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1

Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point o f penetration of the opposing surface. Ultimately we aim to also quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will investigate the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to guide safe retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001.

Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Williamson, Richard L.; Lloyd, W. R.; Rashid, Mark M.

2003-06-01

2

Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stages, aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point of penetration of the opposing surface. We also aim to quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will quantify the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to justify life extension through retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001.

Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Lloyd, W. R.

2002-06-01

3

Reducing Radiation Damage  

ScienceCinema

This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

4

Reducing Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

Blankenbecler, Richard

2006-06-05

5

A novel chloroplast protein, CEST induces tolerance to multiple environmental stresses and reduces photooxidative damage in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Environmental stresses are major factors in limiting plant growth and crop production. To find genes improving salt tolerance, the screening of a large population of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana that expressed rice full-length cDNAs under salinity stress is reported here. In this study one of the isolated salt-tolerant lines, R07303 was analysed in detail. An uncharacterized rice gene CHLOROPLAST PROTEIN-ENHANCING STRESS TOLERANCE (OsCEST) was integrated in R07303. Newly constructed transgenic Arabidopsis that overexpressed OsCEST or its Arabidopsis homologue AtCEST showed improved tolerance to salinity stress. OsCEST and AtCEST were mainly transcribed in photosynthetic tissues. Green fluorescent protein-fused OsCEST and AtCEST proteins were localized to the chloroplast in the Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. CEST-overexpressing Arabidopsis showed enhanced tolerance not only to salt stress but also to drought stress, high-temperature stress, and paraquat, which causes photooxidative stress. Under saline conditions, overexpression of CESTs modulated the stress-induced impairment of photosynthetic activity and the peroxidation of lipids. Reduced expression of AtCEST because of double-stranded RNA interference resulted in the impairment of photosynthetic activity, the reduction of green pigment, defects in chloroplast development, and growth retardation under light. This paper discusses the relationship between the chloroplast protein CEST and photooxidative damage. PMID:20876334

Yokotani, Naoki; Higuchi, Mieko; Kondou, Youichi; Ichikawa, Takanari; Iwabuchi, Masaki; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Matsui, Minami; Oda, Kenji

2010-09-27

6

Methods for Reducing Oxidative Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method for reducing oxidative damage in a mammal, a removed organ, or a cell in need thereof. The method comprises administering an effective amount of an aromatic cationic peptide. The aromatic cationic peptide has (a) at least o...

H. H. Szeto

2005-01-01

7

PRECISION FARMING AS A TOOL IN REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF COTTON PRODUCTION IN BENIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government subsidies designed to encourage cotton production in Benin have resulted in unsustainable agricultural production practices. Properly introduced, precision farming technology can help farmers improve their management practices and stop the damages being done to the environment. An economic analysis of the impacts of subvention policies is performed. Results show that an increase in input cost has a marginal impact

Jean-Marc Gandonou; Carl R. Dillon; Wyatte L. Harman; Jimmy R. Williams

2004-01-01

8

Regulation with Anticipated Learning about Environmental Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regulator anticipates learning about the relation between environmental stocks and economic damages. For a model with linear-quadratic abatement costs and environmental damages, and a general learning process, we show analytically that anticipated learning decreases the optimal level of abatement at a given information set. If learning causes the regulator to eventually decide that damages are higher than previously thought,

Larry S. Karp; Jiangfeng Zhang

2003-01-01

9

Floating intake reduces pump damage  

SciTech Connect

The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

Kronig, A.

1993-12-31

10

Environmental damage schedules: community judgments of ...  

Treesearch

Description: Available methods of valuing environmental changes are often limited ... on predetermined fixed schedules of sanctions, restrictions, damage awards, and ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ...

11

Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

Not Available

1994-08-01

12

Reducing Damage Assessment Latency in Survivable Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional recovery mechanisms are not adequate in protecting data- bases from malicious attacks. A malicious transaction by virtue of writing on to the database can corrupt one or more data items; benign transactions reading these data items and writing on other data items can help spread the damage. To prevent the damage from spreading, it is important to assess the

Indrakshi Ray; Ross M. Mcconnell; Monte Lunacek; Vijay Kumar

2004-01-01

13

Parthenolide reduces cisplatin-induced renal damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory events contribute to cisplatin-induced renal damage. Cisplatin promotes increased production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) that lead to increased expression of proinflammatory mediators which could intensify the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In this study, we evaluated the effect of parthenolide, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, on renal damage caused by cisplatin use. A total

Heloísa D. C. Francescato; Roberto S. Costa; Cristoforo Scavone; Terezila M. Coimbra

2007-01-01

14

Reduce environmental impact during startup  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency and individual states continually implement rules to control emissions during routine operation of petrochemical plants. The operating permits issued to the manufacturing facilities not only regulate fugitive and point source emissions during operation, but also impose stringent controls on the emissions during startup and commissioning. Since the startup of any plant entails conditions which may result in increased emissions and flaring, more noticeable by general public, it is desirable to reduce the duration of the startup/upset conditions which would in turn eliminate or minimize flaring. Significant reduction in startup emissions can be achieved by using simple techniques such as: pressuring up and chilldown of the cryogenic process units on natural gas or fuel gas in a closed loop system to avoid feed-in until the unit is completely ready; recycling the off-specification products and other intermediate streams back to the process until operating conditions are stabilized and systems reach equilibrium conditions; providing facilities such as dedicated burners in boilers to incinerate vent streams that may be produced in the process due to unexpected contaminants in the feed, provision to utilize emulsified and slop oils in the process in case of an upset, and drop out connection to remove condensate and/or oils that may accumulate in columns surge drums etc. causing process upsets; and starting up satellite units in the right sequence to avoid unnecessary venting of streams while the next unit is preparing for startup.

Shaikh, A. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01

15

Environmental damage of a cast nickel base superalloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure in air in the temperature range 900 to 1100 °C produces a major loss in stress rupture life and ductility of IN738. The sensitivity to this environmental damage increases with decreasing test temperature in the range 1000 to 700 °C. Oxygen is identified as the source of the damage for air exposure and indirect evidence supports grain boundary penetration of the gas to considerable depth. It is argued that oxygen segregation can lead to grain boundary immobilization and unstable intergranular fracture at intermediate temperatures. It is shown that compositional modifications, particularly boron and hafnium additions, may reduce the oxygen damage susceptibility, and that a cobalt base coating effectively eliminates the susceptibility. The relevance of these observations in understanding the effect of test environment on creep-rupture and fatigue crack propagation is considered.

Woodford, D. A.

1981-02-01

16

Has environmental protection really reduced productivity growth?  

SciTech Connect

When economists claim that environmental regulations reduce the nation`s productivity, they typically overlook the fact that a polluted environment imposes costs as well. These authors have constructed a model to measure whether environmental regulations actually raise productivity by reducing such costs and find that they do. 2 tabs.

Repetto, R.; Rothman, D.; Faeth, P.; Austin, D.

1997-01-01

17

Environmental and economic effects of reducing pesticide use in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Pesticides cause serious damage to agricultural and natural ecosystems. Thus, there is a need to curtail pesticide use and reduce the environmental,impacts,of pesticides. This study confirms,that it should be possible to reduce pesticide use in the US by 50% without,any decrease,in crop yields or change,in 'cosmetic standards'. The estimated,increase in food costs would,be only 0.6%. This in- creased cost,

David Pimentel; Lori Mclaughlin; Andrew Zepp; Benyamin Lakitan; T KRAUS; P KLEINMAN; F VANCINI; W ROACH; E GRAAP; W KEETON

1993-01-01

18

Reduced order computational methodology for damage detection in structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the feasibility of detecting damage within structures such as air foils by application of eddy current based techniques and reduced order modeling. To identify the geometry of a damage, an optimization algorithm is employed which requires solving the forward problem numerous times. Therefore, the forward algorithm must be solved with extremely fast and accurate solution methods. In

Michele L. Joyner; H. T. Banks; Buzz Wincheski; William P. Winfree

2000-01-01

19

Wetland storage to reduce flood damages in the Red River  

Treesearch

Title: Wetland storage to reduce flood damages in the Red River ... sub- watersheds of the Red River Valley (the Maple River Watershed in North Dakota, and the Wild ... Keywords: land stewardship, watershed management, ecosystem -based ...

20

Reorganisation of the Liability for Environmental Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The brochure discusses all aspects of liability, i.e. strict liability, polluter pays principle, burden of proof, indirect liability, justice, accidents, summation and remote damage, effects of jurisdiction on legislation, damage from normal operation, in...

1988-01-01

21

A repellent to reduce mouse damage to longleaf pine seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct seeding is a potential method for reforestation of pines on many southern sites. The success of direct seeding, however, depends, at least in part, in reducing seed predation by birds and rodents. We conducted a series of tests to assess the efficacy of capsicum and thiram in reducing mouse damage to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seeds. House mice (Mus

Dale L. Nolte; James P. Barnett

2000-01-01

22

Environmental damage of a cast nickel base superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure in air in the temperature range 900 to 1100 °C produces a major loss in stress rupture life and ductility of IN738. The sensitivity to this environmental damage increases with decreasing test temperature in the range 1000 to 700 °C. Oxygen is identified as the source of the damage for air exposure and indirect evidence supports grain boundary penetration

D. A. Woodford

1981-01-01

23

Reducing radiation damage in macromolecular crystals at synchrotron sources.  

PubMed

A new strategy is presented to reduce primary X-ray damage in macromolecular crystallography. The strategy is based on separating the diffracting and damaged regions as much as feasible. The source of the radiation damage to macromolecular crystals is from two primary mechanisms: the direct excitations of electrons by absorption, and inelastic scattering of the X-rays. The first produces photoelectrons with their accompanying Auger electrons from relaxation of the core hole and the second creates Compton electrons. The properties of these two mechanisms and calculations of primary X-ray damage quantify how to modify the spatial distribution of X-rays to reduce the deleterious effects of radiation damage. By focusing the incident X-rays into vertical stripes, it is estimated that the survival (the time during which quality diffraction data can be obtained with a given X-ray flux) of large crystals can be increased by at least a factor of 1.6, while for very small platelet crystals the survival can be increased by up to a factor of 14. PMID:19307718

Stern, Edward A; Yacoby, Yizhak; Seidler, Gerald T; Nagle, Kenneth P; Prange, Micah P; Sorini, Adam P; Rehr, John J; Joachimiak, Andrzej

2009-03-19

24

Environmental damage of a cast nickel base superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure in air in the temperature range 900 to 1100 ?C produces a major loss in stress rupture life and ductility of IN738.\\u000a The sensitivity to this environmental damage increases with decreasing test temperature in the range 1000 to 700 ?C. Oxygen\\u000a is identified as the source of the damage for air exposure and indirect evidence supports grain boundary penetration

D. A. Woodford

1981-01-01

25

Hair coloring systems delivering color with reduced fiber damage.  

PubMed

The possible metal-induced formation of free radical species such as the hydroxyl radical (HO*) during the use of permanent hair coloring products has been demonstrated. These highly reactive species are formed from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with redox metals such as copper, which are thought to be absorbed by the hair from the from-the-tap wash water. Formation of such radical species has been shown to lead to measurable keratin fiber damage. The incorporation of chelants such as N,N'-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) has been demonstrated to prevent this metal-induced radical formation and thus significantly reduce the fiber damage. This chelant is highly effective due to its ability to specifically bind low levels of copper in the presence of relatively high levels of calcium, as is found in hair. PMID:17938825

Marsh, Jennifer M; Flood, Janine; Domaschko, Dirk; Ramji, Niranjan

26

Reducing formation damage through two-stage polymer filtration  

SciTech Connect

Formation damage resulting from the use of unfiltered polymers during gravel pack completion operations has been addressed as it relates to HEC completion fluids. However, other filtered polymer systems exhibit properties which, in specific applications, may out perform HEC systems. Thus, the performance characteristics of six commonly used polymer systems, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), clarified xanthan gum (XC), HEC/XC blends, crosslinked carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), and standard xanthan gum (XCD), required additional evaluation. Fluid modelling was employed using a new two-stage filtration process (gel filtration) in which the viscosified fluids were optimally sheared and fine-filtered to improve sand placement efficiency and reduce formation damage. The data obtained from this study establishes mixing and filtration design criteria for optimizing completion techniques such as gravel packing, sand washing, polymer diverting, and lost circulation control.

Houchin, L.R.; Hudson, L.M.; Caothien, S.; Daddazio, G.; Hashemi, R.

1986-01-01

27

Immunosuppressive therapy reduces axonal damage in progressive multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), disease-modifying therapies have not been shown to reduce disability progression. OBJECTIVE: The impact from immunosuppressive therapy in PMS was explored by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of axonal damage (neurofilament light protein, NFL), astrogliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP), and B-cell regulation (CXCL13). METHODS: CSF was obtained from 35 patients with PMS before and after 12-24 months of mitoxantrone (n=30) or rituximab (n=5) treatment, and from 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. The levels of NFL, GFAP, and CXCL13 were determined by immunoassays. RESULTS: The mean NFL level decreased by 51% (1781 ng/l, SD 2018 vs. 874 ng/l, SD 694, p=0.007), the mean CXCL13 reduction was 55% (9.71 pg/ml, SD 16.08, vs. 4.37 pg/ml, SD 1.94, p=0.008), while GFAP levels remained unaffected. Subgroup analysis showed that the NFL reduction was confined to previously untreated patients (n=20) and patients with Gd-enhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (n=12) prior to study baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Our data imply that 12-24 months of immunosuppressive therapy reduces axonal damage in PMS, particularly in patients with ongoing disease activity. Determination of NFL levels in CSF is a potential surrogate marker for treatment efficacy and as endpoint in phase II trials of MS. PMID:23702432

Axelsson, Markus; Malmeström, Clas; Gunnarsson, Martin; Zetterberg, Henrik; Sundström, Peter; Lycke, Jan; Svenningsson, Anders

2013-05-23

28

Environmental Damages and Wetland Developments ?Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans and its surrounding areas of southern Louisiana in August, 2005. Most of New Orleans areas were severely devastated by flooding. This article focuses on environmental damages caused by Katrina, mainly sediments pollution in residential areas. This case shows that it is very crucial and also difficult that how we value and interpret risk information at

Yayoi HARAGUCHI

2006-01-01

29

Desferrioxamine and zinc-desferrioxamine reduce lens oxidative damage.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to investigate the quality and morphology of cultured bovine lenses after exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the presence or absence of desferrioxamine (DFO) or zinc-desferrioxamine (Zn-DFO). Intact bovine lenses were cultured and exposed to HBO of 100% oxygen at 2.5 ATA for 120 min. One hundred and fifty lenses were included in the present study. Lenses were divided into study groups of 25 lenses each: (1a) HBO-exposed lenses; (1b) control lenses extracted from the contralateral eyes of group 1a and exposed to normal room air. (2a) HBO-exposed lenses treated with DFO; (2b) control lenses extracted from the contralateral eyes of group 2a exposed to normal room air in the presence of DFO (3a) HBO-exposed lenses treated with Zn-DFO; (3b) control lenses extracted from the contralateral eyes of group 3a, exposed to normal room air in the presence of Zn-DFO. Lens optical quality and structural changes were assessed. Oxygen toxicity to lenses was demonstrated by decreased light transmission, increase in focal length variability and a decrease in morphological integrity. Light intensity measurements showed a distinct pattern in control lenses. A different pattern was noticed for hyperbaric oxygen-exposed lenses. Focal length variability values were stable in control lenses and increased significantly in oxygen-exposed lenses. Structural damage to lenses was demonstrated by the appearance of bubbles between lens' fibers possibly demonstrating failure of lens tissue to cope with oxygen load. All measured parameters showed that both Zn-DFO and DFO attenuated the oxidative damage. The effect of DFO was small whereas Zn-DFO demonstrated a significantly stronger effect. Treatment of hyperbaric oxygen-exposed lenses with DFO only marginally reduced the oxidative damage. Treatment with Zn-DFO was superior in reducing the oxidative damage to lenses. These results indicate a possible role for Zn-DFO in the prevention of cataracts. PMID:17239855

Schaal, Shlomit; Beiran, Itzchak; Rozner, Hadas; Rubinstein, Irit; Chevion, Mordechai; Miller, Benjamin; Dovrat, Ahuva

2007-01-18

30

Mapping deciduous forest ice storm damage using Landsat and environmental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar maple (Acer Saccharum Marsh.) damage resulting from a severe ice storm was modeled and mapped over eastern Ontario using pre- and post-storm Landsat 5 imagery and environmental data. Visual damage estimates in 104 plots and corresponding reflectance and environmental data were divided into multiple, mutually exclusive training and reference datasets for damage classification evaluation. Damage classification accuracy was compared

Ian Olthof; Douglas J. King; R. a. Lautenschlager

2004-01-01

31

Reducing the environmental impact of uranium in-situ recovery.  

SciTech Connect

This session will explore the current technical approaches to reducing the environmental effects of uranium ISR in comparison to the historical environmental impact of uranium mining to demonstrate advances in this controversial subject.

Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Simmons, Ardyth

2010-10-01

32

Power line damage, electrical outages, reduced in the 'sleet belt'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Companies that depend on reliable supplies of electricity, as well as electrical utilities, need to defend against weather-related damage and power outages. Weather-related damage claims in the U.S. totaled $16 billion during the ten-year span from 1980 t...

1998-01-01

33

Consideration of environmental and operational variability for damage diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Damage diagnosis is a problem that can be addressed at many levels. Stated in its most basic form, the objective is to ascertain simply if damage is present or not. In a statistical pattern recognition paradigm of this problem, the philosophy is to collect baseline signatures from a system to be monitored and to compare subsequent data to see if the new 'pattern' deviates significantly from the baseline data. Unfortunately, matters are seldom as simple as this. In reality, structures will be subjected to changing environmental and operational conditions that will affect measured signals. In this case, there may be a wide range of normal conditions, and it is clearly undesirable to signal damage simply because of a change in the environment. In this paper, a unique combination of time series analysis, neural networks, and statistical inference techniques is developed for damage classification explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indication of true system changes.

Sohn, H. (Hoon); Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

2002-01-01

34

Environmental Policies to Reduce College Drinking: Options and Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an over- view of environmental strategies that may reduce college drinking. Drinking behavior is influenced by many environmental factors, includ- ing messages in the media, community norms and attitudes, public and institutional policies and practices and economic factors. College stu- dent drinking may be influenced by environmental factors on and off

TRACI L. TOOMEY; ALEXANDER C. WAGENAAR

35

Tissue Plasminogen Activator Reduces Neurological Damage after Cerebral Embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator immediately after the injection of numerous small blood clots into the carotid circulation in rabbit embolic stroke model animals caused a significant reduction in neurological damage. In vitro studies indicate that tissue plasminogen activator produced substantial lysis of clots at concentrations comparable to those expected in vivo, suggesting that this may be the mechanism

Justin A. Zivin; Marc Fisher; Umberto Degirolami; Carl C. Hemenway; Joan A. Stashak

1985-01-01

36

Can antioxidant vitamins materially reduce oxidative damage in humans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA is thought to be an important etiologic factor in aging and the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and cataract formation. The pathology associated with these diseases is likely to occur only after the production of reactive oxygen species has exceeded the body’s or cell’s capacity to protect itself and

Mark R McCall; Balz Frei

1999-01-01

37

Reducing Aquatic Rodent Damage through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to analyze the potential environmental effects of the proposed Alabama WS beaver (Castor canadensis), nutria (Myocastor coypus), and muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) (hereafter referred to as aquatic rodents...

2002-01-01

38

Caffeine for reducing bird damage to newly seeded rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact of blackbirds can be severe to rice producers in the United States. One approach to managing this damage is the application of bird-deterrent chemical to the crop. Previous pilot trials suggested that caffeine offered potential as a safe, economical bird repellent. In this study, cage feeding trials with female red-winged blackbirds and male brown-headed cowbirds confirmed that

Michael L. Avery; Scott J. Werner; John L. Cummings; John S. Humphrey; Michael P. Milleson; James C. Carlson; Thomas M. Primus; Margaret J. Goodall

2005-01-01

39

Application of baby deck initiation to reduce coal damage during cast blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extra explosive energy used in cast blasting reduces the amount of overburden to be handled by the machinery but increases the risk of damage to the underlying coal. This damage will lead to reduced coal recovery and may negate much of the benefit sought from cast blasting. The Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre in close association with the Australian

Sarma S. Kanchibotla; Andrew Scott

2000-01-01

40

Environmental wavelengths of ultraviolet light induce cytoskeletal damage  

SciTech Connect

The ultraviolet component of sunlight is the major cause of skin cancer and is responsible for accelerating the aging of human skin. It is therefore important to determine the mechanisms by which ultraviolet light alters normal cellular functions. The potential importance of ultraviolet light-induced damage to non-DNA targets has received little attention. Since the cytoskeleton is an important participant in the control of normal cell growth, the microfilaments and microtubules of UV irradiated human skin fibroblasts have been studied using fluorescence microscopy. Polychromatic ultraviolet light, composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths, was found to disrupt the cytoplasmic microtubule complex in a dose dependent manner. The induction of microtubule disassembly did not correlate with the cytotoxicity of ultraviolet light of varying composition.

Zamansky, G.B.; Chou, I.N.

1987-12-01

41

Tissue Plasminogen Activator Reduces Neurological Damage after Cerebral Embolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator immediately after the injection of numerous small blood clots into the carotid circulation in rabbit embolic stroke model animals caused a significant reduction in neurological damage. In vitro studies indicate that tissue plasminogen activator produced substantial lysis of clots at concentrations comparable to those expected in vivo, suggesting that this may be the mechanism of action of this drug. Drug-induced hemorrhages were not demonstrable. Tissue plasminogen activator may be of value for the immediate treatment of embolic stroke.

Zivin, Justin A.; Fisher, Marc; Degirolami, Umberto; Hemenway, Carl C.; Stashak, Joan A.

1985-12-01

42

Prostaglandin FP receptor inhibitor reduces ischemic brain damage and neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Bioactive lipids such as the prostaglandins have been reported to have various cytoprotective or toxic properties in acute and chronic neurological conditions. The roles of PGF2? and its receptor (FP) are not clear in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. Considering that this G-protein coupled receptor has been linked to intracellular calcium regulation, we hypothesized that its blockade would be protective. We used FP antagonist (AL-8810) and FP receptor knockout (FP?/?) mice in in vivo and in vitro stroke models. Mice that were treated with AL-8810 had 35.7 ± 6.3% less neurologic dysfunction and 36.4 ± 6.0% smaller infarct volumes than did vehicle-treated mice after 48 hours of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO); FP?/? mice also had improved outcomes after pMCAO. Blockade of the FP receptor also protected against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species formation in slice cultures. Finally, we found that an FP receptor agonist dose dependently increased intracellular Ca2+ levels in cultured neurons and established that FP-related Ca2+ signaling is related to ryanodine receptor signaling. These results indicate that the FP receptor is involved in cerebral ischemia-induced damage and could promote development of drugs for treatment of stroke and acute neurodegenerative disorders.

Kim, Yun Tai; Moon, Sang Kwan; Maruyama, Takayuki; Narumiya, Shuh; Dore, Sylvain

2012-01-01

43

Stopping School Property Damage: Design and Administrative Guidelines to Reduce School Vandalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides practical guidelines to design future school buildings and to set up administrative programs for existing structures that can cut the cost of both intentional and accidental school property damage. The first section on building exterior design responses discusses ways to reduce the ongoing cost of property damage by…

Zeisel, John

44

Stimulation of the Fastigial Nucleus Enhances EEG Recovery and Reduces Tissue Damage After Focal Cerebral Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) increases CBF but not metabolism and reduces the tissue damage resulting from focal cerebral ischemia. This effect may result from enhancing CBF in the ischemic tissue without increasing local metabolic demands. To test this hypothesis, we studied whether the reduction in tissue damage is restricted to the neocortex, a region in which

Fangyi Zhang; Costantino Iadecola

1996-01-01

45

Proposed definition of environmental damage illustrated by the cases of genetically modified crops and invasive species.  

PubMed

The introduction of non-native plant species and the release of genetically modified (GM) crops can induce environmental changes at gene to ecosystem levels. Regulatory frameworks such as the Convention on Biological Diversity or the EU Deliberate Release Directive aim to prevent environmental damage but do not define the term. Although ecologists and conservationists often refer to environmental effects of GM crops or invasive species as damage, most authors do not disclose their normative assumptions or explain why some environmental impacts are regarded as detrimental and others are not. Thus far, a concise definition of environmental damage is missing and is necessary for a transparent assessment of environmental effects or risks. Therefore, we suggest defining environmental damage as a significant adverse effect on a biotic or abiotic conservation resource (i.e., a biotic or abiotic natural resource that is protected by conservational or environmental legislation) that has an impact on the value of the conservation resource, the conservation resource as an ecosystem component, or the sustainable use of the conservation resource. This definition relies on three normative assumptions: only concrete effects on a conservation resource can be damages; only adverse effects that lead to a decrease in the value of the conservation resource can be damages; and only significant adverse effects constitute damage to a conservation resource. Applying this definition within the framework of environmental risk assessment requires further normative determinations, for example, selection of a threshold to distinguish between adverse and significant adverse effects and approaches for assessing the environmental value of conservation resources. Such determinations, however, are not part of the definition of environmental damage. Rather they are part of the definition's operationalization through assessment procedures, which must be grounded in a comprehensible definition of environmental damage. PMID:20015260

Bartz, Robert; Heink, Ulrich; Kowarik, Ingo

2009-12-09

46

Propranolol reduces ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in portal hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

In a standardized rat model of portal hypertension, we investigated the effects of propranolol on alcohol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Portal hypertensive rats pretreated with 2 mg propranolol, compared with those receiving saline, had significantly reduced portal pressures (24 +/- 1 vs 32 +/- 1 cm saline), macroscopic mucosal damage (24 +/- 1 vs 39 +/- 4% of mucosa), and histologic deep necrosis (36 +/- 2 vs 61 +/- 4% of mucosal length). Increased dosage of propranolol to 4 mg did not produce any further reduction of portal pressure or mucosal damage. Central venous and systemic arterial pressures were not significantly altered by propranolol. The extent of mucosal damage correlated with levels of portal pressure (P less than 0.01) in portal hypertensive rats. Sham-operated normotensive rats had less macroscopic mucosal damage (26 +/- 4%) than portal hypertensive rats, and propranolol did not affect the extent of ethanol-induced damage or portal pressures in these animals. We conclude: (1) Propranolol is effective in reducing extent of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in portal hypertensive rats, but not in sham-operated controls; (2) this effect correlates with reduction of portal pressure; and (3) our study supports the clinical impression that reducing portal pressure may be one approach for the prevention and therapy of gastric mucosal damage in portal hypertension. PMID:3943443

Sankary, H; Sarfeh, I J; Tarnawski, A; Maeda, R; Ivey, K J; Mason, G R

1986-02-01

47

Keeping it clean: Reducing environmental impacts from solar PV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures to reduce environmental impacts could also lead to a cost reduction in the manufacture of crystalline silicon modules. But what are the most important impacts and what are the main barriers to their implementation? Erik. A. Alsema and M.J. De Wild-Scholten deliver some answers.

E. A. Alsema; M. J. de Wild-Scholten

2007-01-01

48

Electrolyzed–Reduced Water Scavenges Active Oxygen Species and Protects DNA from Oxidative Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen

Sanetaka Shirahata; Shigeru Kabayama; Mariko Nakano; Takumi Miura; Kenichi Kusumoto; Miho Gotoh; Hidemitsu Hayashi; Kazumichi Otsubo; Shinkatsu Morisawa; Yoshinori Katakura

1997-01-01

49

Toward the development of process plans with reduced environmental impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manufacturing process planning serves as a pivotal link between design and manufacturing. Process planning decisions play a critical role in determining the cost and environmental impacts associated with manufacturing. Past efforts to address environmental issues during process planning are briefly reviewed and potential approaches that can achieve reduced environmental impacts are then discussed. A proposed method is presented for environmentally conscious process planning. The method begins with an existing process plan, and then identifies impactful process steps, and associated design features, in terms of manufacturing cost and environmental impact. Alternative processes that can achieve these features are then considered to generate alternative process plans. These alternatives are then evaluated in terms of economic and environmental performance. The results of these evaluations are then used to generate a set of process plans that are non-dominated with respect to manufacturing cost and environmental impact objectives to produce a Pareto frontier. The proposed method is demonstrated using the manufacturing of a prosthetic hip shell as a case study.

Zhao, Fu; Murray, Vance R.; Ramani, Karthik; Sutherland, John W.

2012-09-01

50

Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation.  

PubMed

A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

Fletcher, Quinn E; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G; Woods, Sarah B; Seo, Arnold Y; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R; Humphries, Murray M

2012-12-20

51

Polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxidation in Virginia pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines play an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions including salt and osmotic stresses. In this investigation, the responses of polyamines to salt-induced oxidative stress were studied in callus cultures and plantlets in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Our results demonstrated that polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing

Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

2005-01-01

52

Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility  

SciTech Connect

An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

1991-01-01

53

Antioxidant and micronutrient-rich milk formula reduces lead poisoning and related oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice.  

PubMed

Lead poisoning is a global environmental disease that induces lifelong adverse health effects. The effect of a milk formula consisting of antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), vitamin C (Vc), calcium lactate (CaLac), ferrous sulfate (FeSO?) and zinc sulfate (ZnSO?) on the reduction of lead and lead-induced oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice was studied. The lead-reducing effect of milk formula was investigated via a 7-week toxicokinetics study and a tissue distribution level examination. The ameliorating effect of milk formula on lead-induced oxidative damage was investigated. Results demonstrated current milk formula could effectively reduce blood lead levels (BLLs) and lead distribution levels of liver, kidneys, thighbones and brain in mice based on metal ion-mediated antagonism and chelation mechanisms. This milk formula could not only protect lead-susceptible tissues against lead poisoning, but also maintain normal absorption and distribution of essential elements in vivo. Meanwhile, current milk formula could prevent the reduction of ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?-ALAD) activity and enhancement of free erythrocyte protoporphyrins (FEP) levels in blood erythrocytes of mice. Also, this formula could indirectly protect blood cell membranes against lead-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that current optimized milk formula effectively reduces lead poisoning and lead-induced in vivo oxidative damage in lead-exposed mice. PMID:23537597

Zhang, Yu; Li, Qingqing; Liu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Hui; Song, Aihua; Jiao, Jingjing

2013-03-26

54

Gadolinium reduces short-term stretch-induced muscle damage in isolated mdx mouse muscle fibres  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal muscle disease caused by absence of the protein dystrophin which is part of a glycoprotein complex located on the intracellular surface of the surface membrane. The precise function of dystrophin and the reason why its absence causes severe muscle damage are unclear. Stretch-induced muscle damage is well recognised in normal muscle and is more severe in muscles from animals lacking dystrophin (mdx mice). It has been proposed that stretch-induced damage underlies the progression of damage in muscular dystrophy. In the present study we confirm that single fibres from mdx muscle are more susceptible to stretch-induced damage and show that there is an associated rise in intracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]i) which is greater than in wild-type mice. We show that this rise in [Na+]i can be prevented by Gd3+, which is an established blocker of stretch-activated channels. mdx fibres have a higher than normal resting [Na+]i and this is also reduced by Gd3+. If Gd3+ is applied over the period in which [Na+]i rises following stretched contraction, it prevents one component of the reduced force. The other component of reduced force is caused by inhomogeneity of sarcomeres and can be minimised by stretching the muscle to its new optimum length. These experiments show that part of the short-term damage caused by stretch in mdx fibres can be prevented by blocking stretch-activated channels.

Yeung, Ella W; Head, Stewart I; Allen, David G

2003-01-01

55

Environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in Germany and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

While studies on external costs of electricity generation generally aim at the calculation of marginal costs for a new increment of power generation, we have applied an extended bottom-up modelling framework to calculate average health and environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in Germany and Europe. Aggregated average damage costs provide helpful complementary information to site and technology specific

Wolfram Krewitt; Thomas Heck; Alfred Trukenmüller; Rainer Friedrich

1999-01-01

56

Environmental Damage Schedules: Community Judgments of Importance and Assessments of Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available methods of valuing environmental changes are often limited in their applicability to current issues such as damage assessment and implementing regulatory controls, or may otherwise not provide reliable readings of community preferences. An alternative is to base decisions on predetermined fixed schedules of sanctions, restrictions, damage awards, and other allocative guides and incentives, which are based on community judgments

Ratana Chuenpagdee; Jack L. Knetsch; Thomas C. Brown

2001-01-01

57

Environmental Assessment: Aquatic Mammal Damage Management in Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While all wildlife are a valuable natural resource, some species of wildlife can cause problems with human interests. Aquatic mammals are species that can come into conflict with hyman interests and sometimes need to be managed to control their damage. Th...

2004-01-01

58

Damage diagnosis under environmental and operational variations using unsupervised support vector machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of structural health monitoring is to provide reliable information regarding damage states that include damage presence, location, and severity. Damage diagnosis is performed by utilizing measurements that are obtained from a structure being monitored. However, time-varying environmental and operational conditions such as temperature and external loading may produce an adverse effect on damage detection within the structure exposed to these changes. Therefore, in order to achieve successful structural health monitoring goals, it is necessary to develop data normalization techniques which distinguish the effects of damage from those caused by environmental and operational variations. In this study, nonlinear principal component analysis based on unsupervised support vector machine is introduced and incorporated with a discrete-time prediction model and a hypothesis test for data normalization. The proposed nonlinear principal component analysis characterizes the nonlinear relationship between extracted damage-sensitive features and unmeasured environmental and operational parameters by employing kernel functions and by solving a simple eigenvalue problem. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of another nonlinear principal component analysis realized by auto-associative neural network. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is a promising data normalization tool that is capable of detecting damage in the presence of environmental and operational variations.

Oh, Chang Kook; Sohn, Hoon

2009-08-01

59

MASSIVE MUDFLOW AND ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE FOLLOWING DRILLING FAILURE - AN EXAMPLE FROM INDONESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indonesia is currently facing one of massive drilling induced environmental disaster in the form of uncontrolled huge mudflow and the consequent environmental damage which started on May 29, 2006 during drilling of an exploratory well Banjar Panji-1 in Siring village in Porong district in Sidoarjo regency, East Java, Indonesia, and is still continuing. During drilling of the well, in the

Subrata K Chakraborty; Jayanti Anggraini

60

Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA

Yoo Kyoung Park; Eunju Park; Jung-Shin Kim; Myung-Hee Kang

2003-01-01

61

Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.  

PubMed

Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

2009-11-25

62

Propranolol reduces ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in portal hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a standardized rat model of portal hypertension, we investigated the effects of propranolol on alcohol-induced gastric\\u000a mucosal damage. Portal hypertensive rats pretreated with 2 mg propranolol, compared with those receiving saline, had significantly\\u000a reduced portal pressures (24±1 vs 32±1 cm saline), macroscopic mucosal damage (24 ±1 vs 39±4% of mucosa), and histologic deep\\u000a necrosis (36±2 vs 61±4% of mucosal

H. Sankary; I. J. Sarfeh; A. Tarnawski; R. Maeda; K. J. Ivey; G. R. Mason

1986-01-01

63

Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.  

PubMed

Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill. PMID:20857741

Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

2010-08-01

64

Environmental Assessment: Integrated Wildlife Damage Management to Reduce Cervid Damage in Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the United States, wildlife is a publicly-owned resource held in trust and managed by state and federal agencies. These agencies have a mandate to provide for the welfare and perpetuation of wildlife and be responsive to various groups while considerin...

2003-01-01

65

Analysis of reduced phosphorus in samples of environmental interest.  

PubMed

The combination of ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) was used forthe sensitive and specific detection of hypophosphite (PO2), phosphite (PO3), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and phosphate (PO4). Application of this technique to a wide range of environmental samples proved that reduced phosphorus was present in some situations including process water from thermal phosphorus plants, drinking water contacting cast iron, and phosphorus corrosion inhibitor used in water treatment and in sewage wastewater. Preliminary testing did not detect high concentrations of reduced phosphorus and phosphine in situations where it was previously reported to be very important, including anaerobic digesters in wastewater treatment plants. The new IC-ICP-ES technique is a promising tool for use in corrosion and soil research where phosphites are likely to be present. PMID:16047769

Morton, Siyuan C; Glindemann, Dietmar; Wang, Xiaorong; Niu, Xiaojun; Edwards, Marc

2005-06-15

66

Strain-induced Damage Reduces Echo Intensity Changes in Tendon during Loading  

PubMed Central

Tendon functionality is related to its mechanical properties. Tendon damage leads to a reduction in mechanical strength and altered biomechanical behavior, and therefore leads to compromised ability to carry out normal functions such as joint movement and stabilization. Damage can also accumulate in the tissue and lead to failure. A noninvasive method with which to measure such damage potentially could quantify structural compromise from tendon injury and track improvement over time. In this study, tendon mechanics are measured before and after damage is induced by “overstretch” (strain exceeding the elastic limit of the tissue) using a traditional mechanical test system while ultrasonic echo intensity (average gray scale brightness in a B-mode image) is recorded using clinical ultrasound. The diffuse damage caused by overstretch lowered the stress at a given strain in the tissue and decreased viscoelastic response. Overstretch also lowered echo intensity changes during stress relaxation and cyclic testing. As the input strain during overstretch increased, stress levels and echo intensity changes decreased. Also, viscoelastic parameters and time-dependent echo intensity changes were reduced.

Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray

2012-01-01

67

Rosiglitazone treatment reduces hippocampal neuronal damage possibly through alleviating oxidative stress in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.  

PubMed

Oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation may play significant roles in the progress of injury induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion of the central nervous system. Rosiglitazone, a well known activator of PPAR?, has neuroprotective properties in various animal models of acute central nervous system damage. In the present study, we evaluate the possible impact of rosiglitazone on chronic cerebral hypoperfused-rats in regard to the levels of oxidative stress, reduced glutathione, and hippocampal neuronal damage. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was generated by permanent ligation of both common carotid arteries of Wistar rats for one month. Animals in treatment group were given rosiglitazone orally at doses of 1.5, 3, or 6mg/kg per day of the 1month duration. The treatment significantly lowered the levels of both malondialdehyde and neuronal damage, while elevated the reduced glutathione level markedly. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of rosiglitazone on hypoperfusion-induced hippocampal neuronal damage might be the result of inhibition of oxidative insult. PMID:22609374

Sayan-Ozacmak, Hale; Ozacmak, Veysel Haktan; Barut, Figen; Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa

2012-05-17

68

Protecting children: reducing their environmental tobacco smoke exposure.  

PubMed

The present review examines the current status of efforts to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) among infants and young children. Estimates of the number of children exposed vary, but it is probably over 20 million or about 35% of all U.S. children. Healthy People 2010 sets as an objective the reduction, to 10%, of the proportion of children regularly exposed to tobacco smoke at home. Children with ETS exposure are at higher risk for upper respiratory illnesses, asthma, otitis media, and sudden infant death syndrome. Eight experimental or quasi-experimental studies of attempts to reduce children' ETS exposure with sample sizes of greater than 100 were conducted in the United States and published between 1990 and 2003. Most of these studies showed a significant impact on maternal smoking and on the number of cigarettes smoked in the home, although intervention-control differences were relatively small. Despite support from professional organizations and federal government groups, many pediatricians and family physicians do not routinely engage in intensive efforts to reduce children's ETS exposure. Training in techniques for reducing tobacco dependence should be included in professional education programs. Public and private insurance should reimburse providers for efforts in this area. An overall strategy for reducing children's ETS exposure should combine individual counseling and education in offices, clinics, and homes with community education and regulatory and economic policies (i.e., smoking bans and excise taxes). Additional funding is needed for studies of provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices; of the effectiveness of various communication strategies; and of office- and community-based strategies to reduce ETS exposure. PMID:15203824

Klerman, Lorraine

2004-04-01

69

General Reevaluation Report for Flood Damage Reduction: Loves Park Creek, Loves Park, Illinois with Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1979 feasibility report recommended a plan to reduce damages incurred by flooding along Loves Park Creek (formerly the Large Unnamed Creek). Funds were appropriated in FY 85 to continue planning and engineering to incorporate recent developments in the ...

