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1

Do Effluent Charges (Always) Reduce Environmental Damages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effluent charges are discussed as a means for environmental quality. In a comparative static model, the long run adjustment of a perfectly competitive polluting firm to a change in the effluent charge rate is analyzed. The firm is assumed to have a flexib...

A. Endres

1982-01-01

2

Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.  

PubMed

Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme. PMID:21853522

Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

2012-04-01

3

Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J/cm(2) energy densities. The values of energy density were measured before the blue filter. Lesions were measured before and at 2 and 30 days after irradiation of a 2.8 mm diameter region within the macular arcade. Measures were fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and long wavelength scanning by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) unit. The lesions, which were produced, were scored and compared to irradiant energy density of the blue LED (NSPB500S, Nichia, Tokushima, Japan). The exposure at the 20 J/cm(2) produced no detectable result at 2 or 30 days. Exposure at 35 J/cm(2) showed definite lesion production without blue filter. With the filter added there was one indication of minor change. At 60 J/cm(2) there was extensive heavy, enduring damage without the filter and with the filter damage was present but was significantly attenuated. These results strongly support the conclusion that the blue filter attenuation reduces the frequency of damage by exposure. This experimental system is a useful model for normal human eye aging and continuous spectrum environment irradiance. PMID:19660452

Ueda, Toshihiko; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Yasuhara, Hajime; Koide, Ryohei; Dawson, William W

2009-12-01

4

Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina\\/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J\\/cm2 energy densities. The values of

Toshihiko Ueda; Takako Nakanishi-Ueda; Hajime Yasuhara; Ryohei Koide; William W. Dawson

2009-01-01

5

Mountain substitutability and peak load pricing of high alpine peaks as a management tool to reduce environmental damage: a contingent valuation study.  

PubMed

High alpine peaks throughout the world are under increasing environmental pressure from hikers, trekkers, and climbers. Colorado's "Fourteeners", peaks with summits above 14,000 feet are no exception. Most of these peaks have no entrance fees, and reach ecological and social carrying capacity on weekends. This paper illustrates how a series of dichotomous choice contingent valuation questions can be used to evaluate substitutability between different alpine peaks and quantify the price responsiveness to an entrance fee. Using this approach, we find that peak load pricing would decrease use of popular Fourteeners in Colorado by 22%. This reduction is due almost entirely to substitution, rather than income effects. There is also price inelastic demand, as 60% of the hikers find no substitution for their specific Fourteener at the varying cost increases posed in the survey. The no substitute group has a mean net benefit of $294 per hiker, per trip, considerably higher than visitor net benefits in most recreational use studies. PMID:19111965

Loomis, John B; Keske, Catherine M

2009-04-01

6

Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

Not Available

1994-08-01

7

Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

8

Method to reduce damage to backing plate  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

2001-01-01

9

Thin layered interference mirrors to reduce radiation damage  

SciTech Connect

Calculations have been performed which show that damage induced by radiation of wavelength lambda, incident on mirrors (and other optical elements) can be significantly reduced by a multilayered construction, in which the layers most sensitive to radiation damage have thickness d << lambda. The layers may or may not be free-standing. The threshold to radiation damage in certain cases is calculated to increase by a factor approx. = 10/sup 2/.

Csonka, P.L.

1985-01-01

10

Benfotiamine reduces genomic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Hemodialysis patients have an elevated genomic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and an increased cancer incidence, possibly due to accumulation of uremic toxins like advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Because the vitamin B1 prodrug benfotiamine reduces AGE levels in experimental diabetes, and dialysis patients often suffer from vitamin B1 deficiency, we conducted two consecutive studies supplementing hemodialysis patients with benfotiamine. In both studies, genomic damage was measured as micronucleus frequency of PBLs before and at three time-points after initiation of benfotiamine supplementation. AGE-associated fluorescence in plasma, and in the second study additionally, the antioxidative capacity of plasma was analyzed. Benfotiamine significantly lowered the genomic damage of PBLs in hemodialysis patients of both studies independent of changes in plasma AGE levels. The second study gave a hint to the mechanism, as the antioxidative capacity of the plasma of the treated patients clearly increased, which might ameliorate the DNA damage. PMID:18509620

Schupp, Nicole; Dette, Eva Maria; Schmid, Ursula; Bahner, Udo; Winkler, Michaela; Heidland, August; Stopper, Helga

2008-09-01

11

Reverse circulation air drilling can reduce well bore damage  

SciTech Connect

Reverse circulation air drilling coupled with an air dryer at the surface helped eliminate formation damage in several gas wells. During reverse circulation drilling, the air flows down the annulus and up the drill pipe. The following were the three primary objectives of damage-free drilling (DFD): Reducing damage so the initial open flows would more accurately reflect natural permeability. Reducing damage for diagnostic tools (temperature logs, noise logs, mud [gas composition] logs, and borehole television) to better detect liquid and gas entry points. Improving sampling by returning larger cuttings with shorter and more precise lag times. The secondary objectives were to reduce drilling costs through the following: Lowering required circulating air volumes when cuttings are reversed up the drillstring. Reducing water influx from shallow water zones because of annular back pressure during circulation. Improving penetration rates for larger holes. This describes tests while drilling; the borehole television used in investigating air-drilled well bores; permeability tests; cuttings sample; drilling parameters; and operations and results from two field tests.

Graham, R.L.; Foster, J.M.; Amick, P.C.; Shaw, J.S. (Reuben L.Graham Inc., Charleston, WV (United States))

1993-03-22

12

78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...Availability of the Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...entitled, ``Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment...

2013-03-18

13

Fatigue damage accumulation: Aspects of environmental interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion fatigue lifetime of materials can be predicted by simulating the multi-stage damage process with regard for\\u000a the action of both corrosion and mechanical factors. This action can be represented in the form of damage accumulation maps,\\u000a where the processes of pitting, pit-crack transition, and cracking are identified. For the construction of the models, we\\u000a develop localized electrochemical methods

R. Akid; I. M. Dmytrakh; J. Gonzalez-Sanchez

2006-01-01

14

Workshop Report on Quantifying Environmental Damage from Energy Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data and methods for quantifying environmental damage from energy activities were evaluated. Specifically, discussions were designed to identify the types and amounts of pollutants emitted by energy technologies that may affect the environment adversely, ...

P. D. Moskowitz M. D. Rowe S. C. Morris L. D. Hamilton

1977-01-01

15

60 FR 27948 - Areas Unusually Sensitive to Environmental Damage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident, and Establish...identifying each hazardous liquid pipeline facility and gathering...other areas subject to soil erosion or subsidence from flooding...environmental damage from a hazardous liquid pipeline release and...

1995-05-26

16

Environmental Damage Rating Analysis Tool as a Policy Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the environmental damage of vehicles, rating systems are analyzed as to allow decision makers to dedicate their financial and non-financial policies and measures in function of the ecological damage. Different types of pollutions (acid rain, photochemical air pollution, noise pollution and global warming, etc.) and their effect on numerous receptors such as ecosystems, buildings and human

Peter VAN DEN BOSSCHE; Gaston MAGGETTO

17

Drill-in fluid reduces formation damage, increases production rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sodium formate drill-in fluid system reduced formation damage, resulting in better-than-expected production rates for an off-shore Dutch development well. Programmed to optimize production capacity and reservoir drainage from a Rotliegend sandstone gas discovery, the 5-7\\/8-in. subhorizontal production interval was drilled and completed barefoot with a unique, rheologically engineered sodium formate drill-in fluid system. The new system, consisting of a

N. Hands; K. Kowbel; S. Maikranz; R. Nouris

1998-01-01

18

Benfotiamine reduces genomic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysis patients have an elevated genomic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and an increased cancer incidence,\\u000a possibly due to accumulation of uremic toxins like advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Because the vitamin B1 prodrug\\u000a benfotiamine reduces AGE levels in experimental diabetes, and dialysis patients often suffer from vitamin B1 deficiency, we\\u000a conducted two consecutive studies supplementing hemodialysis patients with

Nicole Schupp; Eva Maria Dette; Ursula Schmid; Udo Bahner; Michaela Winkler; Helga Stopper

2008-01-01

19

[Hazardous environmental factors causing renal damage in children].  

PubMed

Hazardous environmental factors invade the body through multiple routes, including ingestion, inhalation and absorption by contact with the skin and mucous membrane. They are from various sources and soil, water, air, building and decorative materials, foods and daily necessities are the main carriers. According to their physical and chemical properties and morphological characteristics, these hazardous factors are classified as metals, inorganic matter, organic matter, radioactive substances, biological toxins, viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and parasites. They cause diseases through blood and urine and also have kidney susceptibility. This article suggests that pediatricians should fully understand the characteristics and seriousness of hazardous environmental factors that cause renal damage, and pay attention to the prevention and control of these factors so as to minimize renal damage in children. PMID:24750822

Xu, Zhi-Quan; Yi, Zhu-Wen

2014-04-01

20

Reducing the environmental impact of uranium in-situ recovery.  

SciTech Connect

This session will explore the current technical approaches to reducing the environmental effects of uranium ISR in comparison to the historical environmental impact of uranium mining to demonstrate advances in this controversial subject.

Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Simmons, Ardyth

2010-10-01

21

Eco-environmental damage investigation and assessment for the abandoned coal mine areas of MTG, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unrestrained exploitation of coal resources lead to severe environmental problems in resource-exhausted areas in China. The environmental pollution and ecological damage degree are the basis to the eco-environmental restoration, both to determine the scope and to calculate the investment. So in ecological damaged area, to evaluate the damage degree is more important than evaluate the quality. By the example

Li Chengxue; Wang Linlin; Zhu Haikun

2010-01-01

22

78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...Availability of a Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...written a Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental...

2013-03-18

23

Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Kreibich, H., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2013) Detailed insights into the influence of flood-coping appraisals on mitigation behaviour. Global Environmental Change. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.05.009. Kreibich, H., Thieken, A. H., Petrow, T., Müller, M., Merz, B. (2005): Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures - Lessons Learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002. NHESS, 5, 1, 117-126. Kreibich, H., Christenberger, S., Schwarze, R. (2011) Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods. NHESS, 11, 2, 309-321.

Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

2014-05-01

24

Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage  

DOEpatents

A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

2012-11-20

25

Reducing Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide for Schools. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This videotape describes the nonstructural areas within a school that can be damaged and create hazards for students, teachers, and staff during and after an earthquake; and discusses preventive measures to lower the injury potential from these hazards. It confirms that the best procedure to use during an earthquake to protect oneself from…

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

26

Reducing Aquatic Rodent Damage through an Integrated Wildlife Damage Management Program in the State of Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to analyze the potential environmental effects of the proposed Alabama WS beaver (Castor canadensis), nutria (Myocastor coypus), and muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) (hereafter referred to as aquatic rodents...

2002-01-01

27

Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust.  

PubMed

Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G; Mattioli, Flavia; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

2013-02-01

28

Manganese superoxide dismutase can reduce cellular damage mediated by oxygen radicals in transgenic plants.  

PubMed Central

In plants, environmental adversity often leads to the formation of highly reactive oxygen radicals. Since resistance to such conditions may be correlated with the activity of enzymes involved in oxygen detoxification, we have generated transgenic tobacco plants which express elevated levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) within their chloroplasts or mitochondria. Leaf discs of these plants have been analyzed in conditions in which oxidative stress was generated preferentially within one or the other organelle. It was found that high level overproduction of MnSOD in the corresponding subcellular location could significantly reduce the amount of cellular damage which would normally occur. In contrast, small increases in MnSOD activity were deleterious under some conditions. A generally applicable model correlating the consequences of SOD with the magnitude of its expression is presented. Images

Bowler, C; Slooten, L; Vandenbranden, S; De Rycke, R; Botterman, J; Sybesma, C; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D

1991-01-01

29

Environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in China, 2000~2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity consumption increases rapidly with the rapid development of China. The environmental damage costs of electricity generation are very important for both policy analysis and the proper management of the environment. A method was developed in this work to estimate gross environmental damage costs according to emission inventory and environmental cost factors, and to extend the costs from provincial to

ZHANG Qing-yu; WEI Yu-mei; CHEN Ying-xu; GUO Hui

2007-01-01

30

Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings  

PubMed Central

Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities.

Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

2011-01-01

31

Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings.  

PubMed

Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (E(high)) or low (E(low)) densities of endophytes. The E(high) seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the E(low) treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from E(low) relative to E(high) seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to E(low) plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

Bittleston, L S; Brockmann, F; Wcislo, W; Van Bael, S A

2011-02-23

32

Reducing pressure damage: care bundles and collaborative learning.  

PubMed

Reduction of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers is a patient and nursing priority. Although evidence-based interventions to prevent such ulcers are well known, reducing this healthcare burden has proven consistently difficult. Via case studies, this article describes how a bundle approach to pressure ulcer prevention may be adapted for use within different clinical areas. It illustrates how collaborative learning may facilitate the spread of improvement work across a health board and build improvement skills within nursing. PMID:24151722

Evans, Alison M; Barklam, Dwynwen; Hone, Karen; Ellis, Gemma; Whitlock, Joy

33

Fixation, not death, reduces sensitivity of DTI in detecting optic nerve damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes of directional diffusivities derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), i.e. decreased axial diffusivity (?||) and increased radial diffusivity (??), have shown significant correlation with axonal and myelin damage, respectively. However, after formalin fixation, reduced sensitivity of ?|| in detecting axonal damage in tissue has raised the concern of applying DTI ex vivo. In order to distinguish whether death

Shu-Wei Sun; Hsiao-Fang Liang; Mingqiang Xie; Udochukwu Oyoyo; Amy Lee

2009-01-01

34

When big trees fall: Damage and carbon export by reduced impact logging in southern Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined carbon export in whole logs and carbon accumulation as coarse woody debris (CWD) produced from forest damage during all phases of the first and second year of a certified reduced impact logging (RIL) timber harvest in southern Amazonia. Our measurements included a 100% survey of roads and log decks, assessment of canopy damage and ground disturbance in skid

Ted R. Feldpausch; Stefan Jirka; Carlos A. M. Passos; Franklin Jasper; Susan J. Riha

2005-01-01

35

Glibenclamide reduces secondary brain damage after experimental traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) SUR1-regulated NCCa-ATP (SUR1/TRPM4) channels are transcriptionally up-regulated in ischemic astrocytes, neurons, and capillaries. ATP depletion results in depolarization and opening of the channel leading to cytotoxic edema. Glibenclamide is an inhibitor of SUR-1 and, thus, might prevent cytotoxic edema and secondary brain damage following TBI. Anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent parietal craniotomy and were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury (CCI). Glibenclamide was administered as a bolus injection 15min after CCI injury and continuously via osmotic pumps throughout 7days. In an acute trial (180min) mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, intracranial pressure, encephalographic activity, and cerebral metabolism were monitored. Brain water content was assessed gravimetrically 24h after CCI injury and contusion volumes were measured by MRI scanning technique at 8h, 24h, 72h, and 7d post injury. Throughout the entire time of observation neurological function was quantified using the "beam-walking" test. Glibenclamide-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the development of brain tissue water content(80.47%±0.37% (glibenclamide) vs. 80.83%±0.44% (control); p<0.05; n=14). Contusion sizes increased continuously within 72h following CCI injury, but glibenclamide-treated animals had significantly smaller volumes at any time-points, like 172.53±38.74mm(3) (glibenclamide) vs. 299.20±64.02mm(3) (control) (p<0.01; n=10; 24h) or 211.10±41.03mm(3) (glibenclamide) vs. 309.76±19.45mm(3) (control) (p<0.05; n=10; 72h), respectively. An effect on acute parameters, however, could not be detected, most likely because of the up-regulation of the channel within 3-6h after injury. Furthermore, there was no significant effect on motor function assessed by the beam-walking test throughout 7days. In accordance to these results and the available literature, glibenclamide seems to have promising potency in the treatment of TBI. PMID:24792709

Zweckberger, K; Hackenberg, K; Jung, C S; Hertle, D N; Kiening, K L; Unterberg, A W; Sakowitz, O W

2014-07-11

36

65 FR 80530 - Pipeline Safety: Areas Unusually Sensitive to Environmental Damage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline release. We refer to these areas...criteria for identifying each hazardous liquid pipeline facility and gathering line located...environmental damage if there is a hazardous liquid pipeline accident. We refer to...

2000-12-21

37

Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of reactive oxygen species is thought to cause extensive oxidative damage to various biomolecules such as DNA,\\u000a RNA, and protein. In this study, the preventive, suppressive, and protective effects of in vitro supplementation with electrolyzed-reduced\\u000a water on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes were examined using a comet assay. Pretreatment, cotreatment, and posttreatment with\\u000a electrolyzed-reduced water enhanced human

Mi Young Lee; Yoon Kyoung Kim; Kun Kul Ryoo; Yoon Bae Lee; Eun Ju Park

2006-01-01

38

Radiation damage in protein crystals is reduced with a micron-sized X-ray beam  

PubMed Central

Radiation damage is a major limitation in crystallography of biological macromolecules, even for cryocooled samples, and is particularly acute in microdiffraction. For the X-ray energies most commonly used for protein crystallography at synchrotron sources, photoelectrons are the predominant source of radiation damage. If the beam size is small relative to the photoelectron path length, then the photoelectron may escape the beam footprint, resulting in less damage in the illuminated volume. Thus, it may be possible to exploit this phenomenon to reduce radiation-induced damage during data measurement for techniques such as diffraction, spectroscopy, and imaging that use X-rays to probe both crystalline and noncrystalline biological samples. In a systematic and direct experimental demonstration of reduced radiation damage in protein crystals with small beams, damage was measured as a function of micron-sized X-ray beams of decreasing dimensions. The damage rate normalized for dose was reduced by a factor of three from the largest (15.6 ?m) to the smallest (0.84 ?m) X-ray beam used. Radiation-induced damage to protein crystals was also mapped parallel and perpendicular to the polarization direction of an incident 1-?m X-ray beam. Damage was greatest at the beam center and decreased monotonically to zero at a distance of about 4 ?m, establishing the range of photoelectrons. The observed damage is less anisotropic than photoelectron emission probability, consistent with photoelectron trajectory simulations. These experimental results provide the basis for data collection protocols to mitigate with micron-sized X-ray beams the effects of radiation damage.

Sanishvili, Ruslan; Yoder, Derek W.; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Xu, Shenglan; Vogt, Stefan; Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg A.; Corcoran, Stephen; Benn, Richard; Nagarajan, Venugopalan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

2011-01-01

39

Environmental Enrichment Protects the Retina from Early Diabetic Damage in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials), retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-?, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Müller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-? levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats.

Dorfman, Damian; Aranda, Marcos L.; Gonzalez Fleitas, Maria Florencia; Chianelli, Monica S.; Fernandez, Diego C.; Sande, Pablo H.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

2014-01-01

40

Policies to Reduce Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses a significant risk to health. It is carcinogenic to humans and is a risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Exposure to ETS is widespread, affecting people in houses, workplaces and public buildings. ETS is also a part of a broader problem of tobacco use. The Working Group was convened to discuss approaches to reducing

2000-01-01

41

Environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in China, 2000?2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity consumption increases rapidly with the rapid development of China. The environmental damage costs of electricity\\u000a generation are very important for both policy analysis and the proper management of the environment. A method was developed\\u000a in this work to estimate gross environmental damage costs according to emission inventory and environmental cost factors,\\u000a and to extend the costs from provincial to

Qing-yu Zhang; Yu-mei Wei; Ying-xu Chen; Hui Guo

2007-01-01

42

Electrolyzed–Reduced Water Scavenges Active Oxygen Species and Protects DNA from Oxidative Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen

Sanetaka Shirahata; Shigeru Kabayama; Mariko Nakano; Takumi Miura; Kenichi Kusumoto; Miho Gotoh; Hidemitsu Hayashi; Kazumichi Otsubo; Shinkatsu Morisawa; Yoshinori Katakura

1997-01-01

43

36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks...Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. Timber sale contract,...

2010-07-01

44

36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks...Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. Timber sale contract,...

2009-07-01

45

Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation  

PubMed Central

A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically-based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically-demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost.

Fletcher, Quinn E.; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.; Woods, Sarah B.; Seo, Arnold Y.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R.; Humphries, Murray M.

2013-01-01

46

Evaluation of a methyl anthranilate formulation for reducing bird damage to blueberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the bird repellency of ReJeX-iT® AG-36 which contains the active ingredient methyl anthranilate (MA). In a 14-day field trial in Michigan, MA applied at 16.1 kg ha?1 did not reduce bird damage overall, but did appear to offer some protection from 3 to 10 days post-treatment. After 10 days, however, bird damage more than doubled. In Florida, we

John L. Cummings; Michael L. Avery; Patricia A. Pochop; James E. Davis; David G. Decker; Heather W. Krupa; James W. Johnson

1995-01-01

47

Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility  

SciTech Connect

An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

1991-01-01

48

Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.  

PubMed Central

The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness.

Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

2000-01-01

49

Polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxidation in Virginia pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines play an important role in the plant response to adverse environmental conditions including salt and osmotic stresses. In this investigation, the responses of polyamines to salt-induced oxidative stress were studied in callus cultures and plantlets in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Our results demonstrated that polyamines reduce salt-induced oxidative damage by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing

Wei Tang; Ronald J. Newton

2005-01-01

50

Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: a Czech case study.  

PubMed

We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the OEI in 2020 by 20% are 12 MEuro. It is most cost effective to achieve this reduction by improving the efficiency of animal manure used as fertilizer. We tested the sensitivity of the model to assumptions about the following: 1) the relative importance of environmental problems as expressed in weighting factors, and 2) future cattle numbers and milk yield per milking cow. The first case indicates that disagreement on which problem is most urgent need not lead to disagreement about policies to be undertaken. Regardless of the weighting factors used, aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the most important problems. However, the overall costs of reducing the OEI differ with alternative sets of weighting factors, because the costs of emission reduction differ among pollutants. The second case shows that the DAIRY model results are more sensitive to changes in cattle numbers than to changes in milk yield. This study is the first integrated assessment of dairy cattle production for a Central European country and illustrates how systematic analyses may help to find optimal solutions. PMID:20821700

Havlikova, Martina; Kroeze, Carolien

2010-07-01

51

Antecedent glycemic control reduces severe hypoglycemia-induced neuronal damage in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Brain damage due to severe hypoglycemia occurs in insulin-treated people with diabetes. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic insulin therapy that normalizes elevated blood glucose in diabetic rats would be neuroprotective against brain damage induced by an acute episode of severe hypoglycemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were split into three groups: 1) control, non-diabetic; 2) STZ-diabetic; and 3) insulin-treated STZ-diabetic. After 3 wk of chronic treatment, unrestrained awake rats underwent acute hyperinsulinemic severe hypoglycemic (10–15 mg/dl) clamps for 1 h. Rats were subsequently analyzed for brain damage and cognitive function. Severe hypoglycemia induced 15-fold more neuronal damage in STZ-diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic rats. Chronic insulin treatment of diabetic rats, which nearly normalized glucose levels, markedly reduced neuronal damage induced by severe hypoglycemia. Fortunately, no cognitive defects associated with the hypoglycemia-induced brain damage were observed in any group. In conclusion, antecedent blood glucose control represents a major modifiable therapeutic intervention that can afford diabetic subjects neuroprotection against severe hypoglycemia-induced brain damage.

Reno, Candace M.; Tanoli, Tariq; Bree, Adam; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Cui, Chen; Maloney, Susan E.; Wozniak, David F.

