ETS exposure reduction, but evidence is promising. One time minimal interventions appear ineffective, but large scale studies may be warranted. No studies have been conducted to assess court or adoption agency regulations; no community ordinances for regulating residential ETS exposure have been invoked. Ethical and enforcement issues are discussed.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; passive smoking; interventions; counselling PMID:10841590

  9. Environmental Justice Implications of Reduced Reporting Requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H.; Edwards, Sharon E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1 km, 3 km, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales. PMID:18754453

  10. Structural Evolution of Environmentally Responsive Cationic Liposome–DNA Complexes with a Reducible Lipid Linker

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Rahau S.; Ewert, Kai K.; Silva, Bruno F. B.; Leal, Cecilia; Li, Youli; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally responsive materials, i.e., materials that respond to changes in their environment with a change in their properties or structure, are attracting an increasing amount of interest. We recently designed and synthesized a series of cleavable multivalent lipids (CMVLn, with n = 2 to 5 the number of positive headgroup charges at full protonation) with a disulfide bond in the linker between cationic headgroup and hydrophobic tails. The self-assembled complexes of the CMVLs and DNA are a prototypical environmentally responsive material, undergoing extensive structural rearrangement when exposed to reducing agents. We investigated the structural evolution of CMVL–DNA complexes at varied complex composition, temperature and incubation time using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). A related lipid with a stable linker, TMVL4, was used as a control. In a nonreducing environment CMVL–DNA complexes form the lamellar (L?C) phase, with DNA rods sandwiched between lipid bilayers. However, new self-assembled phases form when the disulfide linker is cleaved by dithiothreitol or the biologically relevant reducing agent glutathione. The released DNA and cleaved CMVL headgroups form a “loosely organized” phase, giving rise to a characteristic broad SAXS correlation profile. CMVLs of high headgroup charge also form condensed DNA bundles. Intriguingly, the cleaved hydrophobic tails of the CMVLs reassemble into tilted chain-ordered L?? phases upon incubation at physiological temperature (37 °C), as indicated by characteristic WAXS peaks. X-ray scattering further reveals that two of the three phases (L?F, L?L, and L?I) comprised by the L?? phase coexist in these samples. The described system may have applications in lipid-based nanotechnologies. PMID:22616637

  11. Molecular and genetic damage in humans from environmental pollution in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederica P. Perera; Kari Hemminki; Ewa Gryzbowska; Grazyna Motykiewicz; Jadwiga Michalska; Regina M. Santella; Tie-Lan Young; Christopher Dickey; Paul Brandt-Rauf; Immaculata Devivo; William Blaner; Wei-Yann Tsai; Mieczyslaw Chorazy

    1992-01-01

    EXTREME environmental pollution such as that found in the highly industrialized Silesian region of Poland has been associated with increased risk of cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes1,2. Among the most prevalent carcinogenic and mutagenic air pollutants in Silesia are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which are largely produced by industrial and residential combustion of coal1. Molecular epidemiology aims to prevent

  12. Environmentally Induced Damage to Children: A Call for Broadening the Critical Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue

    The incidence of environmentally related illnesses, such as tuberculosis, asthma, allergies, respiratory disease, depression, and violent anger is increasing, particularly in the inner cities. The effects of these illnesses is often overlooked in discussions of educational and social inequity. This article discusses the significance of this…

  13. Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions

    E-print Network

    Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological ...

  14. RESULTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT (EM) CORPORATE PROJECT TEAM DISPOSING WASTE & REDUCING RISK

    SciTech Connect

    SHRADER, T.A.; KNERR, R.

    2005-01-31

    In 2002, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) released the Top-To-Bottom Review of cognizant clean-up activities around the DOE Complex. The review contained a number of recommendations for changing the way EM operates in order to reduce environmental risk by significantly accelerating clean-up at the DOE-EM sites. In order to develop and implement these recommendations, a number of corporate project teams were formed to identify, evaluate, and initiate implementation of alternatives for the different aspects of clean-up. In August 2002, a corporate team was formed to review all aspects of the management, treatment, and disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW), transuranic waste (TRU), and hazardous waste (HW). Over the next 21 months, the Corporate Project Team: Disposing Waste, Reducing Risk, developed a number of alternatives for implementing the recommendations of the Top-To-Bottom Review based on information developed during numerous site visits and interviews with complex and industry personnel. With input from over a dozen EM sites at various stages of clean-up, the team identified the barriers to the treatment and disposal of low level waste, mixed low level waste, and transuranic waste. Once identified, preliminary design alternatives were developed and presented to the Acquisition Authority (for this project, the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management) for review and approval. Once the preliminary design was approved, the team down selected to seven key alternatives which were subsequently fully developed in the Project Execution Plan. The seven most viable alternatives were: (1) creation of an Executive Waste Disposal Board; (2) projectizing the disposal of low level waste and mixed low level waste; (3) creation of a National Consolidation and Acceleration Facility for waste; (4) improvements to the Broad Spectrum contract; (5) improvements to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator contract and operations; (6) development of a policy for load management of waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (7) development of a complex-wide fee incentive for transuranic waste disposal. The alternatives were further refined and a plan developed for institutionalizing the alternatives in various site contracts. In order to focus the team's efforts, all team activities were conducted per the principles of DOE Order 413.3, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Although the Order was developed for construction projects, the principles were adapted for use on this ''soft'' project in which the deliverables were alternatives for the way work was performed. The results of the team's investigation and the steps taken during the project are presented along with lessons learned.

  15. Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, C. T.; Matthews, D. H.; Ashe, M.; Jaramillo, P.; McMichael, F. C.

    2010-01-01

    With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology can reduce material and manufacturing burdens by considering the ease of disassembly, potential for remanufacturing, and recovery of parts and materials for reuse and recycling. We use teardowns of three commercial solid-state lighting products designed to fit in conventional Edison light bulb sockets to analyze potential end-of-life reuse strategies for solid-state lighting and recommend strategies for the industry. Current lamp designs would benefit from standardization of part connections to facilitate disassembly and remanufacturing of components, and fewer material types in structural pieces to maximize homogeneous materials recovery. The lighting industry should also start now to develop an effective product take-back system for collecting future end-of-life products.

  16. Coulometric determination of total sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur fractions in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, Richard T; Bischoff, Kelly J

    2006-11-15

    Evaluation of the solid-phase partitioning of sulfur is frequently an important analytical component of risk assessments at hazardous waste sites because minerals containing reduced-sulfur can significantly affect the transport and fate of organic and inorganic contaminants in natural environments. We applied selected methods for the determination of total sulfur, acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS), and extractable-sulfate in standard reference materials and sediment samples from a contaminated site. A coulometric titration method is presented and evaluated for total sulfur, AVS, and CRS. This method is especially advantageous for AVS and CRS determinations because hydrogen sulfide gas evolved during chemical extraction is detected and quantitated in-line; consequently, measurement endpoints can be precisely determined without need for setting arbitrary time limits. The coulometric method allows for improved data quality and increased laboratory throughput of samples. Data on sulfur partitioning are presented for four standard reference materials (NIST 1646a, NIST 2780, CCRMP LKSD-1, CCRMP RTS-3) for the purpose of supporting quality control in environmental studies involving the geochemical and biochemical cycling of sulfur. PMID:18970838

  17. Measuring preferences on environmental damages in LCIA. Part 2: choice and allocation questions in panel methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Mettier; Roland W. Scholz

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  Within life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), ‘panel methods’ has become a common term to denominate methods that elicit and\\u000a measure stakeholders’ stated preferences on environmental impact categories. Such panel procedures use different question\\u000a formats to elicit information on weighting across impact categories from the stakeholders. The two most frequently used question\\u000a formats are score allocation and choice

  18. Neural stem cell grafts reduce the extent of neuronal damage in a mouse model of global ischaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Wong; Helen Hodges; Karen Horsburgh

    2005-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of neural stem cell transplantation has been well demonstrated in many models of focal brain damage. However, few studies have sought to determine whether neural stem cells are therapeutic in models of diffuse brain injury, such as observed in Alzheimer's disease and global ischaemia. The present study investigated the effects of transplanted MHP36 neural stem cells on

  19. Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves reduced

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23 Lung cancers (LCs) are among the most common human malignancies worldwide.1 Despite the use

  20. Inefficient replication reduces RecA-mediated repair of UV-damaged plasmids introduced into competent Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Courcelle, Justin

    into competent Escherichia coli H.A. Jeiranian , C.T. Courcelle, J. Courcelle Department of Biology, Portland Keywords: Transformation Escherichia coli Nucleotide excision repair recA recF recBC a b s t r a c t Transformation of Escherichia coli with purified plasmids containing DNA damage is fre- quently used as a tool

  1. Phosphorus utilization and environmental and economic implications of reducing phosphorus pollution from Ontario dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; Odongo, N E; McBride, B W; Hanigan, M D; France, J

    2008-01-01

    A major source of environmental pollution has been overfeeding P to dairy cows, caused by the "safety margins" added to diets in order not to compromise the health and production of animals. An extant whole-animal model was evaluated using an experiment conducted in Ontario to assess its applicability for predicting P excretion. The objective of the study was to use the model to estimate P excretion levels and the economic and environmental implications of implementing mitigating options by following recommendations from studies that have reported sufficient levels of P inclusion in the diet. Mean square prediction error and concordance coefficient analysis showed that the overall predictions were close to the mean and that there was only a slight underprediction of fecal P output by the model. The majority of the error was random, with only 8.9% coming from error caused by deviation from the regression line, and the model did not show a systematic trend of over- or underprediction. The model was then used to predict P excretion in Ontario by using diets commonly fed to dairy cows on Ontario farms. It is estimated that Ontario dairy farms produce 7 kt of P annually at current levels of P inclusion in the diet. Reducing P levels from the current 0.41% P of dry matter to 0.35% is estimated to save producers CAN $20/cow per year and the environment 1.3 kt/yr without impairing cow health or productivity. Additionally, the reductions might be from inorganic P sources added to the feed, which are more polluting than organic sources because of their water-soluble nature and liability to leaching and runoff. PMID:18096946

  2. Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Xiao-Tang; Xing, Guang-Xi; Chen, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xue-Jun; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Yin, Bin; Christie, Peter; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2009-01-01

    Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30–60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550–600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service. PMID:19223587

  3. Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-? oligomers in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-? (A?) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble A? oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain A? oligomers and increased synthesis of the A?-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

  4. Long-Term Effects of Chromatin Remodeling and DNA Damage in Stem Cells Induced by Environmental and Dietary Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bariar, Bhawana; Vestal, C. Greer; Richardson, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The presence of histones acts as a barrier to protein access; thus chromatin remodeling must occur for essential processes such as transcription and replication. In conjunction with histone modifications, DNA methylation plays critical roles in gene silencing through chromatin remodeling. Chromatin remodeling is also interconnected with the DNA damage response, maintenance of stem cell properties, and cell differentiation programs. Chromatin modifications have increasingly been shown to produce long-lasting alterations in chromatin structure and transcription. Recent studies have shown environmental exposures in utero have the potential to alter normal developmental signaling networks, physiologic responses, and disease susceptibility later in life during a process known as developmental reprogramming. In this review we discuss the long-term impact of exposure to environmental compounds, the chromatin modifications that they induce, and the differentiation and developmental programs of multiple stem and progenitor cell types altered by exposure. The main focus is to highlight agents present in the human lifestyle that have the potential to promote epigenetic changes that impact developmental programs of specific cell types, may promote tumorigenesis through altering epigenetic marks, and may be transgenerational, for example, those able to be transmitted through multiple cell divisions. PMID:24579784

  5. The administration of food supplemented with cocoa powder during nutritional recovery reduces damage caused by oxidative stress in rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Barragán Mejía; David Calderón Guzmán; Hugo Juárez Olguín; Nancy Hernández Martínez; Edna García Cruz; Aline Morales Ramírez; Norma Labra Ruiz; Gabriela Esquivel Jiménez; Norma Osnaya Brizuela; Raquel García Álvarez; Esperanza Ontiveros Mendoza

    Malnutrition contributes to the development of oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The selective administration\\u000a of nutrients tends to show positive results in individuals who have suffered from malnutrition. To determine the effect of\\u000a the administration of cocoa powder on the peroxidation of lipids and glutathione level during the nutritional recovery in\\u000a brain, rats of 21 days old were subjected

  6. Resistance to Bleomycin in Cancer Cell Lines Is Characterized by Prolonged Doubling Time, Reduced DNA Damage and Evasion of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Cheng, Dangxiao; Qiu, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhuo; Moore, Malcolm; Bristow, Robert G.; Xu, Wei; Der, Sandy; Liu, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Background To establish, characterize and elucidate potential mechanisms of acquired bleomycin (BLM) resistance using human cancer cell lines. Seven BLM-resistant cell lines were established by exposure to escalating BLM concentrations over a period of 16-24 months. IC50 values and cell doubling times were quantified using a real time cytotoxicity assay. COMET and ?-H2AX assays, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assessment further investigated the mechanisms of BLM resistance in these cell lines. Results Compared with parental cell lines, real time cytotoxicity assays revealed 7 to 49 fold increases in IC50 and a mean doubling time increase of 147 % (range 64 %-352%) in BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05 for both). Higher maintenance BLM concentrations were associated with higher IC50 and increased doubling times (p<0.05). Significantly reduced DNA damage (COMET and ?-H2AX assays), G2/M arrest, and apoptosis (p<0.05 for each set of comparison) following high-dose acute BLM exposure was observed in resistant sub-clones, compared with their BLM-sensitive parental counterparts. Three weeks of BLM-free culturing resulted in a partial return to BLM sensitivity in 3/7 BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05). Conclusion Bleomycin resistance may be associated with reduced DNA damage after bleomycin exposure, resulting in reduced G2/M arrest, and reduced apoptosis. PMID:24349265

  7. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP. PMID:25354525

  8. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  9. Laser Solutions for Reducing the Environmental Risks Associated with Orbital Debris and Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Increasing activity in space is gradually increasing the amount of orbital debris in low earth orbit. As the debris increases, the environmental risk (hypervelocity collisions) associated with spaceflight also increases. Debris larger than 10 cm can typically be detected and tracked sufficiently to allow risk avoidance to be achieved by maneuvering to safe distances. Risk reduction for objects smaller than I cm may be accomplished through shielding. However, intermediate sized debris remains a problem. A convenient risk reduction solution has been identified using modem laser technology. In this approach, a relatively low energy laser facility operating near e equator may significantly reduce the amount of intermediate sized debris (1 - 10 cm) in a few years of operation. A sufficiently intense laser pulse arriving at a debris objects surface will ablate a micro-thin layer of material. As this hot gas rapidly expands away from the object, a small change in momentum is imparted. The momentum change for one pulse is insignificant. However, since the laser can provide 10-1000 pulses per second over several minutes, the cumulative effect is substantive. The object's perigee may be lowered in this manner into atmosphere where it will be vaporized. This same technique may be employed on a larger scale for risk reduction in asteroids, meteoroids, and comets colliding with the Earth at hypervelocities.

  10. Isoflavone supplementation reduces DNA oxidative damage and increases O-?-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activity in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Erba, Daniela; Casiraghi, M Cristina; Martinez-Conesa, Cristina; Goi, Giancarlo; Massaccesi, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to boost the human antioxidant defense system and health; therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that soy isoflavones (IFs) provide antioxidant protection in healthy women by evaluating DNA resistance to oxidative damage and O-?-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (OGA) activity. An IF supplement (80 mg/d) was given to 9 postmenopausal women and 13 young women for 6 months and then stopped up to the 14th month. The women were allowed to consume their normal diet. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study after 2, 4, and 6 months and then at the 8th and 14th months. Plasma concentrations of genistein and daidzein, total antioxidant capacity, plasma vitamin status, markers of oxidative stress (red blood cell membrane fluidity, activity of the red blood cell cytosolic enzyme OGA and lymphocyte DNA susceptibility to oxidative stress), and serum lipid profile were analyzed. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. Plasma concentrations of IFs rose significantly during the supplementation period, and plasma total antioxidant capacity increased in young women; membrane fluidity and OGA activity increased, and DNA oxidative damage decreased (P < .05) at 4 months, then returned to the basal level. There was a significant inverse correlation between DNA damage and plasma IF concentrations (P < .01). The results indicated a positive effect of IF supplementation on oxidative stress in women, thus suggesting that the healthful action ascribed to soy consumption may be partially related to the antioxidant potential of IFs. PMID:22575035

  11. Do carbon-based defences reduce foliar damage? Habitat-related effects on tree seedling performance in a temperate rainforest of Chiloé Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Paulina; Armesto, Juan J

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs), such as phenols or tannins, have been considered as one of the most important and general chemical barriers of woody plants against a diverse array of herbivores. Herbivory has been described as a critical factor affecting the growth and survival of newly established tree seedlings or juveniles then, the presence of secondary metabolites as defences against herbivores should be a primary strategy to reduce foliar damage. We examined whether light-induced changes in leaf phenolic chemistry affected insect herbivory on seedlings of two rainforest tree species, Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) and Gevuina avellana (Proteaceae). Seedlings of both species were planted under closed canopy and in a canopy gap within a large remnant forest patch. Half of the seedlings in each habitat were disinfected with a wide-spectrum systemic insecticide and the other half were used as controls. Seedling growth, survival, and foliar damage (estimated by an herbivory index) due to insect herbivores were monitored over a period of 16 months (December 2001-April 2003). The total leaf content of phenols and condensed tannins were assessed in seedlings from both habitats. As expected, access to light induced a greater production of CBSCs in seedlings of both tree species, but these compounds did not seem to play a significant defensive role, as seedlings grown in gaps suffered greater leaf damage than those planted in forest interior. In addition, in both habitats, seedlings without insecticide treatment suffered a greater foliar damage than those with insecticide, especially 16 months after the beginning of the experiment. Canopy openness and herbivory had positive and negative effects, respectively, on seedling growth and survival in both tree species. In conclusion, despite the higher levels of defence in tree-fall gap, the higher densities of herbivore override this and lead to higher damage levels. PMID:16170562

  12. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for effective measures can be taken to prevent clinical nephropathies.

  13. The interplay of DNA polymerase ? in diverse DNA damage repair pathways in higher plant genome in response to environmental and genotoxic stress factors.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sujit; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Das, Kalipada

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are essential for the maintenance of genomic stability, proper cellular function and survival for all organisms. Plants, with their intrinsic immobility, are vastly exposed to a wide range of environmental agents and also endogenous processes which frequently cause damage to DNA and impose genotoxic stress. Therefore, in order to survive under frequent and extreme environmental stress conditions, plants have developed a vast array of efficient and powerful DNA damage repair mechanisms to ensure rapid and precise repair of genetic material for maintaining genome stability and faithful transfer of genetic information over generations. (1) Recently, we have defined the role of DNA polymerase ? in repair of UV-B-induced photoproducts in Arabidopsis thaliana via nucleotide excision repair pathway. (2) Here, we have further discussed potential function of DNA polymerase ? in various DNA repair pathways in higher plant genome in response to environmental and genotoxic stress factors. PMID:23221752

  14. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

  15. Vegetative environmental buffers and exhaust fan deflectors for reducing downwind odor and VOCs from tunnel-ventilated swine barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have investigated methods for reducing odor emissions from livestock buildings for decades, yet few technologies have proven effective. Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEB), which are specially designed combinations of trees, shrubs and grasses, have shown promise in recent years for r...

  16. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

  17. GENUS- AND GROUP-SPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION PROBES FOR DETERMINATIVE AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of six oligonucleotides, complementary to conserved tracts of 16S rRNA from phylogenetically-defined groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was characterized for use as hybridization probes in determinative and environmental microbiology. our probes were genus specific and id...

  18. Enalapril and moexipril protect from free radical-induced neuronal damage in vitro and reduce ischemic brain injury in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Ravati, A; Junker, V; Kouklei, M; Ahlemeyer, B; Culmsee, C; Krieglstein, J

    1999-05-28

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been demonstrated to protect spontaneously hypertensive rats from cerebral ischemia. The present study investigated the protective effect of enalapril and moexipril in models of permanent focal cerebral ischemia in normotensive mice and rats. To elucidate the mechanism of neuroprotection the influence of these angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on glutamate-, staurosporine- or Fe2+/3+-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and neuronal cell death in primary cultures from chick embryo telencephalons was studied. Treatment with moexipril or enalapril dose-dependently reduced the percentage of damaged neurons, as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation induced by glutamate, staurosporine or Fe2+/3+. Furthermore, moexipril and enalapril attenuated staurosporine-induced neuronal apoptosis as determined by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258. In mice, 1 h pretreatment with enalapril (0.03 mg/kg) or moexipril (0.3 mg/kg) significantly reduced brain damage after focal ischemia as compared to control animals. Additionally, moexipril (0.01 mg/kg) was able to reduce the infarct volume in the rat model after focal cerebral ischemia. The results of the present study indicate that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors enalapril and moexipril promote neuronal survival due to radical scavenging properties. PMID:10408248

  19. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave, risk of mortality was higher in the black community, and in those living in certain types of low-income and multi-tenant housing. Interventions in the built environment to promote urban heat island mitigation can reduce ambient temperatures, potentially reducing heat-related mortality rates in vulnerable populations, electricity consumption and air pollutant emissions, and slow ozone formation, an important health stressor. These mitigation measures may also serve as adaptive responses for a range of potential future climate conditions. Here we review current research that assesses the health, air quality, and energy conservation benefits in cities from these interventions in the built environment, and discuss the techniques and research objectives of a new pilot community-based project to mitigate the heat island effect in the South Bronx, New York City through implementation of vegetated and high albedo roofing on residential and institutional buildings. Recent studies use mesoscale climate models and a variety of land-use and land-cover scenarios to project the effects of increasing vegetative fraction and albedo within metropolitan regions and to evaluate the impacts of measures that may serve both as adaptive responses to current conditions and mitigation for future climate variability. Through this perspective, we address the questions: What urban design approaches make for resilient cities in a changing environment? What costs and benefits may be expected by the adoption of heat island mitigation techniques within the New York metropolitan region?

  20. Tetracycline-dependent regulation of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase in transgenic mice conditionally reduces oxidative DNA damage in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca R. Laposa; Jeffrey T. Henderson; Peter G. Wells

    2003-01-01

    Oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is a pervasive oxidative DNA lesion formed by endogenous oxidative stress and enhanced by drugs and environmental chemicals. This lesion results in transcriptional errors and mutations and is linked to neurodegeneration, teratogenesis, cancer, and other pathologies. We demonstrate that the neonatal central nervous system of transgenic mice carrying the tetracycline-regulable DNA repair gene formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (fpg) has

  1. Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : III. Montane and meadow voles (Microtus montanus andMicrotus pennsylvanicus).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T P; Crump, D R; Sullivan, D S

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the major anal-gland compounds from the stoat (Mustela erminea) and fecal and urine compounds from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in generating an avoidance response by montane voles (Microtus montanus), as well as suppressing feeding by montane and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) voles on apple trees in orchards. In trap bioassays, a 1?1 mixture of 2-propylthietane and 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane significantly reduced vole captures. Other mixtures of stoat compounds reduced the number of new voles captured but not total individuals. 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a component of fox feces, significantly reduced vole captures in one of two bioassays. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) did not show a negative response to any predator odor. In overwinter field bioassays, mixtures of 2-propylthietane and 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane clearly reduced vole feeding on apple trees in four test blocks. 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline and a synthetic fox urine mixture also significantly reduced vole attack in respective orchard blocks. Similarly, the intensity of vole feeding, in terms of amount of bark and vascular tissues removed from trees, was reduced by 60% to 97% in predator odor treatments compared with the control. Our study reports the first long-term (four to five months) use of synthetic semiochemicals as area repellents for crop protection from vole feeding damage. PMID:24277015

  2. Can environmental purchasing reduce mercury in U.S. health care?

    PubMed Central

    Eagan, Patrick D; Kaiser, Barb

    2002-01-01

    Environmental purchasing represents an innovative approach to mercury control for the health care sector in the United States. The U.S. health care sector creates significant environmental impacts, including the release of toxic substances such as mercury. Our goal in this study was to provide the health care industry with a method of identifying the environmental impacts associated with the products they use. The Health Care Environmental Purchasing Tool (HCEPT) was developed and tested at nine health care facilities in the Great Lakes region of the United States. As a result, more than 1 kg of mercury was removed from four facilities. The complexity of the supply chain inhibits a direct environmental information exchange between health-care decision makers and suppliers. However, a dialogue is starting within the health care supply chain to address environmental issues. The HCEPT has been shown to assist health care facilities with that dialogue by identifying products that have environmental consequences. This promising tool is now available for further experimentation and modification, to facilitate overall environmental improvement, and to provide a systematic method for environmental assessment of health care products. PMID:12204816

  3. Unilateral nephrectomy 24 hours after bilateral kidney irradiation reduces damage to the function and structure of the remaining kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Z.X.; Travis, E.L. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The effect of unilateral nephrectomy 24 h after irradiation on renal function and death with renal insufficiency as well as histopathological changes in the kidney was assessed. Single doses totaling 8-18 Gy were given bilaterally to unanesthetized female and male C3Hf/Kam mice. Renal function damage was assayed by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and hematocrit (Hct). Histological damage was quantified by two parameters: kidney area and number of surviving tubule cells along the renal capsule. The number of glomeruli was scored as an indication of the number of nephrons. Changes in the two functional parameters did not appear sooner after irradiation in the nephrectomized mice than in the non-nephrectomized mice. Rather, less impairment of function was measured by both parameters in the nephrectomized mice but only after radiation doses greater than 12 Gy. The LD{sub 50} at 424 days after irradiation was also higher in the nephrectomized mice than in the mice receiving only irradiation, 13.98 Gy (95% confidence limits = 12.03, 15.93) and 11.71 Gy (95% confidence limits = 10.4, 13.1), respectively, in agreement with the data on function. Unilateral nephrectomy alone induced a 10% increase in size of the contralateral kidney. The dose-response curve for the kidney area from nephrectomized mice was parallel to and displaced above that for non-nephrectomized mice, indicating that the increase in renal mass occurred independent of and was not compromised by radiation. Unilateral nephrectomy alone induced no increase in the number of proximal tubules in the contralateral kidney. 30 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Accelerated Repair and Reduced Mutagenicity of DNA Damage Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Human Bronchial Cells Transfected with E.coli Formamidopyrimidine DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Foresta, Mara; Izzotti, Alberto; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Poggi, Alessandro; Vecchio, Donatella; Frosina, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP). Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na+K+-ATPase locus (ouar) were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells’ capacity to repair damaged DNA. PMID:24498234

  5. Using the DNA alkaline unwinding assay to detect DNA damage in laboratory and environmentally exposed cells and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Nacci, D.; Jackim, E.