R. Risser G. Staley D. Fetes J. Crittenden R. Klump

1986-01-01

70

A reduced basis approach to quantifying damage dependent dynamic response of laminated composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element (FE) based formulation is utilized to represent the damage-dependent response of laminated composite structures. An internal-state-variable (ISV) approach provides a definition of the stiffness reduction caused by intralaminar crack propagation at the ply level. These ISVs are combined with simple stress criteria to accommodate ply property changes caused by fiber fracture, fiber microbuckling and interior delaminations. A set of orthogonal Ritz vectors are chosen as basis vectors to transform the dynamical equations of motion to a reduced coordinate space. The reduced basis form of the equations provides significant numerical efficiencies, especially for large ordered systems. Furthermore, damping and its variation with damage can be generally represented in any number of vibratory modes. The Newmark integration operator is used to solve the dynamic equations of motion, and equilibrium iterations are performed in each incremental time step to assure convergence. Results are given for laminated beam and plate geometries subjected to dynamic loads.

Engblom, John J.; Yang, Quinghui

71

Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

NONE

1993-10-01

72

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

Not Available

1993-10-01

73

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl4, CCl4+silymarin, and CCl4+ERW groups. CCl4-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl4 also significantly

Chia-Fang Tsai; Yu-Wen Hsu; Wen-Kang Chen; Wen-Huei Chang; Cheng-Chieh Yen; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Fung-Jou Lu

2009-01-01

74

Use of Cis-Epoxyeicosantrienoic Acids and Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Reduce Damage from Stroke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides uses and methods for reducing brain damage from stroke. The uses comprise the use of an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) for the manufacture of a medicament to reduce brain damage from stroke, as well as the use of cis-e...

A. M. Dorrance B. D. Hammock J. D. Imig

2005-01-01

75

Transnational Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage: Examining Changing Spatialities of Environmental Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The civil liability regime for ship-source oil pollution stands at the forefront of rule development for transnational environmental compensation, advancing private law remedies to enable national victims of oil spill damage to make financial claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in certain circumstances, the global oil cargo industry. This rule formulation and implementation attests to the significance of

Michael Mason

76

Pioglitazone reduces secondary brain damage after experimental brain trauma by PPAR-?-independent mechanisms.  

PubMed

Inflammatory and ischemic processes contribute to the development of secondary brain damage after mechanical brain injury. Recent data suggest that thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a class of drugs approved for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, effectively reduces inflammation and brain lesion by stimulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?). The present study investigates the influence of the TZD pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on inflammation and secondary brain damage after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). A controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury was induced in male C57BL/6 mice to investigate following endpoints: (1) mRNA expression of PPAR-? and PPAR-? target genes (LPL, GLT1, and IRAP/Lnpep), and inflammatory markers (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and iNOS), at 15 min, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h post-trauma; (2) contusion volume, neurological function, and gene expression after 24 h in mice treated with pioglitazone (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) or rosiglitazone (5 and 10 mg/kg IP at 30 min post-trauma); and (3) the role of PPAR-? to mediate protection was determined in animals treated with pioglitazone, the PPAR-? inhibitor T0070907, and a combination of both. Inflammatory marker genes, but not PPAR-? gene expression, was upregulated after trauma. Pioglitazone reduced the histological damage and inflammation in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, rosiglitazone failed to suppress inflammation and histological damage. PPAR-? and PPAR-? target gene expression was not induced by pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. In line with these results, pioglitazone-mediated protection was not reversed by T0070907. The results indicate that the neuroprotective effects of pioglitazone are not solely related to PPAR-?-dependent mechanisms. PMID:21501066

Thal, Serge C; Heinemann, Marius; Luh, Clara; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin

2011-06-01

77

Plant diversity affects behavior of generalist root herbivores, reduces crop damage, and enhances crop yield.  

PubMed

Soil-dwelling pests inflict considerable economic damage in agriculture but are hard to control. A promising strategy to reduce pest pressure on crops is to increase the plant diversity in agroecosystems. This approach, however, demands a sound understanding of species' interactions, which is widely lacking for subterranean herbivore-plant systems. Here, we examine the effects of plant diversification on wireworms, the soil-dwelling larvae of click beetles that threaten crops worldwide. We conducted a field experiment employing plant diversification by adding either wheat or a mix of six associated plants (grasses, legumes, and forbs) between rows of maize to protect it from Agriotes wireworms. Wireworm feeding behavior, dispersal between crop and associated plants, as well as maize damage and yield were examined. The former was assessed combining molecular gut content and stable isotope analysis. The pests were strongly attracted by the associated plants in August, when the crop was most vulnerable, whereas in September, shortly before harvest, this effect occurred only in the plant mix. In maize monoculture, the larvae stayed in the principal crop throughout the season. Larval delta13C signatures revealed that maize feeding was reduced up to sevenfold in wireworms of the vegetationally diversified treatments compared to those of the maize monoculture. These findings were confirmed by molecular analysis, which additionally showed a dietary preference of wireworms for specific plants in the associated plant mix. Compared to the monoculture, maize damage was reduced by 38% and 55% in the wheat and plant mix treatment, which translated into a yield increase of 30% and 38%, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that increasing the plant diversity in agroecosystems provides an effective insurance against soil pests. The underlying mechanisms are the diversion of the pest from the principle crop and a changed feeding behavior. The deployment of diverse mixes of associated plants, tailored to the specific preferences of the soil herbivores, provides a promising strategy for managing subterranean pests while maintaining crop yield. PMID:23967581

Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Thalinger, Bettina; Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

2013-07-01

78

Human polynucleotide phosphorylase reduces oxidative RNA damage and protects HeLa cell against oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

We examined HeLa cell viability and RNA oxidative damage in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. The level of damaged RNA, measured by the content of 8-hydroxyguanosine (7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine, 8-oxoG), increases depending on H2O2 dosage and is inversely correlated with cell viability. The elevated level of 8-oxoG in RNA decreases after removal of oxidative challenge, suggesting the existence of surveillance mechanism(s) for cleaning up oxidized RNA. Human polynucleotide phosphorylase (hPNPase), an exoribonuclease primarily located in mitochondria, has been previously shown to bind 8-oxoG-RNA with high affinity. The role of hPNPase in HeLa cell under oxidative stress conditions is examined here. Overexpression of hPNPase reduces RNA oxidation and increases cell viability against H2O2 insult. Conversely, hPNPase knockdown decreases viability and increases 8-oxoG level in HeLa cell exposed to H2O2. Our results suggest that hPNPase plays an important role in protecting cells and limiting damaged RNA under oxidative stress.

Wu, Jinhua; Li, Zhongwei

2008-01-01

79

Long-term hematopoietic damage: Concepts, approaches, and results relevant to the study of environmental toxins  

SciTech Connect

The hematopoietic tissue is one of the prime examples of hierarchical tissues, where mature cells with a limited life span are continually replaced as a result of proliferation and differentiation from stem and progenitor cells. In the bone marrow, these processes are controlled by growth factors and by cell to cell interactions, the latter being specially important for the regulation of the stem-cell population. In the study of long-term hematopoietic damage, the authors have to distinguish between deleterious effects of the environmental toxins on the stem and progenitor cells, and on the stromal bone marrow cells which are part of the regulatory hematopoietic microenvironment. In some experimental situations, the function of the tissue may be subnormal, not because of stem cell damage (which may also be present), but because of damage to regulatory environmental populations. Because of the high degree of organization of the hematopoietic tissue (not immediately obvious from histological sections), the heterogeneity of the stromal cell populations, and their different capacities to regenerate after cytotoxic insult, the stromal damage is likely to be heterogeneous and would tend to be expressed functionally at later times than acute hematopoietic injury. While microenvironmental damage may be of importance in the induction of hematopoietic failure, the primary target in leukemogenesis is likely to be the stem cell. However, experimental data support the concept that regulatory microenvironmental influences may hinder or favor the development of leukemia.

Testa, N.G.; Dexter, T.M. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (England))

1989-07-01

80

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

Bascietto, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US). RCRA/CERCLA Div.; Dunford, R.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (US); Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)

1993-06-01

81

C1 Esterase Inhibitor Reduces Lower Extremity Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Associated Lung Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Methods and Findings Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n?=?6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n?=?4), vehicle (n?=?7), or NaCl (n?=?8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle. Conclusions C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application.

Duehrkop, Claudia; Banz, Yara; Spirig, Rolf; Miescher, Sylvia; Nolte, Marc W.; Spycher, Martin; Smith, Richard A. G.; Sacks, Steven H.; Rieben, Robert

2013-01-01

82

Reducing the environmental impact of poultry breeding by genetic selection.  

PubMed

Improving the sustainability of poultry production involves limiting its environmental impact and maintaining effectiveness. It has recently been shown that genetic selection on the ability of chickens to digest wheat at 23 d of age can decrease chicken excretion without decreasing BW at this age. The aim of this study was to check whether selection on digestibility modified excretion and growth performance over the whole production cycle. The 2 divergent lines selected for high (D+) and low (D-) apparent metabolizable energy corrected for 0 N balance (AMEn) values were compared with a reference line used at the beginning of the selection experiment (RL) to evaluate the potential excretion improvement that could be expected with such selection. These 3 lines were therefore compared for growth and excretion (raw and relative to feed intake, fresh and dry excreta weights, and moisture content of excreta) from 4 to 53 d. Between 4 and 7 d, 17 and 21 d, and 49 and 53 d, AMEn and N and P excretion rates were also compared between the 3 lines. Furthermore, body composition (breast meat and abdominal fat yields), bone breaking strength, and meat quality traits (lightness, redness, yellowness, and ultimate pH) were compared between lines at 53 d. Over the whole rearing period, D+ birds excreted significantly less fresh and dry excreta (-56 and -61%) than D- and RL birds (-6 and -26%). Similarly, N and P excretion rates of D+ birds were 13% to 30% less than those of D- birds and 12% to 19% less than RL birds, depending on age. These excretion differences may be related to the differential development of the gastrointestinal tract. Differences between lines were already present at 7 d for relative gizzard weight and the weight of the upper to the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract ratio. Anatomic differences were maximum at 23 d for all traits except for relative weight of the duodenum. At slaughter age, BW, breast and fat yields, and meat color did not differ between D+ and RL birds, but D- birds were fatter than D+ and RL birds. Finally, ultimate meat pH was 1% to 2% greater in RL birds than in the D+ and D- lines. In conclusion, this study showed that selection of chickens for AMEn is a possible way to reduce the environmental impact of production over the whole rearing period without a negative impact on growth, body composition, or meat quality. PMID:23243164

de Verdal, H; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Bastianelli, D; Même, N; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Narcy, A

2012-12-12

83

Reducing Solid WasteLinking Recycling to Environmentally Responsible Consumerism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of several communities was conducted to investigate the public’s response to solid waste issues. This study examines the relation between respondents’ beliefs about environmentally responsible consumerism and environmental attitudes, motives, and self-reported recycling behavior. The study addressed (a) the public’s perception of environment-related product attributes; (b) a sociodemographic characterization of environmentally concerned consumers; and (c) the depiction of

Angela Ebreo; James Hershey; Joanne Vining

1999-01-01

84

FK 506 reduces tissue damage and prevents functional deficit after spinal cord injury in the rat.  

PubMed

We examined the efficacy of FK 506 in reducing tissue damage after spinal cord injury in comparison to methylprednisolone (MP) treatment. Rats were subjected to a photochemical injury (T8) and were given a bolus of MP (30 mg/kg), FK 506 (2 mg/kg), or saline. An additional group received an initial bolus of FK 506 (2 mg/kg) followed by daily injections (0.2 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Functional recovery was evaluated using open-field walking, inclined plane tests, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and the H-reflex response during 14 days postoperation (dpo). Tissue sparing and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), biotinylated tomato lectin LEC, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) immunoreactivity were quantified in the injured spinal cord. FK 506-treated animals demonstrated significantly better neurologic outcome, higher MEP amplitudes, and lower H-wave amplitude compared to that of saline-treated rats. In contrast, administration of MP did not result in significant differences with respect to the saline-treated group. Histologic examination revealed that tissue sparing was largest in FK 506-treated compared to saline and MP-treated animals. GFAP and COX-2 reactivity was decreased in animals treated with FK 506 compared to that in animals given MP or saline, whereas IL-1 beta expression was similarly reduced in both FK 506- and MP-treated groups. Microglia/macrophage response was reduced in FK 506 and MP-injected animals at 3 dpo, but only in MP-treated animals at 7 dpo with respect to saline-injected rats. Repeated administrations of FK 506 improved functional and histologic results to a greater degree than did a single bolus of FK 506. The results indicate that FK 506 administration protects the damaged spinal cord and should be considered as potential therapy for treating spinal cord injuries. PMID:16041804

López-Vales, Rubèn; García-Alías, Guillermo; Forés, Joaquim; Udina, Esther; Gold, Bruce G; Navarro, Xavier; Verdú, Enrique

2005-09-15

85

Observations and Modeling of Environmental and Human Damages by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 26 December 2004, one of the largest tsunamis in human history (the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) struck coastal areas of countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, causing severe property damage and loss of life and causing us to think anew about the fearful consequences of a tsunami disaster. The tsunami devastated more than 10 countries around the ocean including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. Since its energy remains almost constant, the tsunami wave height grows tremendously in shallow water. It ranged in runups of ~48m on the western shore of Sumatra, ~18m in Thailand, and ~15m in Sri Lanka. The tsunami killed nearly 230,000 people, including visitors from foreign countries, resulting in great economic losses. The tsunami was also affected coastal environment at these countries and induced severe topographic change, and damages to the marine ecosystems as well as vegetations on land. Immediately following the tsunami, number of research teams has investigated damages of environment and human communities by tsunamis. Numerical analyses of tsunami propagation have also been carried out to understand the behavior and wave properties of tsunamis. However, there are few studies that focused on the integration of the field observations and numerical results, nevertheless that such analysis is critically important to evaluate the environmental and human damages by the tsunami. In this contribution, we first review damages to the environment and humans due to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka based on our field observations, and then we evaluate these damages based on high resolution numerical results. For example, we conducted field observation as well as high-resolution (17 m grid cells) numerical calculation for damages of corals (reef rocks) and mangroves at Pakarang Cape, Thailand. We found that hundreds of reef rocks were emplaced on the tidal bench, and 70 % of mangroves were destroyed at the cape. Our numerical results further clarified that these damages are well explained by the calculated hydraulic force of tsunamis. This kind of analysis that integrated the observation and numerical results is important to evaluate environmental and human damages quantitatively, and to make a future disaster prevention plan.

Goto, K.; Imamura, F.; Koshimura, S.; Yanagisawa, H.

2008-05-01

86

Development of adherent ceramic coatings to reduce contact stress damage of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

High-strength, oxidation-resistant materials for advanced heat engine applications are susceptible to contact stress damage at ceramic/ceramic interfaces. It has been observed that surface damage and strength loss under sliding contact can be substantially reduced by applying a thin ceramic coating. In this program, a multilayered, compositionally graded coating was designed for ceramic components in advanced heat engines. A chemical vapor deposition process was developed for applying coatings in the thickness range of 2--20 {mu}m on 2 in. {times} 1/4 in. {times} 1/8 in. bars. Strongly adherent coatings were grown on the three substrates of interest -- reaction bonded silicon nitride, hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride, and sintered silicon carbide. The effect of the coating on relevant mechanical properties of the substrate materials was evaluated. Performance of the coated material was assessed by conducting long-term high-temperature oxidation and thermal shock tests at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. Some oxidation tests were also performed at 1375{degrees}C. Coated material was prepared for contact stress testing at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. Results indicate that with the present coating configuration, potential exists for commercial application at temperatures of up to 1200{degrees}C. Increases in the use temperature appear possible by modifying the coating properties.

D'Angelo, C.; Kim, H.J.; Oblas, D.W.; Rebenne, H.E.; Sarin, V.K. (GTE Labs., Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1992-04-01

87

Development of adherent ceramic coatings to reduce contact stress damage of ceramics. Final report  

SciTech Connect

High-strength, oxidation-resistant materials for advanced heat engine applications are susceptible to contact stress damage at ceramic/ceramic interfaces. It has been observed that surface damage and strength loss under sliding contact can be substantially reduced by applying a thin ceramic coating. In this program, a multilayered, compositionally graded coating was designed for ceramic components in advanced heat engines. A chemical vapor deposition process was developed for applying coatings in the thickness range of 2--20 {mu}m on 2 in. {times} 1/4 in. {times} 1/8 in. bars. Strongly adherent coatings were grown on the three substrates of interest -- reaction bonded silicon nitride, hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride, and sintered silicon carbide. The effect of the coating on relevant mechanical properties of the substrate materials was evaluated. Performance of the coated material was assessed by conducting long-term high-temperature oxidation and thermal shock tests at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. Some oxidation tests were also performed at 1375{degrees}C. Coated material was prepared for contact stress testing at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. Results indicate that with the present coating configuration, potential exists for commercial application at temperatures of up to 1200{degrees}C. Increases in the use temperature appear possible by modifying the coating properties.

D`Angelo, C.; Kim, H.J.; Oblas, D.W.; Rebenne, H.E.; Sarin, V.K. [GTE Labs., Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

1992-04-01

88

Oral Resveratrol Reduces Neuronal Damage in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), correlates with permanent neurological dysfunction. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage. Methods We examined whether oral therapy with SRT501, a pharmaceutical-grade formulation of resveratrol, reduces neuronal loss during relapsing/remitting EAE. Resveratrol activates SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that promotes mitochondrial function. Results Oral SRT501 prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory optic nerve lesion in MS and EAE. SRT501 also suppressed neurological dysfunction during EAE remission, and spinal cords from SRT501-treated mice had significantly higher axonal density than vehicle-treated mice. Similar neuroprotection was mediated by SRT1720, another SIRT1-activating compound; and sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor, attenuated SRT501 neuroprotective effects. SIRT1 activators did not prevent inflammation. Conclusions These studies demonstrate SRT501 attenuates neuronal damage and neurological dysfunction in EAE by a mechanism involving SIRT1 activation. SIRT1 activators are a potential oral therapy in MS.

Shindler, Kenneth S.; Ventura, Elvira; Dutt, Mahasweta; Elliott, Peter; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

2012-01-01

89

Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: A mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyophonus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of uninfected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltration of immune cells and fibrotic (granuloma) tissue surrounding the parasite. Diminished swimming stamina is hypothesized to be due to cardiac failure resulting from the combination of parasite-damaged heart muscle and low myocardial oxygen supply during sustained aerobic exercise. Loss of stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected salmonids could explain the poor performance previously reported for wild Chinook and sockeye salmon stocks during their spawning migration. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kocan, R.; LaPatra, S.; Gregg, J.; Winton, J.; Hershberger, P.

2006-01-01

90

Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.  

PubMed

Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

Meagher, Rebecca K; Mason, Georgia J

2012-11-14

91

Antioxidant treatment reduces blast-induced cochlear damage and hearing loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to blast overpressure has become one of the hazards of both military and civilian life in many parts of the world due to war and terrorist activity. Auditory damage is one of the primary sequela of blast trauma, affecting immediate situational awareness and causing permanent hearing loss. Protecting against blast exposure is limited by the inability to anticipate the timing of these exposures, particularly those caused by terrorists. Therefore a therapeutic regimen is desirable that is able to ameliorate auditory damage when administered after a blast exposure has occurred. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of a combination of antioxidants 2,4-disulfonyl ?-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) beginning 1 h after blast exposure could reduce both temporary and permanent hearing loss. To this end, a blast simulator was developed and the operational conditions established for exposing rats to blast overpressures comparable to those encountered in an open-field blast of 14 pounds per square inch (psi). This blast model produced reproducible blast overpressures that resulted in physiological and physical damage to the auditory system that was proportional to the number and amplitude of the blasts. After exposure to 3 consecutive 14 psi blasts 100% of anesthetized rats had permanent hearing loss as determined at 21 days post exposure by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. Animals treated with HPN-07 and NAC after blast exposure showed a significant reduction in ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE level shifts at 2-16 kHz with significant reduction in inner hair cell (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) loss across the 5-36 kHz region of the cochlea compared with control animals. The time course of changes in the auditory system was documented at 3 h, 24 h, 7 day and 21 day after blast exposure. At 3 h after blast exposure the auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were elevated by 60 dB in both treated and control groups. A partial recovery of to 35 dB was observed at 24 h in the controls, indicative of a temporary threshold shift (TTS) and there was essentially no further recovery by 21 days representing a permanent threshold shift (PTS) of about 30 dB. Antioxidant treatment increased the amount of both TTS and PTS recovery relative to controls by 10 and 20 dB respectively. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) reached a maximum level shift of 25-30 dB measured in both control and treated groups at 3 h after blast exposure. These levels did not change by day 21 in the control group but in the treatment group the level shifts began to decline at 24 h until by day 21 they were 10-20 dB below that of the controls. Loss of cochlear hair cells measured at 21 day after blast exposure was mostly in the outer hair cells (OHC) and broadly distributed across the basilar membrane, consistent with the distribution of loss of frequency responses as measured by ABR and DPOAE analysis and typical of blast-induced damage. OHC loss progressively increased after blast exposure reaching an average loss of 32% in the control group and 10% in the treated group at 21 days. These findings provide the first evidence that a combination of antioxidants, HPN-07 and NAC, can both enhance TTS recovery and prevent PTS by reducing damage to the mechanical and neural components of the auditory system when administered shortly after blast exposure. PMID:22326291

Ewert, Donald L; Lu, Jianzhong; Li, Wei; Du, Xiaoping; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard

2012-02-06

92

Lonicera caerulea fruits reduce UVA-induced damage in hairless mice.  

PubMed

UVA photons are less energetic than UVB photons but they are more abundant in solar radiation. Modern tools have shown that UVA light has serious adverse effects on the skin. We investigated the effect of consuming Lonicera caerulea berries on UVA-induced damage in SKH-1 mice. The mice were fed a diet containing L. caerulea berries (10%, w/w) for 14days before a single UVA (30J/cm(2)) treatment. Effects on haematological and antioxidant parameters were evaluated 4 and 24h after irradiation. The bioavailability of L. caerulea phenolics was also assessed. Consuming the L. caerulea berry-enriched diet caused reduced malondialdehyde production and increased catalase activity and glutathione levels were found in skin and erythrocytes. UVA-induced NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and gamma-L-glutamate-L-cysteine ligase protein in skin were reduced in mice fed L. caerulea berries. Enhanced heme oxygenase-1 level in skin, interleukin-17 in plasma and reduced interleukin-12 levels in plasma were found in the mice on the experimental diet. Histological (pyknotic) changes in the nuclei of basal cells induced by UVA exposure were reduced in L. caerulea berry consuming animals. HLPC-MS analysis showed high concentrations of hippuric acid, one of the main metabolites of aromatic amino acids and phenolic compounds, in skin, liver, urine and faeces of mice consuming the berries. Taken together, consumption of L. caerulea berries affords protection from the adverse effects of a single UVA exposure mainly via modulation of antioxidant parameters. PMID:23974431

Vostálová, Jitka; Galandáková, Adéla; Palíková, Irena; Ulrichová, Jitka; Doležal, Dalibor; Lichnovská, Radka; Vrbková, Jana; Rajnochová Svobodová, Alena

2013-08-08

93

Delayed administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduces ischemic brain damage and inflammation in comorbid rats.  

PubMed

Many neuroprotective agents have been effective in experimental stroke, yet few have translated into clinical application. One reason for this may be failure to consider clinical comorbidities/risk factors in experimental models. We have shown that a naturally occurring interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is protective against ischemic brain damage in healthy animals. However, protective effects of IL-1Ra have not been determined in comorbid animals. Thus, we tested whether IL-1Ra protects against brain injury induced by experimental ischemia in aged JCR-LA (corpulent) rats, which have clinically relevant risk factors. Male, aged, lean, and corpulent rats exposed to transient (90 minutes) occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) were administered two doses of IL-1Ra (25 mg/kg, subcutaneously) during reperfusion. Brain injury and neuroinflammatory changes were assessed 24 hours after tMCAO. Our results show that IL-1Ra administered at reperfusion significantly reduced infarct volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (50%, primary outcome) and blood-brain barrier disruption in these comorbid animals. Interleukin-1Ra also reduced microglial activation, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokines levels in the brain. These data are the first to indicate that IL-1Ra protects against ischemic brain injury when administered via a clinically relevant route and time window in animals with multiple risk factors for stroke. PMID:22781338

Pradillo, Jesus M; Denes, Adam; Greenhalgh, Andrew D; Boutin, Herve; Drake, Caroline; McColl, Barry W; Barton, Eleanor; Proctor, Spencer D; Russell, James C; Rothwell, Nancy J; Allan, Stuart M

2012-07-11

94

Delayed administration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduces ischemic brain damage and inflammation in comorbid rats  

PubMed Central

Many neuroprotective agents have been effective in experimental stroke, yet few have translated into clinical application. One reason for this may be failure to consider clinical comorbidities/risk factors in experimental models. We have shown that a naturally occurring interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is protective against ischemic brain damage in healthy animals. However, protective effects of IL-1Ra have not been determined in comorbid animals. Thus, we tested whether IL-1Ra protects against brain injury induced by experimental ischemia in aged JCR-LA (corpulent) rats, which have clinically relevant risk factors. Male, aged, lean, and corpulent rats exposed to transient (90?minutes) occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) were administered two doses of IL-1Ra (25?mg/kg, subcutaneously) during reperfusion. Brain injury and neuroinflammatory changes were assessed 24?hours after tMCAO. Our results show that IL-1Ra administered at reperfusion significantly reduced infarct volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (50%, primary outcome) and blood–brain barrier disruption in these comorbid animals. Interleukin-1Ra also reduced microglial activation, neutrophil infiltration, and cytokines levels in the brain. These data are the first to indicate that IL-1Ra protects against ischemic brain injury when administered via a clinically relevant route and time window in animals with multiple risk factors for stroke.

Pradillo, Jesus M; Denes, Adam; Greenhalgh, Andrew D; Boutin, Herve; Drake, Caroline; McColl, Barry W; Barton, Eleanor; Proctor, Spencer D; Russell, James C; Rothwell, Nancy J; Allan, Stuart M

2012-01-01

95

Neutrophil elastase inhibition reduces cerebral ischemic damage in the middle cerebral artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that activated neutrophils are involved in the development of cerebral damage induced by ischemia. Activated neutrophils release a lot of mediators including toxic oxygen metabolites, elastase and cytokines which damage brain tissue. Therefore, we investigated roles of neutrophil elastase in the development of cerebral damage using an elastase inhibitor, ONO-5046. The rat middle cerebral artery (MCA)

Akira Shimakura; Yoshihisa Kamanaka; Yasuhiko Ikeda; Kazunao Kondo; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Kazuo Umemura

2000-01-01

96

36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...

2013-07-01

97

Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise management program handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise

Timothy D. Feather; Ted K. Shekell

1991-01-01

98

Reducing Environmental Noise Impacts: A USAREUR Noise Management Program Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military trainin...

T. D. Feather T. K. Shekell

1991-01-01

99

Forest canopy damage and recovery in reduced-impact and conventional selective logging in eastern Para, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated ground and canopy damage and recovery following conventional logging and reduced-impact logging (RIL) of moist tropical forest in the eastern Amazon of Brazil. Paired conventional and RIL blocks were selectively logged with a harvest intensity of approximately 23m3ha?1 (geometric volume) in the dry seasons (July–December) of 1996 and 1998. Ground damage (roads+skid trails+log decks) in the conventional logging

Rodrigo Pereira Jr; Johan Zweede; Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller

2002-01-01

100

Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection.  

PubMed

Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3 ) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3 -induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4 ), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23-102 Mt in 2030 - the equivalent of a ~2-8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5-15 billion worldwide (USD2000 ), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ~$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3 -induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 -induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

2013-02-05

101

Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection  

PubMed Central

Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ?2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ?$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields.

Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

2013-01-01

102

Weight loss and melatonin reduce obesity-induced oxidative damage in rat testis.  

PubMed

Aim. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of weight loss and melatonin on the obesity-induced oxidative damage in rat testes. Materials and Methods. 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 rats: control group (Group 1), obesity group (Group 2), obesity + MLT group (Group 3), and weight loss group (Group 4). Rats were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed and 5?cc blood samples were obtained from all of the rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) levels were analysed in the testicular tissues and serum. Spermatogenesis was evaluated with the Johnsen scoring system. Results. The testicular tissue and serum levels of MDA, PC, and SOD activity were increased in the obesity group in comparison to the sham operated group (P < 0.05). Weight loss and melatonin treatment ameliorated MDA, PC, and SOD levels in testicular tissue and serum significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of mean Johnsen score (P = 0.727). Conclusion. Experimentally created obesity caused oxidative stress and both melatonin and weight loss reduced oxidative stress parameters in rat testes. PMID:24089609

Atilgan, Dogan; Parlaktas, Bekir S; Uluocak, Nihat; Erdemir, Fikret; Kilic, Sahin; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Markoc, Fatma

2013-09-08

103

Weight Loss and Melatonin Reduce Obesity-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Testis  

PubMed Central

Aim. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of weight loss and melatonin on the obesity-induced oxidative damage in rat testes. Materials and Methods. 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 rats: control group (Group 1), obesity group (Group 2), obesity + MLT group (Group 3), and weight loss group (Group 4). Rats were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed and 5?cc blood samples were obtained from all of the rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) levels were analysed in the testicular tissues and serum. Spermatogenesis was evaluated with the Johnsen scoring system. Results. The testicular tissue and serum levels of MDA, PC, and SOD activity were increased in the obesity group in comparison to the sham operated group (P < 0.05). Weight loss and melatonin treatment ameliorated MDA, PC, and SOD levels in testicular tissue and serum significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of mean Johnsen score (P = 0.727). Conclusion. Experimentally created obesity caused oxidative stress and both melatonin and weight loss reduced oxidative stress parameters in rat testes.

Atilgan, Dogan; Parlaktas, Bekir S.; Uluocak, Nihat; Erdemir, Fikret; Kilic, Sahin; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Markoc, Fatma

2013-01-01

104

Human Papillomavirus Episome Stability Is Reduced by Aphidicolin and Controlled by DNA Damage Response Pathways  

PubMed Central

A highly reproducible quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assay was used to study the stability of human papillomavirus (HPV) in undifferentiated keratinocytes that maintain viral episomes. The term “stability” refers to the ability of episomes to persist with little copy number variation in cells. In investigating the mechanism of action of PA25, a previously published compound that destabilizes HPV episomes, aphidicolin was also found to markedly decrease episome levels, but via a different pathway from that of PA25. Since aphidicolin is known to activate DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, effects of inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) acting within DDR pathways were investigated. Inhibitors of Chk1 and siRNA directed against ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia Rad3-related (ATR) pathways significantly reduced viral episomes, suggesting that these pathways play a role in maintaining HPV episome stability. Inhibitors of Chk2 and DNA-PK had no effect on episome levels. Pharmacological inhibition of ATM proteins had no effect on episome levels, but ATM knockdown by siRNA significantly reduced episome levels, suggesting that ATM proteins are playing an important role in HPV episome stability that does not require kinase activity. These results outline two pathways that trigger episome loss from cells and suggest the existence of a little-understood mechanism that mediates viral DNA elimination. Together, our results also indicate that HPV episomes have a stability profile that is remarkably similar to that of fragile sites; these similarities are outlined and discussed. This close correspondence may influence the preference of HPV for integration into fragile sites.

Edwards, Terri G.; Helmus, Michael J.; Koeller, Kevin; Bashkin, James K.

2013-01-01

105

Dimethylformamide improves the in vitro characteristics of thawed stallion spermatozoa reducing sublethal damage.  

PubMed

A total of 42 ejaculates were used in the experiment; six ejaculates per stallion, obtained from seven Pure Spanish stallions (PRE), were split and frozen in freezing media with different concentrations and combinations of cryoprotectant (CPA): (i) Cáceres (skim milk based extender) containing 2.5% glycerol (2.5GL), (ii) Cáceres containing 1.5% glycerol and 1.5% dimethylformamide (1.5%GL-1.5%DMFA), (iii) Cáceres extender supplemented with 1.5% glycerol and 2.5% dimethylformamide (1.5%GL-2.5%DMFA) and (iv) Cáceres extender supplemented with 4% dimethylformamide (4%DMFA). After at least 4 weeks of storage in liquid nitrogen (LN), straws were thawed and semen analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry (membrane lipid architecture (Merocyanine 540), integrity and sublethal damage (YoPro-1) and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1)). After thawing, better results were observed in samples frozen in 4%DMFA or in combinations of 1.5%GL-2.5%DMFA, in fact total motility increased by 16% in the 4%DMFA group compared to 2.5%GL (P < 0.05). Also, there was an increment in the percentage of progressive motile sperm in the 1.5%GL-2.5%DMFA group (9.8% 2.5GL vs 19% in the 1.5%GL-2.5%DMFA group p < 0.05); also, samples frozen in the 4%DMFA group had more intact (YoPro-1 negative) sperm post-thawing, 29.3% in 2.5%GL vs 36.7% in 4%DMFA group (p < 0.05). Membrane lipid architecture was not affected by any of the cryoprotectants tested, while samples frozen in 4%DFMA had a lower percentage of mitochondria with lower membrane potential. It is concluded that DMFA improves the outcome of cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa mainly reducing sublethal cryodamage. PMID:22384798

Morillo Rodriguez, A; Balao da Silva, C; Macías-García, B; Gallardo Bolaños, J M; Tapia, J A; Aparicio, I M; Ortega-Ferrusola, C; Peña, F J

2012-03-05

106

Postinsult treatment with lithium reduces brain damage and facilitates neurological recovery in a rat ischemia\\/reperfusion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium has long been a primary drug used to treat bipolar mood disorder, even though the drug's therapeutic mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies demonstrate that lithium has neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in cultured neurons and in vivo. The present study was undertaken to examine whether postinsult treatment with lithium reduces brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia. We found that

Ming Ren; Vladimir V. Senatorov; Ren-Wu Chen; De-Maw Chuang

2003-01-01

107

Geldanamycin treatment reduces delayed CA1 damage in mouse hippocampal organotypic cultures subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our prior work demonstrated that geldanamycin (GA) reduced injury due to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary astrocyte cultures. Using medium with an ionic composition similar to that observed during in vivo global ischemia, the selectivity and temporal profile of CA1 neuronal damage seen in vivo was mimicked with OGD in mouse hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. The present study tested the

Yi-Bing Ouyang; Lijun Xu; Rona G. Giffard

2005-01-01

108

Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise management program handbook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

Feather, Timothy D.; Shekell, Ted K.

1991-06-01

109

Human polynucleotide phosphorylase reduces oxidative RNA damage and protects HeLa cell against oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined HeLa cell viability and RNA oxidative damage in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. The level of damaged RNA, measured by the content of 8-hydroxyguanosine (7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine, 8-oxoG), increases depending on H2O2 dosage and is inversely correlated with cell viability. The elevated level of 8-oxoG in RNA decreases after removal of oxidative challenge, suggesting the existence of surveillance mechanism(s)

Jinhua Wu; Zhongwei Li

2008-01-01

110

Plasma doping and reduced crystalline damage for conformally doped fin field effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequency noise and hot carrier reliability analysis of the plasma doping scheme are investigated for advanced fin field effect transistor (FinFET) conformal doping. Plasma doping improves device performances and hot carrier reliability for both fin resistors and FinFETs due to the absence of crystalline damage for narrow fins. One decade lower noise level and Coulomb scattering coefficient related to the crystalline damage suppression are observed for the plasma doping compared to the standard ion-implantation.

Woo Lee, Jae; Sasaki, Yuichiro; Ju Cho, Moon; Togo, Mitsuhiro; Boccardi, Guillaume; Ritzenthaler, Romain; Eneman, Geert; Chiarella, Thomas; Brus, Stephan; Horiguchi, Naoto; Groeseneken, Guido; Thean, Aaron

2013-06-01

111

Reducing seed damage by soybean bugs by growing small-seeded soybeans and delaying sowing time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of seed size and planting time on seed damage by soybean bugs in the field over 2 years. Kyushu-143, a small-seeded soybean with many pods, suffered less damage at harvest by soybean bugs than the large-seeded cultivars Fukuyutaka and Sachiyutaka. We attributed the field tolerance of Kyushu-143 to large numbers of “spare” seeds that could compensate

Takashi Wada; Nobuyuki Endo; Masakazu Takahashi

2006-01-01

112

Vegetative environmental buffers for reducing downwind odor and VOCs from tunnel-ventilated swine barn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists have investigated methods for reducing odor emissions from livestock buildings for decades, yet few technologies have proven effective. Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEBs), which are specially designed combinations of trees, shrubs and grasses, have shown promise in recent years for ...

113

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition reduces lung damage in a mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury.  

PubMed

Mechanical ventilation (MV) has the potential to induce lung damage in healthy lungs or aggravate existing lung injury. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) recruitment plays an important role in driving the inflammatory response in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor r-roscovitine has been shown to induce apoptosis in PMNs. In this study, we investigated the potential of r-roscovitine treatment in reducing lung damage in a mouse model of VILI. Mice were tracheotomized and subjected to lung-protective MV with lower (?7.5 mL/kg) or lung-injurious MV with higher (?15 mL/kg) tidal volume (VT). R-roscovitine treatment enhanced apoptosis in PMNs in vitro. Ventilator-induced lung injury was associated with pulmonary PMN influx in low and high VT MV. During lung-injurious MV, r-roscovitine treatment reduced the number of PMNs and lowered levels of the lung damage markers RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) and total immunoglobulin M in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. R-roscovitine did not affect cytokine or chemokine levels in the bronchoalveolar space, neither during lung-protective nor lung-injurious MV. Thus, r-roscovitine treatment reduces lung damage in VILI, possibly dependent on increased apoptosis of PMNs. PMID:22777120

Hoogendijk, Arie J; Kuipers, Maria T; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J; Wieland, Catharina W

2012-10-01

114

Environmental Enrichment During Early Stages of Life Reduces the Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Molecular Effects of Cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that negative environmental conditions increase vulnerability to drugs, whereas little is known on whether positive environmental conditions such as enriched environments (EE) have protective effects against addiction. We have previously found that EE consisting of bigger cages containing several toys that were changed once per week reduce cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. Here, we also show that

Marcello Solinas; Nathalie Thiriet; Rana El Rawas; Virginie Lardeux; Mohamed Jaber

2009-01-01

115

Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

Bae, Hyunhoe

2012-01-01

116

PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, has shown protective effects against ischemic insult in various tissues. Pioglitazone is also reported to reduce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs can remodel extracellular matrix components in many pathological conditions. The current study was designed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of pioglitazone is related to its MMP inhibition in focal cerebral ischemia. Mice were subjected to 90 min focal ischemia and reperfusion. In gel zymography, pioglitazone reduced the upregulation of active form of MMP-9 after ischemia. In in situ zymograms, pioglitazone also reduced the gelatinase activity induced by ischemia. After co-incubation with pioglitazone, in situ gelatinase activity was directly reduced. Pioglitazone reduced the infarct volume significantly compared with controls. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone may reduce MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following focal ischemia. The reduction of MMP-9 activity may have a possible therapeutic effect for the management of brain injury after focal ischemia.