2013-01-01

52

Environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in Germany and Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

While studies on external costs of electricity generation generally aim at the calculation of marginal costs for a new increment of power generation, we have applied an extended bottom-up modelling framework to calculate average health and environmental damage costs from fossil electricity generation in Germany and Europe. Aggregated average damage costs provide helpful complementary information to site and technology specific

Wolfram Krewitt; Thomas Heck; Alfred Trukenmüller; Rainer Friedrich

1999-01-01

53

DNA damage and estrogenic activity induced by the environmental pollutant 2-nitrotoluene and its metabolite  

PubMed Central

Objectives The environmental pollutant 2-nitrotoluene (2-NO2-T) is carcinogenic and reproductively toxic in animals. In this study, we elucidated the mechanisms of its carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. Methods We examined DNA damage induced by 2-NO2-T and its metabolite, 2-nitrosotoluene (2-NO-T), using 32P-5?-end-labeled DNA. We measured 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), an indicator of oxidative DNA damage, in calf thymus DNA and cellular DNA in cultured human leukemia (HL-60) cells treated with 2-NO2-T and 2-NO-T. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) gene expression in HL-60 cells was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We examined estrogenic activity using an E-screen assay and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. Results In experiments with isolated DNA fragments, 2-NO-T induced oxidative DNA damage in the presence of Cu (II) and ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide disodium salt (reduced form) (NADH), while 2-NO2-T did not. 2-NO-T significantly increased levels of 8-oxodG in HL-60 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed upregulation of OGG1 gene expression induced by 2-NO-T. An E-screen assay using the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 revealed that 2-NO2-T induced estrogen-dependent cell proliferation. In contrast, 2-NO-T decreased the cell number and suppressed 17?-estradiol-induced cell proliferation. The data obtained with the SPR sensor using estrogen receptor ? and the estrogen response element supported the results of the E-screen assay. Conclusions Oxidative DNA damage caused by 2-NO-T and estrogen-disrupting effects caused by 2-NO2-T and 2-NO-T may play a role in the reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of these entities.

Watanabe, Chigusa; Egami, Takashi; Midorikawa, Kaoru; Hiraku, Yusuke; Oikawa, Shinji; Kawanishi, Shosuke

2010-01-01

54

Damage Characterization Method for Structural Health Management Using Reduced Number of Sensor Inputs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of validated multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools, technologies, and techniques to enable detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation in the presence of adverse conditions during flight will provide effective solutions to deal with safety related challenges facing next generation aircraft. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage (cracks) due to fatigue and low velocity foreign impacts that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. Hence, development of efficient methodologies to determine the presence, location, and severity of damage in critical structural components is highly important in developing efficient structural health management systems.

Krishnamurthy, T.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Gallegos, Adam M.

2012-01-01

55

Assessing anchor damage on coral reefs: a case study in selection of environmental indicators.  

PubMed

Because environmental conservation can remove scarce natural resources from competing uses, it is important to gain support for conservation programs by demonstrating that management actions have been effective in achieving their goals. One way to do this is to show that selected significant environmental variables (indicators) vary between managed and unmanaged areas or change over time following implementation of a management regime. However, identifying indicators that reflect environmental conditions relevant to management practices has proven difficult. This paper focuses on developing a framework for choosing indicators in a coral reef habitat. The framework consisted of three phases: (1) information gathering to identify candidate variables; (2) field-testing candidate variables at sites that differ in intensity of human activity, thus identifying potential indicators; and (3) evaluating potential indicators against a set of feasibility criteria to identify the most useful indicators. To identify indicators suitable to measure the success of a management strategy to reduce anchor damage to a coral reef, 24 candidate variables were identified and evaluated at sites with different intensities of anchoring. In this study, measures that reflected injuries to coral colonies were generally more efficient than traditional measures of coral cover in describing the effects of anchoring. The number of overturned colonies was identified as the single most useful indicator of coral reef condition associated with anchoring intensities. The indicator selection framework developed here has the advantages of being transparent, cost efficient, and readily transferable to other types of human activities and management strategies. PMID:14625652

Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Harriott, Vicki J

2004-01-01

56

Idazoxan reduces blood-brain barrier damage during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mouse.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that Idazoxan (IDA), an imidazoline 2 receptor ligand, is neuroprotective against spinal cord injury caused by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mouse, an animal modal of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the protective mechanism remains unclear. Here, we provided evidence to show that IDA confers neuroprotection through reduction in blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. EAE was induced by immunizing C57 BL/6 mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55 amino acid peptide (MOG35-55). IDA was administrated for 14 days after MOG immunization at 2mg/kg (i.p., bid). Significant reduction in BBB damage occurred in the IDA-treated group of mice compared with the saline-treated group, as evidenced by the reduction in Evan?s blue content in the brain tissue and the reduced BBB tight junction damage viewed under a transmission electron microscope. Moreover, EAE-induced reductions in tight junction proteins (JAM-1, Occludin, Claudin-5 and ZO-1) were also significantly ameliorated in IDA-treated mice, all of which supported the notion that IDA reduced BBB damage. Interestingly, the expression levels of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the ratio of MMP-9 against tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), which is known to be associated with MS-induced BBB damage, were significantly reduced in IDA-treated group, lending further support to the hypothesis that IDA confers brain protection through reducing BBB damage. This study raised a possibility that IDA is a promising pro-drug for development against MS. PMID:24797785

Wang, Xin-Shi; Fang, Hui-Lin; Chen, Yu; Liang, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Zhen-Guo; Zeng, Qing-Yi; Li, Jia; Xu, Hui-Qin; Shao, Bei; He, Jin-Cai; Hou, Sheng-Tao; Zheng, Rong-Yuan

2014-08-01

57

Reduced Mortality and Brain Damage After Locomotor Activity in Gerbil Forebrain Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 20-minute ischemia all runners survived compared with 21% of nonrunners. Quantitative histology (15-minute isch- emia) revealed selective nerve cell injury in various cerebral regions in both groups. In runners, however, with the excep- tion of the CA1 sector, damage was attenuated in cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Furthermore, the extent of tha- lamic infarction was reduced (P<.05). Conclusions Locomotor activity

W. Stummer; K. Weber; B. Tranmer; A. Baethmann; O. Kempski

58

ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT REDUCES THE MNEMONIC AND NEURAL BENEFITS OF ESTROGEN  

PubMed Central

The degree to which memory is enhanced by estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women may depend on environmental factors such as education. The present study utilized an animal model of environmental enrichment to determine whether environmental factors influence the mnemonic and neural response to estrogen. Female mice were raised in standard (SC) or enriched (EC) conditions from weaning until adulthood (7 months). All mice were ovariectomized at 10 weeks, and tested in object recognition and water-escape motivated radial arm maze (WRAM) tasks at 6 months. Each day at the completion of training, mice received injections of 0.1 mg/kg cyclodextrin-encapsulated 17-?-estradiol (E2), 0.2 mg/kg E2, or cyclodextrin vehicle (VEH). At the completion of behavioral testing, hippocampal levels of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin and of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured. Enrichment effects were evident in VEH-treated mice; relative to SC-VEH females, EC-VEH females committed fewer working memory errors in the WRAM and exhibited increased hippocampal synaptophysin levels. Estrogen effects depended on environmental conditions. E2 (0.2 mg/kg) improved object memory only in SC females. The same dose improved working memory in SC females, but somewhat impaired working memory in EC females. Furthermore, both doses reduced hippocampal synaptophysin levels in EC, but not SC, females. In contrast, E2 reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in SC, but not EC, females. This study is the first to compare the effects of estrogen on memory and hippocampal function in enriched and non-enriched female mice. The results suggest that: (1) estrogen benefits object and working memory more in mice raised in non-enriched environments than in those raised in enriched environments, and (2) the changes induced by estrogen and/or enrichment may be associated with alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

GRESACK, J. E.; FRICK, K. M.

2006-01-01

59

Polyphenolic apple juice extracts and their major constituents reduce oxidative damage in human colon cell lines.  

PubMed

Apple juice containing high amounts of antioxidative polyphenols might protect the intestine against oxidative cell damage. We investigated the preventive effectiveness of polyphenolic juice extracts of different origins (cider and table apples) in comparison to their major constituents in human colon cell lines (Caco-2, HT29). Parameters studied were (oxidative) DNA damage (Comet assay), glutathione level (photometric kinetic assay), cellular redox status (dichlorofluorescein assay) and antioxidant capacity. The extracts (50-250 microg/mL) modulated DNA damage and redox status in a concentration-dependent manner at 24-h incubation. The pomace extraction technology, applied for juice preparation, and the preferential selection of cider apple varieties influenced the polyphenolic pattern and increased the biological effectiveness of the extracts. The preventive potential of major juice constituents (1-100 microM, 24 h) strongly differed: rutin, epicatechin and caffeic acid clearly reduced (oxidative) DNA damage (Caco-2), chlorogenic acid efficiently decreased cellular reactive oxygen species level (HT29, Caco-2). The aglyca quercetin and phloretin exhibited the highest preventive/antioxidant capacity in all assays. The stability of the compounds inversely correlated with their preventive effectiveness and might contribute to the observed cell specific sensitivities. In conclusion, apple juice extracts distinctly reduce oxidative cell damage in human colon cell lines, an effect, which in part can be accounted for by their major constituents. PMID:16317784

Schaefer, Sandra; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Janzowski, Christine

2006-01-01

60

Propofol reduces inflammatory reaction and ischemic brain damage in cerebral ischemia in rats.  

PubMed

Our previous studies demonstrated that inflammatory reaction and neuronal apoptosis are the most important pathological mechanisms in ischemia-induced brain damage. Propofol has been shown to attenuate ischemic brain damage via inhibiting neuronal apoptosis. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of propofol on brain damage and inflammatory reaction in rats of focal cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, then received treatment with propofol (10 or 50 mg/kg) or vehicle after 2 h of ischemia. Neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct size and morphological characteristic were measured 24 h after cerebral ischemia. The enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was assessed 24 h after cerebral ischemia. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65 expression in ischemic rat brain was detected by western blot. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in ischemic rat brain was determined by immunohistochemistry. ELISA was performed to detect the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct size and MPO activity were significantly reduced by propofol administration. Furthermore, expression of NF-?B, COX-2 and TNF-? were attenuated by propofol administration. Our results demonstrated that propofol (10 and 50 mg/kg) reduces inflammatory reaction and brain damage in focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Propofol exerts neuroprotection against ischemic brain damage, which might be associated with the attenuation of inflammatory reaction and the inhibition of inflammatory genes. PMID:24610527

Shi, Song-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Chen, Ye; Chen, Jian-Ping; Tu, Xian-Kun

2014-05-01

61

Back of the envelope estimates of environmental damage costs in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

For developing countries, budget constraints help set the agenda on mitigating environmental damage, one of the indelible marks of our era. Political considerations often dictate the measures taken. There are no firm analytical formulas to help even environmentally conscious policymakers rank needs and remedies. A developing country such as Mexico - the focus of this paper - cannot afford an

Sergio Margulis

1992-01-01

62

Analysis of reduced phosphorus in samples of environmental interest.  

PubMed

The combination of ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) was used forthe sensitive and specific detection of hypophosphite (PO2), phosphite (PO3), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and phosphate (PO4). Application of this technique to a wide range of environmental samples proved that reduced phosphorus was present in some situations including process water from thermal phosphorus plants, drinking water contacting cast iron, and phosphorus corrosion inhibitor used in water treatment and in sewage wastewater. Preliminary testing did not detect high concentrations of reduced phosphorus and phosphine in situations where it was previously reported to be very important, including anaerobic digesters in wastewater treatment plants. The new IC-ICP-ES technique is a promising tool for use in corrosion and soil research where phosphites are likely to be present. PMID:16047769

Morton, Siyuan C; Glindemann, Dietmar; Wang, Xiaorong; Niu, Xiaojun; Edwards, Marc

2005-06-15

63

Curcumin reduces oxidative damage by increasing reduced glutathione and preventing membrane permeability transition in isolated brain mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are critical regulators of energy metabolism and programmed cell death pathways. Mitochondria are also the major site for the production of reactive oxygen species which make this organelle more susceptible to oxidative damage and impairments of mitochondrial functions. Antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success to ameliorate the toxic effects of oxidative stress in mitochondria. One reason may be the inability of mitochondria to selectively take up antioxidants. In the present study we synthesized mitochondrially targeted curcumin with an aim of delivering this polyphenolic compound to isolated mitochondria. Our observations show the strong anti-oxidative effects of curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin against the lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial permeability transition induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Both curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin significantly enhanced endogenous reduced glutathione level in the mitochondria thus preserving mitochondrial defense system against oxidative stress. We concluded that curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin protected mitochondria against tert-butylhydroperoxide by lowering the oxidative damage, increasing the availability of endogenous reduced glutathione and preserving the mitochondrial integrity. Importantly, mitochondrially targeted curcumin was found most effective in ameliorating oxidative stress and preserving mitochondrial integrity than curcumin. PMID:24461330

Jat, D; Parihar, P; Kothari, S C; Parihar, M S

2013-01-01

64

A reduced basis approach to quantifying damage dependent dynamic response of laminated composite structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element (FE) based formulation is utilized to represent the damage-dependent response of laminated composite structures. An internal-state-variable (ISV) approach provides a definition of the stiffness reduction caused by intralaminar crack propagation at the ply level. These ISVs are combined with simple stress criteria to accommodate ply property changes caused by fiber fracture, fiber microbuckling and interior delaminations. A set of orthogonal Ritz vectors are chosen as basis vectors to transform the dynamical equations of motion to a reduced coordinate space. The reduced basis form of the equations provides significant numerical efficiencies, especially for large ordered systems. Furthermore, damping and its variation with damage can be generally represented in any number of vibratory modes. The Newmark integration operator is used to solve the dynamic equations of motion, and equilibrium iterations are performed in each incremental time step to assure convergence. Results are given for laminated beam and plate geometries subjected to dynamic loads.