    1990-01-01

    The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. In preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. Cultured mammalian fibroblasts and sperm from marine fish and invertebrates (Pseudopleuronectes, Arbacia and Mytilus) showed concentration-dependent increases in DNA strand breaks after brief exposures to alkylating agents. DNA unwinding methods were also used on DNA extracted from marine animals injected with genotoxicants and from animals exposed in situ at an estuarine site. Gills from blue mussels caged at the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site (MA, USA) highly contaminated with many organic (e.g. PCBs) and inorganic contaminants, were also examined. A significant increase in DNA strand breaks was seen in gill tissues of animals held in the contaminated site for as little as 3 days. Although not as severe, an increase in strand breaks was also seen in animals held at the control site for 28 days.

  6. Reducing the influence of environmental main-effects on pattern analysis of plant breeding environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. Fox; A. A. Rosielle

    1982-01-01

    In plant breeding yield trials the environmental range often exceeds the genotypic range. In such instances environmental main-effects (mean yields) may confound characterization of selection environments, as the general productivity of an environment may be unrelated to tendencies in the relative performance (ranking) of genetic material grown in that environment.

  7. Rye-corn silage double-cropping reduces corn yield but improves environmental impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent proliferation of large dairies has prompted concern regarding the environmental impacts of associated corn silage production and high rate manure application. Our objectives were to compare forage production and environmental impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) silage and rye (Secale cereal L.)-cor...

  8. May cause environmental damage the diversion of the Danube in the Szigetköz area, Hungary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Brigitta

    2009-04-01

    Summary The floodplain area between the main channel of Danube and its branch river Mosoni-Duna is called the Szigetköz. This wetland area has special flora and fauna, and it is a natural protection area. Underneath of the Szigetköz, there are a thick (several hundreds meters) sedimentary sequence, the so called Kisalföld Quaternary Aquifer. This aquifer system is fed by the surface river system of Danube and supplies excellent quality drinking water for several hundred thousands of people in Hungary and Slovakia. The Szigetköz Monitoring Network was established in 1991 to describe the environmental effects of the B?s-Nagymaros Dam System, which was partly built in 1992 on the Slovakian part of the Danube. The dam diverts three-quarter of the Danube runoff to a 40 km long artificial concrete channel north of the original river bed. The effect of this diversion is spectacular on the wetland area. Water level in the meandering channels have decreased significantly, part of the wetland area frequently becomes dry. The natural flow pattern has disappeared. As a consequence, the channel characteristics of the river network, therefore the flow pattern, the quantity and quality of surface and subsurface water on the upper region of the Danube have significantly changed. The aim of our research is to describe the relationship between surface water and groundwater and considering the variable geology of the area, to describe trends in chemistry and to find the possible reasons for extreme values. Also to detect possible connection between the extreme values and the changes in flow pattern caused by the human intervention. Water sample pairs from surface water and shallow and deeper ground water were taken in every season at 18 locations. To sample shallow ground-water 1,5 m long, screened metal probes were derived into the sediment at the possible nearest point to the surface water. On the field pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, and in the wells redox potential were measured. Samples were taken for further laboratory analyses (major and trace components, nitrate. The chemical parameters of surface and subsurface water show seasonal changes, due to the changes of temperature, of precipitation, of biological and microbiological activity. At the monitoring points along the main channel the surface and subsurface water is closely related, and the velocity of groundwater can be calculated by the seasonal periodical dislocation. At the monitoring points on the north-western part of the study area (point 1), subsurface water replenished by the rivers, and water level in the probes follow the surface water level changes with short shift. Practically water quality is the same in the probe as in the surface. It is the same on the south-eastern part of the study area, where the diverted channel rejoins to the original river channel (point 10). The middle section (at points 4 and 5) of the study area, water level in the probes is higher than surface water level. Also concentrations of some chemical components are higher in the subsurface water here. These components are typically the results of water - sediment interaction. Based on these observations, the study area can be differentiated by the hydrochemical composition for losing and gaining sections. At the monitoring points along the meandering sub-branch system, water in the probes is reductive, the connection between surface and subsurface water is week, furthermore at some point is non-existent. At some points surface water has slow flow, or it is even stagnant. This means reductive environments, and high concentrations of some components, especially at the monitoring points of 31 and 41. For example, concentrations of ammonium, sulphate, phosphate, magnesium, iron, manganese are extremely high in the shallow groundwater. Originally the Danube supplied fresh, oxygen-rich water to the area, while nowadays at these locations surface water and subsurface water almost has no connection, and these sections of river bed already turned muddy, and organic material

  9. 'Four Seasons' in an animal rescue centre; classical music reduces environmental stress in kennelled dogs.

    PubMed

    Bowman, A; Scottish Spca; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2015-05-01

    On admission to rescue and rehoming centres dogs are faced with a variety of short- and long-term stressors including novelty, spatial/social restriction and increased noise levels. Animate and inanimate environmental enrichment techniques have been employed within the kennel environment in an attempt to minimise stress experienced by dogs. Previous studies have shown the potential physiological and psychological benefits of auditory stimulation, particularly classical music, within the kennel environment. This study determined the physiological/psychological changes that occur when kennelled dogs are exposed to long-term (7days) auditory stimulation in the form of classical music through assessment of effects on heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol and behaviour. The study utilised a cross over design in which two groups were exposed to two consecutive 7day treatments; silence (control) and classical music (test). Group A was studied under silent conditions followed by 7days of test conditions during which a fixed classical music playlist was played from 10:00-16:30h. Group B received treatment in the reverse order. Results showed that auditory stimulation induced changes in HRV and behavioural data indicative of reduced stress levels in dogs in both groups (salivary cortisol data did not show any consistent patterns of change throughout the study). Specifically, there was a significant increase in HRV parameters such as ?RR, STDRR, RMSSD, pNN50, RRTI, SD1 and SD2 and a significant decrease in ?HR and LF/HF from the first day of silence (S1) to the first day of music (M1). Similarly, examination of behavioural data showed that dogs in both groups spent significantly more time sitting/lying and silent and less time standing and barking during auditory stimulation. General Regression Analysis (GRA) of the change in HRV parameters from S1 to M1 revealed that male dogs responded better to auditory stimulation relative to female. Interestingly, HRV and behavioural data collected on the seventh day of music (M2) was similar to that collected on S1 suggesting that the calming effects of music are lost within the 7days of exposure. A small '9-Day' study was conducted in attempt to determine the time-scale in which dogs become habituated to classical music and examination of the results suggests that this occurs within as soon as the second day of exposure. The results of this study show the potential of auditory stimulation as a highly effective environmental enrichment technique for kennelled dogs. However, the results also indicate the requirement for further investigations into the way in which auditory stimulation should be incorporated within the daily kennel management regime in order to harness the full physiological and psychological benefits of music. PMID:25708275

  10. Sulforaphane inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced pericyte damage by reducing expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Sayaka; Matsui, Takanori; Ojima, Ayako; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) not only inhibit DNA synthesis but also play a role in diabetic retinopathy by evoking apoptosis and inflammation in retinal pericytes via interaction with a receptor for AGE (RAGE). Similarly, sulforaphane, which is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate that is found in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, protects against oxidative stress-induced tissue damage. Therefore, we hypothesized that sulforaphane could inhibit AGE-induced pericytes injury through its antioxidative properties. Advanced glycation end product stimulated superoxide generation as well as RAGE gene and protein expression in bovine-cultured retinal pericytes, and these effects were prevented by the treatment with sulforaphane. Antibodies directed against RAGE also blocked AGE-evoked reactive oxygen species generation in pericytes. Sulforaphane and antibodies directed against RAGE significantly inhibited the AGE-induced decrease in DNA synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 messenger RNA levels in pericytes. For the first time, the present study demonstrates that sulforaphane could inhibit DNA synthesis, apoptotic cell death, and inflammatory reactions in AGE-exposed pericytes, partly by suppressing RAGE expression via its antioxidative properties. Blockade of the AGE-RAGE axis in pericytes by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25241332

  11. A single dose of PPAR? agonist pioglitazone reduces cortical oxidative damage and microglial reaction following lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Pilipovi?, Kristina; Župan, Željko; Dolenec, Petra; Mrši?-Pel?i?, Jasenka; Župan, Gordana

    2015-06-01

    Neuroprotective actions of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists have been observed in various animal models of the brain injuries. In this study we examined the effects of a single dose of pioglitazone on oxidative and inflammatory parameters as well as on neurodegeneration and the edema formation in the rat parietal cortex following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by the lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) method. Pioglitazone was administered in a dose of 1mg/kg at 10min after the brain trauma. The animals of the control group were sham-operated and injected by vehicle. The rats were decapitated 24h after LFPI and their parietal cortices were analyzed by biochemical and histological methods. Cortical edema was evaluated in rats sacrificed 48h following TBI. Brain trauma caused statistically significant oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression, reactive astrocytosis, the microglia activation, neurodegeneration, and edema, but it did not influence the superoxide dismutase activity and the expressions of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the rat parietal cortex. Pioglitazone significantly decreased the cortical lipid and protein oxidative damage, increased the GSH-Px activity and reduced microglial reaction. Although a certain degree of the TBI-induced COX-2 overexpression, neurodegeneration and edema decrease was detected in pioglitazone treated rats, it was not significant. In the injured animals, cortical reactive astrocytosis was unchanged by the tested PPAR? agonist. These findings demonstrate that pioglitazone, administered only in a single dose, early following LFPI, reduced cortical oxidative damage, increased antioxidant defense and had limited anti-inflammatory effect, suggesting the need for further studies of this drug in the treatment of TBI. PMID:25579788

  12. Reduced early hypoxic/ischemic brain damage is associated with increased GLT-1 levels in mice expressing mutant (P301L) human tau

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guanghong; Zhou, Miou; Cheung, Simon; Galeano, James; Nguyen, Nam; Baudry, Michel; Bi, Xiaoning

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in tau proteins are associated with a group of neurodegenerative diseases, termed tauopathies. To investigate whether over-expressing human tau with P301L mutation also affects stroke-induced brain damage, we performed hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) in young adult P301L tau transgenic mice. Surprisingly, brain infarct volume was significantly smaller in transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice 24 h after H/I induction. TUNEL staining also revealed less brain apoptosis in transgenic mice following H/I. H/I resulted in a significant increase in tau fragments generated by caspase activation and a marked decrease in tau phosphorylation at residue T231 in cortex of wild-type but not transgenic mice. Activation of calpain and caspase-3 following H/I was also reduced in transgenic compared to wild-type mice, as reflected by lower levels of the specific spectrin breakdown products generated by calpain or caspase-3. Finally, basal levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLT-1, were higher in brains of transgenic as compared to wild-type mice. These results support the idea that enhanced levels of GLT-1 in transgenic mice are responsible for reducing H/I-induced brain damage by decreasing extracellular glutamate accumulation and subsequent calpain and caspase activation. PMID:18992725

  13. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  14. Strengthening Community Capacity to Participate in Making Decisions to Reduce Disproportionate Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

  15. The Role of PharmEcovigilance in Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The pharmaceutical and healthcare industries have an environmental footprint because the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the environment as contaminants ...

  16. Pratensein ameliorates ?-amyloid-induced cognitive impairment in rats via reducing oxidative damage and restoring synapse and BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chunhong; Tan, Shimei; Huang, Quanfang; Lin, Jun; Lu, Zhongpeng; Lin, Xing

    2015-04-10

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of pratensein against cognitive impairment induced by amyloid beta (1-42) (A?1-42) in rats. A?1-42 peptide was injected bilaterally in the hippocampus of rat. Next, pratensein was administered orally for 3 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that treatment with pratensein ameliorated learning and memory deficits in A?1-42 rat model of AD. Pratensein treatment significantly attenuated neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in hippocampus. Moreover, the over-expression in IL-1? and TNF-? as well as the extensive astrogliosis and microgliosis in hippocampus induced by A?1-42 were significantly reduced following administration of pratensein. Concomitantly, pratensein treatment significantly suppressed the activation of NF-?B in hippocampus. In addition, pratensein was able to increase the levels of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These results indicate that pratensein could significantly ameliorate A?1-42-induced spatial learning and memory impairment through reducing neuroinflammation via inhibition of glial activation and NF-?B activation, and restoring synapse and BDNF levels, suggesting that administration of pratensein could likely provide a therapeutic approach for AD. PMID:25748315

  17. Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasagna, Roberta; Montefalcone, Monica; Albertelli, Giancarlo; Corradi, Nicola; Ferrari, Marco; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2011-09-01

    While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the hydrodynamic conditions and on the meadow of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica of an embayed cove in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). There, P. oceanica used to develop on a high (>1.5 m) matte (a lignified terrace causing seafloor elevation) in which the leaves reach the surface and form a compact natural barrier to waves in front of the beach. Such a so-called 'fringing reef' of P. oceanica is today recognized of high ecological value and specific conservation efforts are required. The construction of the jetty implied the cutting of the matte, which directly destroyed part of the fringing reef. In addition, meadow mapping and sedimentological analyses coupled with morphodynamic modelling showed that the ecosystem of the whole cove had been greatly altered by the jetty. We used the geometric planform approach, a proper tool in the study of headland-controlled embayment, both to characterise the present situation of Prelo cove and to simulate the original one, before the jetty was built. In the long term, such a small jetty completely altered the configuration and the hydrodynamic conditions of the whole cove, splitting the original pocket beach into two smaller ones and creating strong rip-currents flowing seaward along the jetty. These rip-currents enhanced erosion of residual shallow portions of the meadow and further modified the sedimentary fluxes in shallow waters. A century after the construction of the jetty, an irreversible environmental damage has occurred, as the slow growing rate of P. oceanica implies that the high matte terrace and the fringing reef will hardly form again, even after the removal of the jetty. The lesson learnt from this study is that even such small, and therefore reputed intrinsically 'innocent', interventions on the coastal zone require accurate planning based on interdisciplinary studies to understand and respect the delicate interplay among morphological, hydrodynamic and ecological components.

  18. False recall is reduced by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex: implications for understanding the neural correlates of schematic memory.

    PubMed

    Warren, David E; Jones, Samuel H; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-05-28

    Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the "false memory effect" of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

  19. A Selective Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitor Reduces Leukocyte Infiltration, Oxidative Processes, and Tissue Damage after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Jennifer C.; Golshani, Roozbeh; Pearse, Damien D.; Kasabov, Levent; Brown, Arthur; Weaver, Lynne C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We tested the hypothesis that a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4-I; IC486051) would attenuate early inflammatory and oxidative processes following spinal cord injury (SCI) when delivered during the first 3 days after injury. Rats receiving a moderately severe thoracic-clip-compression SCI were treated with the PDE4-I (0.5, 1.0, and 3.0?mg/kg IV) in bolus doses from 2–60?h post-injury. Doses at 0.5?mg/kg and 1.0?mg/kg significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzymatic activity (neutrophils), expression of a neutrophil-associated protein and of ED-1 (macrophages), and estimates of lipid peroxidation in cord lesion homogenates at 24?h and 72?h post-injury by 25–40%. The 3.0?mg/kg dose had small or no effects on these measures. The PDE4-I treatment (0.5 or 1.0?mg/kg) reduced expression of the oxidative enzymes gp91phox, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and diminished free radical generation by up to 40%. Treatment with 0.5?mg/kg PDE4-I improved motor function (as assessed by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale) significantly from 4–8 weeks after SCI (average difference 1.3 points). Mechanical allodynia elicited from the hindpaw decreased by up to 25%. The PDE4-I treatment also increased white matter volume near the lesion at 8 weeks after SCI. In conclusion, the PDE4-I reduced key markers of oxidative stress and leukocyte infiltration, producing cellular protection, locomotor improvements, and a reduction in neuropathic pain. Early inhibition of PDE4 is neuroprotective after SCI when given acutely and briefly at sufficient doses. PMID:21355819

  20. Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sitzlar, M.A.; Mora, M.A.; Fleming, J.G.W.; Bazer, F.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

  2. FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

  3. Economic and environmental evaluation of alternative pollution-reducing nitrogen management practices in central Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roderick M. Rejesus; Robert H. Hornbaker

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer application from production agriculture is likely the largest contributor to non-point source nitrate pollution in the United States. This type of pollution from the agricultural sector is an important policy issue because it may cause serious environmental and health risks to society. There have been studies that examined the different effects of nitrogen timing and rate practices, but

  4. Session 9 - The Community environmental monitoring program: Reducing public perception of risk through stakeholder involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S.

  5. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Hartwell

    2007-01-01

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S.

  6. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham D. Fairhurst; Matthew D. Frey; James F. Reichert; Izabela Szelest; Debbie M. Kelly; Gary R. Bortolotti; Peter Csermely

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: REDUCING WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COST IN THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents the economics of wastewater reduction and materials recovery technologies in the electroplating industry. t serves as a companion publication to the Environmental Regulations and Technology document covering the same industry (625/10-85/001a). apital and op...

  8. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER LIMITED AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant available water. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water use efficiency result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to crop p...

  9. Food transport refrigeration - Approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Tassou; G. De-Lille; Y. T. Ge

    2008-01-01

    Food transport refrigeration is a critical link in the food chain not only in terms of maintaining the tem- perature integrity of the transported products but also its impact on energy consumption and CO2 emis- sions. This paper provides a review of (a) current approaches in road food transport refrigeration, (b) estimates of their environmental impacts, and (c) research on

  10. Reducing children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in homes: issues and strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jane Ashley; Roberta Ferrence

    1998-01-01

    It is now well established that children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) results in substantial public health and economic impacts. Children are more likely than adults to suffer health effects from ETS exposure, and the home is the most important site of such exposure. Although the responsibility and authority of the community and health professionals to protect children from

  11. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

  12. REDUCED CRUDE PROTEIN RATIONS FOR HIGH PRODUCING COWS: PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more N in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rumen is the mo...

  13. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400?mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx? were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400?mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx? induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100?mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400?mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  14. Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : IV. Northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T P; Crump, D R; Sullivan, D S

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the major anal-gland compounds from the stoat (Mustela erminea) and ferret (M. putorius) in generating an avoidance response by northern pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) in tree fruit orchards in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, Canada. A secondary objective assessed the impact of additional predator odors on gopher avoidance behavior in laboratory bioassays. In field bioassays, a 1: 1 mixture of 2-propylthietane and 3-propyl-1,2-dithiolane, as well as 3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dithiolane, placed in gopher burrows did not reduce the number of gophers colonizing treatment versus control grids in orchard blocks. However, these predator gophers did dramatically alter the distribution of gophers. Significantly more gophers were captured at perimeter than nonperimeter trap stations on treatment versus control grids in two of three orchards. In all orchards, significantly more gophers were captured at perimeter stations after the predator odors had been placed in burrows than prior to the start of the experiment. Gophers clearly avoided 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a component of fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces, but did not avoid 2,2-dimethylthietane from the mink (M. vison) or 3-methyl-3-butenyl methyl sulfide from fox urine in laboratory bioassays. Poor avoidance was also recorded for 3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dithiolane, although this may be due to the state of polymerization of this compound. An improved formulation is required to dispense these semiochemicals in controlled-release devices within orchards and other forest-agricultural areas. PMID:24277016

  15. Seed pre-treatment in rice reduces damage, enhances carbohydrate mobilization and improves emergence and seedling establishment under flooded conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ella, Evangelina S.; Dionisio-Sese, Maribel L.; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Early flooding helps control weeds but reduces seedling establishment in direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa). When combined with appropriate management practices, the use of genotypes that better tolerate flooding during emergence can enhance crop establishment in flood-prone areas. Management options include seed pre-treatment and we tested the influence of pre-soaking for 24 h prior to sowing or of priming (soaking for 24 or 48 h followed by drying). Methodology The effects on seedling establishment after 21-day flooding of pre-soaking seeds for 24 h before sowing and/or of priming seeds were examined together with physiological responses connected with reactive oxygen scavenging. Seeds of four lines with contrasting abilities to tolerate flooding at the germination stage were compared. Seeds were primed using KCl solutions (48 h) or water (24 h) and pre-soaked using water. Lipid peroxidation and activities of reactive oxygen-scavenging enzymes were measured in seeds before sowing. Carbohydrate mobilization in germinating seeds and seedling growth were also monitored at intervals. Principal results Seed pre-treatment by pre-soaking or by priming increased survival of flooding and accelerated and improved seedling establishment, especially in tolerant genotypes. Primed seeds had less lipid peroxidation and higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities than non-primed seeds. Amylase activities and starch breakdown were also hastened in primed seeds. Survival after flooding was positively correlated with amylase activity but negatively correlated with the extent of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions Pre-soaking and priming improved seedling establishment in flooded soil, enhanced the capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species in seeds by increasing SOD and CAT activities, and hastened carbohydrate mobilization. Tolerant genotypes responded better to these treatments, emphasizing the effectiveness of combining genetic tolerance with appropriate seed pre-treatment to improve seedling establishment of rice sown in flooded soils. PMID:22476478

  16. Evaluation of distributed environmental control systems for improving IAQ and reducing energy consumption in office buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dustin W. Demetriou; H. Ezzat Khalifa

    2009-01-01

    Conventional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are incapable of providing control over individual\\u000a environments or adjusting fresh air supply based on the dynamic occupancy of individual rooms in an office building. This\\u000a paper introduces the concept of distributed environmental control systems (DECS) and shows that improvement in indoor air\\u000a quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency can be achieved by

  17. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink{sup R} technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO{sup TM} automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

  18. Biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Amazon region - the situation of contemporary period and strategies for reduce these environmental changes

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Aquino, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.

    1997-12-31

    The forest removal is a major contributor to local, regional and global environmental changes. Many of the tropical`s species are gravely threatened Numerous studies suggest that from 1970 to 1990 between 5 and 20 percent of the tropical`s species were committed to extinction. In 1995, the deforested lands in Brazilian Amazon account an amount Superior to 470,000 Km{sup 2}, old deforestation included, for a total surface of tropical`s rain forest of 3.4 and 3.8 million square kilometres. In 1990`s, the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere (as CO{sub 2}) from Brazilian Amazon deforestation was 3.5 % to 4.9 % and 250 % to 360 % of the World and Brazilian annual emission from fossil fuels, respectively. On the other hand, if deforestation is stopped and replaced with a rational forest management, a reuse of degraded lands for agro-forestry and biomass production for energy and industrial purposes, we can reduce the pressure on forests lands and the net carbon flux will be reversed. In this paper, we discuss the relations with biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region in the last thirty years and find suggest the principal`s strategies to reduce this environmental`s destruction.

  19. Surf City and North Topsail Beach North Carolina, Coastal Storm Damage Reduction; Integrated Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement FINAL USACE Response to Independent External Peer Review Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement. The Final Report from IEPR was issued 16 April 2010

  20. The Master of Science in Environmental Architecture—An Appropriate Response to Reducing Greenhouse Gasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baverstock, Garry; Parker, Ian

    2007-10-01

    For the past decade, politicians have applied different shades of "green-wash" to global environmental issues in order to help juggle their positions in the political spectrum. This has created the illusion that effective measures are being pursued in the public interest for both this and future generation(s). The reality is, however, that nearly of all these initiatives are "input focused" and the various States of the Environment reports confirm that, despite decades of endeavour and large financial investment, there is little return on investment and that the rate of environmental degradation, particularly of the global atmosphere, continues to increase. Despite fierce posturing from the global warming sceptics, it seems that finally, the long-term data indices of global warming are being accepted seriously and politicians around the world are responding by investing public funds in the quest for options. This paper contends that with global warming the major trends will be inexorable but the manifestations complex so humans will need to embrace uncertainty and manage change. Innovation and cooperation across all disciplines and the cooperation of the entire political and social spectrum will be required to solve the ecological disasters that have already begun to unfold and accelerate in frequency. It looks from a strategic viewpoint at how specialist education can catalyse change and play an important role in managing the change. The case study used in this analysis is the RISE Master of Science Course in Environmental Architecture. It explores the implications of linking to converging interests from other emerging course streams for Engineering and other Built Environment disciplines such as Planning, Project Management and Interior design as well as socio-economic disciplines and the integrative discipline of Systems Dynamics.