Lee, Seong-Ryong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hahn-Young [Department of Neurology, Kunkuk University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jung-Suk [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Emergency Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won-Ki [Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Wook [Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: j303nih@dsmc.or.kr

2009-02-27

117

Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?  

PubMed

Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystallization or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T=100?K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions. PMID:21931220

Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E

2011-09-08

118

Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystalliz­ation or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100?K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions.

Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

2011-01-01

119

High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2012-09-01

120

Radiation Damage in Minerals: From Point Defects to Amorphization. Mineralogical and Environmental Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minerals exhibit radiation damage, produced by the decay of substituted U and Th or by high-energy radiation emitted by short-lived radionuclides transported by fluids. We will present three domains of application. At low radiation doses, point defects are created, often associated to impurities. This results in the coloration of many minerals, such as fluorite, quartz or tourmaline. Thermal annealing of these color centers may constrain the formation conditions of nonradioactive minerals. Heavy metal impurities, such as cadmium -an element of great environmental importance- may be decorated by these defects and localized in the crystal lattice. Clay minerals represent another field of application of radiation damage. Their high specific surface area makes them sensitive to the geochemical radiation background and suitable for use as a dosimeter for past natural irradiation. Kaolinites from the Pena Blanca natural analogue present defect concentration, which varies by almost three orders of magnitude within the deposit. Using a calibration based on an experimental irradiation and time constraints on kaolinite age, the paleodose may be related to the overall migration of the radionuclides over time. This methodology gives an original time-integrated assessment of the transfer of radionuclides. The third example will be taken on the influence of metamictization on the weathering of zircons, with chemical ages ranging between 0.15 Ga and 2.8 Ga. The maximum degree of radiation damage observed in the zircons sampled from Brazilian laterites, coincides with the first percolation threshold of the metamictization. Zircon geochemistry indicates that, during long-lasting exposure to weathering, the chemical durability of zircon decreases above this threshold. This may arise from the original structure of metamict zircon, which modifies the peculiar surface properties of this mineral. Future applications concern the influence of structural defects on physicochemical properties of minerals such as clays, under irradiation conditions simulating engineered barriers, a major concern in nuclear waste management. Facilities, as those developed at the University of Michigan, will greatly facilitate these advances.

Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Balan, E.; Morin, G.

2006-05-01

121

Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached. ETS tar solutions, like mainstream tar solutions, produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide appears to be an essential component of the mechanism by which both ETS tar and mainstream tar cause DNA damage in rat thymocytes, as catalase substantially protects against DNA damage. Glutathione also protects against DNA nicking by both ETS and mainstream tar solutions by scavenging radicals and/or oxidants. The chelator diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid also provides partial (40%) protection. The studies demonstrate that the water-soluble components of ETS tar can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.

Bermudez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

1994-01-01

122

Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population.  

PubMed

Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins I?B, NF-?B as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of I?B, NF-?B, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells. PMID:22705326

Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

2012-06-13

123

Longevity of insulin receptor substrate1 null mice is not associated with increased basal antioxidant protection or reduced oxidative damage.  

PubMed

Insulin receptor substrate-1 null (Irs1 (-/-)) mice are long lived and importantly they also demonstrate increased resistance to several age-related pathologies compared to wild type (WT) controls. Currently, the molecular mechanisms that underlie lifespan extension in long-lived mice are unclear although protection against oxidative damage may be important. Here, we determined both the activities of several intracellular antioxidants and levels of oxidative damage in brain, skeletal muscle, and liver of Irs1 (-/-) and WT mice at 80, 450, and 700 days of age, predicting that long-lived Irs1 (-/-) mice would be protected against oxidative damage. We measured activities of both intracellular superoxide dismutases (SOD); cytosolic (CuZnSOD) and mitochondrial (MnSOD), glutathione peroxide (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GHS). Of these, only hepatic CAT was significantly altered (increased) in Irs1 (-/-) mice. In addition, the levels of protein oxidation (protein carbonyl content) and lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal) were unaltered in Irs1 (-/-) mice, although the hepatic GSH/GSSG ratio, indicating an oxidized environment, was significantly lower in long-lived Irs1 (-/-) mice. Overall, our results do not support the premise that lifespan extension in Irs1 (-/-) mice is associated with greater tissue antioxidant protection or reduced oxidative damage. PMID:22371226

Page, Melissa M; Withers, Dominic J; Selman, Colin

2012-02-29

124

Reduced sensitivity to prosodic attitudes in adults with focal right hemisphere brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a strong link between the right hemisphere and understanding emotional prosody in speech, there are few data on how the right hemisphere is implicated for understanding the emotive “attitudes” of a speaker from prosody. This report describes two experiments which compared how listeners with and without focal right hemisphere damage (RHD) rate speaker attitudes of “confidence” and

Marc D. Pell

2007-01-01

125

Managing Vandalism. A Guide to Reducing Damage in Parks and Recreation Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was undertaken by the city of Boston to investigate the problem of the abuse of public recreation facilities in order to help managers develop better ways to curb the resulting damage. This guide is presented in two sections. Section 1 investig...

J. C. Kopkeen A. Scott P. Chin

1978-01-01

126

Reduced histone biosynthesis and chromatin changes arising from a damage signal at telomeres  

Microsoft Academic Search

During replicative aging of primary cells morphological transformations occur, the expression pattern is altered and chromatin changes globally. Here we show that chronic damage signals, probably caused by telomere processing, affect expression of histones and lead to their depletion. We investigated the abundance and cell cycle expression of histones and histone chaperones and found defects in histone biosynthesis during replicative

Roderick J O'Sullivan; Stefan Kubicek; Stuart L Schreiber; Jan Karlseder

2010-01-01

127

Lysine induces lipid and protein damage and decreases reduced glutathione concentrations in brain of young rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work investigated the in vitro effects of lysine on important parameters of oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of young rats. Our results show that lysine significantly induced lipid peroxidation, as determined by increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and chemiluminescence levels, as well as protein oxidative damage since carbonyl formation and sulfhydryl oxidation were enhanced by this amino acid.

Bianca Seminotti; Guilhian Leipnitz; Alexandre U. Amaral; Carolina G. Fernandes; Lucila de Bortoli da Silva; Anelise Miotti Tonin; Carmen R. Vargas; Moacir Wajner

2008-01-01

128

USING THE DNA ALKALINE UNWINDING ASSAY TO DETECT DNA DAMAGE IN LABORATORY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED CELLS AND TISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. n preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. ultured mammalian fib...

129

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical\\/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of

Joanna Burger

2008-01-01

130

'A comparison between the environmental damages of two axial air compressors manufactured by the firm FINI COMPRESSORI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed jointly by ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), Bologna and Florence Universities and the firm FINI COMPRESSORI. A comparison is carried out between the environmental damages of two models (MK10 and MK94) of air axial compressors manufactured by FINI COMPRESSORI, with a volume of intaken air of 226 l\\/min, a power of

Paolo Neri; Giuseppe Bernardic; Patrizia Buttola; Giovanni Naldi; Miroslav Saric; Giovanni Tani

131

Environmental Assessment: Reducing Pigeon, Starling, and Sparrow Damage Through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife thereby increasing the potential for conflicting human/wildlife ...

2004-01-01

132

Environmental Assessment: Reducing Mammal Damage Through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife thereby increasing the potential for conflicting human/wildlife ...

2004-01-01

133

Environmental Assessment: Reducing Wildlife Damage Through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in Palm Beach County, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife thereby increasing the potential for conflicting human/wildlife ...

2005-01-01

134

Environmental Assessment: Reducing Bird Damage Through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife thereby increasing the potential for conflicting human/wildlife ...

2003-01-01

135

Environmental Assessment: Reducing Waterfowl Damage by Incorporating an Integrated Waterfowl Damage Management Plan throughout the State of Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife thereby increasing the potential for conflicting human/wildlife ...

2005-01-01

136

Environmental Assessment: Reducing Aquatic Rodent Damage Through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife thereby increasing the potential for conflicting human/wildlife ...

2003-01-01

137

Method and apparatus for reducing diffraction-induced damage in high power laser amplifier systems  

DOEpatents

Self-focusing damage caused by diffraction in laser amplifier systems may be minimized by appropriately tailoring the input optical beam profile by passing the beam through an aperture having a uniform high optical transmission within a particular radius r.sub.o and a transmission which drops gradually to a low value at greater radii. Apertures having the desired transmission characteristics may readily be manufactured by exposing high resolution photographic films and plates to a diffuse, disk-shaped light source and mask arrangement.

Campillo, Anthony J. (Los Alamos, NM); Newnam, Brian E. (Los Alamos, NM); Shapiro, Stanley L. (Los Alamos, NM); Terrell, Jr., N. James (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01

138

Transient systemic mtDNA damage leads to muscle wasting by reducing the satellite cell pool.  

PubMed

With age, muscle mass and integrity are progressively lost leaving the elderly frail, weak and unable to independently care for themselves. Defined as sarcopenia, this age-related muscle atrophy appears to be multifactorial but its definite cause is still unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in this process. Using a novel transgenic mouse model of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that presents a premature aging-like phenotype, we studied the role of mtDNA damage in muscle wasting. We caused DSBs in mtDNA of adult mice using a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial-targeted endonuclease, mito-PstI. We found that a short, transient systemic mtDNA damage led to muscle wasting and a decline in locomotor activity later in life. We found a significant decline in muscle satellite cells, which decreases the muscle's capacity to regenerate and repair during aging. This phenotype was associated with impairment in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and assembly at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), also associated with muscle aging. Our data suggests that systemic mitochondrial dysfunction plays important roles in age-related muscle wasting by preferentially affecting the myosatellite cell pool. PMID:23760083

Wang, Xiao; Pickrell, Alicia M; Rossi, Susana G; Pinto, Milena; Dillon, Lloye M; Hida, Aline; Rotundo, Richard L; Moraes, Carlos T

2013-06-10

139

Decreased energy metabolism extends life span in Caenorhabditis elegans without reducing oxidative damage.  

PubMed

On the basis of the free radical and rate of living theories of aging, it has been proposed that decreased metabolism leads to increased longevity through a decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this article, we examine the relationship between mitochondrial energy metabolism and life span by using the Clk mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Clk mutants are characterized by slow physiologic rates, delayed development, and increased life span. This phenotype suggests that increased life span may be achieved by decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we identified six novel Clk mutants in a screen for worms that have slow defecation and slow development and that can be maternally rescued. Interestingly, all 11 Clk mutants have increased life span despite the fact that slow physiologic rates were used as the only screening criterion. Although mitochondrial function is decreased in the Clk mutants, ATP levels are normal or increased, suggesting decreased energy utilization. To determine whether the longevity of the Clk mutants results from decreased production of ROS, we examined sensitivity to oxidative stress and oxidative damage. We found no evidence for systematically increased resistance to oxidative stress or decreased oxidative damage in the Clk mutants despite normal or elevated levels of superoxide dismutases. Overall, our findings suggest that decreased energy metabolism can lead to increased life span without decreased production of ROS. PMID:20382831

Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy Michael; Meng, Yan; Camp, Darius; Yang, Wen; Jia, Xihua; Bénard, Claire; Hekimi, Siegfried

2010-04-09

140

Inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission reduced aberrant autophagy and neuronal damage caused by LRRK2 G2019S mutation.  

PubMed

LRRK2 G2019S mutation is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cellular pathology caused by this mutant is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and augmented autophagy. However, the underlying mechanism is not known. In this study, we determined whether blocking excessive mitochondrial fission could reduce cellular damage and neurodegeneration induced by the G2019S mutation. In both LRRK2 G2019S-expressing cells and PD patient fibroblasts carrying this specific mutant, treatment with P110, a selective peptide inhibitor of fission dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) recently developed in our lab, reduced mitochondrial fragmentation and damage, and corrected excessive autophagy. LRRK2 G2019S directly bound to and phosphorylated Drp1 at Threonine595, whereas P110 treatment abolished this phosphorylation. A site-directed mutant, Drp1(T595A), corrected mitochondrial fragmentation, improved mitochondrial mass and suppressed excessive autophagy in both cells expressing LRRK2 G2019S and PD patient fibroblasts carrying the mutant. Further, in dopaminergic neurons derived from LRRK2 G2019S PD patient-induced pluripotent stem cells, we demonstrated that either P110 treatment or expression of Drp1(T595A) reduced mitochondrial impairment, lysosomal hyperactivity and neurite shortening. Together, we propose that inhibition of Drp1-mediated excessive mitochondrial fission might be a strategy for treatment of PD relevant to LRRK2 G2019S mutation. PMID:23813973

Su, Yu-Chin; Qi, Xin

2013-06-27

141

Silk lutein extract and its combination with vitamin E reduce UVB-mediated oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Increased exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may promote age related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein can protect retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from various oxidative insults but its direct protection against UVB has not been reported. This study aimed to demonstrate protective effects of silk lutein extract against UVB-induced oxidative damage to RPE cells and compared with standard lutein and Trolox, a vitamin E analog. ARPE-19 cells were treated with luteins with and without Trolox prior to UVB exposure. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue staining and caspase-3 activity, respectively. Oxidative damage was evaluated by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase). Levels of lutein remained in culture medium was determined by HPLC. Both luteins reduced cellular ROS levels and lipid peroxidation mediated by UVB, and subsequently increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis. They also restored activities of most tested antioxidant enzymes. Enhancement of lutein antioxidant efficacy was observed in the presence of Trolox. In all these effects, the two lutein preparations had similar effectivenesses. In cell free media, Trolox enhanced the protective effect of lutein probably by reducing its degradation and repairing the oxidized derivatives. Yellow silk cocoon is a potential candidate of lutein for further development as dietary supplement for the prevention of AMD. PMID:23651647

Aimjongjun, Sathid; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

2013-04-18

142

Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stages, aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental

Eric D. Steffler; Frank A. McClintock; W. Randolph Lloyd; Richard L. Williamson; Mark M. Rashid

2002-01-01

143

INCREASING SAFETY AND REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE RISK FROM AGING HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

There exists a paramount need for improved understanding of the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stage...

144

Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research activities of this EMSP project at the U. S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) are developed for the site-specific needs in the area of high level nuclear waste tanks. Traditional and advanced fracture methodologies are assessed,...

E. D. Steffler J. H. Jackson F. A. McClintock W. R. Lloyd

2005-01-01

145

Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material structure combinations that are ductile (Fig. 1). This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure.

Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Rashid, Mark M.; Williamson, Richard L.

2005-06-01

146

Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The research activities of this EMSP project at the U. S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) are developed for the site-specific needs in the area of high level nuclear waste tanks. Traditional and advanced fracture methodologies are assessed, the crack growth resistance properties for the material of construction (A285 carbon steel) are measured in terms of crack tip constraint, crack growth criteria based on crack opening displacement (CTOD) or angle (CTOA) are developed, and the relationship between stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and the weld residual stress is investigated. All these activities lead to the development of predictive tools for the structural integrity of the SRS waste tanks. The methodologies can be extended to commercial applications.

Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Lloyd, W. R.; Rashid, Mark M.

2004-06-01

147

Reducing the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination by using brackish groundwater resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to find out whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination are reduced when brackish groundwater is used instead of sea water. In order to answer this question, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used, and two water production plants are compared. The brackish groundwater scenario is

Ivan Muñoz; Amadeo Rodríguez Fernández-Alba

2008-01-01

148

Cooperative Research-A Route To Reduce the Environmental Impact of Drilling Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing environmental constraints on the use of oil-based drilling fluids have prompted close cooperation between operators and service companies to maintain the technical performance of drilling fluids while reducing oil discharge. This paper describes how Amerada Hess Ltd. (AHL) and Intl. Drilling Fluids Ltd. (IDF) cooperated by extending laboratory developments into controlled field trials and how feedback from the field

D. J. Oakley; A. Morrison; I. Burdis; K. G. Jones

1992-01-01

149

Health and Environmental Benefits of Reduced Pesticide Use in Uganda: An Experimental Economics Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experimental procedures were employed to value both health and environmental benefits from reducing pesticide use in Uganda. The first experiment, an incentive compatible auction involved subjects with incomplete information placing bids to avoid consuming potentially contaminated groundnuts\\/water in a framed field experimental procedure. Three experimental treatments (information, proxy good, and group treatments) were used. Subjects were endowed with a

Jackline Bonabana-Wabbi; Daniel B. Taylor

2008-01-01

150

ENVIRONMENTAL TEDCHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TO REDUCE THE RISK OF USING INNOVATIVE COATING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The papeer discusses the use of environmental technology verification (ETV) to reduce the risk of using innovative coating technologies. It presents key concepts of the ETV program, reviews the scope of the ETV program's coatings and coating equipment pilot (CCEP) and its use of ...

151

Reduced activity of plastid protoporphyrinogen oxidase causes attenuated photodynamic damage during high-light compared to low-light exposure.  

PubMed

Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4, PPOX) is the last enzyme in the branched tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway, before its substrate protoporphyrin is directed to the Mg and Fe branches for chlorophyll and haem biosynthesis, respectively. The enzyme exists in many plants in two similar isoforms, which are either exclusively located in plastids (PPOX I) or in mitochondria and plastids (PPOX II). Antisense RNA expression inhibited the formation of PPOX I in transgenic tobacco plants, which showed reduced growth rate and necrotic leaf damage. The cytotoxic effect is attributed to accumulation of photodynamically acting protoporphyrin. The expression levels of PPOX I mRNA and protein and the cellular enzyme activities were reduced to similar extents in transgenic plants grown under low- or high-light conditions (70 and 530 mumol photons m(-2) sec(-1)). More necrotic leaf lesions were surprisingly generated under low- than under high-light exposure. Several reasons were explored to explain this paradox and the intriguing necrotic phenotype of PPOX-deficient plants under both light intensity growth conditions. The same reduction of PPOX expression and activity under both light conditions led to similar initial protoporphyrin, but to faster decrease in protoporphyrin content during high light. It is likely that a light intensity-dependent degradation of reduced and oxidized porphyrins prevents severe photodynamic leaf damage. Moreover, under high-light conditions, elevated contents of reduced and total low-molecular-weight antioxidants contribute to the protection against photosensitizing porphyrins. These reducing conditions stabilize protoporphyrinogen in plastids and allow their redirection into the metabolic pathway. PMID:17059408

Lermontova, Inna; Grimm, Bernhard

2006-10-19

152

Potential of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum to reduce radiation induced hepatic damage in male Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum on radiation-induced hepatic damage was evaluated. Rats were treated with a single dose of 600 rads (6 Gy) y-radiation to induce hepatic damage. Aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum (200 and 400 mg/kg b. wt) were administered orally to rats for two weeks prior to radiation and four weeks after radiation. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined for their antioxidant capacity. The activities of serum markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the histological changes were examined to evaluate potential ameliorative effects. Results from this study confirmed that exposure of animals to radiation led to induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced the level of GSH as well as CAT and GPx activities while simultaneously a significant elevation in the activities of serum ALT and AST was observed. Administration of varying doses of P.G. and A.L. before and after irradiation inhibited the elevated levels of LPO, restored the GSH level and enhanced CAT and GPx activities as well as significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum ALT and AST activities. This findings demonstrated that aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum might mitigate the liver gamma-radiation-induced damage probably by increasing antioxidant activities. PMID:23033796

Nwozo, S O; Okameme, P E; Oyinloye, B E

153

Modeling insecticide protection versus forest management approaches to reducing balsam fir sawfly and hemlock looper damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decision support system (DSS) for improved management decision making and to reduce impacts of forest insect outbreaks was developed and implemented for two defoliators, hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria Guen.) and balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Harris), in District 15, a 336,805ha forest managed by Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Ltd. in western Newfoundland, Canada. Over the past 15years,

Javed Iqbal; Chris R. Hennigar; David A. MacLean

154

Economics of cattail ( Typha spp.) control to reduce blackbird damage to sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benefit\\/cost analysis of cattail (Typha spp.) control to reduce sunflower depredation by blackbirds was conducted to identify trade-offs and to estimate the efficacy of chemical treatment. Although reductions in populations of certain species, such as upland game, may occur with cattail control, populations of other species such as waterfowl, may be enhanced. With all factors considered, both sunflower producers

J. A. Leitch; G. M. Linz; J. F. Baltezore

1997-01-01

155

Power Line Damage, Electrical Outages Reduced in the ''Sleet Belt'': NICE3 Steel Project Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The AR Windamper System was developed through a grant from the Inventions and Innovation Program, to protect power transmission lines in sleet belt states and provinces by eliminating the ''galloping'' phenomenon. Wind damping products minimize power outages and reduce repair costs to transmission lines.

NONE

2000-04-25

156

Efforts to reduce mortality to hydroelectric turbine-passed fish: locating and quantifying damaging shear stresses.  

PubMed

Severe fluid forces are believed to be a source of injury and mortality to fish that pass through hydroelectric turbines. A process is described by which laboratory bioassays, computational fluid dynamics models, and field studies can be integrated to evaluate the significance of fluid shear stresses that occur in a turbine. Areas containing potentially lethal shear stresses were identified near the stay vanes and wicket gates, runner, and in the draft tube of a large Kaplan turbine. However, under typical operating conditions, computational models estimated that these dangerous areas comprise less than 2% of the flow path through the modeled turbine. The predicted volumes of the damaging shear stress zones did not correlate well with observed fish mortality at a field installation of this turbine, which ranged from less than 1% to nearly 12%. Possible reasons for the poor correlation are discussed. Computational modeling is necessary to develop an understanding of the role of particular fish injury mechanisms, to compare their effects with those of other sources of injury, and to minimize the trial and error previously needed to mitigate those effects. The process we describe is being used to modify the design of hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival. PMID:16485161

Cada, Glenn; Loar, James; Garrison, Laura; Fisher, Richard; Neitzel, Duane

2006-06-01

157

Cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rice leaves is reduced by polyamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of polyamines against Cd toxicity of rice (Oryza sativa) leaves was investigated. Cd toxicity to rice leaves was determined by the decrease in protein content. CdCl2 treatment results in (1) increased Cd content, (2) induction of Cd toxicity, (3) increase in H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, (4) decrease in ascorbic acid (ASC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents,

Yi Ting Hsu; Ching Huei Kao

2007-01-01

158

The Curry Spice Curcumin Reduces Oxidative Damage and Amyloid Pathology in an Alzheimer Transgenic Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is character- ized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemi- ological studies suggest reduced AD risk associates with long- term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw mouse model (Tg2576), excessive use of NSAIDs targeting cyclooxygenase I can cause gastrointestinal, liver, and

Giselle P. Lim; Teresa Chu; Fusheng Yang; Walter Beech; Sally A. Frautschy; Greg M. Cole

2001-01-01

159

1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces several types of UV-induced DNA damage and contributes to photoprotection.  

PubMed

Vitamin D production requires UVB. In turn, we have shown that vitamin D compounds reduce UV-induced damage, including inflammation, sunburn, thymine dimers, the most frequent type of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, immunosuppression, and photocarcinogenesis. Our previous studies have shown most of the photoprotective effects by 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) occurred through the nongenomic pathway because similar protection was seen with an analog, 1?,25-dihydroxylumistrol3 (JN), which has little ability to alter gene expression and also because a nongenomic antagonist of 1,25(OH)2D3 abolished protection. In the current study, we tested whether this photoprotective effect would extend to other types of DNA damage, and whether this could be demonstrated in human ex vivo skin, as this model would be suited to pre-clinical testing of topical formulations for photoprotection. In particular, using skin explants, we examined a time course for thymine dimers (TDs), the most abundant DNA photolesion, as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is a mutagenic DNA base lesion arising from UV-induced oxidative stress, and 8-nitroguanosine (8-NG). Nitric oxide products, known markers for chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis, are also induced by UV. This study showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced TD and 8-NG as early as 30min post UV, and 8-oxodG at 3h post UV, confirming the photoprotective effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 against DNA photoproducts in human skin explants. At least in part, the mechanism of photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D3 is likely to be through the reduction of reactive nitrogen species and the subsequent reduction in oxidative and nitrosative damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:23165145

Song, Eric J; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Cole, Louise; Stern, Harvey; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L; Reeve, Vivienne E; Mason, Rebecca S

2012-11-16

160

Manganese Porphyrin Reduces Renal Injury and Mitochondrial Damage during Ischemia/Reperfusion ±  

PubMed Central

Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury often occurs as a result of vascular surgery, organ procurement, or transplantation. We previously showed that renal I/R results in ATP depletion, oxidant production, and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inactivation. There have been several reports that overexpression of MnSOD protects tissues/organs from I/R related damage, thus a loss of MnSOD activity during I/R likely contributes to tissue injury. The present study examined the therapeutic benefit of a catalytic antioxidant Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin, (MnTnHex-2-PyP5+) using the rat renal I/R model. This was the first study to examine the effects of MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ in an animal model of oxidative stress injury. Our results showed that porphyrin pretreatment of rats for 24 hr protected against ATP depletion, MnSOD inactivation, nitrotyrosine formation, and renal dysfunction. The dose (50 ?g/kg) used in this study is lower than doses of various types of antioxidants commonly used in animal models of oxidative stress injuries. In addition, using novel proteomic techniques, we identified ATP synthase- beta subunit as a key protein induced by MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ treatment alone, and complex V (ATP synthase) as a target of injury during renal I/R. These results showed that MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ protected against renal I/R injury via induction of key mitochondrial proteins that may be capable of blunting oxidative injury.

Saba, Hamida; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Munusamy, Shankar; Mitchell, Tanecia; Lichti, Cheryl; Megyesi, Judit; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann

2007-01-01

161

Therapeutic efficacy of silymarin from milk thistle in reducing manganese-induced hepatic damage and apoptosis in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in manganese (Mn) toxicity. Using natural antioxidants against metal-induced hepatotoxicity is a modern approach. The present study investigated the beneficial role of silymarin, a natural flavonoid, in Mn-induced hepatotoxicity focusing on histopathology and biochemical approaches. Male Wistar rats were exposed orally to manganese chloride (20 mg/mL) for 30 days followed by intraperitoneal cotreatment with silymarin (100 mg/kg). Exposure to Mn resulted in a significant elevation of the plasma marker enzyme activities and bilirubin level related to liver dysfunction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hepatic oxidative stress indices. This metal reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels such as reduced glutathione, total sulfhydryl groups and vitamin C. In addition, it caused hepatic hemorrhage, cellular degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes as indicated by liver histopathology and DNA fragmentation studies. Coadministration of silymarin alleviated Mn oxidative damage effects by inhibiting ROS generation. Histological studies also supported the beneficial role of silymarin against Mn-induced hepatic damages. Combining all, results suggested that silymarin could protect hepatic tissues against Mn-induced oxidative stress probably through its antioxidant activity. Therefore, its supplementation could provide a new approach for the reduction in hepatic complication due to Mn poisoning. PMID:22899727

Chtourou, Y; Garoui, Em; Boudawara, T; Zeghal, N

2012-08-16

162

alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.  

PubMed

One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention. PMID:19558415

Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

2009-06-23

163

Civil liability for oil pollution damage: examining the evolving scope for environmental compensation in the international regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The civil liability regime for ship-source oil pollution enables national victims of oil spill damage to make financial claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in certain circumstances, the global oil cargo industry. This paper examines the evolving—and contested—parameters of environmental liability set by the international oil pollution liability conventions, focusing on the admissibility of reinstatement costs and the

Michael Mason

2003-01-01

164

Nutrient-Enhanced Diet Reduces Noise-Induced Damage to the Inner Ear and Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress has been broadly implicated as a cause of cell death and neural degeneration in multiple disease conditions; however, the evidence for successful intervention with dietary antioxidant manipulations has been mixed. In this study, we investigated the potential for protection of cells in the inner ear using a dietary supplement with multiple antioxidant components, selected for their potential interactive effectiveness. Protection against permanent threshold shift (PTS) was observed in CBA/J mice maintained on a diet supplemented with a combination of ?-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium when compared to PTS in control mice maintained on a nutritionally complete control diet. Although hair cell survival was not enhanced, noise-induced loss of Type II fibrocytes in the lateral wall was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and there was a trend towards less noise-induced loss in strial cell density in animals maintained on the supplemented diet. Taken together, our data suggest that pre-noise oral treatment with the high-nutrient diet can protect cells in the inner ear and reduce PTS in mice. Demonstration of functional and morphological preservation of cells in the inner ear with oral administration of this antioxidant supplemented diet supports the possibility of translation to human patients, and suggests an opportunity to evaluate antioxidant protection in mouse models of oxidative stress-related disease and pathology.

Le Prell, C. G.; Gagnon, P. M; Bennett, D. C.; Ohlemiller, K. K.

2011-01-01

165

Reduced Level of Ribonucleotide Reductase R2 Subunits Increases Dependence on Homologous Recombination Repair of Cisplatin-Induced DNA DamageS?  

PubMed Central

Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the production of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) required for replicative and repair DNA synthesis. Mammalian RNR is a heteromeric enzyme consisting primarily of R1 and R2 subunits during the S phase of the cell cycle. We have shown previously that the presence of excess R2 subunits protects p53-deficient human colon cancer cells from cisplatin-induced DNA damage and replication stress. However, the mode of DNA repair influenced by changes in the level of the R2 subunit remained to be defined. In the present study, we demonstrated that depletion of BRCA1, an important factor of homologous recombination repair (HRR), preferentially sensitized stable R2-knockdown p53(?/?) HCT116 cells to the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and ?-H2AX induction. In accord with this finding, these R2-knockdown cells exhibited increased dependence on HRR, as evidenced by elevated levels of cisplatin-induced Rad51 foci and sister chromatid exchange frequency. Furthermore, stable knockdown of the R2 subunit also led to decreased cisplatin-induced gap-filling synthesis in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and a reduced dATP level in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. These results suggest that an increased level of the R2 subunit extends the availability of dATP in the G2/M phase to promote the repair of NER-mediated single-strand gaps that are otherwise converted into double-strand breaks in the subsequent S phase. We propose that HRR becomes important for recovery from cisplatin-DNA lesions when the postexcision process of NER is restrained by reduced levels of the R2 subunit and dATP in p53-deficient cancer cells.

Lee, Yashang; Lin, Fang; Belcourt, Michael F.; Li, Peining; Cory, Joseph G.; Glazer, Peter M.; Sartorelli, Alan C.

2011-01-01

166

Environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment. PMID:23954915

Miller, Kimberly A; Webb, J Angus; de Little, Siobhan C; Stewardson, Michael J

2013-08-17

167

Modelling and Mapping Damage to Forests from an Ice Storm Using Remote Sensing and Environmental Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extreme ice storm in January 1998 deposited up to 100 mm of ice and resulted in significant forest damage across eastern North America. Average crown loss of over 75% was recorded in large areas of eastern Ontario and southern Quebec. A primary question that arose following the storm was: can forest damage be effectively assessed using remote sensing and

D. J. King; I. Olthof; P. K. E. Pellikka; E. D. Seed; C. Butson

2005-01-01

168

Glatiramer Acetate administration does not reduce damage after cerebral ischemia in mice.  

PubMed

Inflammation plays a key role in ischemic stroke pathophysiology: microglial/macrophage cells and type-1 helper cells (Th1) seem deleterious, while type-2 helper cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) seem protective. CD4 Th0 differentiation is modulated by microglial cytokine secretion. Glatiramer Acetate (GA) is an immunomodulatory drug that has been approved for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis by means of a number of mechanisms: reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, Th0 differentiation shifting from Th2 to Th2 and Treg with anti-inflammatory cytokine production and increased neurogenesis. We induced permanent (pMCAo) or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) and GA (2 mg) or vehicle was injected subcutaneously immediately after cerebral ischemia. Mice were sacrificed at D3 to measure neurological deficit, infarct volume, microglial cell density and qPCR of TNF? and IL-1? (pro-inflammatory microglial cytokines), IFN? (Th2 cytokine), IL-4 (Th2 cytokine), TGF? and IL-10 (Treg cytokines), and at D7 to evaluate neurological deficit, infarct volume and neurogenesis assessment. We showed that in GA-treated pMCAo mice, infarct volume, microglial cell density and cytokine secretion were not significantly modified at D3, while neurogenesis was enhanced at D7 without significant infarct volume reduction. In GA-treated tMCAo mice, microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF? were significantly decreased without modification of microglial/macrophage cell density, cytokine secretion, neurological deficit or infarct volume at D3, or modification of neurological deficit, neurogenesis or infarct volume at D7. In conclusion, Glatiramer Acetate administered after cerebral ischemia does not reduce infarct volume or improve neurological deficit in mice despite a significant increase in neurogenesis in pMCAo and a microglial pro-inflammatory cytokine reduction in tMCAo. PMID:23026222

Poittevin, Marine; Deroide, Nicolas; Azibani, Feriel; Delcayre, Claude; Giannesini, Claire; Levy, Bernard I; Pocard, Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

2012-09-29

169

The induction of sister chromatid exchanges by environmental pollutants: relationship of SCE to other measures of genetic damage.  

PubMed

Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), induced by environmental pollutants from fossil fuel use, were measured in 2 cell systems, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Chinese hamster primary lung cell cultures. The frequency of SCEs induced in these cell systems was related to other measures of genetic damage, namely mutations in CHO cells at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) gene locus and in bacteria (Salmonella mutagenicity test TA-98), produced by the same pollutants. The pollutants were divided into 2 classes: those produced in oxidizing combustion environments--extracts of particles from light-duty diesel cars, spark-ignition cars, and an automotive tunnel; and those produced in reducing environments--extracts from coke oven mains and condensates from a low BTU coal gasifier obtained either before or after cleanup of the process stream. Sister chromatid exchanges were induced by all pollutants without the addition of a rat liver microsomal fraction (S-9 mix), whereas S-9 mix was required to induce a positive response in the CHO/HGPRT assay for all pollutants. The pollutants produced in a reducing environment required metabolic activation by S-9 mix to be mutagenic in the Salmonella mutation assay. The addition of S-9 mix to pollutants produced in an oxidizing environment reduced the response in the Salmonella test. The relative genotoxic potency for each pollutant was determined for all 3 endpoints. The slopes of dose-response curves for each pollutant were plotted for each assay to compare relative potency. When the bacterial mutagenicity test was compared to either mammalian cell assay, SCE or CHO/HGPRT, there was little correlation between relative potencies. However, the data indicated that the responses in the 2 mammalian cell assays, SCE and CHO/HGPRT, showed similar relative responses to the pollutants. Differences in the requirement for S-9 mix seem to be related to both the chemical nature of the mixture and the endpoint measured. Differences in responses are related not only to cell type but also to chemical composition of the complex pollutants. PMID:6085263

Brooks, A L; Shimizu, R W; Li, A P; Benson, J M; Dutcher, J S

1984-01-01

170

A botanical containing freeze dried açai pulp promotes healthy aging and reduces oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies.  

PubMed

Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a critical enzyme against oxidative stress, is implicated in aging and degenerative diseases. We previously showed that a nutraceutical containing freeze-dried açai pulp promotes survival of flies fed a high-fat diet or sod1 knockdown flies fed a standard diet. Here, we investigated the effect of açai supplementation initiated at the early or late young adulthood on lifespan, physiological function, and oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies. We found that Açai supplementation extended lifespan even when started at the age of 10 days, which is the time shortly before the mortality rate of flies accelerated. Life-long açai supplementation increased lifetime reproductive output in sod1 knockdown flies. Our molecular studies indicate that açai supplementation reduced the protein levels of genes involved in oxidative stress response, cellular growth, and nutrient metabolism. Açai supplementation also affected the protein levels of ribosomal proteins. In addition, açai supplementation decreased the transcript levels of genes involved in oxidative stress response and gluconeogenesis, while increasing the transcript levels of mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Moreover, açai supplementation reduced the level of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, a lipid peroxidation marker. Our findings suggest that açai supplementation promotes healthy aging in sod1-deficient flies partly through reducing oxidative damage, and modulating nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress response pathways. Our findings provide a foundation to further evaluate the viability of using açai as an effective dietary intervention to promote healthy aging and alleviate symptoms of diseases with a high level of oxidative stress. PMID:22639178

Laslo, Mara; Sun, Xiaoping; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Zou, Sige

2012-05-26

171

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  

PubMed

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

2013-03-13

172

Pomegranate seed oil reduces intestinal damage in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate seed oil (PSO), which is the major source of conjugated linolenic acids such as punicic acid (PuA), exhibits strong anti-inflammatory properties. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease associated with severe and excessive intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered PSO on the development of NEC, intestinal epithelial proliferation, and cytokine regulation in a rat model of NEC. Premature rats were divided into three groups: dam fed (DF), formula-fed rats (FF), or rats fed with formula supplemented with 1.5% of PSO (FF + PSO). All groups were exposed to asphyxia/cold stress to induce NEC. Intestinal injury, epithelial cell proliferation, cytokine production, and trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) production were evaluated in the terminal ileum. Oral administration of PSO (FF+PSO) decreased the incidence of NEC from 61 to 26%. Feeding formula with PSO improved enterocyte proliferation in the site of injury. Increased levels of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-23, and TNF-? in the ileum of FF rats were normalized in PSO-treated animals. Tff3 production in the FF rats was reduced compared with DF but not further affected by the PSO. In conclusion, administration of PSO protects against NEC in the neonatal rat model. This protective effect is associated with an improvement of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and a strong anti-inflammatory effect of PSO on the developing intestinal mucosa.

Coursodon-Boyiddle, Christine F.; Snarrenberg, Chelsea L.; Adkins-Rieck, Camille K.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J. Thomas; Jouni, Zeina E.

2012-01-01

173

Does ultra-pulse CO(2) laser reduce the risk of enamel damage during debonding of ceramic brackets?  

PubMed

This study seeks to evaluate the enamel surface characteristics of teeth after debonding of ceramic brackets with or without laser light. Eighty premolars were bonded with either of the chemically retained or the mechanically retained ceramic brackets and later debonded conventionally or through a CO(2) laser (188 W, 400 Hz). The laser was applied for 5 s with scanning movement. After debonding, the adhesive remnant index (ARI), the incidence of bracket and enamel fracture, and the lengths, frequency, and directions of enamel cracks were compared among the groups. The increase in intrapulpal temperature was measured in ten extra specimens. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. There was one case of enamel fracture in the chemical retention/conventional debonding group. When brackets were removed with pliers, incidences of bracket fracture were 45% for the chemical retention, and 15% for the mechanical retention brackets. No case of enamel or bracket fracture was seen in the laser-debonded teeth. A significant difference was observed in ARI scores among the groups. Laser debonding caused a significant decrease in the frequency of enamel cracks, compared to conventional debonding. The increase in intrapulpal temperatures was below the benchmark of 5.5 °C for all the specimens. Laser-assisted debonding of ceramic brackets could reduce the risk of enamel damage and bracket fracture, and produce the more desirable ARI scores without causing thermal damage to the pulp. However, some augmentations in the length and frequency of enamel cracks should be expected with all debonding methods. PMID:21667137

Ahrari, Farzaneh; Heravi, Farzin; Fekrazad, Reza; Farzanegan, Fahimeh; Nakhaei, Samaneh

2011-06-11

174

Aldosterone antagonism or synthase inhibition reduces end-organ damage induced by treatment with angiotensin and high salt.  