Engblom, John J.; Yang, Quinghui

65

Systemic insecticide and gibberellin reduced cone damage and increased flowering in a spruce seed orchard.  

PubMed

Insects feeding in conifer cones are difficult to control with nonsystemic insecticides. Newly developed systemic insecticides that can be injected into tree trunks may be a possible way of reducing both insect damage and negative side-effects to the surrounding environment, compared with conventional spraying. Several insecticides that could be injected into tree stems were tested on Picea abies (L.) Karst. In one experiment, insecticides (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, abamectin, and imidacloprid) were injected during flowering; in a second experiment two of these insecticides (abamectin and imidacloprid) were injected 1 yr before the expected flowering. In the second experiment insecticide treatment was also combined with treatments with the flower stimulating hormone, gibberellin (GA(4/7)). The only insecticide that reduced damage was abamectin, both after injection during flowering and after injection 1 yr before the expected flowering. Injections with GA(4/7) increased flowering and were as efficient as the conventional application method of drilling but abamectin was not effective in combination with the drilling method. There was no negative effect of the insecticide injections on seed quality. The injections were ineffective against the seed chalcid Megastigmus strobilobius (Ratzeburg), which was found to have an unexpected, negative effect on seed quality. Our results suggest that it may be possible to reduce damage from certain insect species, and to increase flowering by injecting abamectin and GA(4/7) in the year before a cone crop. PMID:22812130

Rosenberg, O; Almqvist, C; Weslien, J

2012-06-01

66

Environmental Assessment: Bird Damage Management by the Illinois Wildlife Services Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USDA/APHIS/ Wildlife Services (WS) is authorized by Congress to manage a program to reduce human/wildlife conflicts. WS' mission is to 'provide leadership in wildlife damage control to protect America's agricultural, industrial and natural resources, and ...

2002-01-01

67

Environmental Assessment (EA) Final: Bird Damage Management in the Tennessee Wildlife Services Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USDA/APHIS/ Wildlife Services (WS) is authorized by Congress to manage a program to reduce human/wildlife conflicts. WS's mission is to 'provide leadership in wildlife damage control to protect America's agricultural, industrial and natural resources, and...

2002-01-01

68

Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.  

PubMed

The generation of reactive oxygen species is thought to cause extensive oxidative damage to various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. In this study, the preventive, suppressive, and protective effects of in vitro supplementation with electrolyzed-reduced water on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes were examined using a comet assay. Pretreatment, cotreatment, and posttreatment with electrolyzed-reduced water enhanced human lymphocyte resistance to the DNA strand breaks induced by H2O2 in vitro. Moreover, electrolyzed-reduced water was much more effective than diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water in preventing total RNA degradation at 4 and 25 degrees C. In addition, electrolyzed-reduced water completely prevented the oxidative cleavage of horseradish peroxidase, as determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid dissolved in electrolyzed-reduced water was about threefold that of ascorbic acid dissolved in nonelectrolyzed deionized water, as measured by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase superoxide scavenging assay system, suggesting an inhibitory effect of electrolyzedreduced water on the oxidation of ascorbic acid. PMID:17159237

Lee, Mi Young; Kim, Yoon Kyoung; Ryoo, Kun Kul; Lee, Yoon Bae; Park, Eun Ju

2006-11-01

69

Use of Cis-Epoxyeicosantrienoic Acids and Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Reduce Damage from Stroke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides uses and methods for reducing brain damage from stroke. The uses comprise the use of an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) for the manufacture of a medicament to reduce brain damage from stroke, as well as the use of cis-e...

A. M. Dorrance B. D. Hammock J. D. Imig

2005-01-01

70

Toxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine triphosphate and to reduce growth under stress.  

PubMed

Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems perhaps enable cells to reduce their metabolism to weather environmental challenges although there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. Escherichia coli?GhoT/GhoS is a TA system in which toxin GhoT expression is reduced by cleavage of its messenger RNA (mRNA) by antitoxin GhoS, and TA system MqsR/MqsA controls GhoT/GhoS through differential mRNA decay. However, the physiological role of GhoT has not been determined. We show here through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and fluorescent stains that GhoT reduces metabolism by damaging the membrane and that toxin MqsR (a 5'-GCU-specific endoribonuclease) causes membrane damage in a GhoT-dependent manner. This membrane damage results in reduced cellular levels of ATP and the disruption of proton motive force (PMF). Normally, GhoT is localized to the pole and does not cause cell lysis under physiological conditions. Introduction of an F38R substitution results in loss of GhoT toxicity, ghost cell production and membrane damage while retaining the pole localization. Also, deletion of ghoST or ghoT results in significantly greater initial growth in the presence of antimicrobials. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GhoT reduces metabolism by reducing ATP and PMF and that this reduction in metabolism is important for growth with various antimicrobials. PMID:24373067

Cheng, Hsin-Yao; Soo, Valerie W C; Islam, Sabina; McAnulty, Michael J; Benedik, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

2014-06-01

71

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

Not Available

1993-10-01

72

Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

NONE

1993-10-01

73

Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect. PMID:19477216

Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

2009-08-01

74

Overexpression of SERCA1a in the mdx Diaphragm Reduces Susceptibility to Contraction-Induced Damage  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although the precise pathophysiological mechanism of muscle damage in dystrophin-deficient muscle remains disputed, calcium appears to be a critical mediator of the dystrophic process. Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and mouse models of dystrophin deficiency exhibit extensive abnormalities of calcium homeostasis, which we hypothesized would be mitigated by increased expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump. Neonatal adeno-associated virus gene transfer of sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase 1a to the mdx diaphragm decreased centrally located nuclei and resulted in reduced susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage at 6 months of age. As the diaphragm is the mouse muscle most representative of human disease, these results provide impetus for further investigation of therapeutic strategies aimed at enhanced cytosolic calcium removal.

Sleeper, Meg M.; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Sweeney, H. Lee

2010-01-01

75

Reduced Cognition in Syngap1 Mutants Is Caused by Isolated Damage within Developing Forebrain Excitatory Neurons.  

PubMed

Syngap1 haploinsufficiency is a common cause of sporadic intellectual disability. Syngap1 mutations disrupt developing pyramidal neurons, although it remains unclear if this process contributes to cognitive abnormalities. Here, we found that haploinsufficiency restricted to forebrain glutamatergic neurons was sufficient to disrupt cognition and removing mutations from this population prevented cognitive abnormalities. In contrast, manipulating Syngap1 function in GABAergic neurons had no effect on cognition, excitability, or neurotransmission, highlighting the specificity of Syngap1 mutations within forebrain excitatory neurons. Interestingly, cognitive abnormalities were reliably predicted by the emergence of enhanced excitatory synaptic function in mature superficial cortical pyramidal cells, which was a neurophysiological disruption caused by Syngap1 dysfunction in developing, but not adult, forebrain neurons. We conclude that reduced cognition in Syngap1 mutants is caused by isolated damage to developing forebrain glutamatergic neurons. This damage triggers secondary disruptions to synaptic homeostasis in mature cortical pyramidal cells, which perpetuates brain dysfunction into adulthood. PMID:24945774

Ozkan, Emin D; Creson, Thomas K; Kramár, Enikö A; Rojas, Camilo; Seese, Ron R; Babyan, Alex H; Shi, Yulin; Lucero, Rocco; Xu, Xiangmin; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Miller, Courtney A; Lynch, Gary; Rumbaugh, Gavin

2014-06-18

76

Environmental damages of forest road construction by bulldozer on steep terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, forest road construction technique by using bulldozer was investigated in forested lands in Bolu region in Turkey. The objective of the study was to evaluate cross sections constructed by bulldozer along the forest road alignment and to determine the differences between the fill-slope and cut-slope formations in the cross sections in terms of environmental damages. Maximum length

Tolga Ozturk; Muhittin Inan; Mustafa Akgul

77

The interactions between fatigue, creep and environmental damage in Ti 6246 and Udimet 720Li  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the results of a comprehensive research programme on two different compressor disc alloys: titanium alloy Ti 6246 and the nickel based superalloy Udimet 720Li. Both alloys are used for disc applications in gas turbine engines under conditions where the rims are exposed to fatigue, creep and environmental damage. The titanium alloy was investigated at temperatures of 80,

W. J. Evans; J. P. Jones; S. Williams

2005-01-01

78

Human polynucleotide phosphorylase reduces oxidative RNA damage and protects HeLa cell against oxidative stress.  

PubMed

We examined HeLa cell viability and RNA oxidative damage in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. The level of damaged RNA, measured by the content of 8-hydroxyguanosine (7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine, 8-oxoG), increases depending on H2O2 dosage and is inversely correlated with cell viability. The elevated level of 8-oxoG in RNA decreases after removal of oxidative challenge, suggesting the existence of surveillance mechanism(s) for cleaning up oxidized RNA. Human polynucleotide phosphorylase (hPNPase), an exoribonuclease primarily located in mitochondria, has been previously shown to bind 8-oxoG-RNA with high affinity. The role of hPNPase in HeLa cell under oxidative stress conditions is examined here. Overexpression of hPNPase reduces RNA oxidation and increases cell viability against H2O2 insult. Conversely, hPNPase knockdown decreases viability and increases 8-oxoG level in HeLa cell exposed to H2O2. Our results suggest that hPNPase plays an important role in protecting cells and limiting damaged RNA under oxidative stress. PMID:18501193

Wu, Jinhua; Li, Zhongwei

2008-07-25

79

Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod.  

PubMed

Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

Barreto, Felipe S; Burton, Ronald S

2013-09-22

80

Reducing Solid WasteLinking Recycling to Environmentally Responsible Consumerism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of several communities was conducted to investigate the public’s response to solid waste issues. This study examines the relation between respondents’ beliefs about environmentally responsible consumerism and environmental attitudes, motives, and self-reported recycling behavior. The study addressed (a) the public’s perception of environment-related product attributes; (b) a sociodemographic characterization of environmentally concerned consumers; and (c) the depiction of

Angela Ebreo; James Hershey; Joanne Vining

1999-01-01

81

76 FR 59731 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...81420-9812-0520-Y4-FY11] Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for...written a Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan/Environmental Assessment (draft...seek written comments on our proposed restoration alternatives in the draft...

2011-09-27

82

Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink  

PubMed Central

Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment.

Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

2012-01-01

83

C1 Esterase Inhibitor Reduces Lower Extremity Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Associated Lung Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Ischemia/reperfusion injury of lower extremities and associated lung damage may result from thrombotic occlusion, embolism, trauma, or surgical intervention with prolonged ischemia and subsequent restoration of blood flow. This clinical entity is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Deprivation of blood supply leads to molecular and structural changes in the affected tissue. Upon reperfusion inflammatory cascades are activated causing tissue injury. We therefore tested preoperative treatment for prevention of reperfusion injury by using C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Methods and Findings Wistar rats systemically pretreated with C1 INH (n?=?6), APT070 (a membrane-targeted myristoylated peptidyl construct derived from human complement receptor 1, n?=?4), vehicle (n?=?7), or NaCl (n?=?8) were subjected to 3h hind limb ischemia and 24h reperfusion. The femoral artery was clamped and a tourniquet placed under maintenance of a venous return. C1 INH treated rats showed significantly less edema in muscle (P<0.001) and lung and improved muscle viability (P<0.001) compared to controls and APT070. C1 INH prevented up-regulation of bradykinin receptor b1 (P<0.05) and VE-cadherin (P<0.01), reduced apoptosis (P<0.001) and fibrin deposition (P<0.01) and decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas deposition of complement components was not significantly reduced in the reperfused muscle. Conclusions C1 INH reduced edema formation locally in reperfused muscle as well as in lung, and improved muscle viability. C1 INH did not primarily act via inhibition of the complement system, but via the kinin and coagulation cascade. APT070 did not show beneficial effects in this model, despite potent inhibition of complement activation. Taken together, C1 INH might be a promising therapy to reduce peripheral ischemia/reperfusion injury and distant lung damage in complex and prolonged surgical interventions requiring tourniquet application.

Duehrkop, Claudia; Banz, Yara; Spirig, Rolf; Miescher, Sylvia; Nolte, Marc W.; Spycher, Martin; Smith, Richard A. G.; Sacks, Steven H.; Rieben, Robert

2013-01-01

84

Treatment with carnosine reduces hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in a neonatal rat model.  

PubMed

Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, and there is currently no effective therapy for HIBD. Carnosine plays a neuroprotective role in adult brain damage. We have previously demonstrated that carnosine pretreatment protects against HIBD in a neonatal rat model. Therefore, we hypothesized that treatment with carnosine would also have neuroprotective effects. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced in rats on postnatal days 7-9 (P7-9). Carnosine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 250mg/kg at 0h, 24h, and 48h after hypoxia-ischemia was induced. The biochemical markers of oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated at 72h after hypoxia-ischemia was induced, Brain learning and memory function performance were observed using the Morris water maze test on postnatal days 28-33 (P28-33). Treatment with carnosine post-HIBD significantly reduced the concentration of 8-iso-prostaglandinF2alpha in brain tissue and decreased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in the hippocampus CA1 region and cortex as well as the mitochondria caspase-3 protein expression. Furthermore, carnosine also improved the cognitive function of P28-33 rats, whose cognitive function decline was due to HIBD. These results demonstrate that carnosine treatment after HIBD can reduce the brain injury, improving brain function. Carnosine could be an attractive candidate for treating HIBD. PMID:24463179

Zhang, Huizhen; Guo, Shang; Zhang, Linlin; Jia, Liting; Zhang, Zhan; Duan, Hongbao; Zhang, Jingbin; Liu, Jingyan; Zhang, Weidong

2014-03-15

85

Machine learning algorithms to damage detection under operational and environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this paper is to detect structural damage in the presence of operational and environmental variations using vibration-based damage identification procedures. For this purpose, four machine learning algorithms are applied based on auto-associative neural networks, factor analysis, Mahalanobis distance, and singular value decomposition. A baseexcited three-story frame structure was tested in laboratory environment to obtain time series data from an array of sensors under several structural state conditions. Tests were performed with varying stiffness and mass conditions with the assumption that these sources of variability are representative of changing operational and environmental conditions. Damage was simulated through nonlinear effects introduced by a bumper mechanism that induces a repetitive, impacttype nonlinearity. This mechanism intends to simulate the cracks that open and close under dynamic loads or loose connections that rattle. The unique contribution of this study is a direct comparison of the four proposed machine learning algorithms that have been reported as reliable approaches to separate structural conditions with changes resulting from damage from changes caused by operational and environmental variations.

Figueiredo, Eloi; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R.; Worden, Keith; Figueiras, Joaquim

2010-03-01

86

Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

Bascietto, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (US). RCRA/CERCLA Div.; Dunford, R.W. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (US); Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)

1993-06-01

87

Melatonin Improves Outcomes of Heatstroke in Mice by Reducing Brain Inflammation and Oxidative Damage and Multiple Organ Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

We report here that when untreated mice underwent heat stress, they displayed thermoregulatory deficit (e.g., animals display hypothermia during room temperature exposure), brain (or hypothalamic) inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment (e.g., decreased plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone during heat stress), multiple organ dysfunction or failure, and lethality. Melatonin therapy significantly reduced the thermoregulatory deficit, brain inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment, multiple organ dysfunction, and lethality caused by heat stroke. Our data indicate that melatonin may improve outcomes of heat stroke by reducing brain inflammation, oxidative damage, and multiple organ dysfunction.

Hsu, Shu-Fen; Lin, Mao-Tsun

2013-01-01

88

A Modified Catheterization Procedure to Reduce Bladder Damage when Collecting Urine Samples from Holstein Cows  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT This study proposed a modified procedure, using a small balloon catheter (SB catheter, 45 ml), for reducing bladder damage in cows. Holstein cows and the following catheters were prepared: smaller balloon catheter (XSB catheter; 30 ml), SB catheter and standard balloon catheter (NB catheter; 70 ml, as the commonly used, standard size). In experiment 1, each cow was catheterized. The occurrence of catheter-associated hematuria (greater than 50 RBC/HPF) was lower in the SB catheter group (0.0%, n=7) than in the NB catheter group (71.4%, n=7; P<0.05). In experiment 2, general veterinary parameters, urine pH, body temperature and blood values in cows were not affected before or after insertion of SB catheters (n=6). The incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 3.0% per catheterized day (n=22). In experiment 3, feeding profiles, daily excretion of urinary nitrogen (P<0.05) and rate from nitrogen intake in urine (P<0.01), were higher with use of the SB catheter (n=13) than with the use of the vulva urine cup (n=18), indicating that using the SB catheter can provide accurate nutritional data. From this study, we concluded that when using an SB catheter, the following results occur; reduction in bladder damage without any veterinary risks and accuracy in regard to feeding parameters, suggesting this modified procedure using an SB catheter is a useful means of daily urine collection.

TAMURA, Tetsuo; NAKAMURA, Hiroshi; SATO, Say; SEKI, Makoto; NISHIKI, Hideto

2014-01-01

89

The selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene, reduces ischemic brain damage in male rat.  

PubMed

While the estrogen treatment of stroke is under debate, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) arise as a promising alternative. We hypothesize that bazedoxifene (acetate, BZA), a third generation SERM approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, reduces ischemic brain damage in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For comparative purposes, the neuroprotective effect of 17?-estradiol (E2) has also been assessed. Male Wistar rats underwent 60min middle cerebral artery occlusion (intraluminal thread technique), and grouped according to treatment: vehicle-, E2- and BZA-treated rats. Optimal plasma concentrations of E2 (45.6±7.8pg/ml) and BZA (20.7±2.1ng/ml) were achieved 4h after onset of ischemia, and maintained until the end of the procedure (24h). Neurofunctional score and volume of the damaged brain regions were the main end points. At 24h after ischemia-reperfusion, neurofunctional examination of the animals did not show significant differences among the three experimental groups. By contrast, both E2- and BZA-treated groups showed significantly lower total infarct volumes, BZA acting mainly in the cortical region and E2 acting mainly at the subcortical level. Our results demonstrate that: (1) E2 at physiological plasma levels in female rats is neuroprotective in male rats when given at the acute stage of the ischemic challenge and (2) BZA at clinically relevant plasma levels mimics the neuroprotective action of E2 and could be, therefore, a candidate in stroke treatment. PMID:24861515

Castelló-Ruiz, María; Torregrosa, Germán; Burguete, María C; Miranda, Francisco J; Centeno, José M; López-Morales, Mikahela A; Gasull, Teresa; Alborch, Enrique

2014-07-11

90

Therapeutic efficacy of silymarin and naringenin in reducing arsenic-induced hepatic damage in young rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of silymarin and naringenin in counteracting arsenic-induced hepatic oxidative stress post exposure. Male wistar rats were chronically exposed to sodium arsenite for eight months followed by oral treatment with silymarin and naringenin (50 mg/kg each) for 15 consecutive days to evaluate hepatic damage and antioxidant potential. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease in hepatic GSH levels, SOD and catalase activities and an increase in GST and TBARS levels after arsenic administration. Silymarin or naringenin administration increased GSH levels and was beneficial in the recovery of altered SOD and catalase activity besides significantly reducing blood and tissue arsenic concentration. Our results point to the antioxidant potential of these flavonoids, which might be of benefit in the clinical recovery of subject exposed to arsenic. These flavonoids can be incorporated into the diet or co-supplemented during chelation treatment, and thus may afford a protective effect against arsenite-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:20719385

Jain, Anshu; Yadav, Abhishek; Bozhkov, A I; Padalko, V I; Flora, S J S

2011-05-01

91

Chromatin modifications during repair of environmental exposure-induced DNA damage: a potential mechanism for stable epigenetic alterations.  

PubMed

Exposures to environmental toxicants and toxins cause epigenetic changes that likely play a role in the development of diseases associated with exposure. The mechanism behind these exposure-induced epigenetic changes is currently unknown. One commonality between most environmental exposures is that they cause DNA damage either directly or through causing an increase in reactive oxygen species, which can damage DNA. Like transcription, DNA damage repair must occur in the context of chromatin requiring both histone modifications and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. These chromatin changes aid in DNA damage accessibility and signaling. Several proteins and complexes involved in epigenetic silencing during both development and cancer have been found to be localized to sites of DNA damage. The chromatin-based response to DNA damage is considered a transient event, with chromatin being restored to normal as DNA damage repair is completed. However, in individuals chronically exposed to environmental toxicants or with chronic inflammatory disease, repeated DNA damage-induced chromatin rearrangement may ultimately lead to permanent epigenetic alterations. Understanding the mechanism behind exposure-induced epigenetic changes will allow us to develop strategies to prevent or reverse these changes. This review focuses on epigenetic changes and DNA damage induced by environmental exposures, the chromatin changes that occur around sites of DNA damage, and how these transient chromatin changes may lead to heritable epigenetic alterations at sites of chronic exposure. PMID:24259318

O'Hagan, Heather M

2014-04-01

92

Potential Bud Bank Responses to Apical Meristem Damage and Environmental Variables: Matching or Complementing Axillary Meristems?  

PubMed Central

Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems.

Klimesova, Jitka; Malikova, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Smilauer, Petr

2014-01-01

93

Genome protective effect of metformin as revealed by reduced level of constitutive DNA damage signaling.  

PubMed

We have shown before that constitutive DNA damage signaling represented by H2AX-Ser139 phosphorylation and ATM activation in untreated normal and tumor cells is a reporter of the persistent DNA replication stress induced by endogenous oxidants, the by-products of aerobic respiration. In the present study we observed that exposure of normal mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes or tumor cell lines A549, TK6 and A431 to metformin, the specific activator of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling, resulted in attenuation of constitutive H2AX phosphorylation and ATM activation. The effects were metformin-concentration dependent and seen even at the pharmacologically pertinent 0.1 mM drug concentration. The data also show that intracellular levels of endogenous reactive oxidants able to oxidize 2',7'-dihydro-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was reduced in metformin-treated cells. Since persistent constitutive DNA replication stress, particularly when paralleled by mTOR signaling, is considered to be the major cause of aging, the present findings are consistent with the notion that metformin, by reducing both DNA replication stress and mTOR-signaling, slows down aging and/or cell senescence processes. PMID:22067284

Halicka, H Dorota; Zhao, Hong; Li, Jiangwei; Traganos, Frank; Zhang, Sufang; Lee, Marietta; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

2011-10-01

94

Reducing the environmental impact of road and rail vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Methods have been developed to measure in situ the dynamic impact of both road and rail vehicles on the infrastructure and the environment. The resulting data sets have been analysed to quantify the environmental impacts in a transparent manner across both modes. A primary concern is that a small number of vehicles are being operated outside safe or regulatory limits which can have a disproportionate large impact. The analysis enables the various impacts to be ranked across both modes so enabling one to discern the benefits of intermodal transport. The impact of various policy options is considered and how to identify vehicles which can be classified as environmentally friendly. This would require European agreement as many heavy goods vehicle operate across country borders.