  1. Blocking of bradykinin receptor B1 protects from focal closed head injury in mice by reducing axonal damage and astroglia activation

    PubMed Central

    Albert-Weissenberger, Christiane; Stetter, Christian; Meuth, Sven G; Göbel, Kerstin; Bader, Michael; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The two bradykinin receptors B1R and B2R are central components of the kallikrein–kinin system with different expression kinetics and binding characteristics. Activation of these receptors by kinins triggers inflammatory responses in the target organ and in most situations enhances tissue damage. We could recently show that blocking of B1R, but not B2R, protects from cortical cryolesion by reducing inflammation and edema formation. In the present study, we investigated the role of B1R and B2R in a closed head model of focal traumatic brain injury (TBI; weight drop). Increased expression of B1R in the injured hemispheres of wild-type mice was restricted to the later stages after brain trauma, i.e. day 7 (P<0.05), whereas no significant induction could be observed for the B2R (P>0.05). Mice lacking the B1R, but not the B2R, showed less functional deficits on day 3 (P<0.001) and day 7 (P<0.001) compared with controls. Pharmacological blocking of B1R in wild-type mice had similar effects. Reduced axonal injury and astroglia activation could be identified as underlying mechanisms, while inhibition of B1R had only little influence on the local inflammatory response in this model. Inhibition of B1R may become a novel strategy to counteract trauma-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:22569191

  2. Xanthohumol, a main prenylated chalcone from hops, reduces liver damage and modulates oxidative reaction and apoptosis in hepatitis C virus infected Tupaia belangeri.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingbo; Li, Na; Li, Fang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Xi; Han, Qunying; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Cuiling; Liu, Zhengwen

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tupaia belangeri (Tupaia) represents an important model of HCV infection. Xanthohumol (XN), a major prenylated chalcone from hops, has various biological activities including hepatopreventive and anti-viral activities. In this study, Tupaias infected with HCV RNA positive serum were used to evaluate the effects of XN on liver damage, oxidative reaction, apoptosis and viral protein expression in liver tissues. The Tupaias inoculated with HCV positive serum had elevated serum aminotransferase levels and inflammation, especially hepatic steatosis, and HCV core protein expression in liver tissue. In the animals inoculated with HCV positive serum, XN significantly decreased aminotransferase levels, histological activity index, hepatic steatosis score and transforming growth factor ?1 expression in liver tissue compared with the animals without XN intervention. XN reduced HCV core protein expression in liver tissue compared with those without XN intervention but the difference was not significant. XN significantly decreased malondialdehyde, potentiated superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced Bax expression, promoted Bcl-xL and inhibited caspase 3 activity in liver tissues compared with the animals without XN intervention. These results indicate that XN may effectively improve hepatic inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis induced by HCV in Tupaias primarily through inhibition of oxidative reaction and regulation of apoptosis and possible suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation. The anti-HCV potential of XN needs further investigation. PMID:23669332

  3. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yingchun

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of the schematic method is validated by comparing its benchmark results on 104 chemicals with that from the conventional Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. This dissertation concludes with discussions on environmental impact assessment of nanotechnologies and sustainability management of nano-particles. As nano-manufacturing is emerging for wide industrial applications, improvement and expansion of the system approach would be valuable for use in the environmental management of nano-manufacturing and in the risk control of nano-particles in the interests of public health and the environment.

  4. IRRISTAT IRRIGATION SYSTEM AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT TOOL TO REDUCE NITROGEN RUNOFF AND LEACHING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is a very important aspect of plant production since nitrate runoff and leaching are related to irrigation practices and methods. The goal of this research is to evaluate the impact of the Irristat irrigation system in potentially reducing nitrate losses from container nursery plants int...

  5. Crystal Structure of Venus, a Yellow Fluorescent Protein with Improved Maturation and Reduced Environmental Sensitivity*

    E-print Network

    Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    Crystal Structure of Venus, a Yellow Fluorescent Protein with Improved Maturation and Reduced necessitated further mutagenesis studies of these proteins. Venus, a new variant with improved maturation the crystal structure of Venus at 2.2 Å resolution, which enabled us to correlate its novel features

  6. Phenotypic Diversity and Altered Environmental Plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana with Reduced Hsp90

    E-print Network

    Queitsch, Christine

    . However, the substrates and pathways dependent on HSP90 in plants are poorly understood. Progress has been with constitutively reduced HSP90 levels achieved by RNAi targeting. HSP90 reduction affects a variety of quantitative Trichoplusia ni. HSP90 reduction potentiates a more robust herbivore defense response. In sum, we propose

  7. Particle film mechanisms of action that reduce environmental stress in 'Empire' apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress is a limiting factor of plant productivity throughout the world, and kaolin-based particle films (PF) have demonstrated that the reflective nature of the resulting plant surface can increase plant productivity primarily by reducing temperature in fruit, leaf, and canopy. The purpose of ...

  8. Reducing the Environmental Risk of Pesticides: Implications of Management Practices in Agricultural Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common management practice for the production of fresh-market vegetables uses polyethylene (plastic) mulch to increase soil temperature, maintain soil moisture and reduce weed pressure. However, multiple applications of fungicides and insecticides are required, and rain events afford more runoff ...

  9. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insecticide levels and application costs supplied by 31 entomological experts, plus estimates of the other costs involved with various insect control strategies, indicate that many insect control strategies that may significantly reduce insecticide use on cotton and corn may be m...

  10. Environmental enrichment reduces methamphetamine cue-induced reinstatement but does not alter methamphetamine reward or VMAT2 function.

    PubMed

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Darna, Mahesh; Wilmouth, Carrie E; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2014-08-15

    Environmental factors influence a variety of health-related outcomes. In general, being raised in an environment possessing social, sensory, and motor enrichment reduces the rewarding effects of various drugs, thus protecting against abuse vulnerability. However, in the case of methamphetamine (METH), which acts at the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) to enhance dopamine release from the cytosol, previous evidence suggests that METH reward may not be altered by environmental enrichment. This study examined the influence of an enriched environment on measures of METH reward, METH seeking, and VMAT2 function. Rats were raised from weaning to adulthood in either an enriched environment (presence of social cohorts and novel objects) or an isolated environment (no cohorts or novel objects). Rats in these two conditions were subsequently tested for their acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP), METH self-administration, maintenance of self-administration at various unit doses of METH (0.001-0.5mg/kg/infusion), and cue-induced reinstatement. VMAT2 function in striatum from these two groups also was assessed. No significant environment effects were found in CPP or METH self-administration, which paralleled a lack of effect in VMAT2 function between groups. However, cue-induced reinstatement was reduced by environmental enrichment. Together, these results suggest that environmental enrichment does not alter VMAT2 function involved in METH reward. However, the enrichment-induced decrease in cue-induced reinstatement indicates that enrichment may have a beneficial effect against relapse following a period of extinction via a neural mechanism other than striatal VMAT2 function. PMID:24821405

  11. Does environmental enrichment reduce stress? An integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers provides a novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Frey, Matthew D; Reichert, James F; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M; Bortolotti, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  12. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  13. Species Diversity Improves the Efficiency of Mercury-Reducing Biofilms under Changing Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    von Canstein, Harald; Kelly, Sven; Li, Ying; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Six mercury-resistant environmental proteobacterial isolates and one genetically modified mercury-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain were analyzed for physiological traits of adaptive relevance in an environment of packed-bed bioreactors designed for the decontamination of mercury-polluted chlor-alkali wastewater. The strains displayed characteristic differences in each trait (i.e., biofilm formation capability, growth rate in mercury contaminated wastewaters, and mercury reduction efficiency). Subsequently, they were immobilized either as a monoculture or as a mixed culture on porous carrier material in packed-bed bioreactors through which different batches of filter-sterilized industrial chlor-alkali wastewater were pumped. In monospecies bioreactors, the mercury retention efficiency was sensitive to rapidly increasing mercury concentrations in the wastewater. Mixed culture biofilms displayed a high mercury retention efficiency that was not affected by rapid increases in mercury or continuously high mercury concentrations. The dynamic in the community composition of the mixed culture bioreactors was determined by ribosomal intergenic spacer polymorphism analysis. Mercury-mediated selective pressure decreased the number of prevalent strains. Microbial diversity was completely restored after easing of the selective pressure. Microbial diversity provides a reservoir of strains with complementary ecological niches that results in a superior bioreactor performance under changing environmental conditions. PMID:12039739

  14. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  15. ABSTRACT: The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hartwell

    2007-02-28

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies. Finally, the CEMP provides training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs, which help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  16. Phototoxicity and Environmental Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)—Light-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation, and DNA Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter P. Fu; Qingsu Xia; Xin Sun; Hongtao Yu

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of mutagenic and tumorigenic environmental contaminants. Although the mechanisms by which PAHs induce cancer in experimental animals have been extensively studied and the metabolic activation pathways have been determined, the environmental fate of PAHs and the phototoxicity exerted by PAHs, as well as their photoreaction products formed in the environment, have received much

  17. Multi-scale path planning for reduced environmental impact of aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Scot Edward

    A future air traffic management system capable of rerouting aircraft trajectories in real-time in response to transient and evolving events would result in increased aircraft efficiency, better utilization of the airspace, and decreased environmental impact. Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is used within a receding horizon framework to form aircraft trajectories which mitigate persistent contrail formation, avoid areas of convective weather, and seek a minimum fuel solution. Areas conducive to persistent contrail formation and areas of convective weather occur at disparate temporal and spatial scales, and thereby require the receding horizon controller to be adaptable to multi-scale events. In response, a novel adaptable receding horizon controller was developed to account for multi-scale disturbances, as well as generate trajectories using both a penalty function approach for obstacle penetration and hard obstacle avoidance constraints. A realistic aircraft fuel burn model based on aircraft data and engine performance simulations is used to form the cost function in the MILP optimization. The performance of the receding horizon algorithm is tested through simulation. A scalability analysis of the algorithm is conducted to ensure the tractability of the path planner. The adaptable receding horizon algorithm is shown to successfully negotiate multi-scale environments with performance exceeding static receding horizon solutions. The path planner is applied to realistic scenarios involving real atmospheric data. A single flight example for persistent contrail mitigation shows that fuel burn increases 1.48% when approximately 50% of persistent contrails are avoided, but 6.19% when 100% of persistent contrails are avoided. Persistent contrail mitigating trajectories are generated for multiple days of data, and the research shows that 58% of persistent contrails are avoided with a 0.48% increase in fuel consumption when averaged over a year.

  18. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Rida; Yrjälä, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 ?gmL?1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology. PMID:25242944

  19. Reducing Virus Associated Crop Loss Through Resistance to Insect Vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha A. Mutschler; William M. Wintermantel

    The development of sustainable, environmentally-benign methods of crop protection is an important priority in agricultural\\u000a research. A variety of insects attack crops, causing damage and reducing yields and crop quality. Insects cause crop loss\\u000a directly through feeding on leaves, flowers, fruit or seed. A subset of insects damages crops indirectly, through transmission\\u000a of plant viruses, resulting in reduced yield and

  20. Damage from dissection is associated with reduced neuro-musclar transmission and gap junction coupling between circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum, in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Simona E.; Wattchow, David A.; Spencer, Nick J.; Hibberd, Timothy J.; Brookes, Simon J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials of circular smooth muscle cells in guinea pig ileum and colon are suppressed 30–90 min after setting up in vitro preparations. We have previously shown this “unresponsive” period is associated with a transient loss of dye coupling between smooth muscle cells, which subsequently recovers over the ensuing 30–90 min; junction potentials recover in parallel with dye coupling (Carbone et al., 2012). Here, we investigated which components of dissection trigger the initial loss of coupling. Intracellular recordings were made from circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum with micropipettes containing 5% carboxyfluorescein. After allowing 90–120 min for junction potentials to reach full amplitude, we re-cut all 4 edges of the preparation more than 1 mm from the recording sites. This caused a reduction in the amplitude of IJPs from 17.2 ± 0.7 mV to 9.5 ± 1.5 mV (P < 0.001, n = 12) and a significant reduction in dye coupling. Both recovered within 60 min. We repeated this experiment (n = 4), recording both 1 and 4 mm from the cut edge: both sites were equally affected by re-cutting the sides of the preparation. Equilibrated preparations were stretched to 150% of their original length, this had no significant effect on junction potentials or dye coupling. Setting up preparations in low calcium solution did not prevent the initial suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. Application of 3 ?M indomethacin (n = 3), 10 ?M ketotifen (n = 4) or 10 ?M forskolin during dissection did not prevent the suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. If dissection damage was reduced, by leaving the mucosa and submucosa attached to the circular muscle, IJPs showed less initial suppression than in preparations where the layers were dissected off. We conclude that physical damage to the gut wall triggers loss of gap junction coupling and neuromuscular transmission, this is not due to stretch, influx of calcium ions, release of prostaglandins or mast cell degranulation. The mechanisms underlying this potent effect remain to be determined. PMID:25202280

  1. Environmental Education in Small Business: The Owner-Manager's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, environmental education has been aimed at the community or in primary schools and governmental pressure to reduce environmental damage has focussed on large businesses. More recently, the role and importance of small business and how to engage them in the environmental debate has come under scrutiny. Researchers have identified…

  2. Environmentally relevant concentrations of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) induced oxidative and genetic damage in Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Traversi, Irene; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-03-21

    Synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) are extensively used as fragrances in several personal care products and have been recognized as emerging aquatic pollutants. Among SMCs, galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) are extensively used and have been measured in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. However, their potential risk to organisms remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 21-day exposures to HHCB and AHTN concentrations frequently measured in aquatic ecosystems can induce oxidative and genetic damage in Dreissena polymorpha. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were measured as oxidative stress indexes, while the DNA precipitation assay and the micronucleus test (MN test) were applied to investigate genetic injuries. HHCB induced significant increases in LPO and PCC levels, while AHTN enhanced only protein carbonylation. Moreover, significant increases in DNA strand breaks were caused by exposure to the highest concentrations of HHCB and AHTN tested in the present study, but no fixed genetic damage was observed. PMID:25462865

  3. Using Community Advisory Boards to Reduce Environmental Barriers to Health in American Indian Communities, Wisconsin, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jamie R.; Prince, Ron; Williamson, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Background American Indian communities have a high prevalence of chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Innovative community-based approaches are needed to identify, prioritize, and create sustainable interventions to reduce environmental barriers to healthy lifestyles and ultimately improve health. Community Context Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based and community-based intervention to increase healthy lifestyles on Wisconsin American Indian reservations. This intervention arose from a long-standing partnership between University of Wisconsin researchers and 3 of these American Indian communities. Methods In each community, community advisory boards (CABs) were established by the residents and university partners. CAB meetings were open and held at various times and locations to increase member participation. CABs featured continual, snowball recruitment; internal and external expert consultation; and coordination with standing tribal committees. Meetings initially focused on understanding community supports for and barriers to healthy lifestyles but quickly turned toward community action for change. Outcome CAB interventions decreased environmental barriers to health at each site and improved options for healthy lifestyle choices. Over 5 years, 71 CAB meetings occurred with a total of 1,070 participants. Successful CAB interventions included planting community gardens and an apple orchard, conducting gardening and canning workshops, instituting food-related policies and dog control regulations, building an environmentally friendly playground, and providing access to recreational facilities. The CABs are now self-sustaining. Interpretation CABs can be highly effective action teams capable of improving community environments. Our experience shows that academic researchers can partner with community residents to generate programs and policies that will expand access to local food, increase people’s choices for engaging in physical activity, and encourage local policy changes that improve overall community health. PMID:25232747

  4. Controlling Skunk Damage

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    This publication discusses rabies, a diseases that skunks can transmit, and the damage that skunks can cause. Suggestions for environmental and mechanical control are given, as well as instructions on how to neutralize skunk odor....

  5. Reduced mitochondrial ROS, enhanced antioxidant defense, and distinct age-related changes in oxidative damage in muscles of long-lived Peromyscus leucopus

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Pulliam, Daniel A.; Liu, Yuhong; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Jernigan, Amanda L.; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sloane, Lauren B.; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Ungvari, Zoltan; Austad, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Comparing biological processes in closely related species with divergent life spans is a powerful approach to study mechanisms of aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that longer-lived species would have lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and/or an increased antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced oxidative damage with age than in shorter-lived species. In this study, we measured ROS generation in the young adult animals of the long-lived white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (maximal life span potential, MLSP = 8 yr) and the common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus (C57BL/6J strain; MLSP = 3.5 yr). Consistent with the hypothesis, our results show that skeletal muscle mitochondria from adult P. leucopus produce less ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) compared with M. musculus. Additionally, P. leucopus has an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 1 at young age. P. leucopus compared with M. musculus display low levels of lipid peroxidation (isoprostanes) throughout life; however, P. leucopus although having elevated protein carbonyls at a young age, the accrual of protein oxidation with age is minimal in contrast to the linear increase in M. musculus. Altogether, the results from young animals are in agreement with the predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging with the exception of protein carbonyls. Nonetheless, the age-dependent increase in protein carbonyls is more pronounced in short-lived M. musculus, which supports enhanced protein homeostasis in long-lived P. leucopus. PMID:23325454

  6. Loss of p21{sup Sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage accompanied with increase of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 interaction with p21{sup Sdi1} gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ok Ran [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, In Kyoung, E-mail: iklim@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin or X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.

  7. Reduced brown adipose tissue thermogenesis during environmental interactions in transgenic rats with ataxin-3-mediated ablation of hypothalamic orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mazher; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Blessing, William

    2014-10-15

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to substantial increases in body temperature evoked by threatening or emotional stimuli. BAT thermogenesis also contributes to increases in body temperature that occur during active phases of the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC), as part of normal daily life. Hypothalamic orexin-synthesizing neurons influence many physiological and behavioral variables, including BAT and body temperature. In conscious unrestrained animals maintained for 3 days in a quiet environment (24-26°C) with ad libitum food and water, we compared temperatures in transgenic rats with ablation of orexin neurons induced by expression of ataxin-3 (Orx_Ab) with wild-type (WT) rats. Both baseline BAT temperature and baseline body temperature, measured at the onset of BRAC episodes, were similar in Orx_Ab and WT rats. The time interval between BRAC episodes was also similar in the two groups. However, the initial slopes and amplitudes of BRAC-related increases in BAT and body temperature were reduced in Orx_Ab rats. Similarly, the initial slopes and amplitudes of the increases in BAT temperatures induced by sudden exposure to an intruder rat (freely moving or confined to a small cage) or by sudden exposure to live cockroaches were reduced in resident Orx_Ab rats. Constriction of the tail artery induced by salient alerting stimuli was also reduced in Orx_Ab rats. Our results suggest that orexin-synthesizing neurons contribute to the intensity with which rats interact with the external environment, both when the interaction is "spontaneous" and when the interaction is provoked by threatening or salient environmental events. PMID:25324552

  8. In vivo static creep loading of the rat forelimb reduces ulnar structural properties at time-zero and induces damage-dependent woven bone formation.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jennifer A; Silva, Matthew J

    2008-05-01

    Periosteal woven bone forms in response to stress fractures and pathological overload. The mechanical factors that regulate woven bone formation are poorly understood. Fatigue loading of the rat ulna triggers a woven bone response in proportion to the level of applied fatigue displacement. However, because fatigue produces damage by application of cyclic loading it is unclear if the osteogenic response is due to bone damage (injury response) or dynamic strain (adaptive response). Creep loading, in contrast to fatigue, involves application of a static force. Our objectives were to use static creep loading of the rat forelimb to produce discrete levels of ulnar damage, and subsequently to determine the bone response over time. We hypothesized that 1) increases in applied displacement during loading correspond to ulnae with increased crack number, length and extent, as well as decreased mechanical properties; and 2) in vivo creep loading stimulates a damage-dependent dose-response in periosteal woven bone formation. Creep loading of the rat forelimb to progressive levels of sub-fracture displacement led to progressive bone damage (cracks) and loss of whole-bone mechanical properties (especially stiffness) at time-zero. For example, loading to 60% of fracture displacement caused a 60% loss of ulnar stiffness and a 25% loss of strength. Survival experiments showed that woven bone formed in a dose-dependent manner, with greater amounts of woven bone in ulnae that were loaded to higher displacements. Furthermore, after 14 days the mechanical properties of the loaded limb were equal or superior to control, indicating functional repair of the initial damage. We conclude that bone damage created without dynamic strain triggers a woven bone response, and thus infer that the woven bone response reported after fatigue loading and in stress fractures is in large part a response to bone damage. PMID:18295561

  9. In Vivo Static Creep Loading of the Rat Forelimb Reduces Ulnar Structural Properties at Time-Zero and Induces Damage-Dependent Woven Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jennifer A.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Periosteal woven bone forms in response to stress fractures and pathological overload. The mechanical factors that regulate woven bone formation are poorly understood. Fatigue loading of the rat ulna triggers a woven bone response in proportion to the level of applied fatigue displacement. However, because fatigue produces damage by application of cyclic loading it is unclear if the osteogenic response is due to bone damage (injury response) or dynamic strain (adaptive response). Creep loading, in contrast to fatigue, involves application of a static force. Our objectives were to use static creep loading of the rat forelimb to produce discrete levels of ulnar damage, and subsequently to determine the bone response over time. We hypothesized that 1) increases in applied displacement during loading correspond to ulnae with increased crack number, length and extent, as well as decreased mechanical properties; and 2) in vivo creep loading stimulates a damage-dependent dose-response in periosteal woven bone formation. Creep loading of the rat forelimb to progressive levels of sub-fracture displacement led to progressive bone damage (cracks) and loss of whole-bone mechanical properties (especially stiffness) at time-zero. For example, loading to 60% of fracture displacement caused a 60% loss of ulnar stiffness and a 25% loss of strength. Survival experiments showed that woven bone formed in a dose-dependent manner, with greater amounts of woven bone in ulnae that were loaded to higher displacements. Furthermore, after 14 days the mechanical properties of the loaded limb were equal or superior to control, indicating functional repair of the initial damage. We conclude that bone damage created without dynamic strain triggers a woven bone response, and thus infer that the woven bone response reported after fatigue loading and in stress fractures is in large part a response to bone damage. PMID:18295561

  10. Induction of DNA damage by deguelin is mediated through reducing DNA repair genes in human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells

    PubMed Central

    JI, BIN-CHUAN; YU, CHIEN-CHIH; YANG, SU-TSO; HSIA, TE-CHUN; YANG, JAI-SING; LAI, KUANG-CHI; KO, YANG-CHING; LIN, JEN-JYH; LAI, TUNG-YUAN; CHUNG, JING-GUNG

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that deguelin, one of the compounds of rotenoids from flavonoid family, induced cytotoxic effects through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many types of human cancer cell lines, but deguelin-affected DNA damage and repair gene expression (mRNA) are not clarified yet. We investigated the effects of deguelin on DNA damage and associated gene expression in human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in vitro. DNA damage was assayed by using the comet assay and DNA gel electrophoresis and the results indicated that NCI-H460 cells treated with 0, 50, 250 and 500 nM deguelin led to a longer DNA migration smear based on the single cell electrophoresis and DNA fragmentation occurred based on the examination of DNA gel electrophoresis. DNA damage and repair gene expression (mRNA) were evaluated by using real-time PCR assay and the results indicated that 50 and 250 nM deguelin for a 24-h exposure in NCI-H460 cells, decreased the gene levels of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1), DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNA-PK), O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) mRNA expressions. Collectively, the present study showed that deguelin caused DNA damage and inhibited DNA damage and repair gene expressions, which might be due to deguelin-inhibited cell growth in vitro. PMID:22227970

  11. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - SUPPLEMENT 1: DETAILED DATA FOR STATIC AND LINEAR ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report lists the expected insect control costs and insecticide use per acre for each insect control method on corn and cotton in each region discussed in Alternatives for Reducing Insecticides on Cotton and Corn: Economic and Environmental Impact. All the runs used in the lin...

  12. Selenium-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system reduces salinity-induced damage in rapeseed seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Hossain, Mohammad Anwar; Fujita, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous selenium (Se) in the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems in rapeseed seedlings exposed to salt stress. Twelve-day-old seedlings, grown in Petri dishes, were supplemented with selenium (25 ?M Na(2)SeO(4)) and salt (100 and 200 mM NaCl) separately and in combination, and further grown for 48 h. The ascorbate (AsA) content of the seedlings decreased significantly with increased salt stress. The amount of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) increased with an increase in the level of salt stress, while the GSH/GSSG ratio decreased. In addition, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity increased significantly with increased salt concentration (both at 100 and 200 mM NaCl), while glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity increased only at moderate salt stress (100 mM NaCl). Glutathione reductase (GR) activity remained unchanged at 100 mM NaCl, while it was decreased under severe (200 mM NaCl) salt stress. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT), glyoxalase I (Gly I), and glyoxalase II (Gly II) activities decreased upon the imposition of salt stress, whereas a sharp decrease of these activities was observed under severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl). Concomitant increases in the levels of H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were also measured. Exogenous Se treatment alone had little effect on the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components. However, further investigation revealed that Se treatment had a synergistic effect: in salt-stressed seedlings, it increased the AsA and GSH contents; GSH/GSSG ratio; and the activities of APX, MDHAR, DHAR, GR, GST, GPX, CAT, Gly I, and Gly II. As a result, addition of Se in salt-stressed seedlings led to a reduction in the levels of H(2)O(2) and MDA as compared to salt stress alone. These results suggest that the exogenous application of Se rendered the plants more tolerant to salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing their antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems. PMID:21264525

  13. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, lead and copper in rice and approaches for reducing the accumulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Runfeng; Cheng, Wangda; Zeng, Fanrong; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Hu, Xinna; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2014-10-15

    The field scale trials revealed significant genotypic and environmental differences in grain heavy metal (HM) concentrations of 158 newly developed rice varieties grown in twelve locations of Zhejiang province of China. Grain Pb and Cd contents in 5.3% and 0.4% samples, respectively, were above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC); none of samples had Cr/Cu exceeding MPC. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis estimated soil HM critical levels for safe rice production. Low grain HM accumulation cultivars such as Xiushui817, Jiayou08-1 and Chunyou689 were recommended as suitable cultivars for planting in slight/medium HM contaminated soils. The alleviating regulator (AR) of (NH?)?SO? as N fertilizer coupled with foliar spray of a mixture containing glutathione (GSH), Si, Zn and Se significantly decreased grain Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentrations grown in HM contaminated fields with no effect on yield, indicating a promising measurement for further reducing grain HM content to guarantee safe food production. PMID:25089689

  14. Reduced beta-cell mass and expression of oxidative stress-related DNA damage in the islet of Japanese Type II diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Sakuraba; H. Mizukami; N. Yagihashi; R. Wada; C. Hanyu; S. Yagihashi

    2002-01-01

    .\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis:   We examined the pancreatic islet lesions in Japanese patients with Type II diabetes mellitus to determine if the damage was\\u000a related to oxidative stress. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   Morphometric analyses were performed on immunostained sections of the tail portion of the pancreas from 14 diabetic and 15\\u000a non-diabetic patients. Amyloid deposition and oxidative stress-induced tissue damage were evaluated by Congo-red staining

  15. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work w...