PubMed

In the setting of high salt intake, aldosterone stimulates fibrosis in the heart, great vessels, and kidney of rats. We used uninephrectomized rats treated with angiotensin II and placed on a high salt diet to exaggerate renal fibrosis. We then tested whether mineralocorticoid receptor blockade by spironolactone or aldosterone synthase inhibition by FAD286 have similar effects on end-organ damage and gene expression. Individually, both drugs prevented the hypertensive response to uninephrectomy and high salt intake but not when angiotensin II was administered. Following 4 weeks of treatment with FAD286, plasma aldosterone was reduced, whereas spironolactone increased aldosterone at 8 weeks of treatment. Angiotensin II and high salt treatment caused albuminuria, azotemia, renovascular hypertrophy, glomerular injury, increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and osteopontin mRNA expression, as well as tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney. Both drugs prevented these renal effects and attenuated cardiac and aortic medial hypertrophy while reducing osteopontin and transforming growth factor-beta mRNA expression in the aorta. The two drugs also reduced cardiac interstitial fibrosis but had no effect on that of the perivascular region. Although spironolactone enhanced angiotensin II and salt-stimulated PAI-1 mRNA expression in aorta and heart, spironolactone and FAD286 prevented renal PAI-1 mRNA protein expression. Our study shows that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism and aldosterone synthase inhibition similarly decrease hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis of the kidney and heart caused by angiotensin II and high salt. PMID:19225557

Lea, William B; Kwak, Eun Soo; Luther, James M; Fowler, Susan M; Wang, Zuofei; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B; Brown, Nancy J

2009-02-18

175

Quercetin reduces oxidative damage induced by paraquat via modulating expression of antioxidant genes in A549 cells.  

PubMed

Oxidative injury can occur in the lung through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via redox cycling owing to intentional or accidental ingestion of paraquat (PQ), a common herbicide. A wide array of phytochemicals has been shown to reduce cellular oxidative damage by modulating cytoprotective genes. Quercetin, a well-known flavonoid, has been reported to display cytoprotective effects by up-regulating certain cytoprotective genes. In this context, we investigated the effect of quercetin on PQ-induced cytotoxicity in alveolar A549 cells, modulation of antioxidant genes, activation of transcription factor-Nrf2 and its target HO-1 expression. Quercetin reduced PQ-induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells that was evaluated by both 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Modulation of antioxidant genes was compared when cells were treated with PQ, quercetin and both using qRT-PCR. Activation of transcription factor-Nrf2 and induction of its target gene, HO-1 was demonstrated by western blot analysis. A remarkable reduction in the ROS level as well as an increase in the total cellular glutathione (GSH) level occurred when PQ-exposed cells were treated with quercetin. Our findings suggest that quercetin may be used to mitigate or minimize oxidative stress via reducing the generation of ROS. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22996356

Zerin, Tamanna; Kim, Yong-Sik; Hong, Sae-Yong; Song, Ho-Yeon

2012-09-20

176

Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts?--a meta-analysis of European research.  

PubMed

Organic farming practices have been promoted as, inter alia, reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. This meta-analysis systematically analyses published studies that compare environmental impacts of organic and conventional farming in Europe. The results show that organic farming practices generally have positive impacts on the environment per unit of area, but not necessarily per product unit. Organic farms tend to have higher soil organic matter content and lower nutrient losses (nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions and ammonia emissions) per unit of field area. However, ammonia emissions, nitrogen leaching and nitrous oxide emissions per product unit were higher from organic systems. Organic systems had lower energy requirements, but higher land use, eutrophication potential and acidification potential per product unit. The variation within the results across different studies was wide due to differences in the systems compared and research methods used. The only impacts that were found to differ significantly between the systems were soil organic matter content, nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions per unit of field area, energy use and land use. Most of the studies that compared biodiversity in organic and conventional farming demonstrated lower environmental impacts from organic farming. The key challenges in conventional farming are to improve soil quality (by versatile crop rotations and additions of organic material), recycle nutrients and enhance and protect biodiversity. In organic farming, the main challenges are to improve the nutrient management and increase yields. In order to reduce the environmental impacts of farming in Europe, research efforts and policies should be targeted to developing farming systems that produce high yields with low negative environmental impacts drawing on techniques from both organic and conventional systems. PMID:22947228

Tuomisto, H L; Hodge, I D; Riordan, P; Macdonald, D W

2012-09-01

177

Evaluation of DNA damage induced by environmental exposure to mercury in Liza aurata using the comet assay.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is one of the major aquatic contaminants even though emissions have been reduced over the years. Despite the relative abundance of investigations carried out on Hg toxicity, there is a scarcity of studies on its DNA damaging effects in fish under realistic exposure conditions. This study assessed the Hg genotoxicity in Golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) at Laranjo basin, a particularly contaminated area of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) well known for its Hg contamination gradient. (1) Fish were seasonally caught at Laranjo basin and at a reference site (S. Jacinto), and (2) animals from the reference site were transplanted and caged (at bottom and surface), for 3 days, in two different locations within Laranjo basin. Using the comet assay, blood was analyzed for genetic damage and apoptotic cell frequency. The seasonal survey showed greater DNA damage in the Hg-contaminated area for all sampling seasons excluding winter. The temporal variation pattern of DNA lesions was: summer approximately autumn > winter > spring. Fish caged at Laranjo also exhibited greater DNA damage than those caged at the reference site, highlighting the importance of gill uptake on the toxicity of this metal. No increased susceptibility to apoptosis was detected in either wild or caged fish, indicating that mercury damages DNA of blood cells by a nonapoptotic mechanism. Both L. aurata and the comet assay proved to be sensitive and suitable for genotoxicity biomonitoring in mercury-contaminated coastal systems. PMID:19458991

Pereira, Carla Sofia Alves; Guilherme, Sofia Isabel Antunes Gomes; Barroso, Carlos Miguel Miguez; Verschaeve, Luc; Pacheco, Mário Guilherme Garcês; Mendo, Sónia Alexandra Leite Velho

2009-05-21

178

Demonstrating Reduced Environmental and Genetic Diversity in Human Isolates by Analysis of Blood Lipid Levels  

PubMed Central

Aim To test the hypothesis that phenotypic diversity in isolated human populations is decreased in comparison with general outbred population because of reduced genetic and environmental diversity. To demonstrate this in populations for which reduced genetic and environmental diversity had already been established, by studying the amount of variation in plasma lipid levels. Methods Fasting plasma lipid levels (cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein [LDL], and high density lipoprotein [HDL]) were measured in randomly selected 300 inhabitants from 2 isolated human populations, the island of Rab and the neighboring islands of Vis and Lastovo, Croatia. The populations were chosen based on previous analyses of genetic diversity and lifestyle patterns, which were shown to be both less diverse and more uniform than the general Croatian population. We studied whether the 25’-75’ and 5?-95’ interpercentile ranges in observed values were consistently smaller in 2 samples of 300 examinees from isolated populations in comparison with nearly 6000 examinees from an earlier study who were demographically targeted to represent the larger Croatian population. Results General population had much wider range of observed values of triglycerides and HDL than both isolated populations. However, both isolated populations exhibited greater extent of variation in the levels of LDL, while the ranges of cholesterol values were similar. Conclusion Although reduced genetic and environmental diversity in isolated human populations should necessarily reduce the variance in observed phenotypic values, it appears that specific population genetic processes in isolated populations could be acting to maintain the variation. Departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to consanguinity, sub-structuring and differentiation within the isolates, and increased rate of new mutations could theoretically explain this paradox.

Polasek, Ozren; Kolcic, Ivana; Smoljanovic, Ankica; Stojanovic, Drazen; Grgic, Matijana; Ebling, Barbara; Klaric, Maja; Milas, Josip; Puntaric, Dinko

2006-01-01

179

Geophysical Surveys for the Characterization of Seismic and Systemic Damage Scenarios of Historical and Environmental Value Small Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study is focused on the implementation of interdisciplinary methodological approaches aimed at the characterization of systemic seismic damage scenarios of small city historical centers of with high levels of damage susceptibility related to different geomorphological conditions and anthropic activities. An application to the historical centre of the Forza d'Agrò city in the province of Messina (Italy) is proposed, where the analysis of the historical value main building typologies is related to the decay of the urban context and its transformation over the centuries. The systemic vulnerability of the area under study will be assessed through specific surveys foreseen to highlight the level of seismic vulnerability of roads and parts of the territory of environmental value in a wider context of of escape route and strategic building distributions.

Muscolino, F.; Marino, A.; de Domenico, D.; Campo, D.; Termini, D.; Teramo, A.

2010-12-01

180

Time evolution of damage due to environmentally assisted aging in a fiber bundle model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage growth in composite materials is a complex process which is of interest in many fields of science and engineering. We consider this problem in a fiber bundle model where fibers undergo an aging process due to the accumulation of damage driven by the locally acting stress in a chemically active environment. By subjecting the bundle to a constant external load, fibers fail either when the load on them exceeds their individual intrinsic strength or when the accumulated internal damage exceeds a random threshold. We analyze the time evolution of the breaking process under low external loads where aging of fibers dominates. In the mean field limit, we show analytically that the aging system continuously accelerates in a way which can be characterized by an inverse power law of the event rate with a singularity that defines a failure time. The exponent is not universal; it depends on the details of the aging process. For localized load sharing, a more complex damage process emerges which is dominated by distinct spatial regions of the system with different degrees of stress concentration. Analytical calculations revealed that the final acceleration to global failure is preceded by a stationary accumulation of damage. When the disorder is strong, the accelerating phase has the same functional behavior as in the mean field limit. The analytical results are verified by computer simulations.

Lennartz-Sassinek, S.; Main, I. G.; Danku, Z.; Kun, F.

2013-09-01

181

An investigation of small-molecule surfactants to potentially replace pluronic F-68 for reducing bubble-associated cell damage.  

PubMed

It is well known that bubble rupture has a detrimental effect on mammalian cells. As a result, Pluronic F-68 (PF-68), a nonionic surfactant, is commonly used to reduce bubble-associated cell damage in sparged bioreactors. While PF-68 is currently effective, there is a concern with respect to its decrease in effectiveness as cell concentrations increase (Ma et al., 2004, Biotechnol Prog 20:1183-1191). In addition, having more than one effective surfactant for cell culture is also highly desirable. Given the empirical nature in which PF-68 was initially discovered as a cell culture additive, a structure-performance study of small molecule surfactants, a distinct group which have been previously investigated for other purposes, was performed in an attempt to find a replacement for PF-68. In this study, a generic platform was established to initially screen both the type and concentration of these surfactants for cytotoxicity. Promising candidates where then evaluated for their ability to rapidly lower the surface tension (dynamic surface tension) of culture media and their ability to prevent cell-bubble attachment in a specially developed bubble creation and collection system. Several promising small- molecule surfactants, and their effective concentration, were identified, which can reduce cell-bubble attachment efficiently without being harmful to cells. PMID:18646218

Hu, Weiwei; Rathman, James J; Chalmers, Jeffrey J

2008-09-01

182

Reduced deuterium retention in self-damaged tungsten exposed to high-flux plasmas at high surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of surface temperature on deuterium retention in self-damaged tungsten exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas. The retention saturates at a W4+ fluence of about 3 × 1017 m-2 and is strongly reduced for the present high surface temperatures of 800-1200 K as compared with previous experiments at 470-525 K. Combination of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), thermal desorption spectroscopy and positron annihilation Doppler broadening (PADB) was used to investigate the reduction in deuterium retention. The NRA showed a strong reduction of retention at the surface at high surface temperatures. The PADB measurements suggest that during plasma exposure defects are mobile and cluster into larger clusters containing up to a few tens of vacancies. The Tritium Migration Analysis Program 7 simulations show that trapping and de-trapping rates are very high for defects with trapping energies below ˜1.5 eV. The strong reduction in retention seems to be caused by the reduced amount of mono-vacancies and small vacancy clusters in combination with their strong depopulation due to thermal trapping and de-trapping.

't Hoen, M. H. J.; Mayer, M.; Kleyn, A. W.; Schut, H.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P. A.

2013-04-01

183

Modulation of Ischemia-Induced NMDAR1 Activation by Environmental Enrichment Decreases Oxidative Damage  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, we examined whether enriched environment (EE) housing has direct neuroprotective effects on oxidative damage following transient global cerebral ischemia. Fifty-two adult male Wistar rats were included in the study and received either ischemia or sham surgery. Once fully awake, rats in each group were randomly assigned to either: EE housing or socially paired housing (CON). Animals remained in their assigned environment for 7 days, and then were killed. Our data showed that glutamate receptor expression was significantly higher in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group than in the ischemia EE group. Furthermore, the oxidative DNA damage, protein oxidation, and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of the ischemia CON group were significantly increased compared to the ischemia EE group. These results suggest that EE housing possibly modulated the ischemia-induced glutamate excitotoxicity, which then attenuated the oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in the ischemia EE rats.

Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

2011-01-01

184

Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling  

SciTech Connect

In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens. The High Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

Edward Marks

2005-09-09

185

Trading away damage: Quantifying environmental leakage through consumption-based, life-cycle analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research quantifies the extent to which the US has shifted the environmental impact associated with the goods it consumes to other countries through trade. To achieve this, we use a life-cycle, consumption-based approach to measure the environmental impacts embodied in US trade activities for global warming potential (GWP), energy, toxics, and the criteria air pollutants. We use these values

D. Asher Ghertner; Matthias Fripp

2007-01-01

186

TGF?1 treatment reduces hippocampal damage, spontaneous recurrent seizures, and learning memory deficits in pilocarpine-treated rats.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective activity of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF?1), protecting neurons against different kinds of insults. However, the role of exogenous TGF?1 in the neuronal damage following status epilepticus (SE) and the related spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) is unknown. The present study aimed to determine the effect of intranasal TGF?1 administration on SRS and cognitive function following lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE and associated hippocampal damage. We found that intranasal TGF?1 significantly attenuated the hippocampal insults marked by hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and Fluoro-Jade B staining by 24, 48, and 72 h after SE was induced. The expression of the apoptosis-suppressing protein, Bcl-2, was elevated, whereas the expression of the apoptosis-promoting proteins, Bax and Caspase-3, was suppressed in TGF?1-treated rats compared to rats without TGF?1 treatment by 24, 48, and 72 h following induction of SE. The seizure number, severity, and duration of SRS over a 1-month period of monitoring starting 15 days after SE induction as well as the cognitive deficits detected 45 days after SE induction were significantly reduced in TGF?1-treated rats compared to those without TGF?1 treatment. Our results indicate that intranasal delivery of TGF?1 immediately after SE induction not only protected against SRS but also improved cognitive function. The anti-epileptogenic properties of TGF?1 may be related to its effect of neuroprotection or to its effect of apoptosis pathway changes. PMID:22936246

Li, Liang-Yong; Li, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Hui-Min; Yang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Kai; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Yu

2012-08-31

187

Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A  

PubMed Central

Mycotoxins are produced mainly by the mycelial structure of filamentous fungi, or more specifically, molds. These secondary metabolites are synthesized during the end of the exponential growth phase and appear to have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. The contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem for the adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The toxic effect of the ingestion of mycotoxins in humans and animals depends on a number of factors including intake levels, duration of exposure, toxin species, mechanisms of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms. In general, the consumption of contaminated food and feed with mycotoxin induces to neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect in humans and/or animals. The most significant mycotoxins in terms of public health and agronomic perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, fumonisins, patulin, and the ergot alkaloids. Due to the detrimental effects of these mycotoxins, several strategies have been developed in order to reduce the risk of exposure. These include the degradation, destruction, inactivation or removal of mycotoxins through chemical, physical and biological methods. However, the results obtained with these methods have not been optimal, because they may change the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of food. Another alternative strategy to prevent or reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins is by applying antimutagenic agents. These substances act according to several extra- or intracellular mechanisms, their main goal being to avoid the interaction of mycotoxins with DNA; as a consequence of their action, these agents would inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the main strategies used to control AFB1 and ochratoxin A and contains an analysis of some antigenotoxic substances that reduce the DNA damage caused by these mycotoxins.

Madrigal-Santillan, Eduardo; Morales-Gonzalez, Jose A.; Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Reyes-Ramirez, Patricia; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Sumaya-Martinez, Teresa; Perez-Pasten, Ricardo; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

2010-01-01

188

Encapsulation and Diffraction-Pattern-Correction Methods to Reduce the Effect of Damage in X-Ray Diffraction Imaging of Single Biological Molecules  

SciTech Connect

Short and intense x-ray pulses may be used for atomic-resolution diffraction imaging of single biological molecules. Radiation damage and a low signal-to-noise ratio impose stringent pulse requirements. In this Letter, we describe methods for decreasing the damage and improving the signal by encapsulating the molecule in a sacrificial layer (tamper) that reduces atomic motion and by postprocessing the pulse-averaged diffraction pattern to correct for ionization damage. Simulations show that these methods greatly improve the image quality.

Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; London, Richard A.; Chapman, Henry N.; Szoke, Abraham; Timneanu, Nicusor [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Box 576, SE 75123, Uppsala (Sweden)

2007-05-11

189

Low-dose environmental radiation, DNA damage, and cancer: The possible contribution of psychological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation causes DNA damage, increases risk of cancer, and is associated with psychological stress responses. This article proposes an evidence-based integrative model in which psychological factors could interact with radiation by either augmenting or moderating the adverse effects of radiation on DNA integrity and eventual tumorigenesis. Based on a review of the literature, we demonstrate the following: (1) the effects

Julie G. Cwikel; Yori Gidron; Michael Quastel

2010-01-01

190

Environmental damage caused by fossil fuels consumption. [External cost estimation($\\/GJ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that the objectives of this study is to identify the negative effects of the fossil fuels use and to evaluate their economic significance. An economic value of the damage for each of the analyzed effects has been estimated in US dollars per unit energy of the fuel used ($\\/GJ). This external costs of fossil fuel use should

F. Barbir; T. N. Veziroglu

1991-01-01

191

Reducing the environmental impact of dietary choice: perspectives from a behavioural and social change approach.  

PubMed

Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area. PMID:22754580

Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

2012-06-17

192

Interactions of NADP-Reducing Enzymes Across Varying Environmental Conditions: A Model of Biological Complexity  

PubMed Central

Interactions across biological networks are often quantified under a single set of conditions; however, cellular behaviors are dynamic and interactions can be expected to change in response to molecular context and environment. To determine the consistency of network interactions, we examined the enzyme network responsible for the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) to NADPH across three different conditions: oxidative stress, starvation, and desiccation. Synthetic, activity-variant alleles were used in Drosophila melanogaster for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd), cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idh), and cytosolic malic enzyme (Men) along with seven different genetic backgrounds to lend biological relevance to the data. The responses of the NADP-reducing enzymes and two downstream phenotypes (lipid and glycogen concentration) were compared between the control and stress conditions. In general, responses in NADP-reducing enzymes were greater under conditions of oxidative stress, likely due to an increased demand for NADPH. Interactions between the enzymes were altered by environmental stress in directions and magnitudes that are consistent with differential contributions of the different enzymes to the NADPH pool: the contributions of G6PD and IDH seem to be accentuated by oxidative stress, and MEN by starvation. Overall, we find that biological network interactions are strongly influenced by environmental conditions, underscoring the importance of examining networks as dynamic entities.

Rzezniczak, Teresa Z.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.

2012-01-01

193

Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach  

PubMed Central

Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.

Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

2012-01-01

194

Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures.  

PubMed

A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkc? or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures. PMID:22253051

Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S W; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E

2012-06-01

195

Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule. Workshop summary; interim notification policy: Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups.

Not Available

1991-11-01

196

Bird Damage to Sunflower in North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota, 1979-1981 (and Influence of Environmental Factors on Blackbird Damage to Sunflower).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sunflower growing areas in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota were surveyed for bird damage from 1979 through 1981. Individual fields were sampled each year, and bird damage on sample sunflower heads was estimated using a gridded, plastic template....

R. L. Hothem R. W. DeHaven S. D. Fairaizl D. L. Otis C. M. Kilburn

1988-01-01

197

Damage Characteristics in Notched Carbon Fiber Composites Subjected to Fatigue Loading—Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several destructive and non-destructive methods were used to study the effect of ab sorbed moisture and\\/or heat on the tension-compression fatigue properties of notched, 0°\\/±45°, carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The main objective was the understanding of the nature of fatigue damage around notches (sharp slits and circular holes), under hot and\\/or wet conditions. The fatigue performance of the notched

J. Morton; S. Kellas; S. M. Bishop

1988-01-01

198

Site-Specific Assessments of Environmental Risk and Natural Resource Damage Based on Great Horned Owls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of receptors is a key element of ecological risk and natural resource damage assessments. The great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; GHO) has advantages as a tertiary terrestrial receptor and integrated measure of exposure to chemical residues in a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach that includes elucidation of con- taminant exposure by measured (tissue-based) and predicted (dietary) methodolo- gies, and population-level measures of

Matthew J. Zwiernik; Karl D. Strause; Denise P. Kay; Alan Blankenship; John Giesy

2007-01-01

199

A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable

Yingchun Yuan

2009-01-01

200

Environmentally Induced Damage to Children: A Call for Broadening the Critical Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The incidence of environmentally related illnesses, such as tuberculosis, asthma, allergies, respiratory disease, depression, and violent anger is increasing, particularly in the inner cities. The effects of these illnesses is often overlooked in discussions of educational and social inequity. This article discusses the significance of this…

Books, Sue

201

Effects of occupational environmental controls and work management on chromosomal damage in dental technicians in Japan.  

PubMed

Dental technicians use various materials, particularly metal alloys and monomers and polymers based on methylmethacrylate. Environmental hygiene issues surrounding the work of dental technicians have been recognized. Despite the need for observance of occupational environmental controls and work management, compliance among dental laboratories appears to be low. We evaluated the relationship between genotoxic effects in dental technicians and occupational environmental controls and work management. We used cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei (CB-MN) frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes and metal levels in scalp hair. We also assessed nutritional factors related to anti-genotoxic effects using a self-administered brief diet history questionnaire. Study subjects were 54 male dental technicians and 38 male clerical workers. The parameters on the micronuclei (MN) frequency in dental technicians and clerical workers were analyzed by forward stepwise multiple regression analyses. Age (P < 0.01, ? = 0.561), occupation as a dental technician (P < 0.01, ? = 0.636) and aluminum levels in scalp hair (P < 0.05, ? = 0.213) were risk factors that significantly increased MN frequency. The significant parameters on the MN frequency in dental technicians were observance of hand-washing as work management (P < 0.01, ? = -0.304), work period (P < 0.01, ? = 0.509), germanium levels in scalp hair (P < 0.01, ? = -0.314) and workplace (P < 0.05, ? = 0.235). To avoid genotoxic effects, observance of occupational environmental controls and work management is necessary for dental technicians. PMID:22424646

Ishikawa, Shigeo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shindo, Taku; Yoshida, Takafumi; Shimoyama, Yasuaki; Satomi, Takashi; Fujii, Satoshi; Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Iino, Mitsuyoshi; Fukao, Akira

2012-03-15

202

Closing the loop: a spatial analysis to link observed environmental damage to predicted heavy metal emissions.  

PubMed

In many cases, the link between industrial emissions and damage to the environment can only be inferred. The Environment Agency of the United Kingdom imposes emissions limits on industrial sites so that predicted concentrations and deposition rates remain below standard thresholds. Estimates of appropriate critical levels and loads are usually based on laboratory results and rarely estimate synergistic effects between pollutants or consider biological adaptation or selection in the target receptor organisms. The Avonmouth smelter has been emitting zinc and other heavy metals since 1929. It has been the subject of a number of detailed and synoptic studies, especially the impact on soil invertebrates. Damage was assessed using both physiological and ecological measurements. Two methods of spatial analysis were investigated, namely interpolation using standard geographical information system (GIS) operators and atmospheric dispersal modeling using an off-the-shelf model. Both methods can be used to compute contours (isolines) of predicted biological effect. Correlation results show that dispersal modeling is at least as good as kriging but requires much less data. This article demonstrates the usefulness of GIS and dispersal models as tools in decision making to determine the most suitable sampling sites in the assessment and monitoring of the impact of contamination around major point sources. PMID:12729205

Colgan, Anja; Hankard, Peter K; Spurgeon, David J; Svendsen, Claus; Wadsworth, Richard A; Weeks, Jason M

2003-05-01

203

Nitroxides attenuate carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat paws by reducing neutrophil infiltration and the resulting myeloperoxidase-mediated damage.  

PubMed

Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and other cyclic nitroxides have been shown to inhibit the chlorinating activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in vitro and in cells. To examine whether nitroxides inhibit MPO activity in vivo we selected acute carrageenan-induced inflammation on the rat paw as a model. Tempol and three more hydrophobic 4-substituted derivatives (4-azido, 4-benzenesulfonyl, and 4-(4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)) were synthesized, and their ability to inhibit the in vitro chlorinating activity of MPO and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat paws was evaluated. All of the tested nitroxides inhibited the chlorinating activity of MPO in vitro with similar IC(50) values (between 1.5 and 1.8 ?M). In vivo, the attenuation of carrageenan-induced inflammation showed some correlation with the lipophilicity of the nitroxide at early time points but the differences in the effects were small (<2-fold) compared with the differences in lipophilicity (>200-fold). No inhibition of MPO activity in vivo was evident because the levels of MPO activity in rat paws correlated with the levels of MPO protein. Likewise, paw edema, levels of nitrated and oxidized proteins, and levels of plasma exudation correlated with the levels of MPO protein in the paws of the animals that were untreated or treated with the nitroxides. The effects of the nitroxides in vivo were compared with those of 4-aminobenzoic hydrazide and of colchicine. Taken together, the results indicate that nitroxides attenuate carrageenan-induced inflammation mainly by reducing neutrophil migration and the resulting MPO-mediated damage. Accordingly, tempol was shown to inhibit rat neutrophil migration in vitro. PMID:22982597

Queiroz, Raphael F; Jordão, Alessandro K; Cunha, Anna C; Ferreira, Vitor F; Brigagão, Maísa R P L; Malvezzi, Alberto; Amaral, Antonia T-do; Augusto, Ohara

2012-09-14

204

Androstenediol administration after trauma-hemorrhage attenuates inflammatory response, reduces organ damage, and improves survival following sepsis.  

PubMed

Although androstenediol (adiol or 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol), a metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), has protective effects following trauma-hemorrhage (T-H), it remains unknown whether administration of adiol has any salutary effects on the inflammatory response and outcome following a combined insult of T-H and sepsis. Male rats underwent T-H shock [mean arterial pressure (MAP) 40 mmHg for 90 min] followed by resuscitation. Adiol (1 mg/kg body wt) or vehicle was administered at the end of resuscitation. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at 20 h after T-H or sham operation. Five hours after CLP, plasma and tissue samples were analyzed for cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10), MPO, neutrophil chemotactic factor (CINC-3), and liver injury (alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase). In another group of rats, the gangrenous cecum was removed at 10 h after CLP, the cavity was irrigated with warm saline and closed in layers, and mortality was recorded over 10 days. T-H followed by CLP produced a significant elevation in plasma IL-6 and IL-10 levels, enhanced neutrophil cell activation, and resulted in liver injury. Adiol administration prevented the increase in cytokine production, neutrophil cell activation, and attenuated liver injury. Moreover, rats subjected to the combined insult, receiving vehicle or adiol, had a 50% and 6% mortality, respectively. Since adiol administration suppresses proinflammatory cytokines, reduces liver damage, and decreases mortality after the combined insult of T-H and sepsis, this agent appears to be a novel adjunct to fluid resuscitation for decreasing T-H-induced septic complications and mortality. PMID:16574990

Szalay, László; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Suzuki, Takao; Hsieh, Ya-Ching; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Schwacha, Martin G; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

2006-03-30

205

Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.?DATA SOURCES—Literature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.?STUDY SELECTION—Review and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a synthesis of these studies as contrasted with a quantitative meta-analysis.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions designed for residential/child ETS exposure control have included policy/legal regulations, minimal clinical services, and counselling services. Divorce court and adoption services have limited custody to protect children from ETS exposure. Controlled trials of clinicians' one time counselling services have shown null results. One controlled trial found that repeated physician ETS counselling increased parent cessation. Three trials found that repeated counselling/shaping procedures reduced quantitative estimates of ETS exposure in asthmatic children.?CONCLUSIONS—Insufficient controlled studies of repeated session counselling procedures have been completed to determine efficacy for ETS exposure reduction, but evidence is promising. One time minimal interventions appear ineffective, but large scale studies may be warranted. No studies have been conducted to assess court or adoption agency regulations; no community ordinances for regulating residential ETS exposure have been invoked. Ethical and enforcement issues are discussed.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; passive smoking; interventions; counselling

Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.

2000-01-01

206

Environmental Justice Implications of Reduced Reporting Requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1 km, 3 km, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales.

Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H.; Edwards, Sharon E.

2010-01-01

207

A DNA-electrochemical biosensor for screening environmental damage caused by s-triazine derivatives.  

PubMed

An electrochemical DNA-biosensor has been used to investigate the interactions between DNA and members of a group of ten derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine herbicides: chloro-s-triazines (atrazine, propazine, terbutylazin, and cyanazin), thiomethyl-s-triazines (ametryn, prometryn, terbutryn, and simetryn), and methoxy-s-triazines (prometon and terbumeton). A UV spectrophotometric study of this group of herbicides was also undertaken. Of this group only cyanazin could be oxidized in aqueous solution using a glassy carbon electrode. Use of the electrochemical DNA-biosensor revealed the occurrence of a time-dependent interaction of all the herbicides with DNA, via the appearance of guanine, guanosine, and adenosine oxidation signals that correspond to DNA damage. Adduct formation between the herbicide and the DNA purine bases guanine and adenine is suggested as a mechanism. PMID:12194029

Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria; da Silva, Luís Antônio

2002-03-13

208

Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China.  

PubMed

In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p<0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. PMID:22414496

Alabi, Okunola A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

2012-03-11

209

Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology can reduce material and manufacturing burdens by considering the ease of disassembly, potential for remanufacturing, and recovery of parts and materials for reuse and recycling. We use teardowns of three commercial solid-state lighting products designed to fit in conventional Edison light bulb sockets to analyze potential end-of-life reuse strategies for solid-state lighting and recommend strategies for the industry. Current lamp designs would benefit from standardization of part connections to facilitate disassembly and remanufacturing of components, and fewer material types in structural pieces to maximize homogeneous materials recovery. The lighting industry should also start now to develop an effective product take-back system for collecting future end-of-life products.

Hendrickson, C. T.; Matthews, D. H.; Ashe, M.; Jaramillo, P.; McMichael, F. C.

2010-01-01

210

Phenotypic Diversity and Altered Environmental Plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana with Reduced Hsp90 Levels  

PubMed Central

The molecular chaperone HSP90 aids the maturation of a diverse but select set of metastable protein clients, many of which are key to a variety of signal transduction pathways. HSP90 function has been best investigated in animal and fungal systems, where inhibition of the chaperone has exceptionally diverse effects, ranging from reversing oncogenic transformation to preventing the acquisition of drug resistance. Inhibition of HSP90 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers novel morphologies dependent on normally cryptic genetic variation and increases stochastic variation inherent to developmental processes. The biochemical activity of HSP90 is strictly conserved between animals and plants. However, the substrates and pathways dependent on HSP90 in plants are poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the necessity of reliance on light-sensitive HSP90 inhibitors due to redundancy in the A. thaliana HSP90 gene family. Here we present phenotypic and genome-wide expression analyses of A. thaliana with constitutively reduced HSP90 levels achieved by RNAi targeting. HSP90 reduction affects a variety of quantitative life-history traits, including flowering time and total seed set, increases morphological diversity, and decreases the developmental stability of repeated characters. Several morphologies are synergistically affected by HSP90 and growth temperature. Genome-wide expression analyses also suggest a central role for HSP90 in the genesis and maintenance of plastic responses. The expression results are substantiated by examination of the response of HSP90-reduced plants to attack by caterpillars of the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni. HSP90 reduction potentiates a more robust herbivore defense response. In sum, we propose that HSP90 exerts global effects on the environmental responsiveness of plants to many different stimuli. The comprehensive set of HSP90-reduced lines described here is a vital instrument to further examine the role of HSP90 as a central interface between organism, development, and environment.

Sangster, Todd A.; Bahrami, Adam; Wilczek, Amity; Watanabe, Etsuko; Schellenberg, Kurt; McLellan, Catherine; Kelley, Alicia; Kong, Sek Won; Queitsch, Christine; Lindquist, Susan

2007-01-01

211

Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems  

PubMed Central

Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30–60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550–600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service.

Ju, Xiao-Tang; Xing, Guang-Xi; Chen, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xue-Jun; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Yin, Bin; Christie, Peter; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2009-01-01

212

Dietary Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Oxidative Stress and Cellular Damage in Rat Brain Slices Subjected to Hypoxia–Reoxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how virgin olive oil (VOO) affected platelet and hypoxic brain damage in rats. Rats were given VOO orally\\u000a for 30 days at 0.25 or 0.5 mL kg?1 per day (doses A and B, respectively). Platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1?, and nitrites + nitrates were measured, and hypoxic damage was evaluated in a hypoxia–reoxygenation assay with fresh brain\\u000a slices. Oxidative stress, prostaglandin E\\u000a 2,

J. A. González-Correa; J. Muñoz-Marín; M. M. Arrebola; A. Guerrero; F. Narbona; J. A. López-Villodres; J. P. De La Cruz

2007-01-01

213

Health effects and optimal environmental taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on environmental taxation in the presence of pre-existing distortionary taxes has shown that interactions with these distortions tend to raise the cost of an environmental tax, and thus that the optimal environmental tax is less than marginal environmental damages. A recent paper by Schwartz and Repetto (2000) challenges this finding, arguing that the health benefits from reduced pollution

Roberton C. Williams III

2003-01-01

214

Prolactin reduces the damaging effects of excitotoxicity in the dorsal hippocampus of the female rat independently of ovarian hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported previously that lactation prevents the cell damage induced by kainic acid (KA) excitotoxicity in the CA1, CA3, and CA4 areas of the dorsal hippocampus compared to rats in diestrus phase, and hypothesize that pronounced fluctuations of hormones, such as ovarian steroids and prolactin (PRL), have a role in the neuroprotection of the dorsal hippocampus during lactation. PRL is

D. Tejadilla; M. Cerbón; T. Morales

2010-01-01

215

Aldosterone antagonism or synthase inhibition reduces end-organ damage induced by treatment with angiotensin and high salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the setting of high salt intake, aldosterone stimulates fibrosis in the heart, great vessels, and kidney of rats. We used uninephrectomized rats treated with angiotensin II and placed on a high salt diet to exaggerate renal fibrosis. We then tested whether mineralocorticoid receptor blockade by spironolactone or aldosterone synthase inhibition by FAD286 have similar effects on end-organ damage and

William B Lea; Eun Soo Kwak; James M Luther; Susan M Fowler; Zuofei Wang; Ji Ma; Agnes B Fogo; Nancy J Brown

2009-01-01

216

Evaluation of a possible role for antimutagens, antiteratogens, and anticarcinogens in reducing environmental health hazards.  

PubMed Central

The use of protective agents (e.g., sulfhydryl compounds, certain vitamins, amino acids, cations, and antibiotics) offers a novel and promising means of dealing with the ever increasing burden of environmental hazards facing man. Through the daily uptake of minimal doses as a prophylactic measure by the most endangered groups of the population or by direct mixing of the appropriate protective agent with the inducer (e.g., pesticides or anticancer drugs) it should be possible to reduce or prevent some of the most serious toxic side effects including those of a mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic nature. Among some of the most outstanding protection examples cited are the antimutagenic, antiteratogenic and anticarcinogenic effects of L-cystein, and of some of the vitamins. However, in view of our limited understanding of protection mechanisms in this fairly new field of research and due to the toxic side effects of some of the protection agents themselves, a large-scale application of this approach cannot be recommended as yet. More research is urgently needed to study protection mechanisms in suitable standardized model systems and to develop safer and more efficient protective agents.

Nashed, N

1976-01-01

217

An Intervention to Reduce Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Improves Pregnancy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective We tested the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention in reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE) and improving pregnancy outcomes among African-American women. Methods We recruited 1,044 women to a randomized controlled trial during 2001-2004 in Washington, DC. Data on 691 women with self-reported ETSE were analyzed. A subset of 520 ETSE women and salivary cotinine levels (SCLs) <20 ng/ml was also analyzed. Individually tailored counseling sessions adapted from evidence-based interventions for ETSE and other risks, were delivered to the intervention group. The usual care group received routine prenatal care as determined by their provider. Logistic regression models were used to predict ETSE before delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results Women in the intervention were less likely to self-report ETSE before delivery when controlling for other covariates (OR=0.50, 95%CI=0.35-0.71). Medicaid recipients were more likely to have ETSE (OR=1.97, 95%CI=1.31-2.96). With advancing maternal age, the likelihood of ETSE was less (OR=0.96, 95%CI=0.93-0.99). For women in the intervention the rates of very low birth weight (VLBW) and very preterm birth (VPTB) were significantly improved (OR=0.11, 95%CI=0.01-0.86; OR=0.22, 95%CI=0.07-0.68, respectively). For women with SCL <20 ng/ml, maternal age was not significant. Intimate partner violence at baseline significantly increased the chances of VLBW and VPTB (OR=3.75, 95%CI=1.02-13.81; OR=2.71, 95%CI=1.11-6.62, respectively). These results were true for mothers who reported ETSE overall and for those with SCL <20 ng/ml. Conclusions This is the first randomized clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting ETSE in pregnancy. We significantly reduced ETSE as well as VPTB and VLBW, leading causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity in minority populations. This intervention may reduce health disparities seen in reproductive outcomes.

El-Mohandes, Ayman A.E.; Kiely, Michele; Blake, Susan M.; Gantz, Marie G; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil

2010-01-01

218

Nitric Oxide Donors Increase Blood Flow and Reduce Brain Damage in Focal Ischemia: Evidence that Nitric Oxide is Beneficial in the Early Stages of Cerebral Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We studied whether administration of nitric oxide (NO) donors reduces the ischemic damage resulting from middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In halothane-anesthetized and ventilated SHRs, the MCA was occluded. CBF was monitored using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Three to five minutes after MCA occlusion, the NO donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 3 mg\\/kg\\/h) or 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN

Fangyi Zhang; James G. White; Costantino Iadecola

1994-01-01

219

Laquinimod interferes with migratory capacity of T cells and reduces IL17 levels, inflammatory demyelination and acute axonal damage in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of laquinimod on inflammatory demyelination, axonal damage, cytokine profiles and migratory capacities of lymphocytes in C57BL\\/6 mice with active EAE induced with MOG35–55 peptide. The mice were treated at disease induction and after disease onset. Spinal cords were assessed histologically. Cytokines and adhesive properties were analyzed in splenocytes. Preventive and therapeutic laquinimod treatment reduced clinical signs,

Christiane Wegner; Christine Stadelmann; Ramona Pförtner; Emanuel Raymond; Sara Feigelson; Ronen Alon; Bracha Timan; Liat Hayardeny; Wolfgang Brück

2010-01-01

220

Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for effective measures can be taken to prevent clinical nephropathies.

Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

2003-05-01

221

Anthocyanin-rich fractions of blackberry extracts reduce UV-induced free radicals and oxidative damage in keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Hull blackberries were purified using solid phase extraction to obtain anthocyanin-rich methanol fractions. This method concentrated phenolics and anthocyanins, recovering 97% and 76% of the total yield in puree or powder extracts, respectively, which represented a 24-63 fold increase of the total antioxidant capacity when compared with either the water fraction or the original extract. The ability of these fractions to protect primary keratinocytes against UV-induced oxidative damage was assessed. Anthocyanin-rich methanol fractions derived from either blackberry powder or puree exhibited strong antioxidant properties, protecting against UV-induced ROS nearly as efficiently as N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, the fractions up-regulated the expression of catalase, MnSOD, Gpx1/2 and Gsta1 antioxidant enzymes. Thus, it is concluded that blackberry extracts may protect keratinocytes against UV-mediated oxidative damage. PMID:21567508

Murapa, Patience; Dai, Jin; Chung, Michael; Mumper, Russell J; D'Orazio, John

2011-05-12

222

The relationship between environmental exposures to phthalates and DNA damage in human sperm using the neutral comet assay.  

PubMed Central

Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited from the Massachusetts General Hospital Andrology Laboratory provided a semen and a urine sample. Eight phthalate metabolites were measured in urine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; data were corrected for urine dilution by adjusting for specific gravity. The neutral single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used to measure DNA integrity in sperm. VisComet image analysis software was used to measure comet extent, a measure of total comet length (micrometers); percent DNA in tail (tail%), a measure of the proportion of total DNA present in the comet tail; and tail distributed moment (TDM), an integrated measure of length and intensity (micrometers). For an interquartile range increase in specific gravity-adjusted monoethyl phthalate (MEP) level, the comet extent increased significantly by 3.6 micro m [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.74-6.47]; the TDM also increased 1.2 micro m (95% CI, -0.05 to 2.38) but was of borderline significance. Monobutyl, monobenzyl, monomethyl, and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalates were not significantly associated with comet assay parameters. In conclusion, this study represents the first human data to demonstrate that urinary MEP, at environmental levels, is associated with increased DNA damage in sperm.

Duty, Susan M; Singh, Narendra P; Silva, Manori J; Barr, Dana B; Brock, John W; Ryan, Louise; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C; Hauser, Russ

2003-01-01

223

Can environmental purchasing reduce mercury in U.S. health care?  

PubMed

Environmental purchasing represents an innovative approach to mercury control for the health care sector in the United States. The U.S. health care sector creates significant environmental impacts, including the release of toxic substances such as mercury. Our goal in this study was to provide the health care industry with a method of identifying the environmental impacts associated with the products they use. The Health Care Environmental Purchasing Tool (HCEPT) was developed and tested at nine health care facilities in the Great Lakes region of the United States. As a result, more than 1 kg of mercury was removed from four facilities. The complexity of the supply chain inhibits a direct environmental information exchange between health-care decision makers and suppliers. However, a dialogue is starting within the health care supply chain to address environmental issues. The HCEPT has been shown to assist health care facilities with that dialogue by identifying products that have environmental consequences. This promising tool is now available for further experimentation and modification, to facilitate overall environmental improvement, and to provide a systematic method for environmental assessment of health care products. PMID:12204816

Eagan, Patrick D; Kaiser, Barb

2002-09-01

224

Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave, risk of mortality was higher in the black community, and in those living in certain types of low-income and multi-tenant housing. Interventions in the built environment to promote urban heat island mitigation can reduce ambient temperatures, potentially reducing heat-related mortality rates in vulnerable populations, electricity consumption and air pollutant emissions, and slow ozone formation, an important health stressor. These mitigation measures may also serve as adaptive responses for a range of potential future climate conditions. Here we review current research that assesses the health, air quality, and energy conservation benefits in cities from these interventions in the built environment, and discuss the techniques and research objectives of a new pilot community-based project to mitigate the heat island effect in the South Bronx, New York City through implementation of vegetated and high albedo roofing on residential and institutional buildings. Recent studies use mesoscale climate models and a variety of land-use and land-cover scenarios to project the effects of increasing vegetative fraction and albedo within metropolitan regions and to evaluate the impacts of measures that may serve both as adaptive responses to current conditions and mitigation for future climate variability. Through this perspective, we address the questions: What urban design approaches make for resilient cities in a changing environment? What costs and benefits may be expected by the adoption of heat island mitigation techniques within the New York metropolitan region?

Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

2005-12-01

225

The Role of Dissolved Organic Matter in Environmental Mercury Methylation by Sulfate- Reducing Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methylmercury (MeHg) production in the environment is controlled by many factors, including biogeochemical controls on mercury bioavailability. Strong focus has been placed on the role of sulfide concentration in determining mercury speciation and cellular uptake. However, in natural waters, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is both ubiquitous and important in influencing mercury speciation and bioavailability. We revisit this issue with experimental results from methylation assays of sulfate-reducing bacteria with a pure culture, and through synchrotron-based characterization of mercury in simulated natural waters. Pure cultures of Desulfobulbus propionicus, a sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) capable of fermentative growth, were allowed to methylate a mercury isotopic tracer present at <100 ng/L and equilibrated with ~1 ?M aqueous sulfide and ~40 mg/L DOM. Fermentative growth conditions allowed control over ambient sulfide concentrations to favor the predicted dominance of dissolved HgS0. The DOM used was a hydrophobic fraction isolated from Florida Everglades surface water. Results showed that 5-10% of the mercury isotopic tracer was methylated in both DOM-amended and DOM-free cultures. In DOM-amended cultures, 10-20% greater cell growth was observed, suggesting an apparent slower rate of methylation in DOM-free cultures and a beneficial contribution of DOM to cell growth. We note that as much as ~10% of ambient mercury associated with DOM was also methylated, possibly explaining the observed difference in methylation rates in terms of dilution of the total bioavailable mercury pool for DOM-amended cultures. Our observations suggest that, in some cases, DOM- partitioned mercury is subject to microbial methylation at environmentally significant rates. The nature of mercury- sulfide-DOM interaction was investigated in separate experiments. No precipitation was observed in solutions containing DOM and equimolar Hg2+ and aqueous sulfide at concentrations supersaturated with respect to metacinnabar. The equilibrated Hg-S-DOM solution was loaded on hydrophobic chromatography resin and subjected to 100 ?M glutathione extraction. Spectra from DOM-partitioned mercury-sulfide exhibited high similarity to metacinnabar despite the absence of precipitation. Lower mercury concentrations and better resins are being tested in order to evaluate the role of DOM-associated nanoparticulate or colloidal metacinnabar in mercury bioavailability for methylation by SRB.

Moreau, J. W.; Roden, E. E.; Gerbig, C.; Kim, C. S.; Aiken, G. R.; Dewild, J. F.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

2007-12-01

226

May cause environmental damage the diversion of the Danube in the Szigetköz area, Hungary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary The floodplain area between the main channel of Danube and its branch river Mosoni-Duna is called the Szigetköz. This wetland area has special flora and fauna, and it is a natural protection area. Underneath of the Szigetköz, there are a thick (several hundreds meters) sedimentary sequence, the so called Kisalföld Quaternary Aquifer. This aquifer system is fed by the surface river system of Danube and supplies excellent quality drinking water for several hundred thousands of people in Hungary and Slovakia. The Szigetköz Monitoring Network was established in 1991 to describe the environmental effects of the B?s-Nagymaros Dam System, which was partly built in 1992 on the Slovakian part of the Danube. The dam diverts three-quarter of the Danube runoff to a 40 km long artificial concrete channel north of the original river bed. The effect of this diversion is spectacular on the wetland area. Water level in the meandering channels have decreased significantly, part of the wetland area frequently becomes dry. The natural flow pattern has disappeared. As a consequence, the channel characteristics of the river network, therefore the flow pattern, the quantity and quality of surface and subsurface water on the upper region of the Danube have significantly changed. The aim of our research is to describe the relationship between surface water and groundwater and considering the variable geology of the area, to describe trends in chemistry and to find the possible reasons for extreme values. Also to detect possible connection between the extreme values and the changes in flow pattern caused by the human intervention. Water sample pairs from surface water and shallow and deeper ground water were taken in every season at 18 locations. To sample shallow ground-water 1,5 m long, screened metal probes were derived into the sediment at the possible nearest point to the surface water. On the field pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, and in the wells redox potential were measured. Samples were taken for further laboratory analyses (major and trace components, nitrate. The chemical parameters of surface and subsurface water show seasonal changes, due to the changes of temperature, of precipitation, of biological and microbiological activity. At the monitoring points along the main channel the surface and subsurface water is closely related, and the velocity of groundwater can be calculated by the seasonal periodical dislocation. At the monitoring points on the north-western part of the study area (point 1), subsurface water replenished by the rivers, and water level in the probes follow the surface water level changes with short shift. Practically water quality is the same in the probe as in the surface. It is the same on the south-eastern part of the study area, where the diverted channel rejoins to the original river channel (point 10). The middle section (at points 4 and 5) of the study area, water level in the probes is higher than surface water level. Also concentrations of some chemical components are higher in the subsurface water here. These components are typically the results of water - sediment interaction. Based on these observations, the study area can be differentiated by the hydrochemical composition for losing and gaining sections. At the monitoring points along the meandering sub-branch system, water in the probes is reductive, the connection between surface and subsurface water is week, furthermore at some point is non-existent. At some points surface water has slow flow, or it is even stagnant. This means reductive environments, and high concentrations of some components, especially at the monitoring points of 31 and 41. For example, concentrations of ammonium, sulphate, phosphate, magnesium, iron, manganese are extremely high in the shallow groundwater. Originally the Danube supplied fresh, oxygen-rich water to the area, while nowadays at these locations surface water and subsurface water almost has no connection, and these sections of river bed already turned muddy, and organic material

Novak, Brigitta

2009-04-01

227

Neurotrophic signaling molecules associated with cholinergic damage in young and aged rats: environmental enrichment as potential therapeutic agent.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the neurobiological bases of behavioral deficits associated with cholinergic damage and the potential of long-term environmental enrichment as a therapeutic agent. Rats were submitted to intra-structures injection of 192 IgG-saporin and then behaviorally tested 1 month and 1 year post-lesion in a nonmatching-to-position task. The gene expression changes were assessed by cDNA macroarray technology using the GE array Q series designed to profile the expression of neurotrophic signaling molecules. Results showed that (1) cholinergic injury modulated the expression of genes such as brain-derived neurotrophin factor but also genes associated with inflammatory response, neuron apoptosis, regulation of angiogenesis, and synaptic plasticity, (2) aging is associated with regulation of glial proliferation and apoptosis, and (3) long-term enriched environment housing enhanced behavioral performance in lesioned and non-lesioned rats and upregulated gene expression. This therapeutic role of the enriched environment seemed to be associated with a suppression of expression of genes involved in apoptosis, glial cell differentiation, and cell cycle, but also with an enhanced expression of a subset of genes involved in signal transduction. PMID:19398249

Paban, Véronique; Chambon, Caroline; Manrique, Christine; Touzet, Claude; Alescio-Lautier, Béatrice

2009-04-23

228

Using the DNA alkaline unwinding assay to detect DNA damage in laboratory and environmentally exposed cells and tissues  

SciTech Connect

The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. In preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. Cultured mammalian fibroblasts and sperm from marine fish and invertebrates (Pseudopleuronectes, Arbacia and Mytilus) showed concentration-dependent increases in DNA strand breaks after brief exposures to alkylating agents. DNA unwinding methods were also used on DNA extracted from marine animals injected with genotoxicants and from animals exposed in situ at an estuarine site. Gills from blue mussels caged at the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site (MA, USA) highly contaminated with many organic (e.g. PCBs) and inorganic contaminants, were also examined. A significant increase in DNA strand breaks was seen in gill tissues of animals held in the contaminated site for as little as 3 days. Although not as severe, an increase in strand breaks was also seen in animals held at the control site for 28 days.

Nacci, D.; Jackim, E.

1990-01-01

229

Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

2011-01-01

230

Effectiveness of Assistive Technology and Environmental Interventions in Maintaining Independence and Reducing Home Care Costs for the Frail Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Home environmental interventions (EIs) and assistive technology (AT) devices have the potential to in- crease independence for community-based frail elderly per- sons, but their effectiveness has not been demonstrated. Objective: To evaluate a system of AT-EI service pro- vision designed to promote independence and reduce health care costs for physically frail elderly persons. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and

William C. Mann; Kenneth J. Ottenbacher; Linda Fraas; Machiko Tomita; Carl V. Granger

231

Environmental Management: A Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use on College Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents a comprehensive strategy, called "environmental management," for alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention in institutions of higher education. The environmental management approach utilizes, in addition to educational programs, changes in the physical, social, economic, and legal environment accomplished through a combination of…

DeJong, William; Vince-Whitman, Cheryl; Colthurst, Tom; Cretella, Maggie; Gilbreath, Michael; Rosati, Michael; Zweig, Karen

232

A New Vigilance: Identifying and Reducing the Risks of Environmental Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrorism is a constant and fearful phenomenon, as America has learned to its recent and terrible cost, and like the nine-headed hydra of ancient mythology, as soon as one group or method is terminated, more spring up to take its place. Environmental terrorism adds a new dimension to this phenomenon, identifying the target as a natural resource or environmental feature.

Elizabeth L. Chalecki

2002-01-01

233

Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and

J. E. Rosenthal; K. Bakewell

2005-01-01

234

From rum jungle to Wismut-reducing the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has a long history of uranium mining. In the early days, little attention was given to environmental matters and considerable pollution occurred. Ansto has been involved in rehabilitation of a number of the early uranium mining sites, from Rum Jungle in Australia`s Northern Territory to Wismut in Germany, and is working with current producers to minimise the environmental impact

W. M. Zuk; R. A. Jeffree; D. M. Levins

1994-01-01

235

Supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) reduces signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in man.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of beta-hydroxyl-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) supplementation on signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise. Six non-resistance trained male subjects performed an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle damage on two separate occasions, performed on the dominant or non-dominant arm in a counter-balanced crossover design. Subjects were assigned to an HMB/KIC (3 g HMB and 0.3 g alpha-ketoisocaproic acid, daily) or placebo treatment for 14 d prior to exercise in the counter-balanced crossover design. One repetition maximum (1RM), plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girth, and range of motion (ROM) were determined pre-exercise, at 1h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-exercise. DOMS and the percentage changes in 1RM, limb girth, and ROM all changed over the 72 h period (P < 0.05). HMB//IC supplementation attenuated the CK response, the percentage decrement in 1RM, and the percentage increase in limb girth (P < 0.05). In addition, DOMS was reduced at 24 h post-exercise (P < 0.05) in the HMB/KIC treatment. In conclusion, 14 d of HMB and KIC supplementation reduced signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in non-resistance trained males following a single bout of eccentrically biased resistance exercise. PMID:16286672

van Someren, Ken A; Edwards, Adam J; Howatson, Glyn

2005-08-01

236

Laquinimod interferes with migratory capacity of T cells and reduces IL-17 levels, inflammatory demyelination and acute axonal damage in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of laquinimod on inflammatory demyelination, axonal damage, cytokine profiles and migratory capacities of lymphocytes in C57BL/6 mice with active EAE induced with MOG(35-55) peptide. The mice were treated at disease induction and after disease onset. Spinal cords were assessed histologically. Cytokines and adhesive properties were analyzed in splenocytes. Preventive and therapeutic laquinimod treatment reduced clinical signs, inflammation, and demyelination. VLA-4-mediated adhesiveness and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 were down-regulated in treated animals. Within lesions, treated mice showed similar axonal densities, but less acute axonal damage than controls. Laquinimod might thus protect myelin and axons by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and impairing the migratory capacity of lymphocytes. PMID:20684995

Wegner, Christiane; Stadelmann, Christine; Pförtner, Ramona; Raymond, Emanuel; Feigelson, Sara; Alon, Ronen; Timan, Bracha; Hayardeny, Liat; Brück, Wolfgang

2010-08-03

237

The Role of PharmEcovigilance in Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals  

EPA Science Inventory

The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The pharmaceutical and healthcare industries have an environmental footprint because the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the environment as contaminants ...

238

Tetracycline-dependent regulation of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase in transgenic mice conditionally reduces oxidative DNA damage in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is a pervasive oxidative DNA lesion formed by endogenous oxidative stress and enhanced by drugs and environmental chemicals. This lesion results in transcriptional errors and mutations and is linked to neurodegeneration, teratogenesis, cancer, and other pathologies. We demonstrate that the neonatal central nervous system of transgenic mice carrying the tetracycline-regulable DNA repair gene formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (fpg) has

Rebecca R. Laposa; Jeffrey T. Henderson; Peter G. Wells

2003-01-01

239

Inefficient Replication Reduces RecA-mediated Repair of UV-damaged Plasmids introduced into competent Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Transformation of Escherichia coli with purified plasmids containing DNA damage is frequently used as a tool to characterize repair pathways that operate on chromosomes. In this study, we used an assay that allowed us to quantify plasmid survival and to compare how efficiently various repair pathways operate on plasmid DNA introduced into cells relative to their efficiency on chromosomal DNA. We observed distinct differences between the mechanisms operating on the transforming plasmid DNA and the chromosome. An average of one UV-induced lesion was sufficient to inactivate ColE1-based plasmids introduced into nucleotide excision repair mutants, suggesting an essential role for repair on newly introduced plasmid DNA. By contrast, the absence of RecA, RecF, RecBC, RecG or RuvAB had a minimal effect on the survival of the transforming plasmid DNA containing UV-induced damage. Neither the presence of an endogenous homologous plasmid nor the induction of the SOS response enhanced the survival of transforming plasmids. Using two-dimensional agarose-gel analysis, both replication- and RecA-dependent structures that were observed on established, endogenous plasmids following UV-irradiation, failed to form on UV-irradiated plasmids introduced into E. coli. We interpret these observations to suggest that the lack of RecA-mediated survival is likely to be due to inefficient replication that occurs when plasmids are initially introduced into cells, rather than to the plasmid’s size, the absence of homologous sequences, or levels of recA expression.

Jeiranian, HA; Courcelle, CT; Courcelle, J

2012-01-01

240

Inefficient replication reduces RecA-mediated repair of UV-damaged plasmids introduced into competent Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Transformation of Escherichia coli with purified plasmids containing DNA damage is frequently used as a tool to characterize repair pathways that operate on chromosomes. In this study, we used an assay that allowed us to quantify plasmid survival and to compare how efficiently various repair pathways operate on plasmid DNA introduced into cells relative to their efficiency on chromosomal DNA. We observed distinct differences between the mechanisms operating on the transforming plasmid DNA and the chromosome. An average of one UV-induced lesion was sufficient to inactivate ColE1-based plasmids introduced into nucleotide excision repair mutants, suggesting an essential role for repair on newly introduced plasmid DNA. By contrast, the absence of RecA, RecF, RecBC, RecG, or RuvAB had a minimal effect on the survival of the transforming plasmid DNA containing UV-induced damage. Neither the presence of an endogenous homologous plasmid nor the induction of the SOS response enhanced the survival of transforming plasmids. Using two-dimensional agarose-gel analysis, both replication- and RecA-dependent structures that were observed on established, endogenous plasmids following UV-irradiation, failed to form on UV-irradiated plasmids introduced into E. coli. We interpret these observations to suggest that the lack of RecA-mediated survival is likely to be due to inefficient replication that occurs when plasmids are initially introduced into cells, rather than to the plasmid's size, the absence of homologous sequences, or levels of recA expression. PMID:22542622

Jeiranian, H A; Courcelle, C T; Courcelle, J

2012-04-19

241

From rum jungle to Wismut-reducing the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling  

SciTech Connect

Australia has a long history of uranium mining. In the early days, little attention was given to environmental matters and considerable pollution occurred. Ansto has been involved in rehabilitation of a number of the early uranium mining sites, from Rum Jungle in Australia`s Northern Territory to Wismut in Germany, and is working with current producers to minimise the environmental impact of their operations. Ansto`s expertise is extensive and includes, inter alia, amelioration of acid mine drainage, radon measurement and control, treatment of mill wastes, management of tailings, monitoring of seepage plumes, mathematical modelling of pollutant transport and biological impacts in a tropical environment.

Zuk, W.M.; Jeffree, R.A.; Levins, D.M. [and others

1994-12-31

242

Operational options to reduce matrix effects in liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry analysis of aqueous environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix effects like signal enhancement or suppression can severely compromise quantitative analysis of environmental samples with liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS). Several operational options were studied to reduce such matrix effects in the determination of polar organic trace contaminants from water, like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, among them ibuprofen, diclofenac and naproxen, lipid regulators like bezafibrate and clofibric acid and industrial

Achim Kloepfer; José Benito Quintana; Thorsten Reemtsma

2005-01-01

243

Environmental controls on iron?oxidising, sulfur?oxidising and sulfate?reducing bacteria in mine wastes, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic and modern tailings piles and waste dumps in east Otago (South Island) and the Coromandel Peninsula (North Island) of New Zealand encompass a wide range of physico?chemical environmental conditions, and host chemolitho(auto)trophs (iron? and sulfur?oxidising bacteria, IOB and SOB respectively) and sulfate?reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfide mineral grains are only marginally altered, even after up to 100 years of surficial

Debra A. Chappell; Dave Craw

2003-01-01

244

ASSESSING INCENTIVE-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES FOR REDUCING HOUSEHOLD WASTE DISPOSAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In residential solid waste management, the United States has a great deal of experience in applying incentive-based environmental policy in the form of unit pricing. This study examines the two most common forms of unit pricing practiced in the United States. It offers intuition and empirical evidence suggesting divergence of theoretical expectations and actual outcomes regarding the effects of switching

DEBORAH VAUGHN NESTOR; MICHAEL J. PODOLSKY

1998-01-01

245

FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

246

Food transport refrigeration - Approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food transport refrigeration is a critical link in the food chain not only in terms of maintaining the tem- perature integrity of the transported products but also its impact on energy consumption and CO2 emis- sions. This paper provides a review of (a) current approaches in road food transport refrigeration, (b) estimates of their environmental impacts, and (c) research on

S. A. Tassou; G. De-Lille; Y. T. Ge

2008-01-01

247

Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.DATA SOURCESLiterature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.STUDY SELECTIONReview and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a

Melbourne F Hovell; Joy M Zakarian; Dennis R Wahlgren; Georg E Matt

2000-01-01

248

The Master of Science in Environmental Architecture-An Appropriate Response to Reducing Greenhouse Gasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past decade, politicians have applied different shades of ``green-wash'' to global environmental issues in order to help juggle their positions in the political spectrum. This has created the illusion that effective measures are being pursued in the public interest for both this and future generation(s). The reality is, however, that nearly of all these initiatives are ``input focused''

Garry Baverstock; Ian Parker

2007-01-01

249

Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts  

PubMed Central

Animal agriculture in the United States for the most part has industrialized, with negative consequences for air and water quality and antibiotic use. We consider health and environmental impacts of current US swine production and give an overview of current federal, state, and local strategies being used to address them.

Osterberg, David; Wallinga, David

2004-01-01

250

Environmental auditing: Estimating and reducing corporate greenhouse-gas emissions using monitoring and targeting software systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concerns about global warming, the alleged increasing greenhouse effect, environmental instability and sustainable developments have prompted organisations to devise and implement environment audits. These are undertaken in order to assess the impact an organisation's activities have on the environment and should include obtaining estimates for the airborne pollution and greenhouse-gas emissions produced. Recommendations are normally made to lessen detrimental

Paul K. Martin; Paul OCallaghan; Douglas Probert

1992-01-01

251

Reducing children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in homes: issues and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well established that children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) results in substantial public health and economic impacts. Children are more likely than adults to suffer health effects from ETS exposure, and the home is the most important site of such exposure. Although the responsibility and authority of the community and health professionals to protect children from

Mary Jane Ashley; Roberta Ferrence

1998-01-01

252

Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise-management program handbook. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise

T. D. Feather; T. K. Shekell

1991-01-01

253

Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia  

PubMed Central

Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3 h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2 weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes.

Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua

2013-01-01

254

Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sitzlar, M. A.; Mora, M. A.; Fleming, J. G. W.; Bazer, F. W.; Bickham, J. W.; Matson, C. W.

2009-01-01

255

Application of drag-reducing polymer solutions as test fluids for in vitro evaluation of potential blood damage in blood pumps.  

PubMed

In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood. PMID:20019596

Daly, Amanda R; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V

256

Application of Drag-Reducing Polymer Solutions as Test Fluids for In Vitro Evaluation of Potential Blood Damage in Blood Pumps  

PubMed Central

In vitro evaluation of the potential of a circulatory-assist device to damage blood cells has generally been performed using blood from various species. Problems with this approach include the variability of blood sensitivity to mechanical stress in different species, preparation of blood including the adjustment of hematocrit to a standard value, changes in the mechanical properties of blood that occur during storage, and necessity to pool blood samples to obtain an adequate amount of blood for in vitro circulating systems. We investigated whether the mechanical degradation of a drag-reducing polymer (DRP) solution resulting in the loss of drag-reducing ability can indicate the degree of shear-induced blood damage within blood pumps. DRP solution (polyethylene oxide, 4,500 kDa, 1,000 ppm) or porcine blood were driven through a turbulent flow system by a centrifugal pump, either the Bio-Pump BPX-80 (Medtronic, Inc.) or CentriMag (Levitronix LLC) at a constant pressure gradient of 300 mm Hg for 120 minutes. DRP mechanical degradation was evaluated by reduction of flow rate and solution viscosity. A proposed index of DRP mechanical degradation (PDI) is similar to the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) typically used to quantify the results of in vitro testing of blood pumps. Results indicate that the mechanical degradation of DRP solutions may provide a sensitive standard method for the evaluation of potential blood trauma produced by blood pumps without the use of blood.

Daly, Amanda R.; Sobajima, Hideo; Olia, Salim E.; Takatani, Setsuo; Kameneva, Marina V.

2011-01-01

257

Environmental Assessment: Reducing Pigeon, Starling, and Sparrow Damage through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across the United States, wildlife habitat has been substantially changed as human populations expand and land is used for human needs. These human uses and needs often compete with wildlife thereby increasing the potential for conflicting human/wildlife ...

2004-01-01

258

Restriction of sponges to an atoll lagoon as a result of reduced environmental quality.  

PubMed

The lagoon at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific was subject to major military modifications during WWII and now the dominant fauna on the lagoon's hard substrate are sponges, not corals. In this study, we quantified the physical and biological factors explaining the variation in sponge distribution patterns across 11 sites to determine the potential for the sponges in the lagoon at Palmyra to invade the surrounding reef systems. Significant differences in sponge assemblages were found among all but three sites. For all the models we examined the strongest environmental relationships were found for variables related to sedimentation/turbidity and food/habitat availability. Our findings suggest that the sponges in Palmyra's lagoon are likely to be restricted to this habitat type where they are associated with conditions resulting from the earlier heavy disturbance and are unlikely to spread to the outer reef environments unless there is a dramatic decline in environmental quality. PMID:23186728

Knapp, Ingrid S S; Williams, Gareth J; Carballo, José Luis; Cruz-Barraza, José Antonio; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Bell, James J

2012-11-24

259

Solar Powered air conditioning as a solution to reduce environmental pollution in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tunisia, during the summer, the demand for electricity greatly increases because of the extensive use of air-conditioning systems. This is a source of major problems in the country’s electricity supply and contributes to an increase of CO2 emissions causing the environmental pollution and global warming. On the other hand, vapor compression air conditioning systems have impacts on stratospheric ozone

Moncef Balghouthi; Mohamed Hachemi Chahbani; Amenallah Guizani

2005-01-01

260

Reduced Antimicrobial Potencies of Oxytetracycline, Tylosin, Sulfadiazin, Streptomycin, Ciprofloxacin, and Olaquindox Due to Environmental Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox\\u000a (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds\\u000a were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST, and CF) and anaerobic experiments (OTC, TYL, and O) using analytical measurements\\u000a (UV spectrophotometry or HPLC) combined with a

B. Halling-Sørensen; G. Sengeløv; F. Ingerslev; L. B. Jensen

2003-01-01

261

Reduced environmental impact by lowered cruise altitude for liquid hydrogen-fuelled aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns, as well as the expected depletion of fossil fuel resources, have become the driving forces for research and development towards the introduction of hydrogen energy into air traffic. The present paper is a summary of a study that was carried out within the European sponsored project CRYOPLANE, co-ordinated by Airbus Germany.The objectives of this study are to re-optimise

Fredrik Svensson; Anders Hasselrot; Jana Moldanova

2004-01-01

262

Indomethacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules reduce the damage triggered by A?1-42 in Alzheimer's disease models.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation, characterized by the accumulation of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes, is believed to modulate the development and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies suggesting that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk of developing AD have encouraged further studies elucidating the role of inflammation in AD. Nanoparticles have become an important focus of neurotherapeutic research because they are an especially effective form of drug delivery. Here, we investigate the potential protective effect of indomethacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (IndOH-LNCs) against cell damage and neuroinflammation induced by amyloid beta (A?)1-42 in AD models. Our results show that IndOH-LNCs attenuated A?-induced cell death and were able to block the neuroinflammation triggered by A?1-42 in organotypic hippocampal cultures. Additionally, IndOH-LNC treatment was able to increase interleukin-10 release and decrease glial activation and c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation. As a model of A?-induced neurotoxicity in vivo, animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of A?1-42 (1 nmol/site), and 1 day after A?1-42 infusion, they were administered either free IndOH or IndOH-LNCs (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 14 days. Only the treatment with IndOH-LNCs significantly attenuated the impairment of this behavior triggered by intracerebroventricular injection of A?1-42. Further, treatment with IndOH-LNCs was able to block the decreased synaptophysin levels induced by A?1-42 and suppress glial and microglial activation. These findings might be explained by the increase of IndOH concentration in brain tissue attained using drug-loaded lipid-core NCs. All these findings support the idea that blockage of neuroinflammation triggered by A? is involved in the neuroprotective effects of IndOH-LNCs. These data provide strong evidence that IndOH-LNC treatment may represent a promising approach for treating AD. PMID:23028221

Bernardi, Andressa; Frozza, Rudimar L; Meneghetti, André; Hoppe, Juliana B; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Sílvia S; Salbego, Christianne G

2012-09-13

263

Indomethacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules reduce the damage triggered by A?1-42 in Alzheimer's disease models  

PubMed Central

Neuroinflammation, characterized by the accumulation of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes, is believed to modulate the development and/or progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Epidemiological studies suggesting that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk of developing AD have encouraged further studies elucidating the role of inflammation in AD. Nanoparticles have become an important focus of neurotherapeutic research because they are an especially effective form of drug delivery. Here, we investigate the potential protective effect of indomethacin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (IndOH-LNCs) against cell damage and neuroinflammation induced by amyloid beta (A?)1-42 in AD models. Our results show that IndOH-LNCs attenuated A?-induced cell death and were able to block the neuroinflammation triggered by A?1-42 in organotypic hippocampal cultures. Additionally, IndOH-LNC treatment was able to increase interleukin-10 release and decrease glial activation and c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation. As a model of A?-induced neurotoxicity in vivo, animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of A?1-42 (1 nmol/site), and 1 day after A?1-42 infusion, they were administered either free IndOH or IndOH-LNCs (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 14 days. Only the treatment with IndOH-LNCs significantly attenuated the impairment of this behavior triggered by intracerebroventricular injection of A?1-42. Further, treatment with IndOH-LNCs was able to block the decreased synaptophysin levels induced by A?1-42 and suppress glial and microglial activation. These findings might be explained by the increase of IndOH concentration in brain tissue attained using drug-loaded lipid-core NCs. All these findings support the idea that blockage of neuroinflammation triggered by A? is involved in the neuroprotective effects of IndOH-LNCs. These data provide strong evidence that IndOH-LNC treatment may represent a promising approach for treating AD.

Bernardi, Andressa; Frozza, Rudimar L; Meneghetti, Andre; Hoppe, Juliana B; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S; Salbego, Christianne G

2012-01-01

264

Environmental control in tea fields to reduce infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae.  

PubMed

Bacterial shoot blight (BSB) disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae, is a major bacterial disease of tea plants in Japan. BSB mainly occurs in the low-temperature season, and lesion formation by P. syringae pv. theae is enhanced by both low temperature and the presence of ice nucleation-active Xanthomonas campestris (INAX), which catalyzes ice formation at -2 to -4 degrees C and is frequently co-isolated with P. syringae pv. theae from tea plants. Low temperature is thus the most important environmental factor influencing the incidence of BSB; however, the effects of low temperature on infection of the host by P. syringae pv. theae and of environmental controls in fields on the occurrence of the disease are poorly understood. In this study, we show that ice formation on tea leaves by INAX enhanced P. syringae pv. theae invasion into leaf tissue. The natural incidence of BSB in the field was closely related to early autumn frost. Frost protection in late autumn, which prevented ice formation on tea plants, significantly decreased the incidence of BSB, and frost protection combined with bactericide application held the incidence under the economic threshold level. Our data indicate that environmental control in the field based on microbial interactions in the host offers a new strategy for plant disease control. PMID:19159313

Tomihama, T; Nonaka, T; Nishi, Y; Arai, K

2009-02-01

265

An effective, economical method of reducing environmental noise in the vivarium.  

PubMed

High levels of ambient noise can have detrimental effects on laboratory animal wellbeing and may affect experimental results. In addition, excessive noise can reduce technician comfort and performance. This study was performed to determine whether inexpensive, passive acoustic noise abatement measures could meaningfully reduce noise levels. Sound level measurements for various activities were obtained in the incoming processing room for pigs before and after installing gypsum acoustic paneling, covering metal-to-metal contact points with strips of adhesive-backed rubber, and replacing hard plastic wheels on transport carts with neoprene wheels. The modifications reduced the overall average noise level by 8.1 dB. Average noise levels for each activity were all less than 85 dB after the modifications. Average noise levels can be reduced effectively and economically with passive abatement methods. Intermittent spikes in noise are more difficult to control and may require attention to the individual activity. PMID:21838981

Young, Maggie T; French, Alan L; Clymer, Jeffrey W

2011-07-01

266

Treatment with Tyrosine, a Neurotransmitter Precursor, Reduces Environmental Stress in Humans,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acutely stressful situations can disrupt behavior and deplete brain norepinephrine and dopamine, catecholaminergic neurotransmitters. In animals, administration of tyrosine, a food constituent and precursor of the catecholamines, reduces these behavioral ...

H. R. Lieberman L. E. Banderet

1988-01-01

267

Angiotensin-(1-7) reduces proteinuria and diminishes structural damage in renal tissue of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Angiotensin (ANG)-(1-7) constitutes an important functional end-product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that acts to balance the physiological actions of ANG II. In the kidney, ANG-(1-7) exerts beneficial effects by inhibiting growth-promoting pathways and reducing proteinuria. We examined whether a 2-wk treatment with a daily dose of ANG-(1-7) (0.6 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) exerts renoprotective effects in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Body weight, glycemia, triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, as well as plasma levels of Na+ and K+ were determined both at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Also, the weekly evolution of arterial blood pressure, proteinuria, and creatinine clearance was evaluated. Renal fibrosis was determined by Masson's trichrome staining. Interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The levels of glomerular nephrin were assessed by immunofluorescence. Chronic administration of ANG-(1-7) normalized arterial pressure, reduced glycemia and triglyceridemia, improved proteinuria, and ameliorated structural alterations in the kidney of SHRSP as shown by a restoration of glomerular nephrin levels as detected by immunofluorescence. These results were accompanied with a decrease in both the immunostaining and abundance of IL-6, TNF-?, and NF-?B. In this context, the current study provides strong evidence for a protective role of ANG-(1-7) in the kidney. PMID:20962118

Giani, Jorge F; Muñoz, Marina C; Pons, Romina A; Cao, Gabriel; Toblli, Jorge E; Turyn, Daniel; Dominici, Fernando P

2010-10-20

268

Olive oil reduces oxidative damage in a 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like rat model.  

PubMed

Free radicals contribute to altered neuronal functions in neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging, by producing lipid- and other molecule-dependent modifications. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of neurodegenerative disease. This study sought to verify whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) exerted a brain antioxidant effect, protecting the brain against the oxidative stress caused by 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP). 3NP was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight over four consecutive days. EVOO (representing 10% of calorie intake in the total standard daily diet of rats) and hydroxytyrosol (HT; 2.5 mg/kg body weight) were administered for 14 days. In all studied samples, 3NP caused a rise in lipid peroxides (LPO) and a reduction in glutathione (GSH) content. While the results showed that EVOO and HT reduces lipid peroxidation product levels and blocks the GSH depletion prompted by 3NP in both striatum and rest of the brain in Wistar rats. In addition, EVOO blocks and reverses the effect of 3NP on succinate dehydrogenase activity. In brief, the data obtained indicate that EVOO and HT act as a powerful brain antioxidant. PMID:21756531

Tasset, I; Pontes, A J; Hinojosa, A J; de la Torre, R; Túnez, I

2011-05-01

269

Intra-articular injection of xanthan gum reduces pain and cartilage damage in a rat osteoarthritis model.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the alleviative effect of intra-articular (IA) injection of xanthan gum (XG) on pain and cartilage degradation in a model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced knee osteoarthritis (OA). The rheological study and hyaluronidase (HAse) degradation analysis of XG injection were presented. The effect of pain relief was determined by measurements of paw withdrawal threshold and weight bearing by hind limbs. The protective effect on the cartilage was evaluated by gross morphological observation and histological evaluation of knee joints. The effect was investigated in two protocols: a therapeutic treatment protocol, and a prophylactic treatment protocol. Our results showed that HAse had no effect on the rheological properties of XG injection. Local XG administration in both protocols could reduce OA pain and alleviate the joint cartilage degradation induced by MIA. IA injection of XG might be an effective method for OA treatment in human. PMID:23399228

Shao, Huarong; Han, Guanying; Ling, Peixue; Zhu, Xiqiang; Wang, Fengshan; Zhao, Lijuan; Liu, Fei; Liu, Xia; Wang, Guilan; Ying, Yong; Zhang, Tianmin

2012-11-26

270

A Selective Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitor Reduces Leukocyte Infiltration, Oxidative Processes, and Tissue Damage after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract We tested the hypothesis that a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor (PDE4-I; IC486051) would attenuate early inflammatory and oxidative processes following spinal cord injury (SCI) when delivered during the first 3 days after injury. Rats receiving a moderately severe thoracic-clip-compression SCI were treated with the PDE4-I (0.5, 1.0, and 3.0?mg/kg IV) in bolus doses from 2–60?h post-injury. Doses at 0.5?mg/kg and 1.0?mg/kg significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzymatic activity (neutrophils), expression of a neutrophil-associated protein and of ED-1 (macrophages), and estimates of lipid peroxidation in cord lesion homogenates at 24?h and 72?h post-injury by 25–40%. The 3.0?mg/kg dose had small or no effects on these measures. The PDE4-I treatment (0.5 or 1.0?mg/kg) reduced expression of the oxidative enzymes gp91phox, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and diminished free radical generation by up to 40%. Treatment with 0.5?mg/kg PDE4-I improved motor function (as assessed by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale) significantly from 4–8 weeks after SCI (average difference 1.3 points). Mechanical allodynia elicited from the hindpaw decreased by up to 25%. The PDE4-I treatment also increased white matter volume near the lesion at 8 weeks after SCI. In conclusion, the PDE4-I reduced key markers of oxidative stress and leukocyte infiltration, producing cellular protection, locomotor improvements, and a reduction in neuropathic pain. Early inhibition of PDE4 is neuroprotective after SCI when given acutely and briefly at sufficient doses.