Mayer, R.M., E-mail: r.m.mayer@reading.ac.uk [Sciotech Projects, Sciotech Office, Engineering Building, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Poulikakos, L.D., E-mail: lily.poulikakos@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lees, A.R., E-mail: Andy.Lees@dft.gsi.gov.uk [Department for Transport, Statistics Roads Division, Gt. Minster House, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR (United Kingdom); Heutschi, K., E-mail: kurt.heutschi@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kalivoda, M.T., E-mail: kalivoda@psia.at [psiA-Consult GmbH, Lastenstrasse 38/1, A-1230 Vienna (Austria); Soltic, P., E-mail: patrik.soltic@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2012-01-15

95

The long amplicon quantitative PCR for DNA damage assay as a sensitive method of assessing DNA damage in the environmental model, Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).  

PubMed

DNA damage is an important mechanism of toxicity for a variety of pollutants, and therefore, is often used as an indicator of pollutant effects in ecotoxicological studies. Here, we adapted a PCR-based assay for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage for use in an important environmental model, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). We refer to this assay as the long amplicon quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR) assay. To validate this method in killifish, DNA damage was measured in liver, brain, and muscle of fish dosed with 10 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene. This exposure caused 0.4-0.8 lesions/10 kb. We also measured DNA damage in liver and muscle tissues from killifish inhabiting a Superfund site, confirming the utility of this method for biomonitoring. In both cases, damage levels were comparable in nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Since extensive nDNA sequence data are not readily available for many environmentally relevant species, but mitochondrial genomes are frequently fully sequenced, this assay can be adapted to examine mtDNA damage in virtually any species with little development. Therefore, we argue that this assay will be a valuable tool in assessing DNA damage in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:18706522

Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Meyer, Joel N; Di Giulio, Richard T

2009-03-01

96

The long amplicon quantitative PCR for DNA damage assay as a sensitive method of assessing DNA damage in the environmental model, Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)*  

PubMed Central

DNA damage is an important mechanism of toxicity for a variety of pollutants, and therefore, is often used as an indicator of pollutant effects in ecotoxicological studies. Here, we adapted a PCR-based assay for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage for use in an important environmental model, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). We refer to this assay as the large amplicon quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR) assay. To validate this method in killifish, DNA damage was measured in liver, brain, and muscle of fish dosed with 10 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene. This exposure caused 0.4-0.8 lesions/10 kb. We also measured DNA damage in liver and muscle tissues from killifish inhabiting a Superfund site, confirming the utility of this method for biomonitoring. In both cases, damage levels were comparable in nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Since extensive nDNA sequence data are not readily available for many environmentally relevant species, but mitochondrial genomes are frequently fully sequenced, this assay can be adapted to examine mtDNA damage in virtually any species with little development. Therefore, we argue that this assay will be a valuable tool in assessing DNA damage in ecotoxicological studies.

Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Meyer, Joel N.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

2009-01-01

97

36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...

2013-07-01

98

Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection  

PubMed Central

Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ?2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ?$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields.

Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

2013-01-01

99

Human Papillomavirus Episome Stability Is Reduced by Aphidicolin and Controlled by DNA Damage Response Pathways  

PubMed Central

A highly reproducible quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assay was used to study the stability of human papillomavirus (HPV) in undifferentiated keratinocytes that maintain viral episomes. The term “stability” refers to the ability of episomes to persist with little copy number variation in cells. In investigating the mechanism of action of PA25, a previously published compound that destabilizes HPV episomes, aphidicolin was also found to markedly decrease episome levels, but via a different pathway from that of PA25. Since aphidicolin is known to activate DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, effects of inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) acting within DDR pathways were investigated. Inhibitors of Chk1 and siRNA directed against ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia Rad3-related (ATR) pathways significantly reduced viral episomes, suggesting that these pathways play a role in maintaining HPV episome stability. Inhibitors of Chk2 and DNA-PK had no effect on episome levels. Pharmacological inhibition of ATM proteins had no effect on episome levels, but ATM knockdown by siRNA significantly reduced episome levels, suggesting that ATM proteins are playing an important role in HPV episome stability that does not require kinase activity. These results outline two pathways that trigger episome loss from cells and suggest the existence of a little-understood mechanism that mediates viral DNA elimination. Together, our results also indicate that HPV episomes have a stability profile that is remarkably similar to that of fragile sites; these similarities are outlined and discussed. This close correspondence may influence the preference of HPV for integration into fragile sites.

Edwards, Terri G.; Helmus, Michael J.; Koeller, Kevin; Bashkin, James K.

2013-01-01

100

Human papillomavirus episome stability is reduced by aphidicolin and controlled by DNA damage response pathways.  

PubMed

A highly reproducible quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assay was used to study the stability of human papillomavirus (HPV) in undifferentiated keratinocytes that maintain viral episomes. The term "stability" refers to the ability of episomes to persist with little copy number variation in cells. In investigating the mechanism of action of PA25, a previously published compound that destabilizes HPV episomes, aphidicolin was also found to markedly decrease episome levels, but via a different pathway from that of PA25. Since aphidicolin is known to activate DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, effects of inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) acting within DDR pathways were investigated. Inhibitors of Chk1 and siRNA directed against ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia-telangiectasia Rad3-related (ATR) pathways significantly reduced viral episomes, suggesting that these pathways play a role in maintaining HPV episome stability. Inhibitors of Chk2 and DNA-PK had no effect on episome levels. Pharmacological inhibition of ATM proteins had no effect on episome levels, but ATM knockdown by siRNA significantly reduced episome levels, suggesting that ATM proteins are playing an important role in HPV episome stability that does not require kinase activity. These results outline two pathways that trigger episome loss from cells and suggest the existence of a little-understood mechanism that mediates viral DNA elimination. Together, our results also indicate that HPV episomes have a stability profile that is remarkably similar to that of fragile sites; these similarities are outlined and discussed. This close correspondence may influence the preference of HPV for integration into fragile sites. PMID:23365423

Edwards, Terri G; Helmus, Michael J; Koeller, Kevin; Bashkin, James K; Fisher, Chris

2013-04-01

101

Retinal light damage reduces autofluorescent pigment deposition in the retinal pigment epithelium.  

PubMed

Lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is thought to be derived from phagocytosed photoreceptor outer segment disc membranes. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict that the rate of lipofuscin deposition in the RPE would be proportional to the density of photoreceptor cells in the retina. In previous studies it was demonstrated that specific loss of photoreceptor cells due to a genetic defect resulted in a substantial decrease in the rate of age-related lipofuscin accumulation in the RPE. In order to confirm that this decreased RPE lipofuscin deposition was directly related to reduced photoreceptor cell density, experiments were conducted to determine whether light-induced photoreceptor cell destruction affected RPE lipofuscin content. The effects of retinal light damage on RPE autofluorescent pigment accumulation resulting from both normal aging and vitamin E deficiency were examined. Starting immediately after weaning, albino Fisher 344 rats were fed diets either containing or lacking vitamin E. All animals were maintained on a 12 hr/12 hr light/dark cycle. During the light phases of the cycles, the cage illuminance for one-half the animals in each dietary group was 750 lux, while the remaining rats were exposed to a light level of 15 lux. Illumination was provided by 40 watt cool-white fluorescent lamps. After 17 weeks, rats in both dietary groups that were maintained under the higher light intensity had substantially reduced photoreceptor cell densities relative to animals in the same dietary group maintained under dim light conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2912913

Katz, M L; Eldred, G E

1989-01-01

102

Weight Loss and Melatonin Reduce Obesity-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Testis  

PubMed Central

Aim. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of weight loss and melatonin on the obesity-induced oxidative damage in rat testes. Materials and Methods. 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 rats: control group (Group 1), obesity group (Group 2), obesity + MLT group (Group 3), and weight loss group (Group 4). Rats were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed and 5?cc blood samples were obtained from all of the rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) levels were analysed in the testicular tissues and serum. Spermatogenesis was evaluated with the Johnsen scoring system. Results. The testicular tissue and serum levels of MDA, PC, and SOD activity were increased in the obesity group in comparison to the sham operated group (P < 0.05). Weight loss and melatonin treatment ameliorated MDA, PC, and SOD levels in testicular tissue and serum significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of mean Johnsen score (P = 0.727). Conclusion. Experimentally created obesity caused oxidative stress and both melatonin and weight loss reduced oxidative stress parameters in rat testes.

Atilgan, Dogan; Parlaktas, Bekir S.; Uluocak, Nihat; Erdemir, Fikret; Kilic, Sahin; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Markoc, Fatma

2013-01-01

103

Antioxidant Treatment Prevents Renal Damage and Dysfunction and Reduces Arterial Pressure in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats on a high-sodium intake contributes to the progression of renal damage, the decreases in renal hemodynamics, and the development of hypertension. We specifically studied whether antioxidant therapy, using vitamins C and E, could help prevent renal damage and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

Niu Tian; Kristina D. Thrasher; Paul D. Gundy; Michael D. Hughson; R. Davis Manning

2010-01-01

104

Modelling the benefits of flood emergency management measures in reducing damages: a case study on Sondrio, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.

Molinari, D.; Ballio, F.; Menoni, S.

2013-08-01

105

A microdevice to locally electroporate embryos with high efficiency and reduced cell damage.  

PubMed

The ability to follow and modify cell behaviour with accurate spatiotemporal resolution is a prerequisite to study morphogenesis in developing organisms. Electroporation, the delivery of exogenous molecules into targeted cell populations through electric permeation of the plasma membrane, has been used with this aim in different model systems. However, current localised electroporation strategies suffer from insufficient reproducibility and mediocre survival when applied to small and delicate organisms such as early post-implantation mouse embryos. We introduce here a microdevice to achieve localised electroporation with high efficiency and reduced cell damage. In silico simulations using a simple electrical model of mouse embryos indicated that a dielectric guide-based design would improve on existing alternatives. Such a device was microfabricated and its capacities tested by targeting the distal visceral endoderm (DVE), a migrating cell population essential for anterior-posterior axis establishment. Transfection was efficiently and reproducibly restricted to fewer than four visceral endoderm cells without compromising cell behaviour and embryo survival. Combining targeted mosaic expression of fluorescent markers with live imaging in transgenic embryos revealed that, like leading DVE cells, non-leading ones send long basal projections and intercalate during their migration. Finally, we show that the use of our microsystem can be extended to a variety of embryological contexts, from preimplantation stages to organ explants. Hence, we have experimentally validated an approach delivering a tailor-made tool for the study of morphogenesis in the mouse embryo. Furthermore, we have delineated a comprehensive strategy for the development of ad hoc electroporation devices. PMID:24821988

Mazari, Elsa; Zhao, Xuan; Migeotte, Isabelle; Collignon, Jérôme; Gosse, Charlie; Perea-Gomez, Aitana

2014-06-01

106

Reduced subventricular zone proliferation and white matter damage in juvenile ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Hydrocephalus is a neurological condition characterized by altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow with enlargement of ventricular cavities in the brain. A reliable model of hydrocephalus in gyrencephalic mammals is necessary to test preclinical hypotheses. Our objective was to characterize the behavioral, structural, and histological changes in juvenile ferrets following induction of hydrocephalus. Fourteen-day old ferrets were given an injection of kaolin (aluminum silicate) into the cisterna magna. Two days later and repeated weekly until 56 days of age, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to assess ventricle size. Behavior was examined thrice weekly. Compared to age-matched saline-injected controls, severely hydrocephalic ferrets weighed significantly less, their postures were impaired, and they were hyperactive prior to extreme debilitation. They developed significant ventriculomegaly and displayed white matter destruction. Reactive astroglia and microglia detected by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1 immunostaining were apparent in white matter, cortex, and hippocampus. There was a hydrocephalus-related increase in activated caspase 3 labeling of apoptotic cells (7.0 vs. 15.5%) and a reduction in Ki67 labeling of proliferating cells (23.3 vs. 5.9%) in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Reduced Olig2 immunolabeling suggests a depletion of glial precursors. GFAP content was elevated. Myelin basic protein (MBP) quantitation and myelin biochemical enzyme activity showed early maturational increases. Where white matter was not destroyed, the remaining axons developed myelin similar to the controls. In conclusion, the hydrocephalus-induced periventricular disturbances may involve developmental impairments in cell proliferation and glial precursor cell populations. The ferret should prove useful for testing hypotheses about white matter damage and protection in the immature hydrocephalic brain. PMID:23769908