  16. Assisting People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Actively Reducing Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Gyration Air Mouse through a Controlled Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing

  17. EVALUATION OF IMMOBILIZED REDOX INDICATORS AS REVERSIBLE, IN SITU REDOX SENSORS FOR DETERMINING FE(III)-REDUCING CONDITIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. (R828772)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in situ methodology based on immobilized redox indicators has been developed to determine when Fe(III)-reducing conditions exist in environmental systems. The redox indicators thionine (Thi, formal potential at pH 7 ( E 70') equals 66 mV), tol...

  18. 2012 Environmental Performance Index: Ecosystem Vitality Objective The 2012 EPI builds on measures relevant to the goal of reducing the loss or degradation of

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    2012 Environmental Performance Index: Ecosystem Vitality Objective The 2012 EPI builds on measures relevant to the goal of reducing the loss or degradation of ecosystems and natural resources, which are grouped into one objective category named ecosystem vitality. The objective weight is 70% of the overall

  19. Inhibitory effects of silk protein, sericin on UVB-induced acute damage and tumor promotion by reducing oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siqin Zhaorigetu; Noriyuki Yanaka; Masahiro Sasaki; Hiromitsu Watanabe; Norihisa Kato

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess protective effect of an antioxidant protein, sericin, on UVB-induced acute damage and tumor promotion in mouse skin. In experiment 1, HR-1 hairless mice were treated with 180 mJ\\/cm2 of ultraviolet B light (UVB) once daily for 1 and 7 days. The treatment for 7 days caused red sunburn lesions of the skin. The intensity

  20. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    SciTech Connect

    Roush, D.E. Jr. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beaver, D.E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Coll. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  1. Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kosko, Nancy [US Army Environmental Command (United States); Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie [CALIBRE Systems, Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

  2. Aircraft conceptual design study of the canard and threesurface unconventional configurations for the purposes of reducing environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desharnais, Olivier

    With a constant increase in the demand for air transport and today's high fuel price, the aerospace industry is actively searching for new operation methods and technologies to improve efficiency and to reduce the impact it has on the environment. Aircraft manufacturers are exploring many different ways of designing and building better airplanes. One of the considered methods is the use of unconventional aircraft configurations. The objective of this research is to study two configurations, the canard and three-surface, by applying them into a typical high-speed jet aircraft using the conceptual design tools for conventional aircraft available at Bombardier Aerospace (some of them have been modified and validated for the two configurations of interest). This included a weight estimation of the foreplane, an extensive validation of the aerodynamic tool, AVL, and a modification of a physics-based tail-sizing tool. The last tool was found necessary for an accurate foreplane/tailplane sizing, aircraft balancing, establishing the CG envelope and for the assessment of all stability and control requirements. Then, a canard aircraft comparable to the Bombardier research platform aircraft was designed. Final solutions were not obtained from a complete optimization because of some limitations in the design process. The preliminary results show an increase of fuel burn of 10%, leading to an increase of the environmental impacts. The theoretical advantage of not generating any download lift is clearly overwhelmed by the poor effectiveness of the high-lift system. The incapacity to reach a level of high-lift performance close to the one of conventional high-speed aircrafts mostly explains why the canard configuration was found to have no true benefits in this application. Even if no final solution of a three-surface aircraft was obtained in this research, this configuration was identified as being better than the canard case according to the information found in the literature. Some past studies concluded that there's a small improvement in fuel burn over the conventional configuration depending on the application. This unconventional configuration is recognized to have lower trim drag and the capability to fly at minimum drag for all CGs. For this reason, it's worth continuing the work started in this project to see if a three-surface high-speed jet aircraft could eventually be more efficient.

  3. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN, 17 B TRENBOLONE, CAUSES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND REDUCED REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT IN FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, studies have detected environmental androgen-active chemicals in effluents from pulp mills and animal feedlot operations. One such chemical present in feedlot discharge is the growth promoter, trenbolone acetate. A primary metabolite of trenbolone acetate, 17ß trenbolon...

  4. Community-based research as a mechanism to reduce environmental health disparities in american Indian and alaska native communities.

    PubMed

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K; Doyle, John T; Eggers, Margaret J; Ford, Tim E; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees-tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators-have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  5. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College

    PubMed Central

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747

  6. The Antiepileptic Drug Levetiracetam Suppresses Non-Convulsive Seizure Activity and Reduces Ischemic Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Ornella; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Leo, Antonio; Politi, Giovanni Bosco; Vinciguerra, Antonio; di Renzo, Gianfranco; Cataldi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The antiepileptic drug Levetiracetam (Lev) has neuroprotective properties in experimental stroke, cerebral hemorrhage and neurotrauma. In these conditions, non-convulsive seizures (NCSs) propagate from the core of the focal lesion into perilesional tissue, enlarging the damaged area and promoting epileptogenesis. Here, we explore whether Lev neuroprotective effect is accompanied by changes in NCS generation or propagation. In particular, we performed continuous EEG recordings before and after the permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO) in rats that received Lev (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle immediately before surgery. Both in Lev-treated and in control rats, EEG activity was suppressed after pMCAO. In control but not in Lev-treated rats, EEG activity reappeared approximately 30-45 min after pMCAO. It initially consisted in single spikes and, then, evolved into spike-and-wave and polyspike-and-wave discharges. In Lev-treated rats, only rare spike events were observed and the EEG power was significantly smaller than in controls. Approximately 24 hours after pMCAO, EEG activity increased in Lev-treated rats because of the appearance of polyspike events whose power was, however, significantly smaller than in controls. In rats sacrificed 24 hours after pMCAO, the ischemic lesion was approximately 50% smaller in Lev-treated than in control rats. A similar neuroprotection was observed in rats sacrificed 72 hours after pMCAO. In conclusion, in rats subjected to pMCAO, a single Lev injection suppresses NCS occurrence for at least 24 hours. This electrophysiological effect could explain the long lasting reduction of ischemic brain damage caused by this drug. PMID:24236205

  7. Salinomycin sensitizes cancer cells to the effects of doxorubicin and etoposide treatment by increasing DNA damage and reducing p21 protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Hwa; Chae, Minji; Kim, Won Ki; Kim, You-Jin; Kang, Han Sung; Kim, Hyung Sik; Yoon, Sungpil

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Salinomycin (Sal) has recently been shown to inhibit various cancer stem cells. Here, we investigated whether Sal could sensitize cancer cells to the effects of doxorubicin (DOX) or etoposide (ETO). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using the Comet assay, immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, we assessed the ability of Sal to increase DNA breakage. We performed a cell proliferation assay to determine cell viability, cellular detachment, increased pre-G1 region, Annexin V staining and TUNEL assay to measure the ability of Sal to increase apoptosis. KEY RESULTS Sal increased DNA breakage and phosphorylated levels of p53 and H2AX. Sal also induced the formation of DNA foci with pH2AX and 53BP1. Furthermore, Sal increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to the apoptotic effects of DOX or ETO. We found that pH2AX, pBRCA1, p53BP1 and pChk1 levels were greatly increased after co-treatment of Sal with DOX or ETO. The level of anti-apoptotic p21 protein was increased by DOX or ETO but decreased by Sal, which increased proteasome activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This is the first study to report that Sal increases DNA damage, and this effect plays an important role in the increased apoptosis caused by Sal. Overall, we demonstrated that the ability of Sal to sensitize cancer cells to the effects of DOX or ETO is associated with an increase in DNA damage and a decrease in anti-apoptotic protein p21 levels. These results may contribute to the development of Sal-based chemotherapy for cancer patients receiving DOX or ETO treatment. PMID:20973777

  8. Monitoring and mapping eastern Ontario's 1998 forest ice storm damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olthof, Ian

    Between January 4--9, 1998, a severe ice storm struck northeastern North America. Ice loading and high winds contributed to forest damage in Eastern Ontario, a region whose economy and identity depends on an intact forest resource for maple syrup production and other activities. This thesis was a component of a larger study by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) to address the needs of the maple syrup industry resulting from the ice storm, including temporal monitoring of forest response to damage to assess forest treatment effects, and mapping local to regional scale forest damage for economic impact assessment and compensation. This work is divided into two parts to address each of these needs separately. Part I uses field measured optical instrument-based Leaf Area Index (LAI) as a damage indicator for local monitoring, while Part II applies pre and post-storm Landsat satellite imagery and environmental data, and interpolation of plot-based damage estimates to produce two separate forest damage maps. LAI and post storm LAI change were determined to be suitable damage indicators, being significantly related to initial visual damage estimates while changing through time to reflect LAI recovery in the majority of plots that were measured. Neural network modeling with Landsat and environmental data was 69.3% accurate in classifying low-to-moderate and high damage with 50% crown loss as the threshold between these two classes. Interpolation produced slightly higher mapping accuracies, but lower Kappa statistics due to a reduced number of plots used for validation. These maps were compared with aerial sketch and freezing precipitation maps produced by the OMNR and Environment Canada, respectively. Overall, there was little agreement among maps due to the patchy nature of forest damage and differences among assessment scales.

  9. Structural damage detection based on stochastic subspace identification and statistical pattern recognition: I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, W. X.; Lin, Y. Q.; Fang, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    One of the key issues in vibration-based structural health monitoring is to extract the damage-sensitive but environment-insensitive features from sampled dynamic response measurements and to carry out the statistical analysis of these features for structural damage detection. A new damage feature is proposed in this paper by using the system matrices of the forward innovation model based on the covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification of a vibrating system. To overcome the variations of the system matrices, a non-singularity transposition matrix is introduced so that the system matrices are normalized to their standard forms. For reducing the effects of modeling errors, noise and environmental variations on measured structural responses, a statistical pattern recognition paradigm is incorporated into the proposed method. The Mahalanobis and Euclidean distance decision functions of the damage feature vector are adopted by defining a statistics-based damage index. The proposed structural damage detection method is verified against one numerical signal and two numerical beams. It is demonstrated that the proposed statistics-based damage index is sensitive to damage and shows some robustness to the noise and false estimation of the system ranks. The method is capable of locating damage of the beam structures under different types of excitations. The robustness of the proposed damage detection method to the variations in environmental temperature is further validated in a companion paper by a reinforced concrete beam tested in the laboratory and a full-scale arch bridge tested in the field.

  10. Tornado Damage!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about tornadoes, the damage they cause, and how to rate tornadoes. Specifically, students investigate the Enhanced Fujita Damage Scale of tornado intensity, and use it to complete a mock engineering analysis of damage caused by a tornado. Additional consideration is given to tornado warning systems and how these systems can be improved to be safer. Lastly, students learn basic tornado safety procedures.

  11. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  12. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant available water. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to crop p...

  13. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...

  14. Toxic Chemical Reduction Initiatives In response to the mandate of Executive Order 13514 and NIH's Environmental goal to reduce toxic

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    acid, Urid Chromic acid Chromic acid baths Minimally used by chemists Alconox Base baths Modified SAF Fixative (Sodium Acetate Acetic Acid Formalin) Mercury cont'd B-5 mercury based fixatives which identified green alternatives that are less toxic and more environmentally friendly based

  15. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of plant communities to environmental change, and to clarify the relative importance of biotic interactions as a driver of such responses.

  16. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  17. Bioenhanced dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase of trichloroethylene as affected by iron reducing conditions: model systems and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Paul, Laiby; Smolders, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic biotransformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) can be affected by competing electron acceptors such as Fe (III). This study assessed the role of Fe (III) reduction on the bioenhanced dissolution of TCE dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). Columns were set up as 1-D diffusion cells consisting of a lower DNAPL layer, a layer with an aquifer substratum and an upper water layer that is regularly refreshed. The substrata used were either inert sand or sand coated with 2-line ferrihydrite (HFO) or two environmental Fe (III) containing samples. The columns were inoculated with KB-1 and were repeatedly fed with formate. In none of the diffusion cells, vinyl chloride or ethene was detected while dissolved and extractable Fe (II) increased strongly during 60 d of incubation. The cis-DCE concentration peaked at 4.0 cm from the DNAPL (inert sand) while it was at 3.4 cm (sand+HFO), 1.7 cm and 2.5 cm (environmental samples). The TCE concentration gradients near the DNAPL indicate that the DNAPL dissolution rate was larger than that in an abiotic cell by factors 1.3 (inert sand), 1.0 (sand+HFO) and 2.2 (both environmental samples). This results show that high bioavailable Fe (III) in HFO reduces the TCE degradation by competitive Fe (III) reduction, yielding lower bioenhanced dissolution. However, Fe (III) reduction in environmental samples was not reducing TCE degradation and the dissolution factor was even larger than that of inert sand. It is speculated that physical factors, e.g. micro-niches in the environmental samples protect microorganisms from toxic concentrations of TCE. PMID:25460750

  18. Inhibition of small HA fragment activity and stimulation of A2A adenosine receptor pathway limit apoptosis and reduce cartilage damage in experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Micali, Antonio; Avenoso, Angela; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Pisani, Antonina; Bruschetta, Antongiulio; Calatroni, Alberto; Puzzolo, Domenico; Campo, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have found that the inactivation of small hyaluronan (HA) fragments originating from native HA during inflammation reduced the inflammatory response in models of experimental arthritis. The stimulation of adenosine receptors A2A reduced inflammation by inhibiting NF-kB activation. The combination of both treatments was significantly more effective than either of the individual treatments. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of a combined treatment using the HA inhibitor Pep-1 and a selective A2AR agonist (CV-1808) on the structure and ultrastructure of the articular cartilage and on apoptosis in a model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Arthritic mice were treated with Pep-1 and/or CV-1808 intraperitoneally daily for 20 days. At day 35, the hind limbs were processed for light microscopy (hematoxylin/eosin and Safranin-O-Fast Green) and for transmission and scanning electron microscopy. CIA increased IL-6, caspase-3 and caspase-7 mRNA expression and the related protein levels in arthritic articular cartilage, and significantly increased concentrations of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), while B cell-lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2) was markedly reduced. The combined Pep-1/CV-1808 treatment significantly reduced CIA injury, particularly at the highest doses, demonstrated by the presence of Safranin-O-positive cartilage, with a smooth surface and normal chondrocytes in the superficial, intermediate and deep zones. Morphological data and histological scoring were strongly supported by the reduction in inflammation and apoptotic markers. The results further support the role of HA degradation and A2A receptors in arthritis. PMID:25511416

  19. Ginsenoside Rbeta1 reduces neurologic damage, is anti-apoptotic, and down-regulates p53 and BAX in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingbo; Tang, Jiping; Khatibi, Nikan H; Zhu, Mei; Chen, Di; Zheng, Weiping; Wang, Shali

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury following SAH but none have reached the level of effectiveness needed to clinically reduce mortality. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of the Chinese traditional medicine Panax Ginseng, has been shown to reduce ischemic brain injury and myocardial injury via anti-apoptotic pathways. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 on SAH induced brain injury in rats. Four groups were used: sham, vehicle (SAH), low dose treatment (SAH+ 5mg/kg GRb1), and high dose treatment (SAH+ 20mg/kg GRb1). Post assessment included wall thickness and mean cross-section area of basilar artery were measured for evaluating cerebral vasospasm, Evans blue extravasations to assess blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis looking for specific pro-apoptotic markers, and tunnel staining for cell death assessment. In addition, mortality, neurological function and brain edema were investigated. The results showed that high dose GRb1 treatment significantly enlarged mean cross-sectional area and decreased wall thickness of basilar artery, reduced neurological deficits, brain edema, BBB disruption, and TUNEL positive cell expression. Same time, we found that the proteins expression of P53, Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of bcl-2 was up-regulated in Rb1 treatment. The results of this study suggest that GRb1 could relieve cerebral vasospasm and potentially provide neuroprotection in SAH victims. The underlying mechanisms may be partly related to inhibition of P53 and Bax dependent proapoptosis pathway. More studies will be needed to confirm these results and determine its potential as a long term agent. PMID:20353383

  20. Environmental impacts of sequestering carbon through forestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Englin; John M. Callaway

    1995-01-01

    An issue that arises when considering the potential damages of climate change is whether it is possible to slow or stop human caused climate change. One suggestion to reduce the threat of global warming is to change our management of forests to offset carbon emissions. This study examines the impacts of such a policy on environmental amenities in existing Douglas-fir

  1. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jqin710@vip.sina.com; Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy.

  2. Single Administration of Tripeptide ?-MSH(11–13) Attenuates Brain Damage by Reduced Inflammation and Apoptosis after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schaible, Eva-Verena; Steinsträßer, Arne; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje; Luh, Clara; Sebastiani, Anne; Kornes, Frida; Pieter, Dana; Schäfer, Michael K.; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C.

    2013-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neuroinflammatory processes promote neuronal cell loss. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is a neuropeptide with immunomodulatory properties, which may offer neuroprotection. Due to short half-life and pigmentary side-effects of ?-MSH, the C-terminal tripeptide ?-MSH(11–13) may be an anti-inflammatory alternative. The present study investigated the mRNA concentrations of the precursor hormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and of melanocortin receptors 1 and 4 (MC1R/MC4R) in naive mice and 15 min, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Regulation of POMC and MC4R expression did not change after trauma, while MC1R levels increased over time with a 3-fold maximum at 12 h compared to naive brain tissue. The effect of ?-MSH(11–13) on secondary lesion volume determined in cresyl violet stained sections (intraperitoneal injection 30 min after insult of 1 mg/kg ?-MSH(11–13) or 0.9% NaCl) showed a considerable smaller trauma in ?-MSH(11–13) injected mice. The expression of the inflammatory markers TNF-? and IL-1? as well as the total amount of Iba-1 positive cells were not reduced. However, cell branch counting of Iba-1 positive cells revealed a reduced activation of microglia. Furthermore, tripeptide injection reduced neuronal apoptosis analyzed by cleaved caspase-3 and NeuN staining. Based on the results single ?-MSH(11–13) administration offers a promising neuroprotective property by modulation of inflammation and prevention of apoptosis after traumatic brain injury. PMID:23940690

  3. Single administration of tripeptide ?-MSH(11-13) attenuates brain damage by reduced inflammation and apoptosis after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Eva-Verena; Steinsträßer, Arne; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje; Luh, Clara; Sebastiani, Anne; Kornes, Frida; Pieter, Dana; Schäfer, Michael K; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2013-01-01

    Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neuroinflammatory processes promote neuronal cell loss. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is a neuropeptide with immunomodulatory properties, which may offer neuroprotection. Due to short half-life and pigmentary side-effects of ?-MSH, the C-terminal tripeptide ?-MSH(11-13) may be an anti-inflammatory alternative. The present study investigated the mRNA concentrations of the precursor hormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and of melanocortin receptors 1 and 4 (MC1R/MC4R) in naive mice and 15 min, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Regulation of POMC and MC4R expression did not change after trauma, while MC1R levels increased over time with a 3-fold maximum at 12 h compared to naive brain tissue. The effect of ?-MSH(11-13) on secondary lesion volume determined in cresyl violet stained sections (intraperitoneal injection 30 min after insult of 1 mg/kg ?-MSH(11-13) or 0.9% NaCl) showed a considerable smaller trauma in ?-MSH(11-13) injected mice. The expression of the inflammatory markers TNF-? and IL-1? as well as the total amount of Iba-1 positive cells were not reduced. However, cell branch counting of Iba-1 positive cells revealed a reduced activation of microglia. Furthermore, tripeptide injection reduced neuronal apoptosis analyzed by cleaved caspase-3 and NeuN staining. Based on the results single ?-MSH(11-13) administration offers a promising neuroprotective property by modulation of inflammation and prevention of apoptosis after traumatic brain injury. PMID:23940690

  4. Efficacy and safety of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy for reducing the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy (the Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Damage control laparotomy, or abbreviated initial laparotomy followed by temporary abdominal closure (TAC), intensive care unit resuscitation, and planned re-laparotomy, is frequently used to manage intra-abdominal bleeding and contamination among critically ill or injured adults. Animal data suggest that TAC techniques that employ negative pressure to the peritoneal cavity may reduce the systemic inflammatory response and associated organ injury. The primary objective of this study is to determine if use of a TAC dressing that affords active negative pressure peritoneal therapy, the ABThera Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, reduces the extent of the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis or injury as compared to a commonly used TAC method that provides potentially less efficient peritoneal negative pressure, the Barker’s vacuum pack. Methods/Design The Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial will be a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Adults will be intraoperatively allocated to TAC with either the ABThera or Barker’s vacuum pack after the decision has been made by the attending surgeon to perform a damage control laparotomy. The study will use variable block size randomization. On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood will be collected. Whenever possible, peritoneal fluid will also be collected at these time points from the patient’s abdomen or TAC device. Luminex technology will be used to quantify the concentrations of 65 mediators relevant to the inflammatory response in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The primary endpoint is the difference in the plasma concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at 24 and 48 h after TAC dressing application. Secondary endpoints include the differential effects of these dressings on the systemic concentration of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, collective peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediator profiles, postoperative fluid balance, intra-abdominal pressure, and several patient-important outcomes, including organ dysfunction measures and mortality. Discussion Results from this study will improve understanding of the effect of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy after damage control laparotomy on the inflammatory response. It will also gather necessary pilot information needed to inform design of a multicenter trial comparing clinical outcomes among patients randomized to TAC with the ABThera versus Barker’s vacuum pack. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier http://www.clicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01355094 PMID:23680127

  5. Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg

    2014-09-01

    The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

  6. Cardiac preconditioning with 4-h, 17 degrees C ischemia reduces [Ca(2+)](i) load and damage in part via K(ATP) channel opening.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Camara, Amadou K S; An, Jianzhong; Riess, Matthias L; Novalija, Enis; Stowe, David F

    2002-06-01

    Brief ischemia before normothermic ischemia protects hearts against reperfusion injury (ischemic preconditioning, IPC), but it is unclear whether it protects against long-term moderate hypothermic ischemia. We explored in isolated guinea pig hearts 1) the influence of two 2-min periods of normothermic ischemia before 4 h, 17 degrees C hypothermic ischemia on cardiac cytosolic [Ca(2+)], mechanical and metabolic function, and infarct size, and 2) the potential role of K(ATP) channels in eliciting cardioprotection. We found that IPC before 4 h moderate hypothermia improved myocardial perfusion, contractility, and relaxation during normothermic reperfusion. Protection was associated with markedly reduced diastolic [Ca(2+)] loading throughout both hypothermic storage and reperfusion. Global infarct size was markedly reduced from 36 +/- 2 (SE)% to 15 +/- 1% with IPC. Bracketing ischemic pulses with 200 microM 5-hydroxydecanoic acid or 10 microM glibenclamide increased infarct size to 28 +/- 3% and 26 +/- 4%, respectively. These results suggest that brief ischemia before long-term hypothermic storage adds to the cardioprotective effects of hypothermia and that this is associated with decreased cytosolic [Ca(2+)] loading and enhanced ATP-sensitive K channel opening. PMID:12003799

  7. Adverse effects of reduced oxygen tension on the proliferative capacity of rat kidney and insulin-secreting cell lines involve DNA damage and stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jianhua [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jhc36@cam.ac.uk; Jones, R. Huw; Tarry-Adkins, Jane; Smith, Noel H.; Ozanne, Susan E. [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    Standard cell culture conditions do not reflect the physiological environment in terms of oxygen tension (20% vs 3%). The effects of lowering oxygen tension on cell proliferation in culture can be beneficial as well as detrimental depending on the cell line studied, but the molecular mechanism underlying such effects is not fully understood. We observed that the proliferative capacity of the rat cell lines NRK and INS-1 was inhibited when cultured under 3% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen. Suppression of proliferation in NRK cells was accompanied by induction of DNA double strand breaks whereas in INS-1 cells it was accompanied by up-regulation of p53 and p27. Although Sirt1 was up-regulated in both cell lines by 3% oxygen the effects on antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, CuZnSOD and catalase) were cell line specific. Marked up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected in both NRK and INS-1 cells when cultured in 3% oxygen. HO-1 expression can be readily induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide in culture. These results suggest that reduced oxygen tension suppresses the proliferative capacity of these two cell lines through a stress response that is similar to an oxidative stress response but the molecular events that lead to the reduced cell proliferation are cell line specific.

  8. Reduction in fiber damage thresholds due to static fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setchell, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    Damage mechanisms may occur during the transmission of Q-switched, Nd/YAG laser pulses through fused silica fibers. Fiber end-face characteristics, laser characteristics, and aspects of the laser-to-fiber injection typically determine dominant damage mechanisms. However, an additional damage process has been observed at internal sites where fibers were experiencing significant local stresses due to fixturing or bends in the fiber path. A transmission reduction prior to damage was typically not measurable at these sites. Damage would not always occur during initial testing, but sometimes occurred later in time at laser levels that previously had been transmitted without damage. In these cases the time at stress appeared to be more important than the number of transmitted shots prior to damage. A possible relation between internal damage thresholds at stressed sites and the total time under stress is suggested by the fact that silica fibers experience static fatigue processes. These processes involve the slow growth of local defects under tensile stress at rates that depend upon environmental conditions. Defects reaching sufficient size and having appropriate location could be sites for reduced laser-induced damage thresholds. The present work looks into the possibility that static fatigue processes can affect damage thresholds. The experiments used a laser injection and fiber routing configuration that produced significantly elevated fluences within fiber core regions under tensile stress. In order to establish initial strength and fatigue properties for these fibers, a number of samples were used to generate time-to-failure data at various stress levels. Other fiber samples were subjected to conditions that greatly accelerated fatigue processes. Internal damage thresholds were then measured in these fibers and compared to thresholds measured in fresh fibers. Conclusive comparisons were frustrated by sample-to-sample and lot-to-lot variations in fiber defects.