Fleming, Jennifer C.; Golshani, Roozbeh; Pearse, Damien D.; Kasabov, Levent; Brown, Arthur; Weaver, Lynne C.

2011-01-01

271

The Master of Science in Environmental Architecture-An Appropriate Response to Reducing Greenhouse Gasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past decade, politicians have applied different shades of ``green-wash'' to global environmental issues in order to help juggle their positions in the political spectrum. This has created the illusion that effective measures are being pursued in the public interest for both this and future generation(s). The reality is, however, that nearly of all these initiatives are ``input focused'' and the various States of the Environment reports confirm that, despite decades of endeavour and large financial investment, there is little return on investment and that the rate of environmental degradation, particularly of the global atmosphere, continues to increase. Despite fierce posturing from the global warming sceptics, it seems that finally, the long-term data indices of global warming are being accepted seriously and politicians around the world are responding by investing public funds in the quest for options. This paper contends that with global warming the major trends will be inexorable but the manifestations complex so humans will need to embrace uncertainty and manage change. Innovation and cooperation across all disciplines and the cooperation of the entire political and social spectrum will be required to solve the ecological disasters that have already begun to unfold and accelerate in frequency. It looks from a strategic viewpoint at how specialist education can catalyse change and play an important role in managing the change. The case study used in this analysis is the RISE Master of Science Course in Environmental Architecture. It explores the implications of linking to converging interests from other emerging course streams for Engineering and other Built Environment disciplines such as Planning, Project Management and Interior design as well as socio-economic disciplines and the integrative discipline of Systems Dynamics.

Baverstock, Garry; Parker, Ian

2007-10-01

272

Integrated soil-crop system management: reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China.  

PubMed

During the past 47 yr (1961-2007), Chinese cereal production has increased by 3.2-fold, successfully feeding 22% of the global human population with only 9% of the world's arable land, but at high environmental cost and resource consumption. Worse, crop production has been stagnant since 1996 while the population and demand for food continue to rise. New advances for sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be needed during the coming 50 yr to reduce environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency. Here, we advocate and develop integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM). In this approach, the key points are (i) to take all possible soil quality improvement measures into consideration, (ii) to integrate the utilization of various nutrient resources and match nutrient supply to crop requirements, and (iii) to integrate soil and nutrient management with high-yielding cultivation systems. Recent field experiments have shed light on how ISSM can lead to significant increases in crop yields while increasing nutrient use efficiency and reducing environmental risk. PMID:21712573

Zhang, Fusuo; Cui, Zhenling; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Chen, Xinping; Jiang, Rongfeng

273

Role of controlled cardiac reoxygenation in reducing nitric oxide production and cardiac oxidant damage in cyanotic infantile hearts.  

PubMed Central

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used increasingly to correct cyanotic heart defects during early infancy, but myocardial dysfunction is often seen after surgical repair. This study evaluates whether starting CPB at a conventional, hyperoxic pO2 causes an "unintentional" reoxygenation (ReO2) injury. We subjected 2-wk-old piglets to ventilator hypoxemia (FIO2 approximately 0.06, pO2 approximately 25 mmHg) followed by 5 min of ReO2 on CPB before instituting cardioplegia. CPB was begun in hypoxemic piglets by either abrupt ReO2 at a pO2 of 400 mmHg (standard clinical practice) or by maintaining pO2 approximately 25 mmHg on CPB until controlling ReO2 with blood cardioplegic arrest. The effects of abrupt vs. gradual ReO2 without surgical ischemia (blood cardioplegia) were also compared. Myocardial nitric oxide (NO) production (chemiluminescence measurements of NO2- + NO3-) and conjugated diene (CD) generation (spectrophotometric A233 measurements of lipid extracts) using aortic and coronary sinus blood samples were assessed during cardioplegic induction. 30 min after CPB, left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees, catheter conductance method) was used to determine cardiac function. CPB and blood cardioplegic arrest caused no functional or biochemical change in normoxic (control) hearts. Abrupt ReO2 caused a depression of myocardial function (Ees = 25 +/- 5% of control). Functional depression was relatively unaffected by gradual ReO2 without blood cardioplegia (34% recovery of Ees), and abrupt ReO2 immediately before blood cardioplegia caused a 10-fold rise in cardiac NO and CD production, with subsequent depression of myocardial function (Ees 21 +/- 2% of control). In contrast, controlled cardiac ReO2 reduced NO production 94%, CD did not rise, and Ees was 83 +/- 8% of normal. We conclude ReO2 injury is related to increased NO production during abrupt ReO2, nullifies the cardioprotective effects of blood cardioplegia, and that controlled cardiac ReO2 when starting CPB to correct cyanotic heart defects may reduce NO production and improve myocardial status postoperatively. Images

Morita, K; Ihnken, K; Buckberg, G D; Sherman, M P; Young, H H; Ignarro, L J

1994-01-01

274

Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective  

PubMed Central

Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change.

Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

2011-01-01

275

[The surveillance of the aeraulic and hydraulic system reduce environmental Aspergillus contamination in hospital].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to value the evolution of environmental Aspergillus contamination in hospital with respect to aeraulic system and bathrooms works. An analysis on levels of air and surface Aspergillus contamination were determined in patient's rooms and various common sites in a ward of an hospital in Genoa in 1999. As high contamination levels were found, in summer 1999 a radical disinfection and revision of the aeraulic system was settled. In spite of these interventions some samples maintained an high contamination level, even if from only two rooms, so a further disinfection of bathrooms and surfaces became necessary. A period of sampling was conducted after this last intervention until November 2002. At the beginning of our surveillance 59% positive samples and about 50% of them with high contamination level (>1000 CFU/m3) were found. After the revision of the aeraulic system the reduction of positive samples was significative (14.2%), besides all the positive samples regarded only two rooms. In the last valuation period, after a further disinfection of bathrooms and surfaces of the above mentioned rooms, all the samples taken resulted with a contamination level lower than 10 CFU/m3. This findings underlines the importance of environmental surveillance looking for all the contaminated sources; in particular the aeraulic and hydraulic system as well as the proximity hospital building yard not sufficiently protected. PMID:15049548

Crimi, P; Panesi, S; Saettone, F; Macrina, G; Bertoluzzo, L; Antola, M; Pizzetto, R R

276

Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells instruct phagocytes and reduce secondary tissue damage in the injured spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells possess peculiar therapeutic plasticity and can simultaneously instruct several therapeutic mechanisms in addition to cell replacement. Here, we interrogated the therapeutic plasticity of neural stem/precursor cells after their focal implantation in the severely contused spinal cord. We injected syngeneic neural stem/precursor cells at the proximal and distal ends of the contused mouse spinal cord and analysed locomotor functions and relevant secondary pathological events in the mice, cell fate of transplanted neural stem/precursor cells, and gene expression and inflammatory cell infiltration at the injured site. We used two different doses of neural stem/precursor cells and two treatment schedules, either subacute (7 days) or early chronic (21 days) neural stem/precursor cell transplantation after the induction of experimental thoracic severe spinal cord injury. Only the subacute transplant of neural stem/precursor cells enhanced the recovery of locomotor functions of mice with spinal cord injury. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells survived undifferentiated at the level of the peri-lesion environment and established contacts with endogenous phagocytes via cellular–junctional coupling. This was associated with significant modulation of the expression levels of important inflammatory cell transcripts in vivo. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells skewed the inflammatory cell infiltrate at the injured site by reducing the proportion of ‘classically-activated’ (M1-like) macrophages, while promoting the healing of the injured cord. We here identify a precise window of opportunity for the treatment of complex spinal cord injuries with therapeutically plastic somatic stem cells, and suggest that neural stem/precursor cells have the ability to re-programme the local inflammatory cell microenvironment from a ‘hostile’ to an ‘instructive’ role, thus facilitating the healing or regeneration past the lesion.

Cusimano, Melania; Biziato, Daniela; Brambilla, Elena; Donega, Matteo; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Snider, Silvia; Salani, Giuliana; Pucci, Ferdinando; Comi, Giancarlo; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Palma, Michele De; Martino, Gianvito; Pluchino, Stefano

2013-01-01

277

Sildenafil reduces L-NAME-induced severe hypertension and worsening of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion damage in the rat  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are beneficial in pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure, the two conditions associated with coronary heart disease and ischaemia. We investigated whether sildenafil counteracts the cardiovascular alterations induced by N ?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the rat. Experimental approach: Sildenafil was given orally to rats at doses of 0.37, 0.75 or 1.5?mg kg?1day?1 for four weeks, either alone or with L-NAME (35-40?mg kg?1 day?1 in the drinking water). Systolic blood pressure and urinary parameters (6-keto-prostaglandin F1?, thromboxane B2, 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2? and nitrite/nitrate) were measured in conscious rats. Isolated hearts were subjected to low flow ischaemia–reperfusion, and myocardial levels of guanosine 3', 5'cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) were determined. Endothelial vascular dysfunction was examined in aortic rings. Key results: Sildenafil dose-dependently prevented the rise in systolic blood pressure in L-NAME-treated rats. This activity was associated with a normalization of urinary 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2? and other biochemical parameters. In perfused hearts, the post-ischaemic ventricular dysfunction was worse in preparations from L-NAME-treated rats than in controls. Sildenafil dose-dependently reduced this effect, and creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase release were lower too. cGMP levels, which were low in myocardial tissue from L-NAME-treated rats, were restored by sildenafil. In noradrenaline-precontracted aortic rings from L-NAME-treated rats acetylcholine lost its vasorelaxant effect, and sildenafil restored it. Conclusion and implications: In a rat model of chronic nitric oxide deprivation, where hypertension and aggravation of post-ischaemic ventricular dysfunction are associated with loss of vascular endothelium-relaxant function, sildenafil provided significant cardiovascular protection, primarily by maintaining tissue cGMP levels.

Rossoni, G; Manfredi, B; De Gennaro Colonna, V; Berti, M; Guazzi, M; Berti, F

2007-01-01

278

Environmental integration of measures to reduce railway noise in the Brussels Capital Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brussels Capital Region is a densely populated area with a surface area of 63 square miles and a total of 40 miles of railway lines. Earlier studies have already registered a large number of problems regarding railway noise. Moreover, the transport policy of the federal government aims to increase train travel and plans an expansion of the railway network. In order to be able to control railway noise, the Brussels authority needs an instrument that provides technical and practical information concerning: minimizing the noise produced by railways (both existing and new); the environmental integration of noise abatement measures. This paper discusses the objectives of the study, the methodology that was applied, and the main conclusions reached.

van Doninck, N.; Schillemans, L.

2003-10-01

279

Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

2003-04-01

280

The Xerophyta viscosa aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) confers enhanced drought and salinity tolerance to transgenic tobacco plants by scavenging methylglyoxal and reducing the membrane damage.  

PubMed

We report the efficacy of an aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) enzyme from Xerophyta viscosa Baker in enhancing the prospects of plant's survival under abiotic stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing ALDRXV4 cDNA showed alleviation of NaCl and mannitol-induced abiotic stress. The transgenic plants survived longer periods of water deficiency and salinity stress and exhibited improved recovery after rehydration as compared to the wild type plants. The increased synthesis of aldose reductase in transgenic plants correlated with reduced methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde accumulation and an elevated level of sorbitol under stress conditions. In addition, the transgenic lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency, less electrolyte damage, greater water retention, higher proline accumulation, and favorable ionic balance under stress conditions. Together, these findings suggest the potential of engineering aldose reductase levels for better performance of crop plants growing under drought and salt stress conditions. PMID:22678928

Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Preeti; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Hohn, Thomas; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

2013-06-01

281

Striatal damage and oxidative stress induced by the mitochondrial toxin malonate are reduced in clorgyline-treated rats and MAO-A deficient mice.  

PubMed

Intrastriatal administration of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibitor malonate produces neuronal injury by a "secondary excitotoxic" mechanism involving the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent evidence indicates dopamine may contribute to malonate-induced striatal neurodegeneration; infusion of malonate causes a pronounced increase in extracellular dopamine and dopamine deafferentation attenuates malonate toxicity. Inhibition of the catabolic enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) also attenuates striatal lesions induced by malonate. In addition to forming 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, metabolism of dopamine by MAO generates H2O2, suggesting that dopamine metabolism may be a source of ROS in malonate toxicity. There are two isoforms of MAO, MAO-A and MAO-B. In this study, we have investigated the role of each isozyme in malonate-induced striatal injury using both pharmacological and genetic approaches. In rats treated with either of the specific MAO-A or -B inhibitors, clorgyline or deprenyl, respectively, malonate lesion volumes were reduced by 30% compared to controls. In knock-out mice lacking the MAO-A isoform, malonate-induced lesions were reduced by 50% and protein carbonyls, an index ROS formation, were reduced by 11%, compared to wild-type animals. In contrast, mice deficient in MAO-B showed highly variable susceptibility to malonate toxicity precluding us from determining the precise role of MAO-B in this form of brain damage. These findings indicate that normal levels of MAO-A participate in expression of malonate toxicity by a mechanism involving oxidative stress. PMID:15098936

Maragos, William F; Young, Kristie L; Altman, Chris S; Pocernich, Chava B; Drake, Jennifer; Butterfield, D Allan; Seif, Isabelle; Holschneider, Daniel P; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C

2004-04-01

282

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids normalize BDNF levels, reduce oxidative damage, and counteract learning disability after traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic acid; DHA) regulate signal transduction and gene expression, and protect neurons from death. In this study we examined the capacity of dietary omega3 fatty acids supplementation to help the brain to cope with the effects of traumatic injury. Rats were fed a regular diet or an experimental diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids, for 4 weeks before a mild fluid percussion injury (FPI) was performed. FPI increased oxidative stress, and impaired learning ability in the Morris water maze. This type of lesion also reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin I, and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB). It is known that BDNF facilitates synaptic transmission and learning ability by modulating synapsin I and CREB. Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet counteracted all of the studied effects of FPI, that is, normalized levels of BDNF and associated synapsin I and CREB, reduced oxidative damage, and counteracted learning disability. The reduction of oxidative stress indicates a benevolent effect of this diet on mechanisms that maintain neuronal function and plasticity. These results imply that omega-3 enriched dietary supplements can provide protection against reduced plasticity and impaired learning ability after traumatic brain injury. PMID:15672635

Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

2004-10-01

283

Monsanto: Taking the next environmental step; New technologies are key in reducing emissions  

SciTech Connect

In meeting a 1988 pledge to reduce its worldwide air emissions 90% by the end of 1992, Monsanto completed one of the industry`s most ambitious-and costly-voluntary pollution reduction programs. After $130 million in expenditures and the completion of 250 emission reduction projects, the company had cut its worldwide air emissions 92%, to 5 million lbs, and its U.S. emissions 85%, to 2.7 million lbs. Now Monsanto is looking to take the next step by slashing emission levels of all pollutants. Monsanto has scheduled another round of deadlines that go far beyound regulatory compliance. The company plans on making further reductions, including eliminating the release of waste to underground injection wells, which will likely involve fundamental changes in technology. The company`s goal is to reduce its worldwide toxic chemical releases and transfers to less that 100 million lbs/year by 1995, down 240 million lbs for 1990`s 337 million lbs. Many of Monsanto`s efforts since it made its 1988 pledge have focused on reducing air emissions, because those emissions were the highest. While Monsanto reports about half of its air reductions come from shutdowns of inefficient processes, the 1995 reduction efforts will require increased capital investment for new processes.

Lucas, A.

1994-08-03

284

Hyperresistance to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide cytotoxicity and reduced DNA damage formation in dermal fibroblast strains derived from five members of a cancer-prone family.  

PubMed Central

Dermal fibroblasts cultured from members of a family presenting multiple polyps and sarcomas were compared with fibroblast strains from unrelated healthy donors for sensitivity to killing by four genotoxic agents. Cells from the sister of the male proband (strain 3437T), mother (strain 3703T), two of his paternal aunts (3701T and 3704T) and one paternal uncle (3702T) displayed marked resistance (1.8 to 4.3 times greater than the normal mean) to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), a procarcinogen whose DNA-damaging properties encompass those of both far (254 nm) ultraviolet (UV) light and ionising radiation. These same 4NQO-resistant cells, however, responded normally to reproductive inactivation by UV light, 60Co gamma radiation or the alkylating agent methylnitrosourea, signifying that the abnormal resistance of these cells to 4NQO is not associated with aberrant DNA metabolism. In keeping with this conclusion, exposure to a given dose of 4NQO produced decreased amounts of DNA damage and stimulated lower levels of repair DNA synthesis in all five 4NQO-resistant strains than in normal controls. Moreover, exogenous radiolabelled 4NQO accumulated to a lesser extent in the 4NQO-resistant than in the normal fibroblasts. Cell sonicates of strains 3437T, 3701T and 3702T exhibited reduced capacities (40-60% of normal) to catalise the conversion of 4NQO to the proximate carcinogen 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide. However, the 4NQO-resistant strains 3703T and 3704T carried out 4NQO bioreduction at normal rates. Our data therefore indicate that enhanced resistance to 4NQO cytotoxicity in 3437T, 3701T and 3702T is a consequence of anomalies in both intracellular accumulation and enzymatic reduction of 4NQO, whereas 4NQO resistance in 3703T and 3704T appears to result solely from reduced intracellular drug accumulation.

Mirzayans, R.; Sabour, M.; Rauth, A. M.; Paterson, M. C.

1993-01-01

285

Phototoxicity and Environmental Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)—Light-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation, and DNA Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of mutagenic and tumorigenic environmental contaminants. Although the mechanisms by which PAHs induce cancer in experimental animals have been extensively studied and the metabolic activation pathways have been determined, the environmental fate of PAHs and the phototoxicity exerted by PAHs, as well as their photoreaction products formed in the environment, have received much

Peter P. Fu; Qingsu Xia; Xin Sun; Hongtao Yu

2012-01-01

286

Livestock waste treatment systems for reducing environmental exposure to hazardous enteric pathogens: some considerations.  

PubMed

Intensive livestock production systems produce significant quantities of excreted material that must be managed to protect water, air, and crop quality. Many jurisdictions mandate how livestock wastes are managed to protect adjacent water quality from microbial and chemical contaminants that pose an environmental and human health challenge. Here, we consider innovative livestock waste treatment systems in the context of multi-barrier strategies for protecting water quality from agricultural contamination. Specifically, we consider some aspects of how enteric bacterial populations can evolve during manure storage, how their fate following land application of manure can vary according to manure composition, and finally the challenge of distinguishing enteric pathogens of agricultural provenance from those of other sources of fecal pollution at a policy-relevant watershed scale. The beneficial impacts of livestock waste treatment on risk to humans via exposure to manured land are illustrated using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) scenarios. Overall, innovative livestock treatment systems offer a crucially important strategy for making livestock wastes more benign before they are released into the broader environment. PMID:19071014

Topp, E; Scott, A; Lapen, D R; Lyautey, E; Duriez, P

2008-12-13

287

Host and environmental factors reducing mortality during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

Mortality from influenza and pneumonia during the 1918-1919 pandemic was compared between subgroups of civilian and military populations from states in Australia and the USA. Exposures to crowded environments before and during the pandemic were used as proxies for exposure to respiratory infections. In three separate datasets, civilian mortality from influenza and pneumonia was higher in urban than rural populations. In contrast soldiers from these same urban backgrounds had significantly lower mortality than their rural counterparts. This suggests the lower mortality in rural civilians was due to the rural environment, probably due to the relative social isolation in rural areas. This is encouraging for pandemic planning, as it suggests social distancing interventions have the potential to reduce mortality in future pandemics. Soldiers recruited before 1918 had significantly lower mortality than those recruited in 1918, and this effect was separate from the protection given by urban origin to soldiers. Both these effects substantially reduced mortality in soldiers. Further research to identify the mechanisms of these separate protective effects may yield important evidence to inform pandemic planning strategies. PMID:21418715

Paynter, S; Ware, R S; Shanks, G D

2011-03-22

288

The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. Methods: Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) law. Results: In the short term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. Conclusion: These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MLDA laws simply leads to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse. PMID:23930747

Marchell, Timothy C; Lewis, Deborah D; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L; Murphy, Susan H; Reyna, Valerie F; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

2013-01-01

289

Genus- and group-specific hybridization probes for determinative and environmental studies of sulfate-reducing bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A set of six oligonucleotides, complementary to conserved tracts of 16S rRNA from phylogenetically-defined groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was characterized for use as hybridization probes in determinative and environmental microbiology. Four probes were genus specific and identified Desulfobacterium spp., Desulfobacter spp., Desulfobulbus spp., or Desulfovibrio spp. The other two probes encompassed more diverse assemblages. One probe was specific for the phylogenetic lineage composed of Desulfococcus multivorans, Desulfosarcina variabilis, and Desulfobotulus sapovorans. The remaining probe was specific for Desulfobacterium spp., Desulfobacter spp., D. multivorans, D. variabilis, and D. sapovorans. Temperature of dissociation was determined for each probe and the designed specificities of each were evaluated by hybridizations against closely related nontargeted species. In addition, each probe was screened by using a 'phylogrid' membrane which consisted of nucleic acids from sixtyfour non-targeted organisms representing a diverse collection of eukarya, archaea, and bacteria. The value of these probes to studies in environmental microbiology was evaluated by hybridizations to 16S rRNAs of sulfate-reducing bacteria present in marine sediments.

Devereux, R.; Kane, M.D.; Winfrey, J.; Stahl, D.A.

1992-01-01

290

Multi-scale path planning for reduced environmental impact of aviation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A future air traffic management system capable of rerouting aircraft trajectories in real-time in response to transient and evolving events would result in increased aircraft efficiency, better utilization of the airspace, and decreased environmental impact. Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is used within a receding horizon framework to form aircraft trajectories which mitigate persistent contrail formation, avoid areas of convective weather, and seek a minimum fuel solution. Areas conducive to persistent contrail formation and areas of convective weather occur at disparate temporal and spatial scales, and thereby require the receding horizon controller to be adaptable to multi-scale events. In response, a novel adaptable receding horizon controller was developed to account for multi-scale disturbances, as well as generate trajectories using both a penalty function approach for obstacle penetration and hard obstacle avoidance constraints. A realistic aircraft fuel burn model based on aircraft data and engine performance simulations is used to form the cost function in the MILP optimization. The performance of the receding horizon algorithm is tested through simulation. A scalability analysis of the algorithm is conducted to ensure the tractability of the path planner. The adaptable receding horizon algorithm is shown to successfully negotiate multi-scale environments with performance exceeding static receding horizon solutions. The path planner is applied to realistic scenarios involving real atmospheric data. A single flight example for persistent contrail mitigation shows that fuel burn increases 1.48% when approximately 50% of persistent contrails are avoided, but 6.19% when 100% of persistent contrails are avoided. Persistent contrail mitigating trajectories are generated for multiple days of data, and the research shows that 58% of persistent contrails are avoided with a 0.48% increase in fuel consumption when averaged over a year.

Campbell, Scot Edward

291

Updated estimates of earnings benefits from reduced exposure of children to environmental lead  

SciTech Connect

The recent and important study by Schwartz found that almost three-fourths of the benefits of reduced lead exposure in children are in the form of earnings gains (earnings losses avoided). New data on recent trends in returns to education and cognitive skills in the labor market suggest a need to revise this estimate upward. Based on an analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the present study estimates that an upward revision of at least 50% (or $2.5 billion per annual birth cohort) is indicated. The study also finds evidence that percentage earnings gains are considerably larger for females than for males. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Salkever, D.S. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

1995-07-01

292

Environmentally enriched rearing environments reduce repetitive perseveration in caged mink, but increase spontaneous alternation.  

PubMed

Studies spanning 15 species (including American mink, Neovison vison) demonstrate that within similarly-housed populations, individuals displaying high levels of stereotypic behaviour (SB) typically show perseverative responding (e.g. during set-shifting, or reversal/extinction learning). Similar correlations in autism and schizophrenia suggest this indicates captivity-induced cortico-striatal circuit dysfunction. However, this pattern does not prove developmental impairment: SB, perseveration and their inter-correlations also occur in normal humans. We therefore differentially-reared enriched versus non-enriched mink to investigate whether treatments that exacerbate SB correspondingly increase perseveration (Study 1). Enriched-rearing did reduce SB and perseverative response repetition (in two-choice guessing tasks), while increasing spontaneous alternation: a strategy yielding more rewards, and suggesting enhanced hippocampal development. This complements previous research demonstrating cortical/hippocampal impairments and reduced behavioural flexibility in non-enriched animals, with implications for research animals and wild animals captive-raised for reintroduction into nature. Consistent with previous data, highly stereotypic subjects repeated guessing task responses most rapidly, suggesting disinhibition during repetition. However, unexpectedly, SB and perseveration did not co-vary across individuals. We therefore suggest that behavioural changes manifest as increased perseveration are important but do not fully explain captive animals' SBs, possible reasons including the contributory role of differential motivations for underlying source behaviours. Re-analyses of old data (Study 2) confirmed that spontaneous alternation is profitable; and demonstrated that the precise methods used for quantifying perseveration and SB can modify the strength of apparent relationships between them, as can statistically controlling for feeding motivation: as predicted, partialling out motivational effects increased the variance in SB predicted by perseveration. PMID:23159704

Campbell, Dana L M; Dallaire, Jamie A; Mason, Georgia J

2012-11-14

293

Annexin A1 reduces inflammatory reaction and tissue damage through inhibition of phospholipase A2 activation in adult rats following spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Annexin A1 (ANXA1) has been suggested to be a mediator of the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids and more recently an endogenous neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of ANXA1 in a model of contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we report that injections of ANXA1 (Ac 2-26) into the acutely injured spinal cord at 2 concentrations (5 and 20 microg) inhibited SCI-induced increases in phospholipase A2 and myeloperoxidase activities. In addition, ANXA1 administration reduced the expression of interleukin-1beta and activated caspase-3 at 24 hours, and glial fibrillary acidic protein at 4 weeks postinjury. Furthermore, ANXA1 administration significantly reversed phospholipase A2-induced spinal cord neuronal death in vitro and reduced tissue damage and increased white matter sparing in vivo, compared to the vehicle-treated controls. Fluorogold retrograde tracing showed that ANXA1 administration protected axons of long descending pathways at 6 weeks post-SCI. ANXA1 administration also significantly increased the number of animals that responded to transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials. However, no measurable behavioral improvement was found after these treatments. These results, particularly the improvements obtained in tissue sparing and electrophysiologic measures, suggest a neuroprotective effect of ANXA1. PMID:17917587

Liu, Nai-Kui; Zhang, Yi Ping; Han, Shu; Pei, Jiong; Xu, Lisa Y; Lu, Pei-Hua; Shields, Christopher B; Xu, Xiao-Ming

2007-10-01

294

Xanthohumol, a main prenylated chalcone from hops, reduces liver damage and modulates oxidative reaction and apoptosis in hepatitis C virus infected Tupaia belangeri.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tupaia belangeri (Tupaia) represents an important model of HCV infection. Xanthohumol (XN), a major prenylated chalcone from hops, has various biological activities including hepatopreventive and anti-viral activities. In this study, Tupaias infected with HCV RNA positive serum were used to evaluate the effects of XN on liver damage, oxidative reaction, apoptosis and viral protein expression in liver tissues. The Tupaias inoculated with HCV positive serum had elevated serum aminotransferase levels and inflammation, especially hepatic steatosis, and HCV core protein expression in liver tissue. In the animals inoculated with HCV positive serum, XN significantly decreased aminotransferase levels, histological activity index, hepatic steatosis score and transforming growth factor ?1 expression in liver tissue compared with the animals without XN intervention. XN reduced HCV core protein expression in liver tissue compared with those without XN intervention but the difference was not significant. XN significantly decreased malondialdehyde, potentiated superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced Bax expression, promoted Bcl-xL and inhibited caspase 3 activity in liver tissues compared with the animals without XN intervention. These results indicate that XN may effectively improve hepatic inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis induced by HCV in Tupaias primarily through inhibition of oxidative reaction and regulation of apoptosis and possible suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation. The anti-HCV potential of XN needs further investigation. PMID:23669332

Yang, Mingbo; Li, Na; Li, Fang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Xi; Han, Qunying; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Cuiling; Liu, Zhengwen

2013-05-10

295

The Fate and Environmental Consequences of Reduced gas Mixtures Resulting from Magmatic Intrusion into Carbonaceous Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments on the impacts of Large Igneous Provinces on climate changes and extinction rates emphasize the fundamental role of country rocks in gas emissions. Contact metamorphism of country rocks intruded by sills and dikes of mafic melts can be particularly important due to their long exposure to high temperatures. When the host rocks are composed of carbonates, sulphates, salts, or organic-compounds such as bituminous shales or coals, their heating can inject into the atmosphere a quantity of volatiles that greatly exceeds the amount delivered by purely magmatic degassing. We focus here on the interaction between magma and carbonaceous rocks. Recent studies have estimated the gas released by contact metamorphism of bituminous shales in the Karoo Province; we calculate the composition of the volcanic gases which results on this interaction, taking into account the magmatic contribution too. We then present an evaluation of the fate of such gases during their diffusion in the atmosphere. The modelling of the composition of the modified volcanic gases is based on gas-melt thermodynamic calculations that take into account S-H-O-C gaseous species at temperatures and pressures in equilibrium with basaltic liquids. We simulate the incorporation into the gas-melt system of organic compounds as CH or CH2, depending on the maturity of the carbonaceous rocks (coal or oil). Addition of C and H has a dramatic effect on the amount and the redox state of the gas in equilibrium with the basalt. With the incorporation of only 0.2 wt% CH, the gas composition changes from CO2-H2O dominated (typical of basaltic gases on Earth), to CO-H2 dominated (a strongly reduced mixture, which resembles Martian volcanic gases). Addition of more than 0.2 wt% CH can trigger graphite saturation, such as reported in few locations where carbonaceous rocks have been ingested by basalts. In the famous Disko Island location, for example, we calculate that an incorporation of 1 wt% CH led to saturation in metal iron. These "modified" volcanic gases are injected into the atmosphere at a rate directly proportional to the eruption rates and then disseminated. Using a 3D atmospheric algorithm coupling convective dynamics and chemistry, we model the expansion of the gas at a continental scale. Our simulations show that, at reasonable gas emission rates, no significant oxidation of CO occurs because the OH-radical concentration is strongly reduced due to the large concentration of CO and H2. This allows the gas to propagate faraway from the emission centre. The lateral propagation of the gas is significant at the scale of a continent within 2 weeks, which might reveal a new mechanism for mass extinctions.

Iacono-Marziano, Giada; Marecal, Virginie; Pirre, Michel; Arndt, Nicolas; Ganino, Clément; Gaillard, Fabrice

2010-05-01

296

Pre-treatment with capsaicin in a rat osteoarthritis model reduces the symptoms of pain and bone damage induced by monosodium iodoacetate.  

PubMed

A rat model of osteoarthritis was used to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with capsaicin on the symptoms of osteoarthritis induced by the injection of monosodium iodoacetate. This model mimics both histopathology and symptoms associated of human osteoarthritis. Injection of monosodium iodoacetate, an inhibitor of glycolysis, into the femorotibial joints of rodents promotes loss of articular trabecular bone and invokes pain symptoms similar to those noted in human osteoarthritis. Twenty rats were divided in two groups either receiving placebo or monosodium iodoacetate. Each group was subdivided in two groups either receiving pre-treatment with capsaicin two weeks before monosodium iodoacetate injection or not, resulting in four groups of five rats each. The impact of a single intra-articular administration of capsaicin (0.5%) on the generation of evoked mechanical pain (hind limb weight bearing, automated von Frey monofilament and RotaRod tests) and bone lesions (micro-CT scan radiographic analyses of bone structure) following monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats was determined. Evoked mechanical pain as monitored over a period of 4 weeks after monosodium iodoacetate injection was abolished in capsaicin pre-treated animals and pain values are comparable to those of capsaicin controls. Chronic joint pathological changes such as bone erosion and trabecular damage were significantly reduced by pre-treatment with a single administration of capsaicin. Decrease of bone volume was considerably ameliorated and trabecular connectivity was substantially better in capsaicin pre-treated animals. Capsaicin, an agonist activator of the vanilloid nociceptors (TRPV1), appears to be effective in protecting bone from arthritic damage. The present results support the hypothesis that capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons contribute to bone lesions in the monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis rat model. PMID:20538089

Kalff, Karel-Martijn; El Mouedden, Mohammed; van Egmond, Jan; Veening, Jan; Joosten, Leo; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Meert, Theo; Vissers, Kris

2010-06-09

297

The Nexus between ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessment under CERCLA: introduction to a Society of Environmental Toxicology and ChemistryTechnical Workshop.  

PubMed

A SETAC Technical Workshop titled "The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Understanding and Improving the Common Scientific Underpinnings," was held 18-22 August 2008 in Gregson, Montana, USA, to examine the linkage, nexus, and overlap between ecological risk assessment (ERA) and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Experts from a broad range of relevant scientific, legal, and policy disciplines convened to 1) ascertain the potential for improved scientific harmonization of the processes of ERA and NRDA; 2) identify where statutory, regulatory, or scientific constraints might exist that would constrain or preclude the harmonization of the 2 processes; 3) determine approaches that might overcome these constraints; and 4) recommend research or potential changes in regulatory policies that might serve to improve both processes. This is the introduction to a series of 3 papers that describe the findings and conclusions of this workshop. Although unanimity was not achieved on all technical, legal, or policy questions posed to the participants, some consensus areas did arise. First, there appear to be few if any legal constraints to using the environmental data collected for ERA or NRDA for both processes. Second, although it is important to recognize and preserve the distinctions between ERA and NRDA, opportunities for data sharing exist, particularly for the characterization of environmental exposures and derivation of ecotoxicological information. Thus, effective coordination is not precluded by the underlying science. Where a cooperative, interactive process is involved among the response agencies, the natural resource trustees, and the responsible party(s), technical, legal or regulatory constraints can be minimized. Finally, one approach that might enhance the potential applicability of data collected for the ERA is to consider ecosystem services in the development of assessment endpoints. These points are explained in greater detail in the series of papers published herein. PMID:19545185

Stahl, Ralph G; Gouguet, Ron; Charters, David; Clements, Will; Gala, Will; Haddad, Robert; Helm, Roger; Landis, Wayne; Maki, Al; Munns, Wayne R; Young, Dale

2009-06-22

298

Environmental Adaptation: Genomic Analysis of the Piezotolerant and Psychrotolerant Deep-Sea Iron Reducing Bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3  

PubMed Central

Shewanella species are widespread in various environments. Here, the genome sequence of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, a piezotolerant and psychrotolerant iron reducing bacterium from deep-sea sediment was determined with related functional analysis to study its environmental adaptation mechanisms. The genome of WP3 consists of 5,396,476 base pairs (bp) with 4,944 open reading frames (ORFs). It possesses numerous genes or gene clusters which help it to cope with extreme living conditions such as genes for two sets of flagellum systems, structural RNA modification, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) biosynthesis and osmolyte transport and synthesis. And WP3 contains 55 open reading frames encoding putative c-type cytochromes which are substantial to its wide environmental adaptation ability. The mtr-omc gene cluster involved in the insoluble metal reduction in the Shewanella genus was identified and compared. The two sets of flagellum systems were found to be differentially regulated under low temperature and high pressure; the lateral flagellum system was found essential for its motility and living at low temperature.

Jian, Huahua; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengkang; Wang, Feng; Zeng, Xiaowei; Gao, Lei; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Xiao, Xiang

2008-01-01

299

Glutamine and alanyl-glutamine increase RhoA expression and reduce Clostridium difficile toxin-a-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Glutamine (Gln) is a major fuel for the intestinal cell population. Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) is a dipeptide that is highly soluble and well tolerated. IEC-6 cells were used in the in vitro experiments. Cell morphology was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell proliferation was assessed by WST-1 and Ki-67 and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Cytoskeleton was evaluated by immunofluorescence for RhoA and F-actin. RhoA was quantified by immunoblotting. TcdA induced cell shrinkage as observed by AFM, SEM, and fluorescent microscopy. Additionally, collapse of the F-actin cytoskeleton was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. TcdA decreased cell volume and area and increased cell height by 79%, 66.2%, and 58.9%, respectively. Following TcdA treatment, Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation, significantly increased RhoA by 65.5% and 89.7%, respectively at 24 h. Ala-Gln supplementation increased cell proliferation by 137.5% at 24 h and decreased cell apoptosis by 61.4% at 24 h following TcdA treatment. In conclusion, TcdA altered intestinal cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization, decreased cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis. Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation reduced intestinal epithelial cell damage and increased RhoA expression. PMID:23484083

Santos, Ana A Q A; Braga-Neto, Manuel B; Oliveira, Marcelo R; Freire, Rosemeire S; Barros, Eduardo B; Santiago, Thiago M; Rebelo, Luciana M; Mermelstein, Claudia; Warren, Cirle A; Guerrant, Richard L; Brito, Gerly A C

2012-12-27

300

Environmental Education in Small Business: The Owner-Manager's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditionally, environmental education has been aimed at the community or in primary schools and governmental pressure to reduce environmental damage has focussed on large businesses. More recently, the role and importance of small business and how to engage them in the environmental debate has come under scrutiny. Researchers have identified…

Redmond, Janice; Walker, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

301

An environmentally friendly and fast approach to prepare reduced graphite oxide with water and organic solvents solubility.  

PubMed

In this paper, reduced graphite oxide (RGO) was prepared using thiourea dioxide as reductant and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as stabilizer. Thiourea dioxide, a cheap and nontoxic industrialized material, was demonstrated to be an efficient reducing agent for graphite oxide (GO) in this paper. Ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy results revealed that the reduction of GO could be readily achieved in 10 min, a reaction time which is much shorter than those required in common reduction reactions. The procedures of reduction including the by-products are all nontoxic, thus it is absolutely environmentally friendly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that thiourea dioxide was successfully used to prepare RGO. Moreover, the stabilizer, PVP, which could be easily absorbed onto the surface of RGO, provided RGO with good water and organic solvents solubility, with low conductivity though. However, by controlling the content of PVP, RGO with balanced solubility and conductivity can be obtained. The resultant RGO could be used as nanofillers to prepare conductive materials and biomaterials with potential applications as electrical devices or biosensors. PMID:22796788

Wang, Jianchuan; Zhou, Tiannan; Deng, Hua; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

2012-06-19

302

Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work is to test the protective effects of lutein and zeaxanthin against photo-oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and oxidation-induced changes in expression of inflammation-related genes. To mimic lipofuscin-mediated photo-oxidation in vivo, we used ARPE-19 cells that accumulated A2E, a lipofuscin fluorophore and photosensitizer, as a model system to investigate the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation. The data show that supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin in the medium resulted in accumulation of lutein or zeaxanthin in the RPE cells. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in the cells were 2–14-fold of that detected in the medium, indicating that ARPE-19 cells actively take up lutein or zeaxanthin. As compared with untreated cells, exposure of A2E-containing RPE to blue light resulted in a 40–60% decrease in proteasome activity, a 50–80% decrease in expression of CFH and MCP-1, and an ~ 20-fold increase in expression of IL-8. The photo-oxidation-induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and CFH were similar to those caused by chemical inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting that inactivation of the proteasome is involved in the photo-oxidation-induced alteration in expression of these inflammation-related genes. Incubation of the A2E-containing RPE with lutein or zeaxanthin prior to blue light exposure significantly attenuated the photo-oxidation-induced inactivation of the proteasome and photo-oxidation induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and CFH. Together, these data indicate that lutein or zeaxanthin modulates inflammatory responses in cultured RPE in response to photo-oxidation. Protecting the proteasome from oxidative inactivation appears to be one of the mechanisms by which lutein and zeaxanthin modulate the inflammatory response. Similar mechanisms may explain salutary effects of lutein and zeaxanthin in reducing the risk for AMD.