Di Curzio, Domenico L; Buist, Richard J; Del Bigio, Marc R

2013-10-01

107

Antioxidant Enzymes Reduce DNA Damage and Early Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells in Aortic Valve Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeling of the microstructure of the cusp characterize aortic valve sclerosis, the early phase of calcific aortic valve disease. These events are associated with activation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) toward an osteogenic-like phenotype. Because ROS cause DNA damage and transcriptional activation we investigated the relationship between ROS, DNA damage response, and transdifferentiation of VICs. Methods and Results Human aortic valve cusps and patient-matched VICs were collected from 39 patients both with and without calcific aortic valve disease. VICs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1–1 mmol/L) after cell transduction with extracellular superoxide dismutase/catalase adenoviruses and characterized for DNA-damage response, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and calcification. ROS induce relocalization of phosphorylated ?H2AX, MRE11, and XRCC1 proteins with expression of osteogenic signaling molecule RUNX2 via AKT. We report a sustained activation of ?H2AX in aortic valve sclerosis-derived VICs suggesting their impaired ability to repair DNA damage. Adenovirus superoxide dismutase/catalase transduction decreases ROS-induced DNA damage and VIC transdifferentiation in aortic valve sclerosis-derived cells. Finally, adenoviral transduction with catalase reverts ROS-mediated calcification and cellular transdifferentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the ROS-induced DNA damage response is dysfunctional in early asymptomatic stages of calcific aortic valve disease. We unveiled an association among ROS, DNA-damage response, and cellular transdifferentiation, reversible by antioxidant enzymes delivery.

Branchetti, Emanuela; Sainger, Rachana; Poggio, Paolo; Grau, Juan B.; Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Chorny, Michael; Lai, Eric; Gorman, Robert C.; Levy, Robert J.; Ferrari, Giovanni

2014-01-01

108

Oral sodium bicarbonate reduces proximal renal tubular peptide catabolism, ammoniogenesis, and tubular damage in renal patients.  

PubMed

Oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is widely used to treat acidosis in patients with renal failure. However, no data are available in man on the effects on proximal renal tubular protein catabolism or markers of tubular injury. We have developed methods to allow such studies, and both increased tubular catabolism of 99mTc-labelled aprotinin (Apr*), as well as tubular damage were found in association with increased ammonia (NH3) excretion in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria. We now examine the effects of reducing renal ammoniogenesis, without altering proteinuria, using oral NaHCO3 in 11 patients with mild/moderate renal impairment and proteinuria. Renal tubular catabolism of Apr* was measured before and after NaHCO3 by renal imaging (Kidney uptake, K% of dose) and urinary excretion of free 99mTcO4- (metabolism, Met% of dose/h) over 26 h. Fractional degradation (Frac) was calculated from Met/K (/h). Fresh urine was also analyzed for NH3 excretion every fortnight from 6/52 before treatment. Total urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucose-aminidase (NAG) and the more tubulo-specific NAG "A2" were measured. 51CrEDTA clearance and 99mTc-MAG 3 TER were also assessed. After NaHCO3 Met over 26 h was significantly reduced (from 1.3 +/- 0.2% of dose/h to 0.9 +/- 0.1% dose/hr, p < 0.005), as was Frac of Apr* (from 0.06 +/- .006/h to 0.04 +/- 0.005/hr, p < 0.003). NH3 excretion also fell significantly (from 0.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/h to 0.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/h, p < 0.007), as did both total urinary NAG (from 169 mumol/24 h, 74-642 mumol/24 h to 79 mumol/ 24 h, 37-393 mumol/24 h, p < 0.01), and the NAG 'A2' isoenzyme (from 81.5 mumol/24 h, 20-472 mumol/24 h to 35.0 mumol/24 h, 6-388 mumol/24 h, p < 0.001). Proteinuria remained unaltered, and there was no change in blood pressure nor in glomerular haemodynamics. Oral NaHCO3 may thus pro-tect the proximal renal tubule and help delay renal disease progression. PMID:9574465

Rustom, R; Grime, J S; Costigan, M; Maltby, P; Hughes, A; Taylor, W; Shenkin, A; Critchley, M; Bone, J M

1998-03-01

109

DNA damage and repair in haemolymph cells of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) exposed to environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

The development of methodologies for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems is of particular relevance in view of the serious problem of aquatic environmental pollution. The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) was chosen to be tested as a biomonitor organism based on its population data and distribution. L. fortunei individuals were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, and in vivo to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), with the aim of standardizing comet assay and micronucleus test methodologies and evaluating the potential of this organism as a biomonitor. Haemolymph cells immobilized in agarose on slides exposed to UV radiation showed a dose-response relationship with maximum damage at 4.2J/m(2). For the chemical tests, individuals were exposed for 2h for the comet assay and 24 and 48h for the micronucleus test. A dose-response relationship was observed for both chemicals. 3x10(-5)M CuSO(4) induced high genotoxicity, also producing some toxicity after 48h of exposure. PCP induced maximum damage in both assays at 150mug/L. Individuals exposed to PCP showed 100% repair 2h after the exposure period, as assessed by the comet assay. Exposure to an environmental sample over 7 days confirmed the mussel sensitivity to water contaminants, detected both by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The results allow us to suggest the golden mussel as a potential biomonitor organism. PMID:16697250

Villela, Izabel Vianna; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

2006-06-16

110

Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze, C., Hordijk, L., Costa, C., 2008. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure

Belmira Neto; Carolien Kroeze; Leen Hordijk; Carlos Costa; Tinus Pulles

2009-01-01

111

Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

Bae, Hyunhoe

2012-01-01

112

Explaining the environmental Kuznets curve: structural change and international agreements in reducing sulphur emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Kuznets curves have been estimated using a simple reduced-form model that gives no information on the mechanisms underlying the estimated inverted U-shaped relationship between some pollutants and income. Various intuitive appealing explanations for the observed patterns have been offered, such as structural changes and environmental policy, but these have rarely been empirically investigated. Expanding the reduced-form model with explanatory

SANDER M. DE BRUYN

1997-01-01

113

Reducing Mechanical Formation Damage by Minimizing Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure in Tight Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tight gas reservoirs incur problems and significant damage caused by low permeability during drilling, completion, stimulation and production. They require advanced improvement techniques to achieve flow gas at optimum rates. Water blocking damage (phase Trapping/retention of fluids) is a form of mechanical formation damage mechanism, which is caused by filtrate invasion in drilling operations mostly in fracturing. Water blocking has a noticeable impact on formation damage in gas reservoirs which tends to decrease relative permeability near the wellbore. Proper evaluation of damage and the factors which influence its severity is essential to optimize well productivity. Reliable data regarding interfacial tension between gas and water is required in order to minimize mechanical formation damage potential and to optimize gas production. This study was based on the laboratory experiments of interfacial tension by rising drop method between gas-brine, gas-condensate and gas-brine. The results showed gas condensate has low interfacial tension value 6 - 11 dynes/cm when compared to gas-brine and gas- diesel which were 44 - 58 dynes/cm and 14 - 19 dynes/cm respectively. In this way, the capillary pressure of brine-gas system was estimated as 0.488 psi, therefore diesel-gas system was noticed about 0.164 psi and 0.098 psi for condensate-gas system. A forecast model was used by using IFT values to predict the phase trapping which shows less severe phase trapping damage in case of condensate than diesel and brine. A reservoir simulation study was also carried out in order to better understand the effect of hysteresis on well productivity and flow efficiency affected due to water blocking damage in tight gas reservoirs.

Ahmed, Arshad; Talib Shuker, Muhannad; Rehman, Khalil; Bahrami, Hassan; Memon, Muhammad Khan

2013-12-01

114

Camel milk lactoferrin reduces the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and exerts antioxidant and DNA damage inhibitory activities.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (Lf), the main iron-binding protein of milk, has biological activities. We have evaluated the potential of camel milk lactoferrin for its ability to inhibit the proliferation of the colon cancer cell line, HCT-116, in vitro, DNA damage and its antioxidant activities for the first time. The antioxidant capacity of Lf was evaluated by different assays, including ferric-reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP), free radical-scavenging activity (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) radical-scavenging assay, total antioxidant activity and DNA damage, compared with vitamin C and rutin. PMID:23768340

Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Hassan, Hassan M

2013-11-01

115

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition reduces ischemic cerebral damage, restores impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and prevents ROS production.  

PubMed

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that improved mitochondrial biogenesis could help reducing ischemic cerebral injury. We found that levels of proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? and nuclear respiratory factor-1, mitochondrial DNA content and other markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and function were reduced in primary mouse cortical neurons under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor SB216763 activated an efficient mitochondrial biogenesis program in control cortical neurons and counteracted the OGD-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis impairment. This was accompanied by the activation of an antioxidant response that reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and ischemic neuronal damage. The in vitro effects of SB216763 were mimicked by two other structurally unrelated GSK-3 inhibitors. The protective effects of SB216763 on OGD-mediated neuronal damage were abolished in the presence of diverse mitochondrial inhibitors. Finally, when systemically administered in vivo, SB216763 reduced the infarct size and recovered the loss of mitochondrial DNA in mice subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. We conclude that GSK-3 inhibition by SB216763 might pave the way of novel promising therapies aimed at stimulating the renewal of functional mitochondria and reducing reactive oxygen species-mediated damage in ischemic stroke. PMID:21210815

Valerio, Alessandra; Bertolotti, Paola; Delbarba, Andrea; Perego, Carlo; Dossena, Marta; Ragni, Maurizio; Spano, PierFranco; Carruba, Michele O; De Simoni, Maria Grazia; Nisoli, Enzo

2011-03-01

116

Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail.  

PubMed

The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of light damage on Japanese quail whose retinal carotenoids had been experimentally manipulated through altered diets. The birds were raised 6 months on a commercial turkey diet (T), on a custom carotenoid-deficient diet (C-) containing 90% less carotenoid than the T diet, or on Z+ diet [the C- diet supplemented with natural zeaxanthin (35mgkg(-1) food)]. Equal numbers of males and females on each diet were exposed to nine intervals (1hr on, 2hr off) of 3200lux cool white light, then placed in the dark for 14hr before tissue collection. One retina was immediately frozen for HPLC analysis; the other eye was immediately fixed and processed for microscopy. There were no significant differences in the retinal carotenoid concentrations in hatch-mates that were and were not exposed to light. Supplementation resulted in three- to four-fold increases in retinal zeaxanthin and no change in retinal lutein or alpha-tocopherol, but the C- diet did not reduce the retinal carotenoid concentration in C- birds below that in T birds. The light-exposed retinas had significant numbers of apoptotic photoreceptors and photoreceptor ghosts. The number of ghosts was negatively correlated with the number of dying photoreceptors (P<0.05), and with retinal concentrations of zeaxanthin, alpha-tocopherol or gamma-tocopherol (P<0.04, 0.02, 0.04, respectively), but not with lutein. The number of dying photoreceptors was positively correlated with alpha-tocopherol and the sum alpha-tocopherol plus zeaxanthin (P<0.1; P0.04). Photoreceptor death was semi-quantitatively scored, assuming that ghosts were formed by removal of apoptotic photoreceptors with nuclear condensation. Stepwise regression produced a good model (r(2)=0.67;P <0.0001) for predicting death scores from retinal concentrations of zeaxanthin (Standard Coefficient=-0.76) and lutein (Standard Coefficients=+0.43). Absence of lutein in gender-specific analyses suggests lutein served as surrogate marker for gender. Combined analysis of the C- and T birds also demonstrated that dying photoreceptors were negatively correlated with retinal zeaxanthin. These data confirm our previous report that retinal carotenoids prevent photoreceptor cell death, and provide the first direct evidence that retinal zeaxanthin protects photoreceptors from light-induced death. PMID:12457865

Thomson, Lauren R; Toyoda, Yoko; Delori, Francois C; Garnett, Kevin M; Wong, Z Y; Nichols, Cathleen R; Cheng, Kimberly M; Craft, Neal E; Dorey, C Kathleen

2002-11-01

117

PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, has shown protective effects against ischemic insult in various tissues. Pioglitazone is also reported to reduce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs can remodel extracellular matrix components in many pathological conditions. The current study was designed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of pioglitazone is related to its MMP inhibition in focal cerebral ischemia. Mice were subjected to 90 min focal ischemia and reperfusion. In gel zymography, pioglitazone reduced the upregulation of active form of MMP-9 after ischemia. In in situ zymograms, pioglitazone also reduced the gelatinase activity induced by ischemia. After co-incubation with pioglitazone, in situ gelatinase activity was directly reduced. Pioglitazone reduced the infarct volume significantly compared with controls. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone may reduce MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following focal ischemia. The reduction of MMP-9 activity may have a possible therapeutic effect for the management of brain injury after focal ischemia.