  9. The use of third-party review to reduce health and environmental hazards from surfactants and cleaning products in the janitorial industry.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kazuhiro

    2009-05-01

    The demand for environmentally preferable products is increasing in the area of Institutional and Industrial (I&I) cleaners. The GreenBlue Institute (GreenBlue) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Design for Environment (DfE) launched two programs to review surfactant ingredients and final cleaning products, with the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) conducting third-party reviews. The Local Hazardous Waste Management Program (LHWMP) in King County, Washington, has a strategic goal to reduce the risk of exposure of hazardous chemicals to vulnerable populations such as janitorial workers. This report summarizes the NSF partnership with GreenBlue, CleanGredients, and U.S. EPA's DfE to perform third-party reviews of cleaning product ingredients and its relevance to LHWMP's interest in reducing risks to workers in the janitorial industry. Due to information barriers, workers in the janitorial industry are at risk daily to these hazardous chemicals. The surfactant and formulator review program will make positive contributions towards the reduction of toxic chemical exposure to the employees of the janitorial industry. With proper communication and an increased use of less toxic cleaners, exposures to vulnerable populations can be reduced. PMID:19452830

  10. Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals as the mechanism for reduced catechol degradation on hematite-silica surface under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Pan, Bo; Liao, Shaohua; Zhang, Di; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-05-01

    Iron is rich in soils, and is recently reported to form stable complexes with organic free radicals, generating environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs). The observation may challenge the common viewpoint that iron is an effective catalyst to facilitate the degradation of various organic chemicals. But no study was specifically designed to investigate the possible inhibited degradation of organic chemicals because of the formation of EPFRs in dry environment. We observed that catechol degradation under UV irradiation was decreased over 20% in silica particles coated with 1% hematite in comparison to uncoated silica particles. Stabilized semiquinone or quinine and phenol radicals were involved in HMT-silica system. EPFR formation was thus the reason for the reduced catechol degradation on HMT-silica surface under UV irradiation at ambient temperature. EPFRs should be incorporated in the studies of organic contaminants geochemical behavior, and will be a new input in their environmental fate modeling. PMID:24594596

  11. Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells leads to reduced inflammation and cartilage damage in murine antigen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating and painful disease leading to increased morbidity and mortality and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. The purpose of this study was to elucidate if mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injected in the joints of mice with arthritis are therapeutic, reducing joint swelling and cartilage destruction. Methods Murine mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of C57Bl/6 mice and expanded in culture. Cells were tested for immunophenotype and their ability to form colonies and to differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced by intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin into the knee joints of preimmunized C57Bl/6 mice. After one day, when peak swelling occurs, 500,000 mMSCs labelled with red fluorescent cell tracker CM-DiI were injected intra-articularly in the right knee joint. Left knee joints were treated as controls by receiving PBS injections. Differences between groups were calculated by Mann Whitney U test or unpaired t tests using GraphPad Prism software version 5. Results Knee joint diameter (swelling) was measured as a clinical indication of joint inflammation and this parameter was significantly less in MSC-treated mice compared to control-treated animals 48 hours after arthritis induction. This difference continued for ~7 days. CM-DiI-labelled MSCs were clearly visualised in the lining and sublining layers of synovium, in the region of the patella and femoral and tibial surfaces. By day 3, parameters indicative of disease severity, including cartilage depletion, inflammatory exudate and arthritic index were shown to be significantly reduced in MSC-treated animals. This difference continued for 7 days and was further confirmed by histological analysis. The serum concentration of tumour necrosis factor ? was significantly decreased following MSC administration. Conclusions Our results reveal that MSCs injected in the joints of mice with AIA are therapeutic, reducing inflammation, joint swelling and cartilage destruction. These cells also integrate into the synovium in AIA. PMID:24893776

  12. Environmental benefits of genetically modified crops: Global and European perspectives on their ability to reduce pesticide use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Phipps; J. R. Park

    2002-01-01

    The Green Revolution, which brought together improved varieties, increased use off ertilizer, irriga- tion and synthetic pesticides, is credited with helping to feed the current global population of 6 billion. While this paper recognizes the ability of pesticide\\\\, to reduce crop losses, it also discusses their potential negative effects on public health, with particular emphasis in developing countries, and the

  13. Dihydromethysticin from kava blocks tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone-induced lung tumorigenesis and differentially reduces DNA damage in A/J mice.

    PubMed

    Narayanapillai, Sreekanth C; Balbo, Silvia; Leitzman, Pablo; Grill, Alex E; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Shaik, Ahmad Ali; Zhou, Bo; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Peterson, Lisa A; Lu, Junxuan; Hecht, Stephen S; Xing, Chengguo

    2014-10-01

    We have previously shown that kava and its flavokavain-free Fraction B completely blocked 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice with a preferential reduction in NNK-induced O (6)-methylguanine (O (6)-mG). In this study, we first identified natural (+)-dihydromethysticin (DHM) as a lead compound through evaluating the in vivo efficacy of five major compounds in Fraction B on reducing O (6)-mG in lung tissues. (+)-DHM demonstrated outstanding chemopreventive activity against NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice with 97% reduction of adenoma multiplicity at a dose of 0.05mg/g of diet (50 ppm). Synthetic (±)-DHM was equally effective as the natural (+)-DHM in these bioassays while a structurally similar analog, (+)-dihydrokavain (DHK), was completely inactive, revealing a sharp in vivo structure-activity relationship. Analyses of an expanded panel of NNK-induced DNA adducts revealed that DHM reduced a subset of DNA adducts in lung tissues derived from 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL, the active metabolite of NNK). Preliminary 17-week safety studies of DHM in A/J mice at a dose of 0.5mg/g of diet (at least 10× its minimum effective dose) revealed no adverse effects, suggesting that DHM is likely free of kava's hepatotoxic risk. These results demonstrate the outstanding efficacy and promising safety margin of DHM in preventing NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice, with a unique mechanism of action and high target specificity. PMID:25053626

  14. Effect of environmental interventions to reduce exposure to asthma triggers in homes of low-income children in Seattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim K Takaro; James W Krieger; Lin Song

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of community health workers (CHWs) assisting families in reducing exposure to indoor asthma triggers has not been studied. In all, 274 low-income asthmatic children were randomly assigned to high- or low-intensity groups. CHWs visited all homes to assess exposures, develop action plans and provide bedding encasements. The higher-intensity group also received cleaning equipment and five to nine visits

  15. Deficiency of complement receptors CR2/CR1 in Cr2-/- mice reduces the extent of secondary brain damage after closed head injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Complement activation at the C3 convertase level has been associated with acute neuroinflammation and secondary brain injury after severe head trauma. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that Cr2 -/- mice, which lack the receptors CR2/CD21 and CR1/CD35 for complement C3-derived activation fragments, are protected from adverse sequelae of experimental closed head injury. Adult wild-type mice and Cr2 -/- mice on a C57BL/6 genetic background were subjected to focal closed head injury using a standardized weight-drop device. Head-injured Cr2 -/- mice showed significantly improved neurological outcomes for up to 72 hours after trauma and a significantly decreased post-injury mortality when compared to wild-type mice. In addition, the Cr2 -/- genotype was associated with a decreased extent of neuronal cell death at seven days post-injury. Western blot analysis revealed that complement C3 levels were reduced in the injured brain hemispheres of Cr2 -/- mice, whereas plasma C3 levels remained unchanged, compared to wild-type mice. Finally, head-injured Cr2 -/- had an attenuated extent of post-injury C3 tissue deposition, decreased astrocytosis and microglial activation, and attenuated immunoglobulin M deposition in injured brains compared to wild-type mice. Targeting of these receptors for complement C3 fragments (CR2/CR1) may represent a promising future approach for therapeutic immunomodulation after traumatic brain injury. PMID:24885042

  16. Mild hypothermia in combination with minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma reduces inflammatory damage in patients via the nuclear factor-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yanping; Huan, Ying; Cai, Weidong; Wang, Xia; Liang, Zhigang; Liu, Zhaokong; Duan, Ruisheng

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma on the brain function of patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Seventy-six patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were divided into the minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MIHE) and mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MHMIHE) groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on the day of admission of the patient and one, three and seven days after the procedure were recorded. Perihematoma brain tissue morphology was observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) level was detected by ELISA. NIHSS scores in the MHMIHE group were significantly lower than those in the MIHE group on days three and seven. TNF-? and NF-?B levels peaked on day three, and the MHMIHE group had significantly lower levels of TNF-? and NF-?B than the MIHE group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma can effectively reduce inflammation and improve the brain function of patients. PMID:25371721

  17. Mild hypothermia in combination with minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma reduces inflammatory damage in patients via the nuclear factor-?B pathway

    PubMed Central

    BI, YANPING; HUAN, YING; CAI, WEIDONG; WANG, XIA; LIANG, ZHIGANG; LIU, ZHAOKONG; DUAN, RUISHENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma on the brain function of patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Seventy-six patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were divided into the minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MIHE) and mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MHMIHE) groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on the day of admission of the patient and one, three and seven days after the procedure were recorded. Perihematoma brain tissue morphology was observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) level was detected by ELISA. NIHSS scores in the MHMIHE group were significantly lower than those in the MIHE group on days three and seven. TNF-? and NF-?B levels peaked on day three, and the MHMIHE group had significantly lower levels of TNF-? and NF-?B than the MIHE group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma can effectively reduce inflammation and improve the brain function of patients. PMID:25371721

  18. Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

  19. Stability of U(VI) and Tc(VII) Reducing Microbial Communities to Environmental Perturbation: Development and Testing of a Thermodynamic Network Model

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, James P.; Istok, Jonathan

    2005-06-01

    Previously published research from in situ field experiments at the NABIR Field Research Center have shown that cooperative metabolism of denitrifiers and Fe(III)/sulfate reducers is essential for creating subsurface conditions favorable for U(VI) and Tc(VII) bioreduction (Istok et al., 2004). The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on the composition and functional stability of subsurface microbial communities. The overall scientific hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding reactions performed by broadly defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change. An interactive computer program was developed to calculate the overall growth equation and free energy yield for microorganisms that grow by coupling selected combinations of electron acceptor and electron donor half-reactions. Each group performs a specific function (e.g. oxidation of acetate coupled to reduction of nitrate); collectively the groups provide a theoretical description of the entire natural microbial community. The microbial growth data are combined with an existing thermodynamic data base for associated geochemical reactions and used to simulate the coupled microbial-geochemical response of a complex natural system to substrate addition or any other environmental perturbations.

  20. Gas chromatography for in situ analysis of a cometary nucleus V. Study of capillary columns' robustness submitted to long-term reduced environmental pressure conditions.

    PubMed

    Szopa, C; Sternberg, R; Coscia, D; Goesmann, F; Gomes, R; Legrand, S; Jerome, M; Meierhenrich, U J; Raulin, F

    2014-11-14

    With the European Space Agency's Rosetta space mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a gas chromatograph, part of the COmetary Sampling And Composition (COSAC) experiment, travelled for about 10 years in the interplanetary medium before operating at the surface of the cometary nucleus in November 2014. During its journey in space, the instrument was exposed to the constraining conditions of the interplanetary medium, including reduced environmental pressures. In order to estimate the potential influence of this severe condition on the chromatographic capillary columns, their stationary phase and the subsequent separation capability, a set of flight spare columns were kept under reduced environmental pressure in the laboratory for the same duration as the probe sent to the comet. The columns' analytical performances were evaluated recently and compared to the original ones obtained just before the launch of the Rosetta probe. The results presented here show that the chromatographic performances of the spare chromatographic columns were not altered in time. From this result, it can be expected that the flight instrument will perform nominally for the analysis of the first cometary nucleus sample to be collected ever, and that the preparation of the interpretation of the data to be taken at the cometary surface nucleus can be done through calibration of these spare columns, and other spare components of the instrument. PMID:25441355

  1. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Mei; Wang, Fuzhi; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children’s urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, children’s urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = –3.136; p = 0.002) and caregivers’ 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0%) (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.26) in the intervention than control group. Conclusions: Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted. PMID:25590146

  2. Changing sources and environmental factors reduce the rates of decline of organochlorine pesticides in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Halsall, C. J.; Tych, W.; Kallenborn, R.; Schlabach, M.; Manø, S.

    2012-05-01

    An extensive database of organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations measured at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, was analysed to assess longer-term trends in the Arctic atmosphere. Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) is employed to investigate the seasonal and cyclical behaviour of chlordanes, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and to isolate underlying inter-annual trends. Although a simple comparison of annual mean concentrations (1994-2005) suggest a decline for all of the OCs investigated, the longer-term trends identified by DHR only show a significant decline for p,p'-DDT. Indeed, HCB shows an increase from 2003-2005. This is thought to be due to changes in source types and the presence of impurities in current use pesticides, together with retreating sea ice affecting air-water exchange. Changes in source types were revealed by using isomeric ratios for the chlordanes and DDTs. Declining trends in ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) indicate a shift from primary sources, to more "weathered" secondary sources, whereas an increasing trend in o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate a shift from use of technical DDT to dicofol. Continued monitoring of these OC pesticides is required to fully understand the influence of a changing climate on the behaviour and environmental cycling of these chemicals in the Arctic as well as possible impacts from "new" sources.

  3. Changing sources and environmental factors reduce the rates of decline of organochlorine pesticides in the Arctic Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Halsall, C. J.; Tych, W.; Kallenborn, R.; Schlabach, M.; Manø, S.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive database of organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations measured at the Norwegian Arctic Monitoring Station was analysed to assess longer-term trends in the Arctic atmosphere. Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) is employed to investigate the seasonal and cyclical behaviour of chlordanes, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and to isolate underlying inter-annual trends. Although a simple comparison of annual mean concentrations (1994-2005) suggest a decline for all of the OCs investigated, the longer-term trends identified by DHR only show a significant decline for p,p'-DDT. Indeed, HCB shows an increase from 2003-2005. This is thought to be due to changes in source types and the presence of impurities in current use pesticides, together with retreating sea ice affecting air-water exchange. Changes in source types were revealed by using isomeric ratios for the chlordanes and DDTs. Declining trends in ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) indicate a shift from primary sources, to more ''weathered'' secondary sources, whereas an increasing trend in o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate a shift from use of technical DDT to dicofol. Continued monitoring of these OC pesticides is required to fully understand the influence of a changing climate on the behaviour and environmental cycling of these chemicals in the Arctic as well as possible impacts from ''new'' sources.

  4. Using expert knowledge to increase realism in environmental system models can dramatically reduce the need for calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2014-12-01

    Conceptual environmental system models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of models for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity, typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, approaches for better parameter estimation have been developed, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding of how a catchment works into the process of parameter estimation has not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effects of imposing semi-quantitative, relational inequality constraints, based on expert-knowledge, for model development and parameter specification, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e., wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simple to complex, three model setups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC were developed based on these functional units, where FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, and the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC progressively introduce more complexity. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters, as well as states and fluxes, of their different functional units to each other, allowing the formulation of constraints that limit the feasible parameter space. We show that by allowing for more landscape-related process heterogeneity in a model, e.g., FLEXC, the performance increases even without traditional calibration. The additional introduction of relational constraints further improved the performance of these models.

  5. Non-Linear Analysis Indicates Chaotic Dynamics and Reduced Resilience in Model-Based Daphnia Populations Exposed to Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ottermanns, Richard; Szonn, Kerstin; Preuß, Thomas G.; Roß-Nickoll, Martina

    2014-01-01

    In this study we present evidence that anthropogenic stressors can reduce the resilience of age-structured populations. Enhancement of disturbance in a model-based Daphnia population lead to a repression of chaotic population dynamics at the same time increasing the degree of synchrony between the population's age classes. Based on the theory of chaos-mediated survival an increased risk of extinction was revealed for this population exposed to high concentrations of a chemical stressor. The Lyapunov coefficient was supposed to be a useful indicator to detect disturbance thresholds leading to alterations in population dynamics. One possible explanation could be a discrete change in attractor orientation due to external disturbance. The statistical analysis of Lyapunov coefficient distribution is proposed as a methodology to test for significant non-linear effects of general disturbance on populations. Although many new questions arose, this study forms a theoretical basis for a dynamical definition of population recovery. PMID:24809537

  6. Damage by air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Darley; J. T. Middleton

    1961-01-01

    Photochemical air pollution in the Los Angeles and San Francisco bay areas of California causes damage to the foliage of many plants and reduces the growth of a variety of glasshouse-grown crops. Not only is commercial flower production adversely affected, but a wide variety of critically controlled plant experiments conducted by several research institutions also are hampered. Moderate to severe

  7. Environmental Consequences of Invasive Species: Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Insecticide Use and the Role of Biological Control in Reducing Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Heimpel, George E.; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D.; Ragsdale, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23977273

  8. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain damage ? What are some signs or symptoms of right hemisphere ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  9. Sun Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keratosis (Solar Keratosis) Actinic keratoses, also known as solar keratoses, are small rough or scaly areas of skin due to damage from sun exposure. Some actinic keratoses can turn into squamous cell skin cancer, so it is important to perform… ...

  10. An environmentally friendly method for the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide foam with a super oil absorption capacity.

    PubMed

    He, Yongqiang; Liu, Yue; Wu, Tao; Ma, Junkui; Wang, Xingrui; Gong, Qiaojuan; Kong, Weina; Xing, Fubao; Liu, Yu; Gao, Jianping

    2013-09-15

    Three kinds of graphene oxide (GO) foams were fabricated using different freezing methods (unidirectional freezing drying (UDF), non-directional freezing drying, and air freezing drying), and the corresponding reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared by their thermal reduction of those GO foams. These RGO foams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The absorption process and the factors that influence the absorption capacity were investigated. The RGO foams are hydrophobic and showed extremely high absorbing abilities for organic liquids. The absorption capacity of the RGO foams made by UDF was higher than 100 g g(-1) for all the oils tested (gasoline, diesel oil, pump oil, lubricating oil and olive oil) and had the highest value of about 122 g g(-1) for olive oil. The oil absorption capacity of the GO foams was lower than that of the RGO foams, but for olive oil, the absorption capacity was still high than 70 g g(-1), which is higher than that of most oil absorbents. PMID:23856309

  11. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  12. The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajinder Singh; Radim J. Sram; Blanka Binkova; Ivan Kalina; Todor A. Popov; Tzveta Georgieva; Seymour Garte; Emanuela Taioli; Peter B. Farmer

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be significant contributors to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of air pollution present in the urban environment for humans. Populations exposed to environmental air pollution show increased levels of PAH DNA adducts and it has been postulated that another contributing cause of carcinogenicity by environmental air pollution may be the production of reactive oxygen species

  13. Reduced Expression of DNA Damage Repair Genes High Mobility Group Box1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 in Inactive Carriers of Hepatitis B Virus Infection-A Possible Stage of Viral Integration

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Rathindra M.; Shravanti, Gelli V.; Jakkampudi, Aparna; Kota, Ramya; Jangala, Asha L.; Reddy, Panyala B.; Rao, Padaki N.; Gupta, Rajesh; Reddy, Duvvuru N.

    2013-01-01

    Background High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) proteins repair cellular DNA damage. Reduced expression of the corresponding genes can lead to an impaired DNA damage repair mechanism. Intracellular replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in such conditions can favor the integration of viral DNA into host genome leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Objective This study was performed to assess the expression of HMGB1 and PARP1 mRNAs in conjunction with the estimation of HBV replication intermediate pregenomic RNA (PgRNA) in various phases of HBV infection. Materials Eighty eight patients and 26 voluntary blood donors as controls were included in the study. Patients were grouped in to acute (AHB; n = 15), inactive carriers (IC; n = 36), cirrhosis (Cirr; n = 25) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; n = 12). Serum HBV DNA was quantified by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Expression of HMGB1, PARP1 and PgRNA were evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived RNA by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and densitometry. Results Significant reduction of HMGB1 and PARP1 gene expressions (P < 0.05) were observed in patients than controls with more explicit decline of PARP1 (P = 0.0002). Both genes were significantly downregulated (P < 0.001) in ICs than controls. In ICs, HMGB1 was significantly lowered than cirrhosis (P = 0.002) and HCC (P = 0.0006) while PARP1 declined significantly (P = 0.04) than HCC. Level of PgRNA was comparable in all the disease categories. Conclusion In conclusion, our findings indicate impaired DNA damage repair mechanisms in HBV infected cells of ICs. This, along with low viral load but higher level of PgRNA in this group is suggestive of the diversion of HBV replication pathway that might facilitate viral DNA integration in to host genome. Intrusion of HBV PgRNA reverse transcription in early stage of infection might appear advantageous to thwart the development of HCC.

  14. A School-Based Environmental Intervention to Reduce Smoking among High School Students: The Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Webber, Larry S.; Boris, Neil W.; He, Hao; Brewer, Dixye

    2009-01-01

    A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control) in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline = 25%) was followed over four years for 30-day smoking prevalence with the school as the unit of analysis. Although prevalence decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools in Year 2 the significant difference between the two groups at baseline was not overcome by the intervention and increases in prevalence were observed in both groups in Years 3 and 4. The higher the percentage of white students in a school the higher the prevalence rates regardless of intervention/control status. Boys’ and girls’ smoking rates were similar. These outcome data, student feedback and process evaluation provide a basis for continuing to create more innovative adolescent tobacco control programs. PMID:19440519

  15. Non-inferiority of pulsed xenon UV light versus bleach for reducing environmental Clostridium difficile contamination on high-touch surfaces in Clostridium difficile infection isolation rooms.

    PubMed

    Ghantoji, Shashank S; Stibich, Mark; Stachowiak, Julie; Cantu, Sherry; Adachi, Javier A; Raad, Issam I; Chemaly, Roy F

    2015-02-01

    The standard for Clostridium difficile surface decontamination is bleach solution at a concentration of 10?% of sodium hypochlorite. Pulsed xenon UV light (PX-UV) is a means of quickly producing germicidal UV that has been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination by C. difficile spores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PX-UV was equivalent to bleach for decontamination of surfaces in C. difficile infection isolation rooms. High-touch surfaces in rooms previously occupied by C. difficile infected patients were sampled after discharge but before and after cleaning using either bleach or non-bleach cleaning followed by 15 min of PX-UV treatment. A total of 298 samples were collected by using a moistened wipe specifically designed for the removal of spores. Prior to disinfection, the mean contamination level was 2.39 c.f.u. for bleach rooms and 22.97 for UV rooms. After disinfection, the mean level of contamination for bleach was 0.71 c.f.u. (P?=?0.1380), and 1.19 c.f.u. (P?=?0.0017) for PX-UV disinfected rooms. The difference in final contamination levels between the two cleaning protocols was not significantly different (P?=?0.9838). PX-UV disinfection appears to be at least equivalent to bleach in the ability to decrease environmental contamination with C. difficile spores. Larger studies are needed to validate this conclusion. PMID:25627208

  16. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and its Consequences for Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    How mitochondria process DNA damage and whether a change in the steady-state level of mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction are questions that fuel burgeoning areas of research into aging and disease pathogenesis. Over the past decade, researchers have identified and measured various forms of endogenous and environmental mtDNA damage and have elucidated mtDNA repair pathways. Interestingly, mitochondria do not appear to contain the full range of DNA repair mechanisms that operate in the nucleus, although mtDNA contains types of damage that are targets of each nuclear DNA repair pathway. The reduced repair capacity may, in part, explain the high mutation frequency of the mitochondrial chromosome. Since mtDNA replication is dependent on transcription, mtDNA damage may alter mitochondrial gene expression at three levels: by causing DNA polymerase ? nucleotide incorporation errors leading to mutations, by interfering with the priming of mtDNA replication by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, or by inducing transcriptional mutagenesis or premature transcript termination. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA damage, its repair, and its effects on mtDNA integrity and gene expression. PMID:22728831

  17. DNA damage and repair of human skin keratinocytes concurrently exposed to pyrene derivatives and UVA light.

    PubMed

    Fullove, Tracie Perkins; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of mutagenic environmental contaminants, insert toxicity through both metabolic activation and light irradiation. Pyrene, one of the most widely studied PAHs, along with its mono-substituted derivatives, 1-amino, 1-bromo, 1-hydroxy, and 1-nitropyrene, were chosen to study the effect of substituents on their phototoxicity, DNA damage and repair. Both alkaline Comet assay, which detects direct DNA damages, and Fpg endonuclease Comet assay, which detects oxidative DNA damages, were conducted at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h of incubation of the cells in minimal growth medium after concomitant exposure to pyrene derivatives and UVA light. All these compounds are photocytotoxic and the phototoxicity is both incubation time and PAH dose dependent; whereas, those without light are not toxic. The LC50 obtained are in the range of 3.5 - 9.3 µM. Cellular DNA damages, both direct and oxidative, are observed immediately after the cells are treated with UVA light and the pyrene derivatives at a concentration of 1.0 µM. The amount of DNA damages (both direct and oxidative) increase from 0 to 4 h of incubation. After 4 hours, subsequent damage induction declines, and this is perceived to be mainly through DNA repair. After longer incubation of 8 h, the damaged cellular DNA start to be repaired, resulting in greatly reduced amount of DNA damages, and the DNA damage reaches the minimum at 24 h of incubation. 1-Amopyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene cause more DNA oxidative damages immediately after the exposure (0 h of incubation), and these damages are repaired within the same timeframe as the other tested compounds. The oxidative DNA damages caused by 1-bromopyrene are repaired starting at 2 h of incubation, earlier than the damages caused by all the other compounds. PMID:24900910

  18. Environmental benefits of biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding and improving environmental quality by reducing soil nutrient leaching losses, reducing bioavailability of environmental contaminants, sequestering C, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and enhancing crop productivity in highly weathered or degraded soils, has been the goal of agroecos...

  19. Flexure with Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaker, D. M.; Turcotte, D. L.; Kellogg, L. H.; Lyzenga, G. A.