Bian, Qingning; Gao, Shasha; Zhou, Jilin; Qin, Jian; Taylor, Allen; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Tang, Guangwen; Sparrow, Janet R.; Gierhart, Dennis; Shang, Fu

2012-01-01

303

Much damage for little advantage: Field studies and morphodynamic modelling highlight the environmental impact of an apparently minor coastal mismanagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

While coastal management activities have long been known to exert a strong influence on the health of marine ecosystems, neither scientists nor administrators have realized that small interventions may lead to disproportionately larger impacts. This study investigated the broad and long-lasting environmental consequences of the construction of an ill-planned, although small (only 12 m long) jetty for pleasure crafts on the

Roberta Lasagna; Monica Montefalcone; Giancarlo Albertelli; Nicola Corradi; Marco Ferrari; Carla Morri; Carlo Nike Bianchi

2011-01-01

304

Organoclays as soil amendments to increase the efficacy and reduce the environmental impact of the herbicide fluometuron in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

The use of pesticides in agriculture has become a source of pollution of soil and water in the last decades. Extensive pesticide transport losses due to leaching and runoff produce nonpoint source contamination of soils and water. One of the soil processes that reduce pesticide transport losses is adsorption by soil particles; therefore, enhancement of pesticide retention by soil can be used as a strategy to attenuate the environmental impact of pesticides. In this work, organoclays were prepared by treating Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-2) and Arizona montmorillonite (SAz-1) with different organic cations and were assayed as soil amendments to enhance the retention and reduce the leaching losses of the herbicide fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] urea] in soils. Two agricultural soils from Southern Spain were selected for being high-risk scenarios of ground and surface water contamination. First, a batch adsorption study was conducted to identify organoclays with high affinity for fluometuron. Among the different organoclays assayed, spermine-treated Wyoming montmorillonite (SW-SPERM) displayed high and reversible adsorption of fluometuron and was selected as an amendment for subsequent persistence, leaching, and herbicidal activity experiments of fluometuron with unamended and amended soils. Amendment of the soils with SW-SPERM at rates of 1%, 2%, and 5% greatly enhanced fluometuron retention by the soils and retarded fluometuron leaching through soil columns. Incubation experiments revealed that the persistence of the herbicide in the amended soils was similar to that in unamended soils and that most of the herbicide was ultimately available for degradation. Bioassays demonstrated that the reduced leaching losses of fluometuron in soils amended with SW-SPERM may result in increased herbicide efficacy if heavy rainfall events occur shortly after herbicide application. PMID:20545302

Gámiz, Beatriz; Celis, Rafael; Hermosín, María C; Cornejo, Juan

2010-07-14

305

Collateral Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Collateral damage is undesirable civilian materiel damage or personnel injuries produced by the effects of friendly nuclear weapons. For a nation on whose soil a nuclear weapon is detonated, any damage, other than damage to enemy military resources, may w...

F. W. Thornhill

1978-01-01

306

Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in rice seedlings better than magnesium and calcium by reducing aluminum uptake, suppressing oxidative damage and increasing antioxidative defense.  

PubMed

Aluminum toxicity is a major constraint to crop production in acid soils. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative ameliorating effects of salicylic acid, Ca and Mg on Al toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings grown in hydroponics. Al treatment (0.5 mM AlCl3) caused decrease in plant vigour, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increased contents of O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and decline in the level of protein thiol. Al treatment caused significant changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes in rice seedlings. Exogenously added salicylic acid (60 ?M), Ca (1 mM) and Mg (0.25 mM) significantly alleviated Al toxicity effects in the seedlings marked by restoration of growth, suppression of Al uptake, restoration of root plasma membrane integrity and decline in O 2 (?-) , H2O2, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl contents. Salicylic acid, Ca and Mg suppressed Al-induced increase in SOD, GPX and APX activities while it elevated Al-induced decline in CAT activity. By histochemical staining of O 2 (?-) using NBT and H2O2 using DAB, it was further confirmed that added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg decreased Al-induced accumulation of O 2 (?-) and H2O2 in the leaf tissues. Results indicate that exogenously added salicylic acid, Ca or Mg alleviates Al toxicity in rice seedlings by suppressing Al uptake, restoring root membrane integrity, reducing ROS level and ROS induced oxidative damage and regulating the level of antioxidative enzyme activities. Further salicylic appears to be superior to Mg and Ca in alleviating Al toxicity effects in rice plants. PMID:23479061

Pandey, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Dubey, R S

2013-03-13

307

Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17?-ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation  

PubMed Central

Exposure of fishes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (°d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 1800°d, fish were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 6700°d, fish have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Significant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 6700°d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was significantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 6700°d exposed males revealed a significant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these fish exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant on EE2 exposure concentrations experienced.

Brown, Kim H; Schultz, Irvin R; Nagler, James J

2007-01-01

308

Induction of DNA damage by deguelin is mediated through reducing DNA repair genes in human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that deguelin, one of the compounds of rotenoids from flavonoid family, induced cytotoxic effects through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many types of human cancer cell lines, but deguelin-affected DNA damage and repair gene expression (mRNA) are not clarified yet. We investigated the effects of deguelin on DNA damage and associated gene expression in human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in vitro. DNA damage was assayed by using the comet assay and DNA gel electrophoresis and the results indicated that NCI-H460 cells treated with 0, 50, 250 and 500 nM deguelin led to a longer DNA migration smear based on the single cell electrophoresis and DNA fragmentation occurred based on the examination of DNA gel electrophoresis. DNA damage and repair gene expression (mRNA) were evaluated by using real-time PCR assay and the results indicated that 50 and 250 nM deguelin for a 24-h exposure in NCI-H460 cells, decreased the gene levels of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1), DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNA-PK), O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) mRNA expressions. Collectively, the present study showed that deguelin caused DNA damage and inhibited DNA damage and repair gene expressions, which might be due to deguelin-inhibited cell growth in vitro.

JI, BIN-CHUAN; YU, CHIEN-CHIH; YANG, SU-TSO; HSIA, TE-CHUN; YANG, JAI-SING; LAI, KUANG-CHI; KO, YANG-CHING; LIN, JEN-JYH; LAI, TUNG-YUAN; CHUNG, JING-GUNG

2012-01-01

309

Increased O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine levels on proteins improves survival, reduces inflammation and organ damage 24 hours after trauma-hemorrhage in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective We have previously shown that increasing protein O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) levels by different mechanisms reduced inflammatory responses and improved organ function 2 hours after trauma-hemorrhage (T-H). The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of O-GlcNAc levels on survival, inflammation and organ damage 24 hours after T-H. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting Animal research laboratory. Subjects Male, adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions Overnight fasted animals were subjected to either sham surgery (SH) or (T-H) and during the resuscitation phase received glucosamine (270 mg/Kg, GlcN) to increase O-GlcNAc synthesis or O-(2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl Carbamate, (7mg/Kg, PUGNAc) to inhibit O-GlcNAc removal, or mannitol as control (CON). Measurements and main results Survival was followed up for 24 hours. Surviving rats were euthanized and inflammatory responses, and end organ injuries were assessed. Both GlcN and PUGNAc increased 24 hours survival compared to controls (CON: 53%, GN: 85%, PUGNAc: 86%, logrank test, p<0.05). PUGNAc attenuated the T-H induced increase in serum IL-6 (SH: 8±6, CON: 181±36, PUGNAc: 42±22 pg/mL, p<0.05), ALT (SH: 95±14, CON: 297±56, PUGNAc: 126±21 IU, p<0.05), AST (SH: 536±110, CON: 1661±215, PUGNAc: 897±155 IU, p<0.05) and LDH (SH: 160±18, CON: 1499±311, PUGNAc: 357±99 IU, p<0.05); however, GlcN had no effect on these serum parameters. Furthermore, PUGNAc but not GlcN maintained O-GlcNAc levels in liver and lung and significantly attenuated the NF-?B DNA activation in the liver. In the liver and heart, increased iNOS expression was also attenuated in the PUGNAc treated group. Conclusions These results demonstrate that increasing O-GlcNAc with either GlcN or PUGNAc improved 24 hour survival after T-H. However, only PUGNAc treatment attenuated significantly the subsequent tissue injury and inflammatory responses, suggesting that inhibition of O-GlcNAc removal may represent a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of hypovolemic shock.

Not, Laszlo G; Brocks, Charlye A; Vamhidy, Laszlo; Marchase, Richard B; Chatham, John C

2011-01-01

310

Novel flashlamp-based time-resolved fluorescence microscope reduces autofluorescence for 30-fold contrast enhancement in environmental samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of naturally fluorescing components (autofluorophors) encountered in environmentally sourced samples can greatly hinder the detection and identification of fluorescently labeled target using fluorescence microscopy. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy (TRFM) is a technique that reduces the effects of autofluorescence through precisely controlled time delays. Lanthanide chelates have fluorescence lifetimes many orders of magnitude greater than typical autofluorophors, and persist in their luminescence long after autofluorescence has ceased. An intense short pulse of (UV) light is used to excite fluorescence in the sample and after a short delay period the longer persisting fluorescence from the chelate is captured with an image-intensified CCD camera. The choice of pulsed excitation source for TRFM has a large impact on the price and performance of the instrument. A flashlamp with a short pulse duration was selected for our instrument because of the high spectral energy in the UV region and short pulse length. However, flash output decays with an approximate lifetime of 18?s and the TRFM requires a long-lived chelate to ensure probe fluorescence is still visible after decay of the flash plasma. We synthesized a recently reported fluorescent chelate (BHHCT) and conjugated it to a monoclonal antibody directed against the water-borne parasite Giardia lamblia. Fluorescence lifetime of the construct was determined to be 339?s +/- 14?s and provided a 45-fold enhancement of labeled Giardia over background using a gate delay of 100?s. Despite the sub-optimal decay characteristics of the light pulse, flashlamps have many advantages compared to optical chopper wheels and modulated lasers. Their low cost, lack of vibration, ease of interface and small footprint are important factors to consider in TRFM design.

Connally, Russell; Veal, Duncan; Piper, James A.

2003-07-01

311

Reducing the effects of environmental inhibition in quantitative real-time PCR detection of adenovirus and norovirus in recreational seawaters.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is used commonly to detect adenovirus (Ads) and norovirus (Nvs) in recreational waters. However, qPCR detection may be limited by interference from inhibitory substances found in recreational waters. In previous work, viruses in Avalon and Doheny Beach water samples were concentrated by electropositive cartridge filtration and PEG precipitation, and high inhibition was found in the samples when using qPCR for detection of Ads and Nvs. Therefore, different approaches were evaluated for removal or blocking of inhibitory compounds that affect qPCR. Avalon and Doheny concentrates were spiked with known amounts of Ads 41 and Nvs GII, and spiked deionized water was used as a positive control. Modifications included gel chromatography with columns of Sephadex G-200/Chelex 100, different sample volumes for nucleic acid extraction, organic solvent extraction, and nucleic acid precipitation. The efficiency of each treatment varied according to sampling location and virus type. The best option for improved Nvs detection by reverse transcription-qPCR was to reduce the sample volume for nucleic acid purification. The best option for improving Ads detection in both beach samples was Sephadex/Chelex spin column chromatography. Chloroform extraction only improved virus detection in Doheny Beach samples but not in Avalon Beach samples. Observed differences in effective treatments between viruses may be related to the different PCR targets, amplification conditions, and enzymes used in each assay, and differences between beaches may be related to differences in PCR inhibitory environmental compounds at each location. The results suggest that methods for detecting viruses from marine beaches, including treatments for the removal of PCR inhibitory compounds, should be optimized for each sampling site and probably for each virus of interest. PMID:22326277

Rodríguez, Roberto A; Thie, Lauren; Gibbons, Christopher D; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-02-03

312

5-Aminosalicylic Acid (5ASA) Can Reduce Levels of Oxidative DNA Damage in Cells of Colonic Mucosa With and Without Fecal Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  No studies have evaluated the effectiveness of 5-ASA against oxidative DNA damage in experimental models of diversion colitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To evaluate the effects of 5-ASA against oxidative DNA damage in an experimental model of diversion colitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-six Wistar rats were divided into two groups corresponding to sacrifice at 2 or 4 weeks after fecal diversion of the\\u000a left colon by means of

Caroline Caltabiano; Felipe Rodrigues Máximo; Ana Paula Pimentel Spadari; Daniel Duarte da Conceição Miranda; Marcia Milena Pivatto Serra; Marcelo Lima Ribeiro; Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

2011-01-01

313

Reduced beta-cell mass and expression of oxidative stress-related DNA damage in the islet of Japanese Type II diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis:   We examined the pancreatic islet lesions in Japanese patients with Type II diabetes mellitus to determine if the damage was\\u000a related to oxidative stress. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   Morphometric analyses were performed on immunostained sections of the tail portion of the pancreas from 14 diabetic and 15\\u000a non-diabetic patients. Amyloid deposition and oxidative stress-induced tissue damage were evaluated by Congo-red staining

H. Sakuraba; H. Mizukami; N. Yagihashi; R. Wada; C. Hanyu; S. Yagihashi

2002-01-01

314

Evaluation of Community Action Against Asthma: A Community Health Worker Intervention to Improve Children's Asthma-Related Health by Reducing Household Environmental Triggers for Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the evaluation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) community health worker (CHW) intervention to improve children's asthma-related health by reducing household environmental triggers for asthma. After randomization to an intervention or control group, 298 households in Detroit, Michigan, with a child, aged 7 to 11, with persistent asthma symptoms participated. The intervention was effective in increasing some

Edith A. Parker; Barbara A. Israel; Thomas G. Robins; Graciela Mentz; Xihong Lin; Wilma Brakefield-Caldwell; Erminia Ramirez; Katherine K. Edgren; Maria Salinas; Toby C. Lewis

2008-01-01

315

Assisting People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Actively Reducing Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Gyration Air Mouse through a Controlled Environmental Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing

Shih, Ching-Hsiang

2011-01-01

316

Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation  

SciTech Connect

Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

Roush, D.E. Jr. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Beaver, D.E. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Coll. of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Sciences

1998-06-01

317

Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work w...

318

Environmental protection in China  

SciTech Connect

Environmental conditions in China are dramatically worse than those in the USA, but the Chinese are acting with commendable vigor in attempting to contain and ultimately reverse the damage. The Chinese have air, water and soil contamination, along with garbage and trash problems. They are also experiencing deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, destruction of wildlife habitat and wetlands, and the depletion of ground water. Attempts are being made to reduce the pollutants being produced, but economic factors weigh heavily against cleaning up current pollution.

Russell, M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA) Univ. of Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-01-01

319

Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites  

SciTech Connect

The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

Kosko, Nancy [US Army Environmental Command (United States); Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie [CALIBRE Systems, Inc. (United States)

2007-07-01

320

Lean and Environment Toolkit. Version 1.0. Identify and Eliminate Waste Reduce Business Costs and Risk Improve Environmental Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Lean and Environment Toolkit (Version 1.0) offers practical strategies and techniques to Lean implementers about how to improve Lean results-waste elimination, quality enhancement, and delivery of value to customers-while achieving environmental perf...

2006-01-01

321

DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN, 17 B TRENBOLONE, CAUSES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND REDUCED REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT IN FEMALE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, studies have detected environmental androgen-active chemicals in effluents from pulp mills and animal feedlot operations. One such chemical present in feedlot discharge is the growth promoter, trenbolone acetate. A primary metabolite of trenbolone acetate, 17ß trenbolon...

322

Anti-apoptotic PI3K\\/Akt signaling by sodium\\/glucose transporter 1 reduces epithelial barrier damage and bacterial translocation in intestinal ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) causes mucosal barrier damage and bacterial translocation (BT), leading to septic complications. Previous in vitro studies showed that activation of sodium\\/glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) prevented the epithelial apoptosis and permeability rise induced by microbial products. Our aim was to investigate whether luminal glucose uptake by SGLT1 protects against ischemia-induced epithelial cell death and barrier dysfunction, and to

Ching-Ying Huang; Jong-Kai Hsiao; Yen-Zhen Lu; Tsung-Chun Lee; Linda C-H Yu

2011-01-01

323

?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (P¼0·004, d ¼ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (P¼0·005, d ¼ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P¼0·08, d ¼ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John

2013-01-03

324

Reducing risk  

SciTech Connect

Protecting against property damage and resulting income loss is critical during project construction. What's needed are innovative insurance risk management programs that protect and enhance project operation. This article discusses the ability of the independent power developers to reduce the risk of large power projects.

Merbaum, R. (Willis Corroon Construction Corp., New Hyde Park NY (United States))

1993-09-01

325

The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse.

Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

2013-01-01

326

S-allylcysteine reduces the MPTP-induced striatal cell damage via inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? and inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions in mice.  

PubMed

We have recently demonstrated that S-allylcysteine (SAC) induces protection on neurochemical, biochemical and behavioral markers of striatal damage in different neurotoxic animal models - including a murine model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropiridinium (MPTP) injection to mice - indicating that pro-oxidant reactions underlie neurotoxicity in these models (García et al. 2008). In this work we investigated whether SAC can protect the striatum of mice from the morphological alterations in the MPTP toxic model, and if this response is correlated with a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions, and further reduction in astrocyte activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression). The striatal tissue from MPTP injected animals (30 mg/kg, i.p., ×5 days) showed a significant degree of cell damage and enhanced immunoreactivities to GFAP, TNF-? and iNOS, as well as an enhanced number of apoptotic nuclei. Treatment of mice with SAC (120 mg/kg, i.p., ×5 days) in parallel to MPTP significantly reduced or prevented all these markers. Our results suggest that MPTP-induced morphological alterations recruit a pro-inflammatory component triggered by cytokine TNF-? release and nitric oxide formation, which is sensitive to the antioxidant properties of SAC. This antioxidant is an effective experimental tool to reduce the brain lesions associated with oxidative damage and inflammatory responses. PMID:20576415

García, Esperanza; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Maldonado, Perla D; Santamaría, Abel

2010-06-23

327

Effect of environmental daily temperature fluctuations over one year storage on the prediction of non-enzymatic browning in reduced-moisture foods stored at “ambient” temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-enzymatic browning predictions in reduced-moisture foods stored over one year at “ambient” temperature, were made using, (a) realistic environmental daily (and seasonal) temperature fluctuations, and (b) a constant mean temperature. Daily temperature records taken every 6h from January 1st to December 31st (1460 temperature data) in four selected cities from Argentina, were used.The predicted amount of browning over one year

Rosa Baeza; Diana Mielnicki; Maria C. Zamora; Jorge Chirife

2007-01-01

328

Corrosion Damage Functions  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion damage can lead to reduced operational lifetimes. Often this damage is not as obvious as general corrosion but takes the form of pits, intergranular corrosion, crevice corrosion and hydrogen absorption. These types of corrosion damage lead to stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking and corrosion fatigue. A critical step in defining a corrosion damage function is determining the relationship between the corrosion damage, the resulting crack propagation mechanism and component lifetimes. The sequence of events is often some localized corrosion event such as pitting, transition of the pit to a planar crack, propagation of this short crack, transition of the short crack to long crack conditions and continued propagation through Stage I, II, and III of the long crack SCC regimes. A description of critical corrosion damage processes and examples of the transition to long crack SCC conditions will be discussed.

Jones, Russell H.

2002-11-30

329

Environmental relaxation in response to reduced contaminant input: The case of mercury pollution in Haifa Bay, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental relaxation, defined as the rate of return of a polluted environment to an acceptable state following a reduction in the input of contamination, was evaluated for the case of mercury pollution in northern Haifa Bay (Israel) on the basis of the long-term record of mercury levels in sediment cores and biota. Mercury was found to decrease with a half-time

B. Herut; H. Hornung; N. Kress; Y. Cohen

1996-01-01

330

Reducing carbon emissions? The relative effectiveness of different types of environmental tax: the case of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although countries experiences on environmental taxation differ, discussions in New Zealand coincide with the recent announcement by the government of a new carbon tax and a new energy tax to be introduced before the first phase of the Kyoto protoc ol. This paper provides preliminary simulation results that may help answer some policy-related questions including the relative micro- and macro-

Frank Scrimgeour; Les Oxley; Koli Fatai

2005-01-01

331

A novel design approach for livestock housing based on recursive control - with examples to reduce environmental pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions to the air and nutrient losses to the environment (ground water and soil) are inherent to the keeping of animals in high densities in animal houses and cause various problems to men and animal (environmental, health and nuisance). Traditional approaches in animal husbandry, and also the approaches to solve these problems, are often and primarily based on unidirectional technical

A. P. Bos; P. W. G. Groot Koerkamp; C. M. Groenestein

2003-01-01

332

A novel design approach for livestock housing based on recursive control—with examples to reduce environmental pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions to the air and nutrient losses to the environment (ground water and soil) are inherent to the keeping of animals in high densities in animal houses and cause various problems to men and animal (environmental, health and nuisance). Traditional approaches in animal husbandry, and also the approaches to solve these problems, are often and primarily based on unidirectional technical

Bram Bos; Peter W. G. Groot Koerkamp; Karin Groenestein

2003-01-01

333

Environmental and Health Risk Associated with Air pollution Emitted by Public Transportation, and a New Methodology for Reducing the Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiny smoke particles that are typically emitted today from a variety of vehicles are of major public concern, as they are known to cause major health and environmental problems. It is well recognized that those tiny particles are directly linked with lung cancer, and have harmful effect on the environment. As they are smaller than other types of particles (sub-micron

David Katoshevski; Michal Ruzal-Mendelevich; Itamar Hite; Eran Sher

2011-01-01

334

Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

NONE

1995-08-01

335

dl-3-n-Butylphthalide prevents oxidative damage and reduces mitochondrial dysfunction in an MPP(+)-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP(+))-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). NBP was extracted from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. (Chinese celery). MPP(+) treatment of PC12 cells caused reduced viability, formation of reactive oxygen, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicated that NBP reduced the cytotoxicity of MPP(+) by suppressing the mitochondrial permeability transition, reducing oxidative stress, and increasing the cellular GSH content. NBP also reduced the accumulation of alpha-synuclein, the main component of Lewy bodies. Given that NBP is safe and currently used in clinical trials for stroke patients, NBP will likely be a promising chemical for the treatment of PD. PMID:20347933

Huang, Jin-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Zhu; Su, Min; Zheng, Hui-Fen; Yang, Ya-Ping; Chen, Jing; Liu, Chun-Feng

2010-03-27

336

Multifarious Power Plant Water Intake Structure (MWIS). A Design Concept to Reduce the Environmental Effects of Cooling Water Intake Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design for the Multifarious Power Plant Water Intake Structure (MWIS) was developed to reduce the entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms in water intakes requiring large volumes of cooling water. Its uniqueness is based upon the operation of...

B. Chezar

1976-01-01

337

Punitive Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This entry concerns punitive damages. In considering the rationale for the award of punitive damages, we refer to two broad social goals: deterrence and punishment. In section 2 of the entry, we review the basic theory of deterrence, and in sections 3 through 6, we discuss the main deterrence-related justifications for punitive damages: the possibility of escaping sanctions; underestimation of

A. Mitchell Polinsky; Steven Shavell

338

Punitive Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punitive damages is a controversial topic in American law. Defenders of punitive damages see these awards as a useful mechanism for sanctioning and deterring egregious conduct, particularly the conduct of corporations not subject to the sanctions of the criminal law but still harmful to society. Opponents of punitive damages argue that they are capriciously and unfairly awarded by juries and

Neil Vidmar; Matthew W. Wolfe

2009-01-01

339

Tornado Damage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about tornadoes, the damage they cause, and how to rate tornadoes. Specifically, students will investigate the Fujita Damage Scale of tornado intensity, and use it to complete a mock engineering analysis of damage caused by a tornado. Lastly, students will learn some basic tornado safety procedures.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

340

Biomolecule-assisted, environmentally friendly, one-pot synthesis of CuS/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performance.  

PubMed

In this work, we develop a novel environmentally friendly strategy toward one-pot synthesis of CuS nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide (CuS/rGO) nanocomposites with the use of L-cysteine, an amino acid, as a reducing agent, sulfur donor, and linker to anchor CuS nanoparticles onto the surface of rGO sheets. Upon visible light illumination (? > 400 nm), the CuS/rGO nanocomposites show pronounced enhanced photocurrent response and improved photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) compared to pure CuS. This could be attributed to the efficient charge transport of rGO sheets and hence reduced recombination rate of excited carriers. PMID:22891993

Zhang, Yingwei; Tian, Jingqi; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Xiaoyun; Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Sun, Xuping

2012-08-21

341

Monitoring and mapping eastern Ontario's 1998 forest ice storm damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between January 4--9, 1998, a severe ice storm struck northeastern North America. Ice loading and high winds contributed to forest damage in Eastern Ontario, a region whose economy and identity depends on an intact forest resource for maple syrup production and other activities. This thesis was a component of a larger study by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) to address the needs of the maple syrup industry resulting from the ice storm, including temporal monitoring of forest response to damage to assess forest treatment effects, and mapping local to regional scale forest damage for economic impact assessment and compensation. This work is divided into two parts to address each of these needs separately. Part I uses field measured optical instrument-based Leaf Area Index (LAI) as a damage indicator for local monitoring, while Part II applies pre and post-storm Landsat satellite imagery and environmental data, and interpolation of plot-based damage estimates to produce two separate forest damage maps. LAI and post storm LAI change were determined to be suitable damage indicators, being significantly related to initial visual damage estimates while changing through time to reflect LAI recovery in the majority of plots that were measured. Neural network modeling with Landsat and environmental data was 69.3% accurate in classifying low-to-moderate and high damage with 50% crown loss as the threshold between these two classes. Interpolation produced slightly higher mapping accuracies, but lower Kappa statistics due to a reduced number of plots used for validation. These maps were compared with aerial sketch and freezing precipitation maps produced by the OMNR and Environment Canada, respectively. Overall, there was little agreement among maps due to the patchy nature of forest damage and differences among assessment scales.

Olthof, Ian

342

Indigowood root extract protects hematopoietic cells, reduces tissue damage and modulates inflammatory cytokines after total-body irradiation: does Indirubin play a role in radioprotection?  

PubMed

Radix of Isatis indigotica (indigowood root, IR) has been used in traditional medicine for its potential anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study is to investigate the radioprotective effects of radiation caused damages in hematopoietic system and normal tissues in mice. A total of 57 BALB/c mice were randomized into six treatment groups: control, IR treatment (0.195, 0.585 and 1.170 g/kg, p.o. daily), L-glutamine (0.520 g/kg) and sham group. All mice except the sham group were irradiated and then administered for one week. The radioprotective effect on hematopoietic system, serum cytokines, and intestinal toxicity was studied. Protective effects on spleen and thymus are found in IR-treated groups. IR assisted in restoration of leukocytopenia after whole mice irradiation with significant reduction of serum TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. These enhancements of hematopoietic effects are due to an increase in the serum G-CSF concentration in IR treated groups. In histopathological assessment, significant improvement of intestine toxicity is observed in high-dose IR and L-glutamine group. Evidences show that IR has potentials to be a radioprotector, especially in recovery of hematopoietic system, reduction of inflammatory cytokines and intestinal toxicity. Indirubin may play a crucial role, but the underlying mechanism is not very clear and warrants further studies. PMID:19589667

You, Weir Chiang; Lin, Wen Chuan; Huang, Jia Tsz; Hsieh, Chang Chi

2009-07-08

343

Integrated marine cultivation of Gracilaria chilensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) and salmon cages for reduced environmental impact and increased economic output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish farms produce large amounts of wastes, including dissolved inorganic phosphorus and nitrogen. To exploit these nutrients as a resource input, and at the same time reduce the risk for eutrophication of the environment, Gracilaria chilensis on ropes was co-cultivated with a salmon cage farm in southern Chile during two summer month. Gracilaria cultivated at 10 m distance from the

Max. Troell; C. Halling; A. Nilsson; A. H. Buschmann; N. Kautsky; L. Kautsky

1997-01-01

344

Environmental benefits of genetically modified crops: Global and European perspectives on their ability to reduce pesticide use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green Revolution, which brought together improved varieties, increased use off ertilizer, irriga- tion and synthetic pesticides, is credited with helping to feed the current global population of 6 billion. While this paper recognizes the ability of pesticide\\\\, to reduce crop losses, it also discusses their potential negative effects on public health, with particular emphasis in developing countries, and the

R. H. Phipps; J. R. Park

2002-01-01

345

Green campuses: cutting the environmental cost of commuting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the impacts of transport on the environment and stresses how, for higher education institutions (referred to as ‘universities’ here), these are dominated by commuting by private car. Car commuting needs to be drastically reduced, yet universities effectively subsidize continued car usage through free- or below-cost car park provision. Strategies for reducing environmental damage caused by commuting are

Rodney Tolley

1996-01-01

346

Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves reduced DNA-PK/ATM activation and diminished cell cycle arrest  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells, are partly responsible for resistance to DNA-damaging treatment. Here we addressed if such a phenotype may contribute to radio- and cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23) possess sphere-forming capacity when cultured in stem cell media and three of these display elevated levels of CD133. Indeed, sphere-forming NSCLC cells, hereafter called TICs, showed a reduced apoptotic response and increased survival after irradiation (IR), as compared with the corresponding bulk cell population. Decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic signaling manifested by diminished poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase 3 activity was also evident in TICs after cisplatin treatment. Neither radiation nor cisplatin resistance was due to quiescence as H125 TICs proliferated at a rate comparable to bulk cells. However, TICs displayed less pronounced G2 cell cycle arrest and S/G2-phase block after IR and cisplatin, respectively. Additionally, we confirmed a cisplatin-refractory phenotype of H125 TICs in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. We further examined TICs for altered expression or activation of DNA damage repair proteins as a way to explain their increased radio- and/or chemotherapy resistance. Indeed, we found that TICs exhibited increased basal ?H2AX (H2A histone family, member X) expression and diminished DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), Krüppel-associated protein 1 (KAP1) and monoubiquitination of Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2 (FANCD2). As a proof of principle, ATM inhibition in bulk cells increased their cisplatin resistance, as demonstrated by reduced PARP cleavage. In conclusion, we show that reduced apoptotic response, altered DNA repair signaling and cell cycle perturbations in NSCLC TICs are possible factors contributing to their therapy resistance, which may be exploited for DNA damage-sensitizing purposes.

Lundholm, L; Haag, P; Zong, D; Juntti, T; Mork, B; Lewensohn, R; Viktorsson, K

2013-01-01

347

Mild Intraischemic Hypothermia Reduces Postischemic Hyperperfusion, Delayed Postischemic Hypoperfusion, Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption, Brain Edema, and Neuronal Damage Volume After Temporary Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Mild to moderate hypothermia (30-33°C) reduces brain injury after brief (<2-h) periods of focal ischemia, but its effectiveness in prolonged temporary ischemia is not fully understood. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane underwent 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion under hypothermic (33°C) or normothermic (37°C) conditions followed by 3 or 21 h of reperfusion under normothermic conditions

Hiroshi Karibe; Gregory J. Zarow; Steven H. Graham; Philip R. Weinstein

1994-01-01

348

Effect of strategies to reduce exposure of infants to environmental tobacco smoke in the home: cross sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine parents' reported knowledge and use of harm reduction strategies to protect their infants from exposure to tobacco smoke in the home, and the relation between reported use of strategies and urinary cotinine to creatinine ratios in the infants. Design Cross sectional survey. Settings Coventry and Birmingham. Main outcome measures Parents' reported knowledge and use of harm reduction strategies and urinary cotinine to creatinine ratios in their infants. Participants 314 smoking households with infants. Results 86% of parents (264/307) believed that environmental tobacco smoke is harmful, 90% (281/314) believed that infants can be protected from it in the home, and 10% (32/314) were either unaware of measures or reported using none. 65% of parents (205/314) reported using two or more measures, but only 18% (58/314) reported not allowing smoking in the home. No difference was found in mean log e transformed urinary cotinine to creatinine ratio in infants from households that used no measures compared with households that used less strict measures. Mean log cotinine to creatinine ratios were significantly different in households banning smoking in the home compared with those using less strict or no measures. Banning smoking in the home was independently associated with a significant reduction in urinary cotinine to creatinine ratio by a factor of 2.6 (1.6 to 4.2) after adjustment for average household cigarette consumption, tenure, and overcrowding. Conclusions Less than a fifth of parents in smoking households ban smoking in the home. Banning smoking was associated with a small but significant reduction in urinary cotinine to creatinine ratio in infants, whereas less strict measures compared with no measures had no effect on the infants' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

Blackburn, Clare; Spencer, Nick; Bonas, Sheila; Coe, Christine; Dolan, Alan; Moy, Rob

2003-01-01

349

Environmentally friendly, one-pot synthesis of Ag nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide composites and their application to photocurrent generation.  

PubMed

In this paper, we develop an environmentally friendly, one-pot strategy toward rapid preparation of Ag nanoparticle-decorated reducd graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO) composites by heating the mixture of GO and AgNO(3) aqueous solution in the presence of sodium hydroxide at 80 °C under stirring. The reaction was accomplished within a short period of 10 min without extra reducing agent. As-synthesized AgNPs/rGO composites have been successfully applied in photocurrent generation in the visible spectral region. PMID:22443446

Tian, Jingqi; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Yingwei; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Lei; Luo, Yonglan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O; Sun, Xuping

2012-03-23

350

Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of

Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen

2002-01-01

351

Single administration of tripeptide ?-MSH(11-13) attenuates brain damage by reduced inflammation and apoptosis after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice.  

PubMed

Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neuroinflammatory processes promote neuronal cell loss. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is a neuropeptide with immunomodulatory properties, which may offer neuroprotection. Due to short half-life and pigmentary side-effects of ?-MSH, the C-terminal tripeptide ?-MSH(11-13) may be an anti-inflammatory alternative. The present study investigated the mRNA concentrations of the precursor hormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and of melanocortin receptors 1 and 4 (MC1R/MC4R) in naive mice and 15 min, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Regulation of POMC and MC4R expression did not change after trauma, while MC1R levels increased over time with a 3-fold maximum at 12 h compared to naive brain tissue. The effect of ?-MSH(11-13) on secondary lesion volume determined in cresyl violet stained sections (intraperitoneal injection 30 min after insult of 1 mg/kg ?-MSH(11-13) or 0.9% NaCl) showed a considerable smaller trauma in ?-MSH(11-13) injected mice. The expression of the inflammatory markers TNF-? and IL-1? as well as the total amount of Iba-1 positive cells were not reduced. However, cell branch counting of Iba-1 positive cells revealed a reduced activation of microglia. Furthermore, tripeptide injection reduced neuronal apoptosis analyzed by cleaved caspase-3 and NeuN staining. Based on the results single ?-MSH(11-13) administration offers a promising neuroprotective property by modulation of inflammation and prevention of apoptosis after traumatic brain injury. PMID:23940690

Schaible, Eva-Verena; Steinsträßer, Arne; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje; Luh, Clara; Sebastiani, Anne; Kornes, Frida; Pieter, Dana; Schäfer, Michael K; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

2013-08-05

352

Slam haplotype 2 promotes NKT but suppresses V?4+ T-cell activation in coxsackievirus B3 infection leading to increased liver damage but reduced myocarditis.  

PubMed

There are two major haplotypes of signal lymphocytic activation molecule (Slam) in inbred mouse strains, with the Slam haplotype 1 expressed in C57Bl/6 mice and the Slam haplotype 2 expressed in most other commonly used inbred strains, including 129 mice. Because signaling through Slam family receptors can affect innate immunity [natural killer T cell (NKT) and ?-? T-cell receptor], and innate immunity can determine susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, the present study evaluated the response of C57Bl/6 and congenic B6.129c1 mice (expressing the 129-derived Slam locus) to CVB3. CVB3-infected C57Bl/6 male mice developed increased myocarditis but reduced hepatic injury compared with infected B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice also had increased ??(+) and CD8(+)interferon-?(+) cells but decreased numbers of NKT (T-cell receptor ? chain + mCD1d tetramer(+)) and CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells compared with B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with CVB3 and treated with either ?-galactosylceramide, an NKT cell-specific ligand, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/PBS). Mice treated with ?-galactosylceramide showed significantly reduced myocarditis. Liver injuries, as determined by alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma, were increased significantly, confirming that NKT cells are protective for myocarditis but pathogenic in the liver. PMID:23195432

Huber, Sally Ann; Roberts, Brian; Moussawi, Mohamad; Boyson, Jonathan E

2012-11-27

353

Stability of U(VI) and Tc(VII) Reducing Microbial Communities to Environmental Perturbation: Development and Testing of a Thermodynamic Network Model  

SciTech Connect

Previously published research from in situ field experiments at the NABIR Field Research Center have shown that cooperative metabolism of denitrifiers and Fe(III)/sulfate reducers is essential for creating subsurface conditions favorable for U(VI) and Tc(VII) bioreduction (Istok et al., 2004). The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on the composition and functional stability of subsurface microbial communities. The overall scientific hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding reactions performed by broadly defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change. An interactive computer program was developed to calculate the overall growth equation and free energy yield for microorganisms that grow by coupling selected combinations of electron acceptor and electron donor half-reactions. Each group performs a specific function (e.g. oxidation of acetate coupled to reduction of nitrate); collectively the groups provide a theoretical description of the entire natural microbial community. The microbial growth data are combined with an existing thermodynamic data base for associated geochemical reactions and used to simulate the coupled microbial-geochemical response of a complex natural system to substrate addition or any other environmental perturbations.

McKinley, James P.; Istok, Jonathan

2005-06-01

354

Recurrent perseveration correlates with abnormal repetitive locomotion in adult mink but is not reduced by environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

We analysed the relationship between abnormal repetitive behaviour (ARB), the presence/absence of environmental enrichment, and two types of behavioural disinhibition in farmed American mink, Neovison vison. The first type, recurrent perseveration, the inappropriate repetition of already completed responses, was assessed using three indices of excessive response repetition and patterning in a bias-corrected serial two-choice guessing task. The second type, disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, a form of impulsivity, was tested in a locomotive detour task adapted from primate reaching tasks: subjects were required to walk around, rather than directly into, a transparent barrier behind which food was visible. In older adult females, recurrent perseveration positively predicted pre-feeding abnormal repetitive locomotion (ARL) in Non-enriched housing. High-ARL subjects also performed repeated (same-choice) responses more rapidly than low-ARL animals, even when statistically controlling for alternated (different-choice) response latency. Mink performed much less ARL following transfer to Enriched housing, but there was no corresponding change in recurrent perseveration. Thus, elevated recurrent perseveration is not sufficient for frequent ARL; and while captive environments do determine ARL frequency, in mink, they do not necessarily do so by modifying levels of perseveration. Disinhibition of prepotent responses to reward cues, meanwhile, did not predict ARL. In a separate sample of differentially housed young adults, neither type of behavioural disinhibition predicted ARL, and again, whether or not housing was enriched did not affect behavioural disinhibition despite affecting ARL. Thus, the relationship between recurrent perseveration and ARB may only develop with age; longitudinal studies are now required for confirmation. PMID:21466825

Dallaire, Jamie A; Meagher, Rebecca K; Díez-León, María; Garner, Joseph P; Mason, Georgia J

2011-04-02

355

Breeding for genetic improvement of forage plants in relation to increasing animal production with reduced environmental footprint.  