    2004-12-01

    Investigations in structural geology and geophysics often apply continuum mechanics to solve problems relating to the deformation of the crust and lithosphere, such as the bending of strata due to a laccolith, bending of the lithosphere under island chains, bending of the lithosphere at an ocean trench. These solutions are largely based on linear elasticity. However, many processes involve stresses that exceed the elastic limit. Thus plastic, as well as elastic, deformation occurs. The temporal and spatial changes in material rheology and the nonlinear nature of the process preclude the development of analytical solutions in these complex cases. To account for the evolving rheology, we apply continuum damage mechanics as an empirical method to solve the problem of a bending beam. We use a numerical method to obtain quasi-static solutions to the Navier equation. We use the program GeoFEST v 4.5 (Geophysical Finite Element Simulation Tool), developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to generate solutions for each time step. Where the Von Mises stresses exceed the critical stress, we apply damage to the elements and reduce the shear modulus of the element. Damage is calculated for each time step by a power law relationship of the ratio of the critical stress to the Von Mises stress and the critical strain to the Von Mises strain, accounting for relaxation of the material due to increasing damage. To test our method, we apply damage rheology to a 2-D simple beam deforming under its own weight. This problem can be considered an analog for folding. Where stresses exceed the critical stress, we simulate the formation of damage and observe the time-dependent relaxation of the stress and strain to levels below the plastic limit. Thus damage can be used as a proxy for irreversible deformation in the fold hinge area, representing brittle fracture and microcracking where extensional fiber stresses dominate, and material dissolution where compressional fiber stresses dominate.

  20. Flexure with damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaker, David M.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Kellogg, Louise H.

    2006-09-01

    Ductile behaviour in rocks is often associated with plasticity due to dislocation motion or diffusion under high pressures and temperatures. However, ductile behaviour can also occur in brittle materials. An example would be cataclastic flow associated with folding at shallow crustal levels. Engineers utilize damage mechanics to model the continuum deformation of brittle materials. In this paper we utilize a modified form of damage mechanics that includes a yield stress. Here, damage represents a reduction in frictional strength. We use this empirical approach to simulate bending of the lithosphere through the problem of plate flexure. We use numerical simulations to obtain quasi-static solutions to the Navier equations of elasticity. We use the program GeoFEST v. 4.5 (Geophysical Finite Element Simulation Tool), developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to generate solutions for each time step. When the von Mises stress exceeds the critical stress on an element we apply damage to reduce the shear modulus of the element. Damage is calculated at each time step by a power-law relationship of the ratio of the critical stress to the von Mises stress and the critical strain to the von Mises strain. This results in the relaxation of the material due to increasing damage. To test our method, we apply our damage rheology to a semi-infinite plate deforming under its own weight. Where the von Mises stress exceeds the critical stress, we simulate the formation of damage and observe the time-dependent relaxation of the stress and strain to near the yield strength. We simulate a wide range of behaviours from slow relaxation to instantaneous failure, over timescales that span six orders of magnitude. Using this method, stress relaxation produces perfectly plastic behaviour in cases where failure does not occur. For cases of failure, we observe a rapid increase in damage, analogous to the acceleration of microcrack formation and acoustic emissions prior to failure. Thus continuum damage mechanics can be used to simulate the irreversible deformation of brittle materials.

  1. Life Driven by Damaged Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunji, Y.-P.; Shirakawa, T.; Niizato, T.; Haruna, T.; Balaz, I.

    Although life is destined to be approximately described as aself-referential form, the self-reference is invalidated and life avoids a contradiction. Since life does not include any contradiction, it reveals a unity as a whole. Since life is not a self-circulation, it implements diversity and evolvability. Here we show life as invalidated self-reference by constructing a model cell driven by damaged damage. Since life is always close to destruction, it exhibits both of the amoebic motion and the intelligent Physarum-like behavior.

  2. Damage threshold study of ion beam sputtered coatings for a visible high-repetition laser at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C.J.; Taylor, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    Ion Beam Sputtered (IBS) coatings offer some distinct advantages over electron beam deposited (e-beam) coatings, namely environmental stability and extremely low total losses. Initial IBS coatings had excessive stress and low laser damage thresholds. For these reasons, a study was initiated to examine potential laser damage thresholds and stress of IBS coatings. A material study was conducted of IBS coatings produced in industry, and a variety of design techniques were explored to increase laser damage thresholds. A post annealing process and backside coatings were developed to reduce the coating stress.

  3. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI) is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to M?ori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program). Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth) and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of our study will be important and significant for Indigenous tobacco control in Australia and New Zealand and prevention of respiratory illness in children. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12609000937213) PMID:20205950

  4. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    SciTech Connect

    Mirasgedis, S. [Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nimfon, Thission, 11810 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: seba@meteo.noa.gr; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P. [Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, Lofos Nimfon, Thission, 11810 Athens (Greece); Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A. [EPEM S.A., Acharnon 141 B, 10446 Athens (Greece); Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K. [LDK-ECO S.A., Thivaidos 21, 14564 Kifissia, Athens (Greece); Mavrotas, G. [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytexneiou 9, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2008-01-15

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM{sub 10} emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO{sub 2} emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector.

  5. Inverse gaussian accelerated test models based on cumulative damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Onar; W. J. Padgett

    2000-01-01

    The failure of a system under environmental stress often can be described by an accelerated test model which incorporates the environmental variable L. Here, the failure of such a system at environmental level L is modeled as the first passage of accumulated damage to a critical threshold value. Assuming a discrete additive damage model leads to a Birnbaum–Saunders-type distribution for

  6. Recent Advances in Composite Damage Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reifsnider, Ken; Case, Scott; Iyengar, Nirmal

    1996-01-01

    The state of the art and recent developments in the field of composite material damage mechanics are reviewed, with emphasis on damage accumulation. The kinetics of damage accumulation are considered with emphasis on the general accumulation of discrete local damage events such as single or multiple fiber fractures or microcrack formation. The issues addressed include: how to define strength in the presence of widely distributed damage, and how to combine mechanical representations in order to predict the damage tolerance and life of engineering components. It is shown that a damage mechanics approach can be related to the thermodynamics of the damage accumulation processes in composite laminates subjected to mechanical loading and environmental conditions over long periods of time.

  7. Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kim H.; Schultz, Irv; Nagler, James J.

    2007-11-01

    Exposure of ?shes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, ?sh were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, ?sh have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Signi?cant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was signi?cantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a signi?cant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a signi?cant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these ?sh exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

  8. Reduction in fiber damage thresholds due to static fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setchell, Robert E.

    1995-07-01

    For a number of years we have been investigating laser-induced damage mechanisms that can occur during the transmission of Q-switched, Nd/YAG laser pulses through fused silica fibers. We have found that fiber end-face characteristics, laser characteristics, and aspects of the laser-to-fiber injection typically determine dominant damage mechanisms. However, an additional damage process has been observed occasionally at internal sites where fibers were experiencing significant local stresses due to fixturing or to bends in the fiber path. A transmission reduction prior to damage was typically not measureable at these sites. Damage would not always occur during initial testing, but sometimes occurred later in time at laser levels that previously had been transmitted without damage. In these cases the time at stress appeared to be more important than the number of transmitted shots prior to damage. A possible relation between internal damage thresholds at stressed sites and the total time under stress is suggested by the fact that silica fibers experience static fatigue processes. These processes involve the slow growth of local defects under tensile stress at rates that depend upon environmental conditions. Defects reaching sufficient size and having appropriate location could be sites for reduced laser-induced damage thresholds. This possibility could have important implications for high-power fiber transmission systems that must satisfy extended lifetime requirements. The needs of the telecommunications industry have motivated extensive studies into initial fiber defect characteristics and their likely growth mechanisms. The present work used the understanding developed in these studies to guide a preliminary experimental investigation into the possibility that static fatigue processes can affect damage thresholds. The experiments used a laser injection and fiber routing configuration that produced significantly elevated fluences within fiber core regions under tensile stress. In one set of experiments, internal damage thresholds were determined in available fiber samples that had been assembled in stress-imposing fixtures for periods up to 24 months. A decline in mean thresholds with time was observed, although measured values showed significant scatter. In order to establish initial strength and fatigue properties for these fibers, a number of additional samples were used to generate time-to-failure data at various stress levels. Based on these results, other fiber samples were subjected to conditions that greatly accelerated fatigue processes. Internal damage thresholds were then measured in these fibers and compared to thresholds measured in fresh fibers. Conclusive comparisons were frustrated by sample-to-sample and lot-to-lot variations in fiber defects.

  9. 5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Grace, Marcy B; Singh, Vijay K; Rhee, Juong G; Jackson, William E; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H

    2012-11-01

    The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body ?- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:22843381

  10. Mud Induced Formation Damage in Fractured Reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Di Jiao; Mukul Sharma

    1996-01-01

    An set of experiments was completed that clearly shows that drilling muds can cause large irreversible damage to fractures and dramatically reduce the productivity of wells producing from a natural fracture network. The use of sized fibers as an additive to drilling muds can significantly reduce both the depth and extent of formation damage. Granular additives (such as CaCOâ) are

  11. SEPARATION METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES - SPECIAL ISSUE: MEMBRANES AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...

  12. Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

    2002-12-27

    The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

  13. Damage tolerance research on composite compression panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The damage tolerance of composites was investigated. Results show that severe degradation in material strength may occur due to impact damage and that reduced strain allowables should be considered to compensate for possible impact damage. The mechanisms of failure involved in impact so that local damage will be reduced and arrest of propagating fracture initiated at impact locations are examined. Compression strength reductions for damage due to impact by a 1.27 cm diameter spherical projectile in thick laminates representative of wing skin panels are presented. Also discussed are the results of concepts recently evaluated to improve damage tolerance. These concepts range from improvements at the materials level to advanced structural configurations designed to arrest or limit the growth of propagating fractures. The results indicate that substantial improvements in the damage tolerance of graphite-epoxy composite structures can be achieved through the proper combination of materials and structural design.

  14. Environmental enrichment modulates glucocorticoid receptor expression and reduces anxiety in Indian field male mouse Mus booduga through up-regulation of microRNA-124a.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Ragu Varman; Koilmani, Emmanuvel Rajan

    2014-04-01

    Enriched environmental condition (EC) has been known to reduce anxiety. In this study, we examined whether an EC could enhance anxiolytic behavior in the Indian field mouse Mus booduga by down-regulating the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) through microRNA-124a. Wild individuals were captured at agricultural field, and then housed at standard conditions (SC) for 7days. After short-term at standard condition (STSC), on 8th day they were divided into three groups as those: (i) STSC mice tested on light/dark box on the same day and then euthanized to examine gene expression, (ii) maintained at long-term in standard condition (LTSC) and (iii) transferred to EC. After 30days, both the LTSC and EC groups were tested on the light/dark box and then euthanized to examine gene expression in amygdala region of brain. EC group preferred to stay at light chamber and exhibited less anxiety-like behavioral components when compared to STSC and LTSC groups. However, between the two groups the STSC mice showed lesser anxiety-like behavior than LTSC mice. The expression of Dicer, Ago-2 and microRNA-124a (miR-124a) was more significantly up regulated in EC mice than in STSC and LTSC mice. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that miR-124a binds with 3'UTR of GR, and subsequently we detected a more decreased level of GR in EC than in STSC, LTSC mice. The results suggest that one of the action of EC could be a GR fine tuning through miR-124a, but there is no demonstration that it could be the only involved molecular mechanism. PMID:24457250

  15. Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

    2012-02-02

    We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

  16. Damage and fatigue Continuum damage mechanics modeling

    E-print Network

    Damage and fatigue Continuum damage mechanics modeling for fatigue of materials and structures Cachan Cedex, France desmorat@lmt.ens-cachan.fr ABSTRACT. Application of damage mechanics to fatigue damage mechanics (CDM) is a powerful tool to model the degrada- tion of materials, the stress softening

  17. Environmental Environmental

    E-print Network

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    produced public support for the creation of NIEHS for research and, soon afterward, for the creation of the regulatory Environmental Protection Agency. Public sup port also developed for the cre ation of the National smoking or not smoking, and by our diet, for example). It also includes the medicines and other therapies

  18. Juror Judgments in Civil Cases: Effects of Plaintiff's Requests and Plaintiff's Identity on Punitive Damage Awards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reid Hastie; David A. Schkade; John W. Payne

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the manner in which civil jurors assess punitive damage awards. Jury-eligible citizens were shown a videotaped summary of an environmental damage lawsuit and told that the defendant had already paid compensatory damages. They were asked to judge liability for punitive damages and, if damages were to be assessed, to assign a dollar award. Three

  19. Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage: An Adaptable, Hybrid, Multi-Stage, Energy-Recovery Approach to Reduce Carbon Intensity and Environmental Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Chen, M.; Lu, C.; Sun, Y.; Hao, Y.; Elliot, T. R.; Celia, M. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The challenges of mitigating climate change and generating sustainable renewable energy are inseparable and can be addressed by synergistic integration of geothermal energy production with secure geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Pressure buildup can be a limiting factor for GCS and geothermal reservoir operations, due to a number of concerns, including the potential for CO2 leakage and induced seismicity, while pressure depletion can limit geothermal energy recovery. Water-use demands can also be a limiting factor for GCS and geothermal operations, particularly where water resources are already scarce. Economic optimization of geothermal-GCS involves trade-offs of various benefits and risks, along with their associated costs: (1) heat extraction per ton of delivered CO2, (2) permanent CO2 storage, (3) energy recovery per unit well (and working-fluid recirculation) costs, and (4) economic lifetime of a project. We analyze a hybrid, multi-stage approach using both formation brine and injected CO2 as working fluids to attempt to optimize the benefits of sustainable energy production and permanent CO2 storage, while conserving water resources and minimizing environmental risks. We consider a range of well-field patterns and operational schemes. Initially, the fluid production is entirely brine. After CO2 breakthrough, the fraction of CO2 in production, which is called the CO2 "cut", increases with time. Thus, brine is the predominant working fluid for early time, with the contribution of CO2 to heat extraction increasing with CO2 cut (and time). We find that smaller well spacing between CO2 injectors and producers favors earlier CO2 breakthrough and a more rapid rise in CO2 cut, which increases the contribution of recirculated CO2, thereby improving the heat extraction per ton of delivered CO2. On the other hand, larger well spacing increases permanent CO2 storage, energy production per unit well cost, while reducing the thermal drawdown rate, which extends the economic lifetime of a project. For the range of cases considered, we were never able to eliminate the co-production of brine; thus, brine management is likely to be important for reservoir operations, whether or not brine is considered as a candidate working fluid. Future work will address site-specific reservoir conditions and infrastructure factors, such as proximity to potential CO2 sources. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; Boeck, Gudrun De

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32ppt), to brackish water (20ppt and 10ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20mg/L ?1.18mM representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12h, 48h, 84h and 180h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Biochemical responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea excretion rate, plasma ammonia, urea and lactate, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) and osmolality, muscle water content (MWC) and liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and ion- osmoregulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. During HEA, Jamm was inhibited in fasted fish at 10ppt, while fed fish were still able to excrete efficiently. At 2.5ppt, both feeding groups subjected to HEA experienced severe reductions and eventually a reversion in Jamm. Overall, the build-up of plasma ammonia in HEA exposed fed fish was much lower than fasted ones. Unlike fasted fish, fed fish acclimated to lower salinities (10ppt-2.5ppt) could maintain plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and MWC during HEA exposure. Thus fed fish were able to sustain ion-osmotic homeostasis which was associated with a more pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity. At 2.5ppt both feeding groups activated H(+)-ATPase. The expression of NKCC1 was down-regulated at lower salinities in both fed and fasted fish, but was upregulated within each salinity after a few days of HEA exposure. Though an increment in plasma lactate content and a decline in energy stores were noted for both feeding regimes, the effect was more severe in feed deprived fish. Overall, several different physiological processes were disturbed in fasted sea bass during HEA exposure while feeding alleviated adverse effects of high ammonia and salinity challenge. This suggests that low food availability can render fish more vulnerable to external ammonia, especially at reduced seawater salinities. PMID:25625520

  1. Damaged Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop, that protected it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows the exterior skin of the workshop discolored by solar radiation. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  2. Damaged Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Saturn V vehicle, carrying the unmarned orbital workshop for the Skylab-1 mission, lifted off successfully and all systems performed normally. Sixty-three seconds into the flight, engineers in the operation support and control center saw an unexpected telemetry indication that signalled that damages occurred on one solar array and the micrometeoroid shield during the launch. The micrometeoroid shield, a thin protective cylinder surrounding the workshop protecting it from tiny space particles and the sun's scorching heat, ripped loose from its position around the workshop. This caused the loss of one solar wing and jammed the other. Still unoccupied, the Skylab was stricken with the loss of the heat shield and sunlight beat mercilessly on the lab's sensitive skin. Internal temperatures soared, rendering the station uninhabitable, threatening foods, medicines, films, and experiments. This image, taken during a fly-around inspection by the Skylab-2 crew, shows a crippled Skylab in orbit. The crew found their home in space to be in serious shape; the heat shield gone, one solar wing gone, and the other jammed. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed, tested, rehearsed, and approved three repair options. These options included a parasol sunshade and a twin-pole sunshade to restore the temperature inside the workshop, and a set of metal cutting tools to free the jammed solar panel.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOBIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental aquatic photobiology is most commonly known for its links to global climate change. Ozone depletion is, however, not the only factor that alters the effects of ultraviolet radiation on biological systems. Alterations in water clarity, by acidification, reduced disso...

  4. Fluoroscopy Assisted Minimally Invasive Transplantation of Allogenic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Embedded in HyStem Reduces the Progression of Nucleus Pulposus Degeneration in the Damaged Interverbal Disc: A Preliminary Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Puvanan, Karunanithi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao; Shani, Samuel; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Amir Abbas, Azlina; Mohamed, Jamal Azmi; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a technique for minimally invasive and accurate delivery of stem cells to augment nucleus pulposus (NP) in damaged intervertebral discs (IVD). IVD damage was created in noncontiguous discs at L4-L5 level; rabbits (N = 12) were randomly divided into three groups: group I treated with MSCs in HyStem hydrogel, group II treated with HyStem alone, and group III received no intervention. MSCs and hydrogel were administered to the damaged disc under guidance of fluoroscopy. Augmentation of NP was assessed through histological and MRI T2 mapping of the NP after eight weeks of transplantation. T2 weighted signal intensity was higher in group I than in groups II and III (P < 0.05). Disc height index showed maximum disc height in group I compared to groups II and III. Histological score of the degenerative index was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group I (8.6 ± 1.8) than that in groups II (11.6 ± 2.3) and III (18.0 ± 5.7). Immunohistochemistry staining for collagen type II and aggrecan staining were higher in group I as compared to other groups. Our results demonstrate that the minimally invasive administration of MSCs in hyaluronan hydrogel (HyStem) augments the repair of NP in damaged IVD. PMID:24983002

  5. Fluoroscopy assisted minimally invasive transplantation of allogenic mesenchymal stromal cells embedded in HyStem reduces the progression of nucleus pulposus degeneration in the damaged interverbal disc: a preliminary study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Subhan, Rifa Aquidah; Puvanan, Karunanithi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Shani, Samuel; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Abbas, Azlina Amir; Mohamed, Jamal Azmi; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a technique for minimally invasive and accurate delivery of stem cells to augment nucleus pulposus (NP) in damaged intervertebral discs (IVD). IVD damage was created in noncontiguous discs at L4-L5 level; rabbits (N = 12) were randomly divided into three groups: group I treated with MSCs in HyStem hydrogel, group II treated with HyStem alone, and group III received no intervention. MSCs and hydrogel were administered to the damaged disc under guidance of fluoroscopy. Augmentation of NP was assessed through histological and MRI T2 mapping of the NP after eight weeks of transplantation. T2 weighted signal intensity was higher in group I than in groups II and III (P < 0.05). Disc height index showed maximum disc height in group I compared to groups II and III. Histological score of the degenerative index was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group I (8.6 ± 1.8) than that in groups II (11.6 ± 2.3) and III (18.0 ± 5.7). Immunohistochemistry staining for collagen type II and aggrecan staining were higher in group I as compared to other groups. Our results demonstrate that the minimally invasive administration of MSCs in hyaluronan hydrogel (HyStem) augments the repair of NP in damaged IVD. PMID:24983002

  6. Reduced shedding regenerator and method

    DOEpatents

    Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-05-22

    A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

  7. Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

  8. Benchmark Dose Estimation for Cadmium-Induced Renal Tubular Damage among Environmental Cadmium-Exposed Women Aged 35–54 Years in Two Counties of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jia; Li, Mei; Han, Tian-xu; Chen, Jian-wei; Ye, Lin-xiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yi-kai

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of factors, including gender, age, smoking habits, and occupational exposure, affect the levels of urinary cadmium. Few studies have considered these influences when calculating the benchmark dose (BMD) of cadmium. In the present study, we aimed to calculate BMDs and their 95% lower confidence bounds (BMDLs) for cadmium-induced renal tubular effects in an age-specific population in south-central China. Methods In this study, urinary cadmium, ?2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels were measured in morning urine samples from 490 randomly selected non-smoking women aged 35–54 years. Participants were selected using stratified cluster sampling in two counties (counties A and B) in China. Multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the dose-response relationship between urinary cadmium levels and tubular effects. BMDs/BMDLs corresponding to an additional risk (benchmark response) of 5% and 10% were calculated with assumed cut-off values of the 84th and 90th percentile of urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels of the controls. Results Urinary levels of ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase increased significantly with increasing levels of urinary cadmium. Age was not associated with urinary cadmium levels, possibly because of the narrow age range included in this study. Based on urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase, BMDs and BMDLs of urinary cadmium ranged from 2.08 to 3.80 (1.41–2.18) µg/g cr for subjects in county A and from 0.99 to 3.34 (0.74–1.91) µg/g cr for those in county B. The predetermined benchmark response of 0.05 and the 90th percentiles of urinary ?2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase levels of the subjects not exposed to cadmium (i.e., the control group) served as cut-off values. Conclusions The obtained BMDs of urinary cadmium were similar to the reference point of 1 µg/g cr, as suggested by the European Food Safety Authority, indicating that cadmium exposure must be reduced to protect human health. PMID:25536107

  9. Algorithm for cumulative damage probability calculations in S-on-1 laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrameyer, Stefan; Jupé, Marco; Jensen, Lars; Ristau, Detlev

    2013-11-01

    In the determination of the laser-induced damage threshold of optics, the correct estimation of damage probabilities is essential. In this publication, a simple procedure based on physical considerations is proposed to optimize the calculation of the damage probabilities by using a cumulative algorithm. The predicted status of test sites at higher and lower fluences than actually tested provides the basis for a new data reduction. It is shown that the proposed algorithm increases the statistically relevant amount of data per fluence interval dQi by using virtual test sites. Thus, the uncertainty ?i in the calculation of the damage probabilities is reduced significantly and the subsequent linear regression of the damage probabilities will have a reduced least squared error. Non-linear regression of the damage probability according to defect-induced damage models as published numerous times in recent years are also performed to utilize a better confidence level which will be shown exemplarily.

  10. Environmental indices: theory and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Ott

    1978-01-01

    All existing environmental index systems, along with principles for their design, application and structure, are included in this book. Chapter I introduces environmental data, presenting simple communicative approaches such as environmental quality profiles. It also describes the national monitoring activities that generate these data and discusses the difficulty of constructing meaningful environmental damage functions. Chapter II presents a new conceptual

  11. DNA Damage and Oxygen Radical Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Imlay; Stuart Linn

    1988-01-01

    A major portion of the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli is attributed to DNA damage mediated by a Fenton reaction that generates active forms of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide, DNA-bound iron, and a constant source of reducing equivalents. Kinetic peculiarities of DNA damage production by hydrogen peroxide in vivo can be reproduced by including DNA in an

  12. A study of the effects of end-cap molecular species on environmental characteristics of polimidesulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.; Walker, S.

    1984-01-01

    To improve the environmental stability and mechanical properties of polyimidesulfone (PISO2), it was decided to investigate the effects of various types of end caps on its thermo-mechanical and related properties. It was noted that end caps are effective in reducing the environmental damage susceptibility of PISO2 samples, apparently due to their ability to react with free end groups which are believed to be moisture pickup sites. Phthalic anydride, aniline and aminobenzophenone were the end caps used in this study.

  13. Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions,

    E-print Network

    Papalambros, Panos

    , imposing new constraints on the design and development of future airplane concepts. In this paper -- which are proportional to fuel burn -- and landing- takeoff NOx emissions. The results are compared aviation has been purely economic: by reducing fuel burn, aircraft operat- ing costs were reduced as well

  14. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina J. Lovell; Lisa A. Drake

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce\\u000a the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic\\u000a invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome.\\u000a Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal

  15. Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina J. Lovell; Lisa A. Drake

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges---a benefit of which would be to reduce the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome. Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal

  16. Maximizing the usage of renewable energy will reduce our reliance on dwindling natural resources and environmental pollution. Batteries are an important enabling technology for renewable energy, portable

    E-print Network

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    electronics, and modern transportation systems such as hybrid electric vehicles. However, limitation and environmental pollution. Batteries are an important enabling technology for renewable energy, portable of current materials has to be overcome if long-life and low-cost batteries are to be built. In my talk, I

  17. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations

    E-print Network

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

  18. Approach for Assessing Direct Flood Damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ga?ová, Lenka; Zele?áková, Martina; S?y?, Daniel; Purcz, Pavol

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a methodological approach to flood direct tangible damage - damage to assets and direct intangible damage - environmental damage and loss of life assessment. The assessment of flood risk is an essential part of the risk management approach, which is the conceptual basis for the EU directive 2007/60/ES on the assessment and management of flood risk. The purpose of this directive is to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risk, aiming at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with flood in the community. Overall, an accurate estimation of negative effects on assets, environment and people is important in order to be able to determine the economy, environmental and social flood risk level in a system and the effects of risk mitigation measures.

  19. Texas Senate Bill 5 - Reducing Pollution in Non-Attainment Areas: An Overview of the Legislation

    E-print Network

    Culp, Charles; Haberl, Jeff; Bahman, Yazdani; Fitzpatrick, Tom; Bryant, J.; Turner, D.

    Texas Senate Bill 5 - Reducing Pollution in Non-Attainment Areas: An Overview of the Legislation CCulp, J.Haberl, B.Yazdani, T. Fitzpatrick, J.Bryant, D.Turner Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University ABSTRACT The Federal Clean Air Act... of 1970 authorized the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish the maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants that are known to endanger human health, harm the environment or cause property damage. Senate Bill 5 was passed...

  20. A Numerical Study on the Screening of Blast-Induced Waves for Reducing Ground Vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byungkyu Jeon; Seokwon Jeon

    2009-01-01

    Blasting is often a necessary part of mining and construction operations, and is the most cost-effective way to break rock,\\u000a but blasting generates both noise and ground vibration. In urban areas, noise and vibration have an environmental impact,\\u000a and cause structural damage to nearby structures. Various wave-screening methods have been used for many years to reduce blast-induced\\u000a ground vibration. However,

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Environmental Policy February 2013 The University of Leeds is responsible to reflect best environmental practice, implement an environmental management system to pursue sustainability and continuous improvement and seek innovative ways of meeting environmental objectives. These include: To meet

  2. Laser damage in thin film optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogler, Kent J.

    1992-07-01

    A review of laser damage resistant coatings for optical elements to be employed in military systems using lasers or encountering lasers used as weapons or countermeasures is provided. It provides an extensive data base of damage thresholds for oxide, fluoride, and chalcogenide single layer and multilayer coatings. The data base is supported by a detailed description of how the coatings were synthesized and how the measurements were performed to collect the damage threshold data. The basis from which the information was collected covers a period from 1984 through 1989. The material reviewed includes investigation of causes of damage in optical coatings and approaches to reducing or eliminating damage mechanisms with the objective of raising damage thresholds. The information should be found useful in selecting coating materials and techniques for their synthesis or as a tool in evaluating the susceptibility of existing coated optical elements.

  3. The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES): New Mars Science to Reduce Human Risk and Prepare for the Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Wright, Henry S.; Killough, B. D.; Edwards, W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining critical measurements for eventual human Mars missions while expanding upon recent Mars scientific discoveries and deriving new scientific knowledge from a unique near surface vantage point is the focus of the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES) exploration mission. The key element of ARES is an instrumented,rocket-powered, well-tested robotic airplane platform, that will fly between one to two kilometers above the surface while traversing hundreds of kilometers to collect and transmit previously unobtainable high spatial measurements relevant to the NASA Mars Exploration Program and the exploration of Mars by humans.

  4. Evaluation of Community Action Against Asthma: A Community Health Worker Intervention to Improve Children's Asthma-Related Health by Reducing Household Environmental Triggers for Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith A. Parker; Barbara A. Israel; Thomas G. Robins; Xihong Lin; Wilma Brakefield-Caldwell; Erminia Ramirez; Katherine K. Edgren; Maria Salinas; Toby C. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) community health worker (CHW) intervention to improve children's asthma-related health by reducing household envi- ronmental triggers for asthma. After randomization to an intervention or control group, 298 households in Detroit, Michigan, with a child, aged 7 to 11, with persistent asthma symptoms participated. The intervention was effective in increasing

  5. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - SUPPLEMENT 2: PROCEDURES USED IN SETTING UP THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The procedures used in setting up the agricultural production model used in a study of alternatives for reducing insecticides on cotton and corn are described. The major analytical tool used is a spatial equilibrium model of U.S. agriculture. This is a linear programming model th...

  6. Results of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study (NCICAS) environmental intervention to reduce cockroach allergen exposure in inner-city homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Gergen; Kathleen M. Mortimer; Peyton A. Eggleston; David Rosenstreich; Herman Mitchell; Dennis Ownby; Meyer Kattan; Dean Baker; Elizabeth C. Wright; Raymond Slavin; Floyd Malveaux

    1999-01-01

    Background: Cockroach allergen is important in asthma. Practical methods to reduce exposure are needed. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of house cleaning and professional extermination on lowering cockroach antigen levels in inner-city dwellings. Methods: As part of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study intervention, 265 of 331 families with asthmatic children who had positive skin test responses to

  7. Economic measurement of environment damages

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.

    1980-05-01

    The densities, energy consumption, and economic development of the increasing population exacerbate environmental degradation. Air and water pollution is a major environmental problem affecting life and health, outdoor recreation, household soiling, vegetation, materials, and production. The literature review indicated that numerous studies have assessed the physical and monetary damage to populations at risk from excessive concentrations of major air and water pollutants-sulfur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter, oxidants, and carbon monoxide in air; and nutrients, oil, pesticides, and toxic metals and others in water. The measurement of the damages was one of the most controversial issues in pollution abatement. The methods that have been used to estimate the societal value of pollution abatement are: (1) chain of effects, (2) market approaches, and (3) surveys. National gross damages of air pollution of $20.2 billion and of water pollution of $11.1 billion for 1973 are substantial. These best estimates, updated for the economic and demographic conditions, could provide acceptable control totals for estimating and predicting benefits and costs of abating air and water pollution emissions. The major issues to be resolved are: (1) lack of available noneconomic data, (2) theoretical and empirical difficulties of placing a value on human life and health and on benefits such as aesthetics, and (3) lack of available demographic and economic data.

  8. Effect of Uncertainty of Identified Parameters on Structural Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Mario; Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Sathanthan, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the effect of the uncertainty of identified parameters on the damage detection of structure. The identified parameters, which are obtained by applying system identification algorithms to analyze the time-domain response data, have uncertainty due to noise, environmental change, etc. The damage of some structural elements may have less effect on the identified parameters than noise or environmental change, so some damage situations cannot be distinguished under these circumstances. An algorithm is presented to determine whether the considered damage can be distinguished. A twenty-bay truss structure is used to demonstrate and verify the study.

  9. Evaluation of the environmental effects of western surface coal mining. Volume I. Final report, June 1975June 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cook

    1979-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the methods presently used for surface mining of coal in the western United States, identifies and evaluates the effects that use of those methods have on the environment, and recommends ways in which the methods might be altered to reduce both long-term and short-term environmental damage.

  10. 77 FR 17036 - Revised Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Bogue Banks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to evaluate the impacts of the proposed alternatives to reduce coastal storm damages from beach erosion on Bogue Banks North Carolina. The Bogue Banks study area is located on the coast of North Carolina, about 80 miles...

  11. Viral Carcinogenesis: Factors Inducing DNA Damage and Virus Integration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Williams, Vonetta; Filippova, Maria; Filippov, Valery; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the causative agents of 10%–15% of human cancers worldwide. The most common outcome for virus-induced reprogramming is genomic instability, including accumulation of mutations, aberrations and DNA damage. Although each virus has its own specific mechanism for promoting carcinogenesis, the majority of DNA oncogenic viruses encode oncogenes that transform infected cells, frequently by targeting p53 and pRB. In addition, integration of viral DNA into the human genome can also play an important role in promoting tumor development for several viruses, including HBV and HPV. Because viral integration requires the breakage of both the viral and the host DNA, the integration rate is believed to be linked to the levels of DNA damage. DNA damage can be caused by both endogenous and exogenous factors, including inflammation induced by either the virus itself or by co-infections with other agents, environmental agents and other factors. Typically, cancer develops years to decades following the initial infection. A better understanding of virus-mediated carcinogenesis, the networking of pathways involved in transformation and the relevant risk factors, particularly in those cases where tumorigenesis proceeds by way of virus integration, will help to suggest prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of virus-mediated cancer. PMID:25340830

  12. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.

    2009-07-15

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

  13. Damage identification of a reinforced concrete frame by finite element model updating using damage parameterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-En Fang; Ricardo Perera; Guido De Roeck

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a sensitivity-based updating method to identify the damage in a tested reinforced concrete (RC) frame modeled with a two-dimensional planar finite element (FE) by minimizing the discrepancies of modal frequencies and mode shapes. In order to reduce the number of unknown variables, a bidimensional damage (element) function is proposed, resulting in a considerable improvement of the optimization

  14. Genome-Derived Criteria for Assigning Environmental narG and nosZ Sequences to Operational Taxonomic Units of Nitrate Reducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Palmer; Harold L. Drake; Marcus A. Horn

    2009-01-01

    Ninety percent of cultured bacterial nitrate reducers with a 16S rRNA gene similarity of >97% had a narG or nosZ similarity of >67% or >80%, respectively, suggesting that 67% and 80% could be used as standardized, conservative threshold similarity values for narG and nosZ, respectively (i.e., any two sequences that are less similar than the threshold similarity value have a

  15. Pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus

    2005-01-01

    The links between environmental agents, environmental conditions, and disease and disability among children are receiving increasing attention. Evidence abounds that children are more susceptible than adults to the damaging effects of environmental agents and conditions. This evidence is illuminated by the much-publicized and expanding research agenda on the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and treatment of environmentally related disease in the pediatric population. Encouragingly, advances in molecular biology and other sciences are providing important tools to aid pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in meeting the environmental health needs of children. PMID:15712790

  16. Reduced diversity and high sponge abundance on a sedimented Indo-Pacific reef system: implications for future changes in environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Powell, Abigail; Smith, David J; Hepburn, Leanne J; Jones, Timothy; Berman, Jade; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Bell, James J

    2014-01-01

    Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded) and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning. PMID:24475041

  17. Reduced Diversity and High Sponge Abundance on a Sedimented Indo-Pacific Reef System: Implications for Future Changes in Environmental Quality

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Abigail; Smith, David J.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Jones, Timothy; Berman, Jade; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Bell, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Although coral reef health across the globe is declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts, relatively little is known of how environmental variability influences reef organisms other than corals and fish. Sponges are an important component of coral reef fauna that perform many important functional roles and changes in their abundance and diversity as a result of environmental change has the potential to affect overall reef ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined patterns of sponge biodiversity and abundance across a range of environments to assess the potential key drivers of differences in benthic community structure. We found that sponge assemblages were significantly different across the study sites, but were dominated by one species Lamellodysidea herbacea (42% of all sponges patches recorded) and that the differential rate of sediment deposition was the most important variable driving differences in abundance patterns. Lamellodysidea herbacea abundance was positively associated with sedimentation rates, while total sponge abundance excluding Lamellodysidea herbacea was negatively associated with rates of sedimentation. Overall variation in sponge assemblage composition was correlated with a number of variables although each variable explained only a small amount of the overall variation. Although sponge abundance remained similar across environments, diversity was negatively affected by sedimentation, with the most sedimented sites being dominated by a single sponge species. Our study shows how some sponge species are able to tolerate high levels of sediment and that any transition of coral reefs to more sedimented states may result in a shift to a low diversity sponge dominated system, which is likely to have subsequent effects on ecosystem functioning. PMID:24475041

  18. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, D. G.

    1980-02-01

    Progress on each of the following topics is outlined: (1) rotating target neutron source, (2) fusion materials irradiation test facility, (3) environmental characterization, (4) damage production, and (5) damage microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior. (MOW)

  19. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where it crosses the elbow, so prolonged pressure on the elbow or entrapment of the nerve may cause damage. Damage to ...

  20. Biological damage to fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B. Skribachilin; E. A. Lapteva; L. K. Mikhailova

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the damage to fuels caused by microorganisms in various climatic zones. Fuel samples were taken from aircraft, ships, and tractors. The results indicate that the most susceptible to biological damage are diesel fuels in shipboard equipment operating in regions with a warm, moist (tropical) climate. The biological damage of fuels can lead to

  1. Stability of U(VI)- and Tc(VII) reducing microbial communities to environmental perturbation: a thermodynamic network model and intermediate-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, James P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Istok, Jack; Krumholz, Lee

    2006-06-01

    The project is a collaborative task with a larger project headed by Jack Istok at Oregon State University, which is conducted under the same title. The project was conceptualized as follows. A ''geochemical'' model of microbial communities was hypothesized, in which microbes were characterized as mineral species according to the chemical transformations they used for metabolic function. The iron-reducing bacteria, for example, would be represented by the iron reducing chemical reaction, including a specific electron donor, the fraction of the consumed donor used for biomass maintenance or growth, and a free energy for the reaction. The pseudomineral species would then be included in a standard geochemical model, and community succession could be calculated according to the thermodynamically favored microbially mediated reactions under progressive consumption of electron donors and receptors, and evolving geochemical conditions. The project includes relatively minor participation by the University of Oklahoma and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, with the major component at OSU. The PNNL project was funded to provide assistance to Dr. Istok in formulating the appropriate modeling approach and geochemical constraints on the modeling effort.

  2. DESTINATION: STRIVING TO REDUCE

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    DESTINATION: STRIVING TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT THROUGH SUSTAINABILITY. GREEN s U M M E r 2 0 a difference. it can change a student's life, underwrite new research, construct a building and more. in return Brown Anderson's efforts to preserve Oak Grove School, one of Georgia's few remaining one-room schools

  3. Additive effects of cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker, and an angiotensin II receptor blocker on reducing cardiorenal damage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yutaka; Aritomi, Shizuka; Niinuma, Kazumi; Nakamura, Tarou; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Junichi; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Cilnidipine (Cil), which is an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has been known to provide renal protection by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the renin-angiotensin system. In this study, we compared the effects of the combination of Cil and amlodipine (Aml), which is an L-type CCB, with an angiotensin (Ang) II receptor blocker on diabetic cardiorenal damage in spontaneously type 2 diabetic rats. Seventeen-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomly assigned to receive Cil, Aml, valsartan (Val), Cil + Val, Aml + Val, or a vehicle (eight rats per group) for 22 weeks. Antihypertensive potencies were nearly equal among the CCB monotherapy groups and the combination therapy groups. The lowering of blood pressure by either treatment did not significantly affect the glycemic variables. However, exacerbations of renal and heart failure were significantly suppressed in rats administered Cil or Val, and additional suppression was observed in those administered Cil + Val. Although Val increased the renin-Ang system, Aml + Val treatment resulted in additional increases in these parameters, while Cil + Val did not show such effects. Furthermore, Cil increased the ratio of Ang-(1-7) to Ang-I, despite the fact that Val and Aml + Val decreased the Ang-(1-7) levels. These actions of Cil + Val might be due to their synergistic inhibitory effect on the activity of the SNS, and on aldosterone secretion through N-type calcium channel antagonism and Ang II receptor type 1 antagonism. Thus, Cil may inhibit the progression of cardiorenal disease in type 2 diabetes patients by acting as an N-type CCB and inhibiting the aldosterone secretion and SNS activation when these drugs were administered in combination with an Ang II receptor blocker. PMID:24970998

  4. Pre-/During-/Post-Laser Processes to Enhance the Adhesion and Mechanical Properties of Thermal-Sprayed Coatings with a Reduced Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Alonso, D.; Serres, N.; Demian, C.; Costil, S.; Langlade, C.; Coddet, C.

    2011-06-01

    Lasers have been used to improve the ultimate performance of thermal spray coatings for specific applications, but the full potential of additional laser treatments must be further explored. Laser treatments (auxiliary processes) can be applied before, during or after thermal spraying (main process), leading to a wide range of coating improvements (microstructure, adhesion, etc.). The aim of this review is to introduce the most significant laser treatments for thermal spray applications. The potential improvements for thermal spray coatings are illustrated by a selection of representative research cases. Laser pretreatments (ablation and texturing) promote coating/substrate adhesion and are suitable to prepare the surface of sensitive substrates such as aluminum, titanium, or magnesium alloys. The use of these techniques, which leads to several benefits such as surfaces free of grit-particle inclusions, directly improves the quality of coatings. Laser treatments applied simultaneously during the spraying process deeply modify the coatings microstructure. These hybrid technologies allow in situ laser melting of coatings, resulting in improved mechanical properties and enhanced wear and corrosion behaviors. Finally, laser posttreatments can improve coatings density and adhesion, and also induce phase transformations and structure refinement. As a summary, laser treatments seem particularly promising for improving the thermal spray coating microstructure and the coating/substrate adhesion. In addition, they offer a more environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional surface preparation treatments.

  5. Combating wind erosion of sandy soils and crop damage in the coastal deserts: Wind tunnel experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genis, Arthur; Vulfson, Leonid; Ben-Asher, Jiftah

    2013-06-01

    In the western Negev desert of Israel frequent sandstorms cause heavy damage to young lettuce, carrot, peanut and potato plants during the planting season. The damage of plants is based mainly on the mechanical impact of saltating sand particles, which causes irreversible injuries to the plant leaves. Current agro-technique measures taken to prevent wind damage to crop in Israel are based on high frequency irrigation. Although the high-frequency irrigation helps bind soil particles together by forming a soil crust, it is associated with the large waste of water, which is not practical under the arid conditions. Application of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a chemical stabilizer has proved to be effective for prevention of soil erosion, saving irrigation water and a stable growth of plants in the early stages. Although the technique of PAM application is not yet used commercially in Israel, the preliminary studies suggested that it might have the potential to reduce the damage to the plant leaves by sandstorms, providing both environmental and agricultural benefits. In this study the effectiveness of PAM for preventing sandstorms in the western Negev was also investigated. Optimal concentration and volume of PAM solution per hectare of bare sandy soil were determined. For this purpose a wind tunnel was used to determine wind velocities of the first and continuous detachment of particles. The ability of PAM application to minimize the damage of plants by sandstorms was experimentally verified using image analysis tools.

  6. Damages Caps in Medical Malpractice Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of damages caps and concludes that the better-designed studies show that damages caps reduce liability insurance premiums. The effects of damages caps on defensive medicine, physicians’ location decisions, and the cost of health care to consumers are less clear. The only study of whether consumers benefit from lower health insurance premiums as a result of damages caps found no impact. Some state courts have based decisions declaring damages caps legislation unconstitutional on the lack of evidence of their effectiveness, thereby ignoring the findings of conflicting research studies or discounting their relevance. Although courts should be cautious in rejecting empirical evidence that caps are effective, legislators should consider whether they benefit consumers enough to justify limiting tort recoveries for those most seriously injured by malpractice. PMID:17517115

  7. A Food Store–Based Environmental Intervention Is Associated with Reduced BMI and Improved Psychosocial Factors and Food-Related Behaviors on the Navajo Nation123

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Kim, Elizabeth M.; He, Siran; Pardilla, Marla

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is significantly higher among American Indians (AIs) and is associated with increased rates of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. We implemented a 14-mo intervention trial (Navajo Healthy Stores) on the Navajo Nation that sought to increase availability of healthier foods in local food stores and to promote these foods at the point of purchase and through community media. We divided the Navajo Nation into 10 store regions, half of which were randomized to intervention and half to comparison. We evaluated the program by using a pre-post sample of systematically sampled adult Navajo consumers (baseline, n = 276; postintervention, n = 145). Intervention impact was examined by analyzing pre-post differences by intervention group and by intervention exposure level. When intervention and comparison groups were compared, only body mass index (BMI) showed a trend toward impact of the intervention (P = 0.06). However, greater exposure to the intervention was associated with significantly reduced BMI (P ? 0.05) and improved healthy food intentions (P ? 0.01), healthy cooking methods (P ? 0.05), and healthy food getting (P ? 0.01). With increasing exposure, the odds of improving overweight or obese status was 5.02 (95% CI: 1.48, 16.99; P ? 0.01) times the odds of maintaining or worsening overweight or obese status. In summary, a food store intervention was associated with reduced overweight/obesity and improved obesity-related psychosocial and behavioral factors among those persons most exposed to the intervention on an AI reservation. PMID:23864511

  8. Damage mitigating control for wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Richard A.

    2007-12-01

    In the last few decades the wind industry has made great strides in reducing the cost of energy of utility scale wind turbines. In an attempt to reduce infrastructure costs and improve efficiency, the trend has been to develop larger variations of existing designs. In the past, the wind turbine controller was used primarily for rotor speed control and prevention of catastrophic damage from extreme wind conditions or component failures. The recent trend of wind turbine growing in size has resulted in wind turbines becoming much more flexible, and now the emphasis of wind turbine controls research focuses on how to damp resonances and avoid dangerous excitations that may lead to structural failure. Control of the fatigue loads on the wind turbine structure addresses neglects the fatigue mechanism of the material. The conversion of loads into stresses and those stresses into fatigue damage is a highly nonlinear process and is based on the so-called "cycle-counting" methods. Since the cycle counting methodology is difficult to convert into the time or frequency domains, these components have been generally avoided in controls research. Without modeling the damage dynamics, the wind turbine controller cannot efficiently reduce the fatigue of the structural components. The result is that only small decreases of fatigue damage are realized by current load reduction strategies at the expense of excessive control actuation. This dissertation introduces the concept of Damage Mitigating Control (DMC) as it applies to utility scale Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs). The work presented extends earlier work in damage mitigating and life extending control in several ways and then applies then applies this control strategy to reduce the fatigue damage suffered by wind turbines during operation. By modeling fatigue damage dynamics within the wind turbine controller, the life of the turbine can be extended significantly without sacrificing performance.

  9. Mycobacteria and fungi in moisture-damaged building materials.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Meklin, Teija; Torkko, Pirjo; Suomalainen, Sini; Reiman, Marjut; Katila, Marja-Leena; Paulin, Lars; Nevalainen, Aino

    2006-10-01

    In contrast to the growth of fungi, the growth of mycobacteria in moisture-damaged building materials has rarely been studied. Environmental mycobacteria were isolated from 23% of samples of moisture-damaged materials (n = 88). The occurrence of mycobacteria increased with increasing concentrations of fungi. Mycobacteria may contribute to indoor exposure and associated adverse health effects. PMID:17021236

  10. Mycobacteria and Fungi in Moisture-Damaged Building Materials

    PubMed Central

    Torvinen, Eila; Meklin, Teija; Torkko, Pirjo; Suomalainen, Sini; Reiman, Marjut; Katila, Marja-Leena; Paulin, Lars; Nevalainen, Aino

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to the growth of fungi, the growth of mycobacteria in moisture-damaged building materials has rarely been studied. Environmental mycobacteria were isolated from 23% of samples of moisture-damaged materials (n = 88). The occurrence of mycobacteria increased with increasing concentrations of fungi. Mycobacteria may contribute to indoor exposure and associated adverse health effects. PMID:17021236

  11. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. PMID:24953197

  12. Environmental review: A gateway to international cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.S. [National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The United States and 25 other nations are voting members within a unique international agreement for the governance of Antarctica, a continent larger than the combined area of the United States and Mexico. Antarctica is not a global commons. Rather, nations have agreed to set aside territorial claims for the continent`s natural resources while each pursues legitimate scientific study and carefully controlled commercial tourist-related activities. Through a set of agreements under the Antarctic Treaty System, each nation agrees to a systematic avoidance of environmental damage, exploitation, or militarization of Antarctica. Effective environmental review of planned actions is critical in winning continued international cooperation, efficient management of national antarctic research and education programs, and environmentally sound tourist visits to Antarctica. Over the last five years, NSF has prepared over 200 environmental assessments of planned activities in Antarctica. Thus far, the environmental reviews have proven very useful in the identification of alternative actions and mitigating measures to reduce impacts. In addition to protecting the unique and pristine qualities of Antarctica`s natural resources, environmental reviews are a key component in planning support activities such as field camp installation and removal, construction and decommissioning of facilities at year-round stations, and international cooperative research.

  13. Sulforaphane prevents pulmonary damage in response to inhaled arsenic by activating the Nrf2-defense response

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China) [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tao, Shasha [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lian, Fangru [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chau, Binh T. [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)] [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Jie; Sun, Guifan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China); Fang, Deyu [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Lantz, R. Clark [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States) [Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Zhang, Donna D., E-mail: dzhang@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, 1703 East Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Exposure to arsenic is associated with an increased risk of lung disease. Novel strategies are needed to reduce the adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure in the lung. Nrf2, a transcription factor that mediates an adaptive cellular defense response, is effective in detoxifying environmental insults and prevents a broad spectrum of diseases induced by environmental exposure to harmful substances. In this report, we tested whether Nrf2 activation protects mice from arsenic-induced toxicity. We used an in vivo arsenic inhalation model that is highly relevant to low environmental human exposure to arsenic-containing dusts. Two-week exposure to arsenic-containing dust resulted in pathological alterations, oxidative DNA damage, and mild apoptotic cell death in the lung; all of which were blocked by sulforaphane (SF) in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Mechanistically, SF-mediated activation of Nrf2 alleviated inflammatory responses by modulating cytokine production. This study provides strong evidence that dietary intervention targeting Nrf2 activation is a feasible approach to reduce adverse health effects associated with arsenic exposure. -- Highlights: ? Exposed to arsenic particles and/or SF have elevated Nrf2 and its target genes. ? Sulforaphane prevents pathological alterations, oxidative damage and cell death. ? Sulforaphane alleviates infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lungs. ? Sulforaphane suppresses arsenic-induced proinflammatory cytokine production.