PubMed

Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency. PMID:22717231

Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M

2012-05-01

356

Damage Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage control is an approach that has gained widespread popularity and acceptance in the management of severely injured patients. Although initially popularized in the trauma literature, this technique is being expanded to the management of a broad range of serious, often desperate surgical circumstances that may be encountered, including scenarios confronted by the colon and rectal surgeon. Damage-control surgery is

Kenneth J. McPartland; Neil H. Hyman

2003-01-01

357

Trans-resveratrol alone and hydroxystilbenes of rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L.) root reduce liver damage induced by chronic ethanol administration: a comparative study in mice.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective effects and pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol and hydroxystilbenes of the garden rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum L., R. rhaponticum) root ethanol extract were studied. Ethanol was administered to male BALB/c mice for 35 days in an inhalation chamber. During this time vehicle, trans-resveratrol (20 mg/kg per day) or R. rhaponticum extract was intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered and mice were sacrificed for the collection of liver and blood. In an additional experiment, the level of parent compounds and metabolites was estimated in the blood after acute i.p. administration of trans-resveratrol or R. rhaponticum extract. The levels of hydroxystilbenes, their metabolites and fatty acid oxy-metabolites (oxylipins) were studied by LC-tandem DAD-MS/MS. Ethanol induced hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by histological changes and accumulation of oxylipins in the blood. Both trans-resveratrol and R. rhaponticum extract reduced the extent of these changes. The pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol was characterized by a rapid removal from the blood and metabolism to sulfates and glucuronides. After the administration of R. rhaponticum extract, in addition to trans-resveratrol glucoside and its metabolites, several other hydroxystilbenes were found. Inhibition of oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is proposed as a basis of the hepatoprotective effect of both trans-resveratrol and R. rhaponticum extract. PMID:19067386

Raal, Ain; Pokk, Paavo; Arend, Andres; Aunapuu, Marina; Jõgi, Janne; Okva, Kai; Püssa, Tõnu

2009-04-01

358

Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione.  

PubMed

Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway. PMID:19202298

Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

2009-02-07

359

China's 11th Five-Year Plan and the Environment: Reducing SO2 Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's rapid economic growth has been accompanied by a high level of environmental degradation. One of the major sources of health and ecosystem damages is sulfur dioxide (SO2). Reducing SO2 emissions is a priority of China's environmental authorities, and the 11th Five-Year Plan (2006–2010) includes the target of reducing total SO2 emissions by 10 percent from the 2005 level. Given

Jing Cao; Richard Garbaccio; Mun S. Ho

2009-01-01

360

Oxidative stress in Perna perna and other bivalves as indicators of environmental stress in the Brazilian marine environment: Antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress can take place in marine bivalves under a series of environmental adverse conditions. The study of different systems related to oxidative stress in these organisms can give important information about their physiological status and also about environmental health. Bivalves have been proposed as good sentinel organisms in pollution monitoring studies through the analysis of biochemical biomarkers, and most

Eduardo Alves de Almeida; Afonso Celso Dias Bainy; Ana Paula de Melo Loureiro; Glaucia Regina Martinez; Sayuri Miyamoto; Janice Onuki; Lívea Fujita Barbosa; Camila Carrião Machado Garcia; Fernanda Manso Prado; Graziella Eliza Ronsein; Carlos Alexandre Sigolo; Cláudia Barbosa Brochini; Ana Maria Gracioso Martins; Marisa Helena Gennari de Medeiros; Paolo Di Mascio

2007-01-01

361

Evaluation of alternative planting strategies to reduce wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) damage to spring wheat in the northern Great Plains.  

PubMed

Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., producers are often reluctant to use solid-stemmed wheat cultivars resistant to wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), due to concerns regarding yield, efficacy or market opportunities. We evaluated the impact of several planting strategies on wheat yield and quality and wheat stem sawfly infestation at two locations over a three-year period. Experimental units consisted of large plots (50 by 200 m) located on commercial farms adjacent to wheat stem sawfly-infested fields. Compared with a monoculture of a hollow-stemmed cultivar ('AC Barrie'), planting a monoculture of a solid-stemmed cultivar ('AC Eatonia') increased yield by an average of 16% (0.4 mg ha(-1)) and increased the grade of wheat by one unit at the two most heavily infested site-years. Planting a 1:1 blend of AC Eatonia and AC Barrie increased yield by an average of 11%, whereas planting 20- or 40-m plot margins to AC Eatonia increased yield by an average of 8%. High wheat stem sawfly pressure limited the effectiveness of using resistant cultivars in field margins because plants were often infested beyond the plot margin, with uniform infestation down the length of the plots at the two most heavily infested site-years. The effectiveness of AC Eatonia to reduce wheat stem sawfly survivorship was modest in this study, probably due to weather-related factors influencing pith expression and to the high abundance of wheat stem sawfly. Greater benefits from planting field margins to resistant cultivars or planting a blend of resistant and susceptible cultivars might be achievable under lower wheat stem sawfly pressure. PMID:20069842

Beres, B L; Cárcamo, H A; Bremer, E

2009-12-01

362

Transfusion of CXCR4-Primed Endothelial Progenitor Cells Reduces Cerebral Ischemic Damage and Promotes Repair in db/db Diabetic Mice  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis in brain and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and explored the efficacy of CXCR4 primed EPCs in treating ischemic stroke in diabetes. The db/db diabetic and db/+ mice were used in this study. Levels of plasma SDF-1? and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were measured. Brain SDF-1? and CXCR4 expression were quantified at basal and after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In in vitro study, EPCs were transfected with adenovirus carrying null (Ad-null) or CXCR4 (Ad-CXCR4) followed with high glucose (HG) treatment for 4 days. For pathway block experiments, cells were pre-incubated with PI3K inhibitor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor for two hours. The CXCR4 expression, function and apoptosis of EPCs were determined. The p-Akt/Akt and p-eNOS/eNOS expression in EPCs were also measured. In in vivo study, EPCs transfected with Ad-null or Ad-CXCR4 were infused into mice via tail vein. On day 2 and 7, the cerebral blood flow, neurologic deficit score, infarct volume, cerebral microvascular density, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were determined. We found: 1) The levels of plasma SDF-1? and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were decreased in db/db mice; 2) The basal level of SDF-1? and MCAO-induced up-regulation of SDF-1?/CXCR4 axis were reduced in the brain of db/db mice; 3) Ad-CXCR4 transfection increased CXCR4 expression in EPCs and enhanced EPC colonic forming capacity; 4) Ad-CXCR4 transfection prevented EPCs from HG-induced dysfunction (migration and tube formation) and apoptosis via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway; 4) Ad-CXCR4 transfection enhanced the efficacy of EPC infusion in attenuating infarct volume and promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Our data suggest that Ad-CXCR4 primed EPCs have better therapeutic effects for ischemia stroke in diabetes than unmodified EPCs do.

Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Liangqing; Xiao, Xiang; Das, Avik; Zhao, Yuhui; Yuan, Bin; Morris, Mariana; Zhao, Bin; Chen, Yanfang

2012-01-01

363

Environmental Economics Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kenneth Acks, publisher of the Environmental Damage Valuation Cost Benefit News, authors this glossary of environmental economics terms. In addition to concise definitions, the site also includes links to other glossaries and learning sites of interest to resource economists.

1998-01-01

364

Proof of the DNA-Repair Synthesis in Human Cell Cultures for Identifying DNA-Damaging Environmental Chemicals with Metabolic Test Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the frame of the present dissertation it was investigated whether or not the measurement of the DNA-repair synthesis in human cell cultures provides the possibility to reliably identify not only directly but also indirectly acting DNA-damaging chem...

U. Andrae

1980-01-01

365

The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resources Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Introduction to a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Techincal Workshop  

EPA Science Inventory

A SETAC Technical Workshop titled ?The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Understanding and Improving the Common Scientific Underpinnings,? was held 18?22 August 2008 in Gregson, Montana, USA, to examine the linkage, nexu...

366

Design and study of advanced photoresist materials: Positive tone photoresists with reduced environmental impact and materials for 157 nm lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concern about using organic solvents in semiconductor manufacturing led us to consider a photoresist system that can be fully processed with aqueous media. A series of new polymers were designed and prepared that demonstrate fully aqueous processable positive tone imaging. Positive tone imaging requires two solubility switches, and this has been accomplished by two different methods. In both cases, a post application baking step was utilized to render the water soluble polymer insoluble in water, and photo-induced acid catalyzed reactions regenerated aqueous solubility only in the exposed areas. The first system is based on the reaction of vinyl ethers. When the film is baked after casting from water, the vinyl ethers incorporated into the photoresist react with acidic hydroxyl groups on the matrix polymer to form acetal cross-linkages. The acetal linkages of the exposed areas are hydrolyzed by photo-acids to create positive tone imaging with pure water development. Although these systems provided positive tone imaging and were successfully cast from and developed with pure water, there are some shortcomings to this design approach such as poor dry etch resistance and short shelf life. The second system was designed to address these shortcomings. Various polystyrene-based polymers bearing ammonium salts of malonic acid monoesters were prepared and studied. The ammonium salts render the styrenic polymers soluble in water. Upon baking, ammonia is volatilized, and the resulting malonic acid monoester undergoes decarboxylation that results in formation of a base insoluble polymer. Studies on the selection of acid labile ester protecting groups, kinetics of decarboxylation and imaging are presented. Lithography with 157 nm exposure is the most promising candidate for post-193 nm lithography, and this technology is expected to provide the resolution required for the next generation of microelectronic devices. Designing photoresists for 157 nm imaging is a challenge because air, water and even the simplest hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene absorb strongly at this wavelength. Incorporation of fluorine atoms into matrix polymers is the key to reducing their absorbance at 157 nm. Studies on the metal-catalyzed polymerization of fluorine-containing norbornene derivatives for this application are also presented.

Yamada, Shintaro

367

Damaged Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturers may intentionally damage a portion of their goods in order to price discriminate. Many instances of this phenomenon are observed. It may result in a Pareto improvement. Copyright 1996 The Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Raymond J. Deneckere; R. Preston McAfee

1996-01-01

368

A School-Based Environmental Intervention to Reduce Smoking among High School Students: The Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT)  

PubMed Central

A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control) in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline = 25%) was followed over four years for 30-day smoking prevalence with the school as the unit of analysis. Although prevalence decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools in Year 2 the significant difference between the two groups at baseline was not overcome by the intervention and increases in prevalence were observed in both groups in Years 3 and 4. The higher the percentage of white students in a school the higher the prevalence rates regardless of intervention/control status. Boys’ and girls’ smoking rates were similar. These outcome data, student feedback and process evaluation provide a basis for continuing to create more innovative adolescent tobacco control programs.

Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Webber, Larry S.; Boris, Neil W.; He, Hao; Brewer, Dixye

2009-01-01

369

Using DNA damage to monitor water environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA damage of aquatic organisms living in polluted environments can be used as a biomarker of the genotoxicity of toxic agents to organisms. This technique has been playing an important role in ecotoxicological study and environmental risk assessment. In this article, main types of DNA damage caused by pollutants in water environments were reviewed; methods of detecting DNA damage were also documented for water environmental monitoring.

Zhu, Liyan; Huang, Ying; Liu, Guangxing

2005-09-01

370

Production and Excretion of Nod Metabolites by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii Are Disrupted by the Same Environmental Factors That Reduce Nodulation in the Field  

PubMed Central

Lipooligosaccharides (Nod metabolites) have been shown to be essential for the successful nodulation of legumes. In strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, Nod metabolites were detected predominantly within the cell and to a lesser extent in the periplasmic space and the growth medium. The production, and in particular the excretion, of Nod metabolites was restricted by a range of environmental conditions which are associated with poor nodulation in the field. Lowering the medium pH from 7.0 to 5.0, reducing the phosphate concentration from 1 mM to 5 ?M KH2PO4, and lowering the incubation temperature from 28 to 18°C affected the number and relative concentrations of the Nod metabolites made. The form and concentration of the nitrogen source affected the relative concentrations of the Nod metabolites produced and excreted. KNO3 concentrations of >10 mM did not affect cell growth rate but substantially reduced the number of Nod metabolites released. Environmental stresses differentially altered Nod metabolite production and excretion in the same strain carrying different introduced nod regions. Strain ANU845(pWLH1) produced and excreted comparatively fewer Nod metabolites at pH 5.0 and at 18°C than strain ANU845(pRI4003). The excretion but not the production of Nod metabolites by strain ANU845(pRtO32) was dependent on the presence of both nodI and nodJ. Tn5-induced nodI and nodJ mutants did not accumulate any metabolites either outside the cell or within the outer membrane or periplasmic space. Recognition that Nod metabolite accumulation is a complex system of production and excretion, with each component responding differently to changes in environmental conditions, has many consequences, both at the molecular level and in the field. The ability of different strains to produce and release Nod metabolites is likely to be a major determinant of nodule occupancy and should be considered when screening strains suitable for adverse environments. Images

McKay, Ian A.; Djordjevic, Michael A.

1993-01-01

371

Reducing Housing Moisture Damage in Humid Climates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Walls constructed of hollow concrete masonry with inside furring, insulation, and gypsum drywall finishes are especially vulnerable in semitropical and tropical clim...

1984-01-01

372

Common trenching reduces damage to buried utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1972 Niagara Mohawk Power Co. has established a utility corridor, installing 503 miles of buried gas mains and electric cables in a common trench. Their guidelines for common trenching included (1) the developer's responsibility for providing a subdivision map showing the location of each sidewalk, lot, and roadway, (2) an easement strip paralleling the front lot (street) line that

Alfiere

1982-01-01

373

REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS IN TANNERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanning, in particular chrome leather production, is still characterised by an inefficient use of raw material and the production of highly polluted wastewater and solid wastes. A part of the emissions can be prevented by introducing clean tanning technologies, the remaining emissions can be treated. Clean production technologies and waste (water) treatment technologies should have a designed complimentarity. Anaerobic wastewater

J. W. van Groenestijn; J. S. A. Langerwerf; M. Lucas

2002-01-01

374

Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems - Final Report , Project 99-0280  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of

Stephen M. Bruemmer; Edward P. Simonen; Jian Gan; Francis A. Garner; David S. Gelles; Danny J. Edwards; Peter L. Andresen; Lisa M. Young; L. Fournier; Bulent H. Sencer

2002-01-01

375

Mechanisms of freezing damage.  

PubMed

Freezing of aqueous systems involves numerous simultaneous changes but this review concentrates on direct effects of the formation of ice and the consequent concentration of solutes in the remaining liquid phase. It is generally believed that cell injury at low cooling rates is principally due to the concentration of both intracellular and extracellular electrolytes and that cryoprotectants act by reducing this build-up. New experimental data are presented to support this explanation; we find that the extent of damage to human red blood cells during freezing in solutions of sodium chloride/glycerol/water can be quantitatively accounted for by the increase in solute concentration. However, we also show that a given degree of damage occurs at lower concentrations of solute in the presence of higher concentrations of glycerol; it appears that glycerol contributes an element of damage itself. Recently published studies from Mazur's laboratory have suggested that the dominant damaging factor at low cooling rates is actually the reduction of the quantity of unfrozen water rather than the corresponding increase in salt concentration that accompanies freezing. These data are re-evaluated, and it is argued that the experimental results could equally well be explained by a susceptibility of cells to shrinkage and re-expansion as the concentration of external impermeant solutes first increases during freezing and then decreases during thawing. It is concluded that external ice probably has no directly damaging effect upon dilute suspensions of cells. However, it is also argued that ice is directly damaging whenever it forms intracellularly, and also when it forms extracellularly in densely packed cell suspensions. In the latter case the damage is probably due to recrystallization of the ice masses during thawing. Extracellular ice also has a directly damaging effect when tissues and organs are frozen. The difficulties of designing experimental methods that will yield unequivocal results is emphasized, and consequently the above conclusions must be regarded as tentative at the present time. PMID:3332492

Pegg, D E

1987-01-01

376

Lack of an association between environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and p,p'DDE and DNA damage in human sperm measured using the neutral comet assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chlorinated organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, the most stable daugh- ter compound of DDT) are persistent lipophilic compounds found in a large portion of the general population. To explore the hypothesis that environmental exposure to these compounds is associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, a study

R. Hauser; N. P. Singh; Z. Chen; L. Pothier; L. Altshul

2003-01-01

377

Utilization of multi?dates LANDSAT_TM data to detect and quantify the environmental damages in the southeastern region of Kuwait from 1990 to 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces in August 1990, has affected the environment of the Gulf region and of Kuwait in particular. The environmental consequences of military operations and burning of oil wells in 1991 severely affected the air and the marine environment in addition to the terrestrial ecosystems in Kuwait. The air environment received hundreds of thousands of

2007-01-01

378

Economic and environmental impacts of back-to-contour reclamation of surface coal mines in Central Appalachia. [Including externalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Back-to-contour reclamation is intended to represent a method for both protecting the environment and simultaneously recovering valuable and needed coal. To what extent, therefore, will back-to-contour reclamation succeed in reducing the environmental damages that have been shown to result from surface mining on steep slopes. These environmental damages represent the external costs of surface coal production that historically have not

Bohm

1977-01-01

379

Environmental federalism and environmental liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental federalism considers what level of government should optimally regulate pollution. This paper addresses this question for accidental pollution, which government regulates through the ex post liability regimes of either negligence or strict liability. We find that decentralizing the choice between these regimes does not, in general, induce the socially optimal outcome. When firms can pay all damages, all regions

Klaas van't Veld; Jason F. Shogren

380

A CDM analysis of stochastic ductile damage growth and reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of damage within a structure due to service loading or environmental conditions is a random phenomenon. Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) enables macroscopic manifestations of damage to be related to microscopic defects and discontinuities present within a material. This permits margins of safety to be assessed prior to the time at which damage becomes visible or detectable. Under fairly

Baidurya Bhattacharya; Bruce Ellingwood

1999-01-01

381

Determination of the feasibility of reducing the spatial domain of the HEDR dose code. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 006  

SciTech Connect

A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. The primary impetus for this scoping calculation was to determine if large areas of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project atmospheric domain could be excluded from detailed calculation because the atmospheric transport of radionuclides from Hanford resulted in no (or negligible) deposition in those areas. The secondary impetus was to investigate whether an intermediate screen could be developed to reduce the data storage requirements by taking advantage of locations with periods of ``effectively zero`` deposition. This scoping calculation (Calculation 006) examined the spatial distribution of potential doses resulting from releases in the year 1945. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study, of iodine in cow`s milk, and the third scoping study, which added additional pathways. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, and (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cow`s milk from Feeding Regime 1 as described in scoping calculation 001.

Napier, B.A.; Snyder, S.F.

1992-12-01

382

A new culture-based method for the improved identification of Vibrio vulnificus from environmental samples, reducing the need for molecular confirmation.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for 95% of seafood related deaths in the US. Monitoring the presence of this bacterium in estuarine waters and shellfish is of medical and economic importance due to its ability to cause severe wound infections and fulminant septicemia. Current methods for isolating V. vulnificus from environmental samples typically employ an initial selective medium which requires subsequent molecular confirmation of presumptive V. vulnificus isolates. Although culture-based methods are accessible and inexpensive, they lack the specificity needed to definitively identify V. vulnificus. The goal of this study was to develop a more accurate, culture-based method for the initial detection of V. vulnificus, thereby decreasing or eliminating the requirement for confirmatory molecular tests. Colony color characteristics of a variety of Vibrio species were determined on three commonly employed media to identify those which present as false-positive isolates for V. vulnificus. We subsequently developed a triple-plating method which utilizes three media in combination to greatly decrease the number of false positive isolates. The number of isolates positively identified as V. vulnificus using the triple-plating method were compared to a typical single-plating method and revealed over a 2-fold increase in ability to accurately predict V. vulnificus isolates. We suggest that this new method will enhance the predictive power of culture-based methods, reduce the cost and time spent on additional detection methods, and may be a valuable alternative when molecular methods are not available or unaffordable. PMID:23566825

Williams, Tiffany C; Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James D

2013-04-06

383

Damages Caps in Medical Malpractice Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of damages caps and concludes that the better-designed studies show that damages caps reduce liability insurance premiums. The effects of damages caps on defensive medicine, physicians’ location decisions, and the cost of health care to consumers are less clear. The only study of whether consumers benefit from lower health insurance premiums

LEONARD J. NELSON; MICHAEL A. MORRISEY; MEREDITH L. KILGORE

2007-01-01

384

Total dose and proton damage in optocouplers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation damage from gamma rays and protons is investigated for two types of optocouplers with different physical configurations. Far more damage occurs from protons because of displacement damage, which reduces the photoresponse of the phototransistor and causes severe degradation in LED light output for one of the two device types. The other device type was far more resistant to radiation,

B. G. Rax; C. I. Lee; A. H. Johnston; C. E. Barnes

1996-01-01

385

Damage threshold study of ion beam sputtered coatings for a visible high-repetition laser at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

Ion Beam Sputtered (IBS) coatings offer some distinct advantages over electron beam deposited (e-beam) coatings, namely environmental stability and extremely low total losses. Initial IBS coatings had excessive stress and low laser damage thresholds. For these reasons, a study was initiated to examine potential laser damage thresholds and stress of IBS coatings. A material study was conducted of IBS coatings produced in industry, and a variety of design techniques were explored to increase laser damage thresholds. A post annealing process and backside coatings were developed to reduce the coating stress.

Stolz, C.J.; Taylor, J.R.

1992-10-01

386

Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

2012-02-02

387

5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.  

PubMed

The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body ?- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:22843381

Grace, Marcy B; Singh, Vijay K; Rhee, Juong G; Jackson, William E; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H

2012-07-22

388

5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body ?- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

Grace, Marcy B.; Singh, Vijay K.; Rhee, Juong G.; Jackson, William E.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H.

2012-01-01

389

Reduction in fiber damage thresholds due to static fatigue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a number of years we have been investigating laser-induced damage mechanisms that can occur during the transmission of Q-switched, Nd/YAG laser pulses through fused silica fibers. We have found that fiber end-face characteristics, laser characteristics, and aspects of the laser-to-fiber injection typically determine dominant damage mechanisms. However, an additional damage process has been observed occasionally at internal sites where fibers were experiencing significant local stresses due to fixturing or to bends in the fiber path. A transmission reduction prior to damage was typically not measureable at these sites. Damage would not always occur during initial testing, but sometimes occurred later in time at laser levels that previously had been transmitted without damage. In these cases the time at stress appeared to be more important than the number of transmitted shots prior to damage. A possible relation between internal damage thresholds at stressed sites and the total time under stress is suggested by the fact that silica fibers experience static fatigue processes. These processes involve the slow growth of local defects under tensile stress at rates that depend upon environmental conditions. Defects reaching sufficient size and having appropriate location could be sites for reduced laser-induced damage thresholds. This possibility could have important implications for high-power fiber transmission systems that must satisfy extended lifetime requirements. The needs of the telecommunications industry have motivated extensive studies into initial fiber defect characteristics and their likely growth mechanisms. The present work used the understanding developed in these studies to guide a preliminary experimental investigation into the possibility that static fatigue processes can affect damage thresholds. The experiments used a laser injection and fiber routing configuration that produced significantly elevated fluences within fiber core regions under tensile stress. In one set of experiments, internal damage thresholds were determined in available fiber samples that had been assembled in stress-imposing fixtures for periods up to 24 months. A decline in mean thresholds with time was observed, although measured values showed significant scatter. In order to establish initial strength and fatigue properties for these fibers, a number of additional samples were used to generate time-to-failure data at various stress levels. Based on these results, other fiber samples were subjected to conditions that greatly accelerated fatigue processes. Internal damage thresholds were then measured in these fibers and compared to thresholds measured in fresh fibers. Conclusive comparisons were frustrated by sample-to-sample and lot-to-lot variations in fiber defects.

Setchell, Robert E.

1995-07-01

390

Remote sensing of forest damage in the Czech Republic using hyperspectral methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study assesses the potential of hyperspectral data for monitoring the initial stages of damage in Norway spruce forests characterized by subtle changes in foliar chlorophyll and chemistry. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution reflectance measurements were obtained for selected study sites in the Krusne hory, Czech Republic. High spectral resolution airborne canopy data and field foliar samples were acquired simultaneously in August 1998 for a total of 51 study sites within the Krusne hory. The sites were selected to represent a full range of damage conditions in even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands located between 820--920m elevation. Reflectance, foliar pigments, nitrogen and chemical constituents were determined for first-, second- and third-year needles. A strong correlation to damage was established for the foliar chemistry. A significant increase in polar compounds (such as tannins, sugars and starch) and a reduced needle lignification occurs with increasing damage. Foliar chemical constituents appear to be effective indicators of long-term environmental conditions. The strong relationship between damage level and polar compounds suggests high potential for use of these constituents as bio-indicators of stress. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution data separate the initial forest damage classes. Based on field reflectance measurements for third-year needles, derivative indices from the red edge region were most strongly correlated to damage level, followed by indices ratioing damage-sensitive and damage-insensitive bands and a parameter describing the fit of an Inverted Gaussian curve. Red/red edge spectral data from the Airborne Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) had the highest potential for separation of initial levels of damage, which corresponds with the region suggested as most sensitive to damage as seen in conducting the field reflectance measurements. Both optical and derivative indices incorporating reflectance from the red edge region present the most potential as indicators of initial damage in both leaf and canopy spectra.

Entcheva, Petya K.

391

Environmental Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environment Canada has developed a set of environmental indicators that are easily measurable and provide useful clues on the state of the environment. This Web site provides a listing of those indicators that Environment Canada monitors. For each indicator, there is a detailed description of the environmental indicator, how it relates to larger environmental problems, and what is being done to reduce the threat. A number of Web links are provided for further information on each indicator.

2007-12-12

392

Global Warming Damages and Canada's Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social net benefit of energy investments differs from private profitability by the value of environmental damages, among other things. Estimates of damages associated with greenhouse gas emissions are obtained from the literature, ranging from $15 to $64 (C$ 2004) per tonne of carbon. These values are shown to be equivalent to $2 to $8 per barrel of crude oil

Leslie Shiell; Suzanne Loney

2007-01-01

393

Radiation-induced versus endogenous DNA damage: possible effect of inducible protective responses in mitigating endogenous damage.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation (IR) causes damage to DNA that is apparently proportional to absorbed dose. The incidence of radiation-induced cancer in humans unequivocally rises with the value of absorbed doses above about 300 mGy, in a seemingly linear fashion. Extrapolation of this linear correlation down to zero-dose constitutes the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of radiation-induced cancer incidence. The corresponding dose-risk correlation, however, is questionable at doses lower than 300 mGy. Non-radiation induced DNA damage and, in consequence, oncogenic transformation in non-irradiated cells arises from a variety of sources, mainly from weak endogenous carcinogens such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as from micronutrient deficiencies and environmental toxins. In order to relate the low probability of radiation-induced cancer to the relatively high incidence of non-radiation carcinogenesis, especially at low-dose irradiation, the quantitative and qualitative differences between the DNA damages from non-radiation and radiation sources need to be addressed and put into context of physiological mechanisms of cellular protection. This paper summarizes a co-operative approach by the authors to answer the questions on the quantitative and qualitative DNA damages from non-radiation sources, largely endogenous ROS, and following exposure to low doses of IR. The analysis relies on published data and justified assumptions and considers the physiological capacity of mammalian cells to protect themselves constantly by preventing and repairing DNA damage. Furthermore, damaged cells are susceptible to removal by apoptosis or the immune system. The results suggest that the various forms of non-radiation DNA damage in tissues far outweigh corresponding DNA damage from low-dose radiation exposure at the level of, and well above, background radiation. These data are examined within the context of low-dose radiation induction of cellular signaling that may stimulate cellular protection systems over hours to weeks against accumulation of DNA damage. The particular focus is the hypothesis that these enhanced and persisting protective responses reduce the steady state level of non-radiation DNA damage, thereby reducing deleterious outcomes such as cancer and aging. The emerging model urgently needs rigorous experimental testing, since it suggests, importantly, that the LNT hypothesis is invalid for complex adaptive systems such as mammalian organisms. PMID:12856953

Pollycove, Myron; Feinendegen, Ludwig E

2003-06-01

394

Involvement of autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in determining the fate and effects of irreparable mitochondrial DNA damage.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is different in many ways from nuclear DNA. A key difference is that certain types of DNA damage are not repaired in the mitochondrial genome. What, then, is the fate of such damage? What are the effects? Both questions are important from a health perspective because irreparable mtDNA damage is caused by many common environmental stressors including ultraviolet C radiation (UVC). We found that UVC-induced mtDNA damage is removed slowly in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans via a mechanism dependent on mitochondrial fusion, fission, and autophagy. However, knockdown or knockout of genes involved in these processes—many of which have homologs involved in human mitochondrial diseases—had very different effects on the organismal response to UVC. Reduced mitochondrial fission and autophagy caused no or small effects, while reduced mitochondrial fusion had dramatic effects. PMID:22929123

Meyer, Joel N; Bess, Amanda S

2012-12-01

395

Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

2002-12-27

396

Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

2011-01-01

397

Environmental indices: theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

All existing environmental index systems, along with principles for their design, application and structure, are included in this book. Chapter I introduces environmental data, presenting simple communicative approaches such as environmental quality profiles. It also describes the national monitoring activities that generate these data and discusses the difficulty of constructing meaningful environmental damage functions. Chapter II presents a new conceptual

W. R. Ott

1978-01-01

398

Environmental specimen banking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of environmental damage from the countless chemicals and chemical combinations is estimated by monitoring the air,\\u000a water, soil, and biota and comparing the findings to known risks. Environmental monitoring involves the collection and chemical\\u000a analysis of selected samples to determine pollutant trends, forecast damage to the environment, and develop control strategies.\\u000a However, past experience has taught us that

Robert E. Lee

1990-01-01

399

Factors contributing to the amount of vehicular damage resulting from collisions between four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars.  

PubMed

This study examines the vehicular damage resulting from motor vehicle crashes involving four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars in the state of Oklahoma. In particular, the focus of the analysis is on differences in vehicular damage to passenger cars and four-wheel drive vehicles. Results indicate that passenger cars sustain significantly greater vehicular damage than four-wheel drive vehicles. In addition, several other factors significantly influence the level of damage resulting from collisions between four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars. Driver behavior or unsafe acts, represented by the rate of travel prior to the collision, failure to yield, failure to obey a stoplight or a stop sign, the consumption of alcohol and the use of drugs, also contributed to the amount of vehicular damage. In addition, results also indicate that the level of damage was influenced significantly by environmental factors, represented by a reduced intensity of light, wet or slippery roadways and the type of collision. The findings reinforce the importance of a number of policy initiatives that may reduce the vehicular damage resulting from collisions involving four-wheel drive vehicles and passenger cars. For example, the study indicates a need to initiate legislation that lowers the speed limit during dark and twilight hours, commits additional resources to road maintenance to reduce unsafe road conditions, and stimulates improvements in automotive design that provide better lateral protection to vehicles. PMID:11491248

Broyles, R W; Clarke, S R; Narine, L; Baker, D R

2001-09-01

400

Juror Judgments in Civil Cases: Effects of Plaintiff's Requests and Plaintiff's Identity on Punitive Damage Awards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to study the manner in which civil jurors assess punitive damage awards. Jury-eligible citizens were shown a videotaped summary of an environmental damage lawsuit and told that the defendant had already paid compensatory damages. They were asked to judge liability for punitive damages and, if damages were to be assessed, to assign a dollar award. Three

Reid Hastie; David A. Schkade; John W. Payne

1999-01-01

401

Structural Damage Assessment under Uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural damage assessment has applications in the majority of engineering structures and mechanical systems ranging from aerospace vehicles to manufacturing equipment. The primary goals of any structural damage assessment and health monitoring systems are to ascertain the condition of a structure and to provide an evaluation of changes as a function of time as well as providing an early-warning of an unsafe condition. There are many structural heath monitoring and assessment techniques developed for research using numerical simulations and scaled structural experiments. However, the transition from research to real-world structures has been rather slow. One major reason for this slow-progress is the existence of uncertainty in every step of the damage assessment process. This dissertation research involved the experimental and numerical investigation of uncertainty in vibration-based structural health monitoring and development of robust detection and localization methods. The basic premise of vibration-based structural health monitoring is that changes in structural characteristics, such as stiffness, mass and damping, will affect the global vibration response of the structure. The diagnostic performance of vibration-based monitoring system is affected by uncertainty sources such as measurement errors, environmental disturbances and parametric modeling uncertainties. To address diagnostic errors due to irreducible uncertainty, a pattern recognition framework for damage detection has been developed to be used for continuous monitoring of structures. The robust damage detection approach developed is based on the ensemble of dimensional reduction algorithms for improved damage-sensitive feature extraction. For damage localization, the determination of an experimental structural model was performed based on output-only modal analysis. An experimental model correlation technique is developed in which the discrepancies between the undamaged and damaged modal data are isolated based on the integration of sensitivity analysis and statistical sampling, which minimizes the occurrence of false-damage indication due to uncertainty. To perform diagnostic decision-making under uncertainty, an evidential reasoning approach for damage assessment is developed for addressing the possible imprecision in the damage localization results. The newly developed damage detection and localization techniques are applied and validated through both vibration test data from literature and in house laboratory experiments.

Lopez Martinez, Israel

402

Assisting Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Actively Reduces Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through Controlling Environmental Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the…

Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Yeh, Jui-Chi; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chang, Man-Ling

2011-01-01

403

Assisting Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Actively Reduces Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through Controlling Environmental Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the…

Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Yeh, Jui-Chi; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chang, Man-Ling

2011-01-01

404

Assisting children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder actively reduces limb hyperactive behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through controlling environmental stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the correction of limb hyperactive behavior to assess whether two children

Ching-Hsiang Shih; Jui-Chi Yeh; Ching-Tien Shih; Man-Ling Chang

2011-01-01

405

The combination of reducing agents\\/iron as environmentally friendlier alternatives for Co-based driers in the drying of alkyd paints  

Microsoft Academic Search

In answer to the increased demand for Co-free driers for alkyd based paints, a biomimetic approach has been used to find suitable and environmentally friendly alternatives for Co-based driers for alkyd paints. This approach was chosen due to the resemblance between the mechanisms by which alkyd paints dry and lipids are oxidized in biological systems. As a consequence, the combination

Fabrizio Miccichè; Eef Oostveen; Jacco van Haveren; Robert van der Linde

2005-01-01

406

Secondary containment coating ensures against environmental damage  

SciTech Connect

Waste Research and Reclamation Co. Inc. (Eau Claire, Wis), several years ago began looking for protective coatings to apply to concrete secondary containment surfaces. Although coatings for concrete floors have been available for some time, application of floor sealers and thin-film coatings were unsuccessful in secondary containment applications. About three years ago, the company discovered a copolymer-based industrial flooring material designed specifically to resist attack from a broad variety of chemicals, including highly corrosive acids and bases. Initial evaluations of the flooring's performance are quite positive. It has proved impermeable to spilled materials and stands up well in high-traffic areas. Odorless, non-porous Overkote[reg sign] materials are available in various formulations, depending on the situation. One version, a heavy-duty floor topping designed for severe chemical service, is used at the Waste Research and Reclamation facility to protect against sulfuric acid spills. Another version was installed in the chemical loading and unloading areas, and in places where drummed wastes are stored. Overkote[reg sign] MC is designed to resist halogenated solvents. In containment applications, it provides a useful immersion life of up to three weeks, compared to less than two hours for some other systems. This material is used to protect areas beneath solvent storage tanks, pumps and piping. Still another format is a composite material designed for use on walls, and joints between walls and floors.

Not Available

1994-03-01

407

The Cosmic Silence experiment: on the putative adaptive role of environmental ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Previously we reported that yeast and Chinese hamster V79 cells cultured under reduced levels of background environmental ionizing radiation show enhanced susceptibility to damage caused by acute doses of genotoxic agents. Reduction of environmental radiation dose rate was achieved by setting up an underground laboratory at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, central Italy. We now report on the extension of our studies to a human cell line. Human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells were maintained under identical in vitro culture conditions for six continuous months, at different environmental ionizing radiation levels. Compared to "reference" environmental radiation conditions, we found that cells cultured in the underground laboratories were more sensitive to acute exposures to radiation, as measured both at the level of DNA damage and oxidative metabolism. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that ultra-low dose rate ionizing radiation, i.e. environmental radiation, may act as a conditioning agent in the radiation-induced adaptive response. PMID:19169701

Carbone, M C; Pinto, M; Antonelli, F; Amicarelli, F; Balata, M; Belli, M; Conti Devirgiliis, L; Ioannucci, L; Nisi, S; Sapora, O; Satta, L; Simone, Giustina; Sorrentino, E; Tabocchini, M A

2009-01-24

408

Reduced shedding regenerator and method  

SciTech Connect

A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

2007-05-22

409

Tiny Stowaways: Analyzing the Economic Benefits of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Regulating Ballast Water Discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed permitting ballast water discharges—a benefit of which would be to reduce\\u000a the economic damages associated with the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species. Research on ship-borne aquatic\\u000a invasive species has been conducted in earnest for decades, but determining the economic damages they cause remains troublesome.\\u000a Furthermore, with the exception of harmful algal

Sabrina J. Lovell; Lisa A. Drake

2009-01-01

410

DNA Damage and Oxygen Radical Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major portion of the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli is attributed to DNA damage mediated by a Fenton reaction that generates active forms of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide, DNA-bound iron, and a constant source of reducing equivalents. Kinetic peculiarities of DNA damage production by hydrogen peroxide in vivo can be reproduced by including DNA in an

James A. Imlay; Stuart Linn

1988-01-01

411

Evaluation of Community Action Against Asthma: A Community Health Worker Intervention to Improve Children's Asthma-Related Health by Reducing Household Environmental Triggers for Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the evaluation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) community health worker (CHW) intervention to improve children's asthma-related health by reducing household envi- ronmental triggers for asthma. After randomization to an intervention or control group, 298 households in Detroit, Michigan, with a child, aged 7 to 11, with persistent asthma symptoms participated. The intervention was effective in increasing

Edith A. Parker; Barbara A. Israel; Thomas G. Robins; Xihong Lin; Wilma Brakefield-Caldwell; Erminia Ramirez; Katherine K. Edgren; Maria Salinas; Toby C. Lewis

2009-01-01

412

Results of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study (NCICAS) environmental intervention to reduce cockroach allergen exposure in inner-city homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cockroach allergen is important in asthma. Practical methods to reduce exposure are needed. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of house cleaning and professional extermination on lowering cockroach antigen levels in inner-city dwellings. Methods: As part of the National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study intervention, 265 of 331 families with asthmatic children who had positive skin test responses to

Peter J. Gergen; Kathleen M. Mortimer; Peyton A. Eggleston; David Rosenstreich; Herman Mitchell; Dennis Ownby; Meyer Kattan; Dean Baker; Elizabeth C. Wright; Raymond Slavin; Floyd Malveaux

1999-01-01

413

Multifarious power plant water intake structure (MWIS). A design concept to reduce the environmental effects of cooling water intake structures. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design for the Multifarious Power Plant Water Intake Structure (MWIS) was developed to reduce the entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms in water intakes requiring large volumes of cooling water. Its uniqueness is based upon the operation of the system relating to the concentration, distribution and behavior of aquatic organisms. The principals design features are horizontal traveling screens which

Chezar

1976-01-01

414

Environmental Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Environmental noise may be defined as unwanted sound that is caused by emissions from traffic (roads, air traffic corridors,\\u000a and railways), industrial sites and recreational infrastructures, which may cause both annoyance and damage to health. Noise\\u000a in the environment or community se