  14. Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-05-01

    Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

  15. DNA Damage Response and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Plesca, Dragos; Mazumder, Suparna; Almasan, Alexandru

    2010-01-01

    A number of methods have been developed to examine the morphologic, biochemical, and molecular changes that happen during the DNA damage response that may ultimately lead to death of cells through various mechanisms that include apoptosis. When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation or chemical DNA-damaging agents, double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) are generated that rapidly result in the phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX. Because phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser 139 correlates well with each DSB, phospho-H2AX is a sensitive marker to used to examine the DNA damage and its repair. Apoptotic cells are characterized on the basis of their reduced DNA content and morphologic changes, including nuclear condensation, which can be detected by flow cytometry (sub-G1 DNA content), trypan blue, or Hoechst staining. The appearance of phosphatidylserine on the plasma membrane with annexin V–fluorochrome conjugates indicates the changes in plasma membrane composition and function. By combining it with propidium iodide staining, this method can also be used to distinguish early versus late apoptotic or necrotic events. The activation of caspases is another well-known biochemical marker of apoptosis. Finally, the Bcl-2 family of proteins and the mitochondria that play a critical role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis can be examined by translocation of Bax and cytochrome c in and out of mitochondria. In this chapter, we discuss the most commonly used techniques used in our laboratory for determining the DNA damage response leading to apoptosis. PMID:18603118

  16. Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) modelling demonstrates that ligament fatigue damage accumulates by different mechanisms than creep damage.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Timothy D; Johnston, Clifton R; Oxland, Thomas R; Thornton, Gail M

    2007-01-01

    Ligaments can be subjected to creep and fatigue damage when loaded to higher than normal stresses due to injury of a complementary joint restraint. Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) assumes that diffuse damage accumulates in a material, thereby reducing the effective cross-sectional area and leading to eventual rupture. The objective of this study was to apply CDM modelling to ligament creep and fatigue to reveal mechanisms of damage. Fatigue was modelled by cyclically varying the stress in the creep model. A few novel approaches were used. First, area reduction was not assumed equal to modulus reduction; thus, allowing damaged fibres to potentially contribute to load-bearing through the extracellular matrix. Modulus ratio was related to area reduction using residual strength. Second, damage rate was not assumed constant but rather was determined directly from the modulus ratio change with respect to time. Third, modulus ratio was normalized to maximum modulus to avoid artificial calculation of negative damage. With this approach, the creep time-to-rupture was predicted with -4% error at 60% UTS and -13% error at 30% UTS. At 15% UTS, no test was undertaken experimentally for a duration as long as the 24 days predicted theoretically. Oscillating the time-dependent damage in the creep model could not completely explain the fatigue behaviour because the fatigue time-to-rupture was predicted with over 1300% error at all stresses. These results suggest that a cycle-dependent damage mechanism, in addition to a time-dependent one, was responsible for fatigue rupture. Cycle-dependent damage may be an important consideration for rehabilitation activities following injury of a complementary ligament restraint. PMID:17582420

  17. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  18. Modelling of damage and failure of glass\\/epoxy composite plates subject to impact fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Azouaoui; S Rechak; Z Azari; S Benmedakhene; A Laksimi; G Pluvinage

    2001-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to study the impact fatigue damage of glass\\/epoxy laminated composites. Accumulation of damage, such as matrix cracking, delamination and fibre breakage, with repeated impact of the composite material may reduce the overall stiffness. These damage modes have been combined in a very complicated way to describe damage growth and fracture. A model is proposed

  19. PRESENTED AT COPENHAGEN WORKSHOP ON ENVIRONMENTAL, REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND FERTILITY, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK, 1/15-18/2005: GST M1 GENOTYPE INFLUENCES SPERM DNA DAMAGE ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to episodic air pollution in the Czech Republic has been associated with abnormal semen quality and sperm DNA damage (EHP 108:887;2000). A subsequent longitudinal study evaluated semen from 36 men sampled up to 7 times over a period of two years to capture exposures dur...

  20. Facing the damage together

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Emanuel

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore ideas about the nature of the attachment between a mother and her handicapped or damaged baby. I suggest that when a baby is found to be damaged, at or soon after birth, the parents' phantasy of a normal ‘beautiful’ baby dies and the mourning process is seldom adequately completed. Unbearable feelings of ‘primary disappointment’ (Emanuel,

  1. Recognizing environmental risks in oil and gas property acquisitions

    SciTech Connect

    Mundt, W.J. (R.W. Beck and Associates, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Within the last 20 yr, our society has become increasingly sensitive to environmental concerns. These concerns have been recognized by Congress through the passage of federal laws addressing numerous environmental issues. With the passage of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in 1980, the business community suddenly was thrust into a new arena of environmental cleanup costs can become the responsibility of the unfortunate party who has possession of the property when the contamination is discovered, regardless of who caused the environmental damage. The financial and industrial community recognizes these concerns as civil liability risks. Sophisticated financial institutions and industrial firms have required environmental due diligence assessments on major financial transactions involving real estate for several years. The oil and gas industry is not immune from the environmental and financial risks associated with acquisitions of potentially contaminated properties. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) currently exempts drilling fluids, produced waters, and associated wastes from hazardous waste regulation. However, several products used at exploration and production facilities are not exempt wastes when disposed of and, therefore, are subject to RCRA regulations. Cleanup of RCRA hazardous waters are subject to provisions of CERCLA. Futhermore, state agencies have authority to require cleanup of RCRA-exempt wastes (e.g., crude oil spills) that have contaminated soil or groundwater. The risk associated with acquiring cleanup (and financial) responsibility at contaminated producing facilities or other acquisitions can be reduced through the environmental assessment process.

  2. Environmental protection implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable.

  3. Nematode Damage Functions: The Problems of Experimental and Sampling Error 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. FERRIS

    1984-01-01

    The development and use of pest damage functions involves measurement and experi- mental errors associated with cultural, environmental, and distributional factors. Damage predictions are more valuable if considered with associated probability. Collapsing population densities into a geometric series of population classes allows a pseudo-replication removal of experimental and sampling error in damage function development. Recognition of the nature of sampling

  4. A CDM analysis of stochastic ductile damage growth and reliability Baidurya Bhattacharya, Bruce Ellingwood*

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Baidurya

    or environmental conditions is a random phenomenon. Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) enables macroscopic formulation. q 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Continuum damage mechanics it exists) in the loading process and environ- mental ¯uctuations. Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) relates

  5. Reduced Environmental Impact of Fertilizers Using PGPR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of fertilizers is becoming a threat to sustainability in agriculture. Inorganic fertilizer is linked to nitrate contamination of groundwater and phosphorus runoff. Even with organic fertilizers, such as poultry litter, high phosphorus bioavailability, nitrogen accumulation, and leaching may ...

  6. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  7. Environmental effects of contour coal strip mining. Hydrologic impact summary report. Appendix III

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Tschantz; B. J. Frederick; R. A. Minear; P. S. Dickens

    1982-01-01

    The results from this study demonstrate the great potential for steep back-to-approximate-contour slopes to generate large quantities of heavy and suspended sediment. Regulatory policies toward reclamation practices should provide adequate flexibility and necessary incentives to the coal mining industry to test innovative methods for reducing environmental damage from placement of spoil material. The long, steep slopes produced by back-to-approximate-contour reclamation

  8. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and

  9. Strategies for Reducing or Preventing the Generation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Poljsak, B.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of oxidative stress could be achieved in three levels: by lowering exposure to environmental pollutants with oxidizing properties, by increasing levels of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, or by lowering the generation of oxidative stress by stabilizing mitochondrial energy production and efficiency. Endogenous oxidative stress could be influenced in two ways: by prevention of ROS formation or by quenching of ROS with antioxidants. However, the results of epidemiological studies where people were treated with synthetic antioxidants are inconclusive and contradictory. Recent evidence suggests that antioxidant supplements (although highly recommended by the pharmaceutical industry and taken by many individuals) do not offer sufficient protection against oxidative stress, oxidative damage or increase the lifespan. The key to the future success of decreasing oxidative-stress-induced damage should thus be the suppression of oxidative damage without disrupting the wellintegrated antioxidant defense network. Approach to neutralize free radicals with antioxidants should be changed into prevention of free radical formation. Thus, this paper addresses oxidative stress and strategies to reduce it with the focus on nutritional and psychosocial interventions of oxidative stress prevention, that is, methods to stabilize mitochondria structure and energy efficiency, or approaches which would increase endogenous antioxidative protection and repair systems. PMID:22191011

  10. DNA damage and repair in human skin: Pathways and questions

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Hacham, H.; Sutherland, J.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Gange, R.W.; Maytum, D. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA). Dept. of Dermatology)

    1989-01-01

    Skin is assaulted daily with physical and chemical carcinogens, promoters, and modifiers of biological responses to such agents. DNA is the principal target for most carcinogens, and DNA in skin is particularly at risk. It is subject to damage not only from ingested compounds and their metabolic products, but also from externally applied or encountered chemicals, as well as from physical carcinogens such as sunlight and cosmetic or medical source of ultraviolet radiation. Three major factors determine the balance between damage to DNA of skin and the biological consequences of that damage: the frequencies and types of lesions, the ability of the individual to repair a lesion, and the strategy that skin employs to deal with the different spectra of lesions inflicted under varying environmental conditions. Thus, cellular responses to DNA damage, including repair of DNA lesions, are critical factors in determining the final level of damage and its consequences. This paper discusses DNA damage and repair in human skin. 35 refs.

  11. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems. Dropping…

  12. MMH fluids reduce formation damage in horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, L. (Dowell Fluids Services, Houston, TX (United States)); Williamson, D. (Dowell Fluids Services, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Haydel, S. (Ambar Inc., LaFayette, LA (United States))

    1994-02-01

    It has been more than 3 years since a mixed metal hydroxide fluid was used by Texaco to drill the Gulf of Mexico's first horizontal hole. Since, the fluid has been used to drill dozens of horizontal sections worldwide, including Australia, Indonesia, CIS, UAE, UK, and in North an South America. Due to Texaco's drilling success on the first Gulf of Mexico horizontal well in 1990, several horizontal wells were drilled in the Gulf's shallow gas sands. Fluids were weighted exclusively with ground marble. The marble, with measured grind size distributions similar to commercial barite, is used as a combination weighting and bridging material and is about 99% acid soluble. Completions were carried out by running a slotted liner, displacing the mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) fluid with calcium chloride brine, and running prepacked screens. Clean-up times where short and production rates equaled or exceeded expectations. Since the technique was relatively new, no comparisons could be made. One operator, however, achieved success during 18 months of production. During this period, the fluid was also used to drill a horizontal section through the Cardium Sandstone at Lodgepole in Alberta, Canada. The fluid out-performed other in return permeability tests on cores from the reservoir. Its performance was enhanced by addition of propylene glycol. High field production rates supported laboratory findings.

  13. Modeling of cumulative fatigue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golos, Krzysztof M.; Osinski, Zbigniew

    An investigation of cumulative fatigue damage under condition of block cyclic loading is presented. The general form of a damage function including the influence of loading history on cumulative damage is presented.

  14. Monitoring Damage Accumulation in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai H.

    2008-01-01

    The electric resistance of woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites were measured under tensile loading conditions. The results show that the electrical resistance is closely related to damage and that real-time information about the damage state can be obtained through monitoring of the resistance. Such self-sensing capability provides the possibility of on-board/in-situ damage detection and accurate life prediction for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites. Woven silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) ceramic matrix composites (CMC) possess unique properties such as high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, improved toughness, and good environmental stability (oxidation resistance), making them particularly suitable for hot structure applications. In specific, CMCs could be applied to hot section components of gas turbines [1], aerojet engines [2], thermal protection systems [3], and hot control surfaces [4]. The benefits of implementing these materials include reduced cooling air requirements, lower weight, simpler component design, longer service life, and higher thrust [5]. It has been identified in NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program that the SiC/SiC CMC has the most promise for high temperature, high oxidation applications [6]. One of the critical issues in the successful application of CMCs is on-board or insitu assessment of the damage state and an accurate prediction of the remaining service life of a particular component. This is of great concern, since most CMC components envisioned for aerospace applications will be exposed to harsh environments and play a key role in the vehicle s safety. On-line health monitoring can enable prediction of remaining life; thus resulting in improved safety and reliability of structural components. Monitoring can also allow for appropriate corrections to be made in real time, therefore leading to the prevention of catastrophic failures. Most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques such as ultrasonic C-scan, x-ray, thermography, and eddy current are limited since they require structural components of complex geometry to be taken out of service for a substantial length of time for post-damage inspection and assessment. Furthermore, the typical NDE techniques are useful for identifying large interlaminar flaws, but insensitive to CMC materials flaws developed perpendicular to the surface under tensile creep conditions. There are techniques such as piezoelectric sensor [7,8], and optical fiber [9,10] that could be used for on-line health monitoring of CMC structures. However, these systems involve attaching an external sensor or putting special fibers in CMC composites, which would be problematic at high temperature applications.

  15. Damage Characterization of EBC-SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high temperature capabilities, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components are being developed for use in hot-section aerospace engine applications. Harsh engine environments have led to the development of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for silicon-based CMCs to further increase thermal and environmental capabilities. This study aims at understanding the damage mechanisms associated with these materials under simulated operating conditions. A high heat-flux laser testing rig capable of imposing large through-thickness thermal gradients by means of controlled laser beam heating and back-side air cooling is used. Tests are performed on uncoated composites, as well as CMC substrates that have been coated with state-of-the-art ceramic EBC systems. Results show that the use of the EBCs may help increase temperature capability and creep resistance by reducing the effects of stressed oxidation and environmental degradation. Also, the ability of electrical resistance (ER) and acoustic emission (AE) measurements to monitor material condition and damage state during high temperature testing is shown; suggesting their usefulness as a valuable health monitoring technique. Micromechanics models are used to describe the localized stress state of the composite system, which is utilized along with ER modeling concepts to develop an electromechanical model capable of characterizing material behavior.

  16. Composite heat damage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

  17. Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  18. LSD and Genetic Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  19. Controlling Beaver Damage

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Services

    2007-03-13

    Damage Controlling BEAVER B eavers (Castor canadensis) are the largest rodents in North America. Their range includes most of North America, from the northern parts of Canada and Alaska to northern Mexico. Beavers are aquatic rodents which live...

  20. Northridge, CA Earthquake Damage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The person in this image was a USGS employee at the time this was taken. Collection of USGS still images taken after the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake highlighting the damage to buildings and infrastructure....

  1. Rate Tornado Damage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tornadoes can produce damage that ranges from broken tree limbs to a block of houses swept from their foundations. They can inflict utter devastation across a wide swath of land or, destroy one house and leave others on either side largely untouched. In this interactive feature from NOVA Online, sudents examine a series of photos of tornado damage and assign intensity ratings (on the Fulita scale) based on what they see.

  2. HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Steele, R A; Shen, N; Monticelli, M V; Feit, M D; Laurence, T A; Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Wong, L L

    2010-02-23

    The effect of various HF-based etching processes on the laser damage resistance of scratched fused silica surfaces has been investigated. Conventionally polished and subsequently scratched fused silica plates were treated by submerging in various HF-based etchants (HF or NH{sub 4}F:HF at various ratios and concentrations) under different process conditions (e.g., agitation frequencies, etch times, rinse conditions, and environmental cleanliness). Subsequently, the laser damage resistance (at 351 or 355 nm) of the treated surface was measured. The laser damage resistance was found to be strongly process dependent and scaled inversely with scratch width. The etching process was optimized to remove or prevent the presence of identified precursors (chemical impurities, fracture surfaces, and silica-based redeposit) known to lead to laser damage initiation. The redeposit precursor was reduced (and hence the damage threshold was increased) by: (1) increasing the SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} solubility through reduction in the NH4F concentration and impurity cation impurities, and (2) improving the mass transport of reaction product (SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-}) (using high frequency ultrasonic agitation and excessive spray rinsing) away from the etched surface. A 2D finite element crack-etching and rinsing mass transport model (incorporating diffusion and advection) was used to predict reaction product concentration. The predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed process trends. The laser damage thresholds also increased with etched amount (up to {approx}30 {micro}m), which has been attributed to: (1) etching through lateral cracks where there is poor acid penetration, and (2) increasing the crack opening resulting in increased mass transport rates. With the optimized etch process, laser damage resistance increased dramatically; the average threshold fluence for damage initiation for 30 {micro}m wide scratches increased from 7 to 41 J/cm{sup 2}, and the statistical probability of damage initiation at 12 J/cm{sup 2} of an ensemble of scratches decreased from {approx}100 mm{sup -1} of scratch length to {approx}0.001 mm{sup -1}.

  3. Ontogenetic contingency of tolerance mechanisms in response to apical damage

    PubMed Central

    Gruntman, Michal; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants are able to tolerate tissue loss through vigorous branching which is often triggered by release from apical dominance and activation of lateral meristems. However, damage-induced branching might not be a mere physiological outcome of released apical dominance, but an adaptive response to environmental signals, such as damage timing and intensity. Here, branching responses to both factors were examined in the annual plant Medicago truncatula. Methods Branching patterns and allocation to reproductive traits were examined in response to variable clipping intensities and timings in M. truncatula plants from two populations that vary in the onset of reproduction. Phenotypic selection analysis was used to evaluate the strength and direction of selection on branching under the damage treatments. Key Results Plants of both populations exhibited an ontogenetic shift in tolerance mechanisms: while early damage induced greater meristem activation, late damage elicited investment in late-determined traits, including mean pod and seed biomass, and supported greater germination rates. Severe damage mostly elicited simultaneous development of multiple-order lateral branches, but this response was limited to early damage. Selection analyses revealed positive directional selection on branching in plants under early- compared with late- or no-damage treatments. Conclusions The results demonstrate that damage-induced meristem activation is an adaptive response that could be modified according to the plant's developmental stage, severity of tissue loss and their interaction, stressing the importance of considering these effects when studying plastic responses to apical damage. PMID:21873259

  4. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK Cornell University Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering School of Civil and Environmental Engineering enve.cornell.edu 2013-2014 #12;Environmental Engineering 2013-2014 1 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT

  6. Environmental Degradation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2008-09-30

    Overview: This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Resources and Human Impact SciPack. It explores how human activities, such as reducing the amount of forest cover, increasing the amount and variety of chemicals that enter the atmosphere, intensive farming and fishing, and consuming fossil fuels have changed Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Although the land, atmosphere, and the oceans have a limited capacity to absorb wastes and recycle materials naturally, humans have disrupted these natural cycles. Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for life and most industrial processes. Overuse and pollution of rivers, lakes, oceans, and groundwater reduces the availability and suitability of these resources for all organisms. Technology used in the extraction and consumption of fossil fuels needed to meet the growing human demand has increased the depletion of nonrenewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and degraded or altered the environment, both locally and globally. Learning Outcomes: Compare and contrast ways in which different technologies have impacted the environmental system. Differentiate between examples of renewable resources and non-renewable (finite) resources. Summarize how the burning of fossil fuels is affecting the environment. Assess both local and global environmental impacts when given examples of human resource use. Identify ways in which one human-based environmental change can have a domino-effect on the rest of the ecosystem (when given a scenario).

  7. Damage evaluation and repair methods for prestressed concrete bridge members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanafelt, G. O.; Horn, W. B.

    1980-11-01

    The types of accidental damage occurring and the severity and frequency of their occurrence are summarized. Practices and equipment used for assessing damage and making repairs are presented and evaluated. Guidelines for inspection, assessing damage, and selection of repair methods are given. Methods of repair includes adding external prestress, a metal sleeve splice, and splicing broken strands or rods. The findings of this study suggest that in some instances better repair techniques should be used. The findings of this study also indicate that proper selection of repair methods may reduce the number of damaged girders presently being replaced. Plausible methods of repair requiring additional research are identified and techniques for testing are outlined.

  8. Optimal filtering methods to structural damage estimation under ground excitation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chien-Shu; Liaw, Der-Cherng; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of shear building damage estimation subject to earthquake ground excitation using the Kalman filtering approach. The structural damage is assumed to take the form of reduced elemental stiffness. Two damage estimation algorithms are proposed: one is the multiple model approach via the optimal two-stage Kalman estimator (OTSKE), and the other is the robust two-stage Kalman filter (RTSKF), an unbiased minimum-variance filtering approach to determine the locations and extents of the damage stiffness. A numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure subject to base excitation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed results. PMID:24453869

  9. Optimal Filtering Methods to Structural Damage Estimation under Ground Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chien-Shu; Liaw, Der-Cherng; Lin, Tzu-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of shear building damage estimation subject to earthquake ground excitation using the Kalman filtering approach. The structural damage is assumed to take the form of reduced elemental stiffness. Two damage estimation algorithms are proposed: one is the multiple model approach via the optimal two-stage Kalman estimator (OTSKE), and the other is the robust two-stage Kalman filter (RTSKF), an unbiased minimum-variance filtering approach to determine the locations and extents of the damage stiffness. A numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure subject to base excitation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed results. PMID:24453869

  10. Sexes show differential tolerance to spittlebug damage and consequences of damage for multi-species interactions.

    PubMed

    Cole, Denise H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2005-10-01

    Antagonists can play a role in sexual system evolution if tolerance or resistance is sex-dependent. Our understanding of this role will be enhanced by consideration of the effects of antagonists on other plant-animal interactions. This study determined whether the sex morphs of a gynodioecious Fragaria virginiana differ in their susceptibility and response to damage by spittlebugs and whether damage altered pollinator attraction traits or interactions with other antagonists. Tolerance, but not resistance, to spittlebugs differed between the sexes. Generally, spittlebugs were more damaging to hermaphrodites than females, a finding in accord with the hypothesis that the pollen-bearing morph is less tolerant of source-damage than the pollen-sterile morph when damage is incurred during flowering. In both sex morphs, spittlebugs reduced inflorescence height, increased petal size, but did not affect the number of open flowers per day, suggesting that the net effect of damage may be to increase pollinator attraction. Spittlebug infestation modified interactions with other antagonists in a sex-dependent manner: spittlebugs reduced attack by bud-clipping weevils in hermaphrodites but increased infection by leaf fungi in females. The complex interactions between plant sex, antagonists, and pollinator attraction documented here emphasize the importance of considering sex-differential multi-species interactions in plant sexual evolution. PMID:21646088

  11. Environmental Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    In this unit, students explore the various roles of environmental engineers, including: environmental cleanup, water quality, groundwater resources, surface water and groundwater flow, water contamination, waste disposal and air pollution. Specifically, students learn about the factors that affect water quality and the conditions that enable different animals and plants to survive in their environments. Next, students learn about groundwater and how environmental engineers study groundwater to predict the distribution of surface pollution. Students also learn how water flows through the ground, what an aquifer is and what soil properties are used to predict groundwater flow. Additionally, students discover that the water they drink everyday comes from many different sources, including surface water and groundwater. They investigate possible scenarios of drinking water contamination and how contaminants can negatively affect the organisms that come in contact with them. Students learn about the three most common methods of waste disposal and how environmental engineers continue to develop technologies to dispose of trash. Lastly, students learn what causes air pollution and how to investigate the different pollutants that exist, such as toxic gases and particulate matter. Also, they investigate the technologies developed by engineers to reduce air pollution.

  12. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion. PMID:17119229

  13. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the environmental sampling completed by EPA in southeastern Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina caused major catastrophic damage. Presentation also describes EPA's Environmental Unit activities in Baton Rouge and New Orleans, LA, and Dallas, TX....

  15. Phenylbutazone and chromosomal damage.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S; Price Evans, A; Benn, P A; Littler, T R; Halliday, L D

    1975-01-01

    Investigation of 44 paired test and control patients, all suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, following exposure to phenylbutazone (PBZ) and/or oxyphenbutazone (OPB), suggests that there is no significant increase in the level of chromosomal damage in lymphocytes. The control subjects comprised two series, one previously exposed to PBZ and/or OPB, but not for at least 1-5 years, and the other never exposed to PBZ or OPB. No significant difference in the level of chromosome damage was found between patients never exposed, previously exposed, or now receiving PBZ and/or OPB. PMID:769706

  16. Airblast damage from small asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.

    1992-06-22

    The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its cross sections from aerodynamic braking and energy dissipation. At a typical impact velocity of 22km/s, the atmosphere absorbs more than half the kinetic energy of stony meteoroids with diameters, D{sub M} < 250 meters and iron meteoroids with D{sub M} < 60 meters. Most of this energy dissipation occurs in a fraction of a scale height, which causes large meteoroids to appear to explode'' or flare'' at the end of their visible paths. The dissipation of energy in the atmosphere reduces the damage due to direct impacts (e.g., craters and tsunamis), but it produces a blast wave than can cause considerable damage to structures on the ground. The area of destruction around the impact point in which the over pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 pounds/inch{sup 2}=2.8{times}10{sup 5}dynes/cm{sup 3}, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings, increases rapidly from zero for chondritic asteroids less than 50 meters in diameter (9 megatons) to about 2000 square km for those 80 meters in diameter (40 megatons), the approximate diameter of the Tunguska impactor of 1908. The area of destruction produced by the blast wave from the impact of stony asteroids between 70 meters and 200 meters in diameter is up to twice as great as it would be without fragmentation.

  17. Airblast damage from small asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.

    1992-06-22

    The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its cross sections from aerodynamic braking and energy dissipation. At a typical impact velocity of 22km/s, the atmosphere absorbs more than half the kinetic energy of stony meteoroids with diameters, D{sub M} < 250 meters and iron meteoroids with D{sub M} < 60 meters. Most of this energy dissipation occurs in a fraction of a scale height, which causes large meteoroids to appear to ``explode`` or ``flare`` at the end of their visible paths. The dissipation of energy in the atmosphere reduces the damage due to direct impacts (e.g., craters and tsunamis), but it produces a blast wave than can cause considerable damage to structures on the ground. The area of destruction around the impact point in which the over pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 pounds/inch{sup 2}=2.8{times}10{sup 5}dynes/cm{sup 3}, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings, increases rapidly from zero for chondritic asteroids less than 50 meters in diameter (9 megatons) to about 2000 square km for those 80 meters in diameter (40 megatons), the approximate diameter of the Tunguska impactor of 1908. The area of destruction produced by the blast wave from the impact of stony asteroids between 70 meters and 200 meters in diameter is up to twice as great as it would be without fragmentation.

  18. Stochastic damage evolution in textile laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzenis, Yuris A.; Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic model utilizing random material characteristics to predict damage evolution in textile laminates is presented. Model is based on a division of each ply into two sublaminas consisting of cells. The probability of cell failure is calculated using stochastic function theory and maximal strain failure criterion. Three modes of failure, i.e. fiber breakage, matrix failure in transverse direction, as well as matrix or interface shear cracking, are taken into account. Computed failure probabilities are utilized in reducing cell stiffness based on the mesovolume concept. A numerical algorithm is developed predicting the damage evolution and deformation history of textile laminates. Effect of scatter of fiber orientation on cell properties is discussed. Weave influence on damage accumulation is illustrated with the help of an example of a Kevlar/epoxy laminate.

  19. Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014

  20. Some Examples of the Relations Between Processing and Damage Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    2012-01-01

    Most structures made of laminated polymer matrix composites (PMCs) must be designed to some damage tolerance requirement that includes foreign object impact damage. Thus from the beginning of a part s life, impact damage is assumed to exist in the material and the part is designed to carry the required load with the prescribed impact damage present. By doing this, some processing defects may automatically be accounted for in the reduced design allowable due to these impacts. This paper will present examples of how a given level of impact damage and certain processing defects affect the compression strength of a laminate that contains both. Knowledge of the impact damage tolerance requirements, before processing begins, can broaden material options and processing techniques since the structure is not being designed to pristine properties.