Lee, Seong-Ryong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hahn-Young [Department of Neurology, Kunkuk University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jung-Suk [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Brain Research Institute, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Emergency Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won-Ki [Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Wook [Chronic Disease Research Center and Institute for Medical Science, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: j303nih@dsmc.or.kr

2009-02-27

118

Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystalliz­ation or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100?K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions.

Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

2011-01-01

119

Chronic Predation Risk Reduces Escape Speed by Increasing Oxidative Damage: A Deadly Cost of an Adaptive Antipredator Response  

PubMed Central

Prey organisms evolved a multitude of plastic responses to avoid being eaten by predators. Besides the evolution of plastic morphological responses to escape predation, prey also evolved a set of physiological stress responses to avoid dying because of chronic predator stress per se due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. As physiological stress theory predicts increased energy consumption and the inhibition of essential nonemergency body functions, we tested whether chronic predation risk may increase oxidative damage thereby generating negative effects on escape performance. Specifically, we evaluated whether predation risk reduces escape swimming speed in damselfly larvae and whether this operates through stress-associated increases in oxidative damage. Counterintuitively and in contrast with many empirical studies, chronic predation risk decreased escape performance. This is however entirely consistent with the expectation of it being a long-term cost of responding to predation risk (e.g. by increasing respiration or upregulating the stress protein levels). The decreased swimming speed could be explained by an increased oxidative damage to proteins, thereby providing one of the poorly studied ecological links between oxidative damage and whole-animal performance. This likely widespread, understudied cost of chronic predation risk may provide an important pathway of non-consumptive predator effects on prey population dynamics. Moreover, it could play an evolutionary role by acting as a selective force causing prey organisms to adjust the magnitude of the physiological stress response and should be considered when evaluating life history trade-offs thought to be mediated by oxidative damage.

Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

2014-01-01

120

Ginsenoside Rg3 induces DNA damage in human osteosarcoma cells and reduces MNNG-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in normal human cells.  

PubMed

Panax ginseng is a Chinese medicinal herb. Ginsenosides are the main bioactive components of P. ginseng, and ginsenoside Rg3 is the primary ginsenoside. Ginsenosides can potently kill various types of cancer cells. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 in human osteosarcoma cells and the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg3 with respect to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in a normal human cell line (human fibroblasts). Four human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63, OS732, U-2OS and HOS cells) and a normal human cell line (human fibroblasts) were employed to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenosides Rg3 by MTT assay. Alkaline comet assay and ?H2AX focus staining were used to detect the DNA damage in MG-63 and U-2OS cells. The extent of cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and a DNA ladder assay. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 was dose-dependent in the human osteosarcoma cell lines, and MG-63 and U-2OS cells were the most sensitive to ginsenoside Rg3. As expected, compared to the negative control, ginsenoside Rg3 significantly increased DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. In agreement with the comet assay data, the percentage of ?H2AX-positive MG-63 and U-2OS cells indicated that ginsenoside Rg3 induced DNA double-strand breaks in a concentration-dependent manner. The results also suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 reduces the extent of MNNG-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human fibroblasts. PMID:24337872

Zhang, Yue-Hui; Li, Hai-Dong; Li, Bo; Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

2014-02-01

121

Long Term Dietary Supplementation with Zeaxanthin Reduces Photoreceptor Death in Light-damaged Japanese Quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of light damage on Japanese quail whose retinal carotenoids had been experimentally manipulated through altered diets. The birds were raised 6 months on a commercial turkey diet (T), on a custom carotenoid-deficient diet (C?) containing 90% less carotenoid than the T diet, or on Z+ diet [the C? diet supplemented

Lauren R. Thomson; Yoko Toyoda; Francois C. Delori; Kevin M. Garnett; Z-Y Wong; Cathleen R. Nichols; Kimberly M. Cheng; Neal E. Craft; C. Kathleen Dorey

2002-01-01

122

Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached. ETS tar solutions, like mainstream tar solutions, produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide appears to be an essential component of the mechanism by which both ETS tar and mainstream tar cause DNA damage in rat thymocytes, as catalase substantially protects against DNA damage. Glutathione also protects against DNA nicking by both ETS and mainstream tar solutions by scavenging radicals and/or oxidants. The chelator diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid also provides partial (40%) protection. The studies demonstrate that the water-soluble components of ETS tar can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.

Bermudez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

1994-01-01

123

Vitamin E attenuates cold-induced rat liver oxidative damage reducing H 2O 2 mitochondrial release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin E is a major chain-breaking antioxidant which is able to reduce liver oxidative damage without modifying aerobic capacity in T3-treated rats. We investigated whether vitamin E has similar effects in hyperthyroid state induced by cold exposure. Cold exposure increased aerobic capacity and O2 consumption in homogenates and mitochondria and tissue mitochondrial protein content. Vitamin E did not modify aerobic

P. Venditti; A. Bari; L. Di Stefano; S. Di Meo

2007-01-01

124

Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces H2O2-induced oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Epidemiological studies suggest that dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin is inversely related to the risk for senile cataract. The objectives of this work were to investigate the mechanisms by which these nutrients provide anti-cataract effects. We evaluated their modulation of oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC) and their interaction with intracellular glutathione (GSH). Methods Subconfluent HLEC were pre-incubated with or without 5 µM lutein, zeaxanthin, or ?-tocopherol for 48 h and then exposed to 100 µM H2O2 for 1 h. Levels of protein carbonyls in the cells were measured by western-blotting analysis following reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were measured by an HPLC system. DNA damage was assessed using comet assays. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Results In the absence of H2O2, HLEC had very low levels of protein carbonyl and MDA. Supplementation with lutein, zeaxanthin, or ?-tocopherol to the unstressed HLEC had no detectable effects on levels of oxidized proteins and lipid in the cells. Exposure of HLEC to H2O2 significantly increased levels of oxidized proteins, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Pre-incubation with lutein, zeaxanthin, or ?-tocopherol dramatically reduced the levels of H2O2 -induced protein carbonyl, MDA, and DNA damage in HLEC. The protective effects of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ?-tocopherol against protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage were comparable. Supplementation with lutein, zeaxanthin, or ?-tocopherol increased GSH levels and GSH:GSSG ratio, particularly in response to oxidative stress. Depletion of GSH resulted in significant increase in susceptibility to H2O2-induced cell death. Supplementation with ?-tocopherol, but not lutein or zeaxanthin, can partially restore the resistance of GSH-depleted cells to H2O2. Conclusions These data indicate that lutein or zeaxanthin supplementation protects lens protein, lipid, and DNA from oxidative damage and improves intracellular redox status upon oxidative stress. The protective effects are comparable to that of ?-tocopherol, except that lutein and zeaxanthin cannot compensate for GSH depletion. The data imply that sufficient intake of lutein and zeaxanthin may reduce the risk for senile cataract via protecting the lens from oxidative damage.

Gao, Shasha; Qin, Tingyu; Liu, Zhenzhen; Caceres, Maria Andrea; Ronchi, Carlos F.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Yeum, Kyung-jin; Taylor, Allen; Blumberg, Jeffery B.; Liu, Yizhi

2011-01-01

125

Reducing hospital-acquired pressure damage: an NHS acute trust initiative.  

PubMed

During 2009, Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust reviewed its pressure ulcer prevention strategy; this included patient interventions and equipment provision. Standard hospital mattresses were requiring replacement and dynamics were used frequently, while the overall prevalence of pressure damage remained high. Replacing the standard foam mattress with a non-powered pressure-redistributing system (AtmosAir) was proposed. The rationale for this was that by renewing all standard foam mattresses with the AtmosAir 4000, all patients would have immediate access to a pressure redistributing mattress. Training and education of staff was increased and the Trust redesigned documentation. The outcome of this approach was a significant reduction in hospital-acquired pressure damage. PMID:24225507

Bedo, Joan

126

A flexure-based steerable needle: high curvature with reduced tissue damage.  

PubMed

In the quest to design higher curvature bevel-steered needles, kinked bevel-tips have been one of the most successful approaches yet proposed. However, the price to be paid for enhancing steerability in this way has been increased tissue damage, since the prebent tip cuts a local helical path into tissue when axially rotated. This is problematic when closed-loop control is desired, because the controller will typically require the needle to rotate rapidly, and it is particularly problematic when duty cycling (i.e., continual needle spinning) is used to adjust curvature. In this paper, we propose a new flexure-based needle tip design that provides the enhanced steerability of kinked bevel-tip needles, while simultaneously minimizing tissue damage. PMID:23204267

Swaney, Philip J; Burgner, Jessica; Gilbert, Hunter B; Webster, Robert J

2013-04-01

127

Pre-treatment with glutamine reduces genetic damage due to cancer treatment with cisplatin.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, it provokes considerable collateral effects, including genotoxic and clastogenic activity. It has been reported that a diet rich in glutamine can help inhibit such collateral effects. We evaluated this activity in 40 Swiss mice, distributed into eight experimental groups: G1 - Control group (PBS 0.1 mL/10 g body weight); G2 - cisplatin group (cisplatin 6 mg/kg intraperitoneally); G3, G4, G5 - glutamine groups (glutamine at 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, respectively; orally); G6, G7, G8 - Pre-treatment groups (glutamine at 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, respectively; orally and cisplatin 6 mg/kg intraperitonially). For the micronucleus assay, samples of blood were collected (before the first use of the drugs at T0, then 24 (T1) and 48 (T2) hours after the first administration). For the comet assay, blood samples were collected only at T2. The damage reduction percentages for the micronucleus assay were 90.0, 47.3, and 37.3% at T1 and 46.0, 38.6, and 34.7% at T2, for G6, G7, and G8 groups, respectively. For the comet assay, the damage reduction percentages were 113.0, 117.4, and 115.0% for G6, G7, and G8, respectively. We conclude that glutamine is able to prevent genotoxic and clastogenic damages caused by cisplatin. PMID:24338398

Oliveira, R J; Sassaki, E S; Monreal, A C D; Monreal, M T F D; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Matuo, R; Silva, A F; Zobiole, N N; Siqueira, J M; Ribeiro, L R; Mantovani, M S

2013-01-01

128

Mitochondrial DNA damage is associated with reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics in Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathology of HD, however the precise mechanisms by which mutant huntingtin modulates levels of oxidative damage in turn resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction are not known. We hypothesize that mutant huntingtin increases oxidative mtDNA damage leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We measured nuclear and mitochondrial DNA lesions and mitochondrial bioenergetics in the STHdhQ7 and STHdhQ111 in vitro striatal model of HD. Striatal cells expressing mutant huntingtin show higher basal levels of mitochondrial-generated ROS and mtDNA lesions and a lower spare respiratory capacity. Silencing of APE1, the major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease that participates in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, caused further reductions of spare respiratory capacity in the mutant huntingtin-expressing cells. Localization experiments show that APE1 increases in the mitochondria of wild type Q7 cells but not in the mutant huntingtin Q111 cells after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, these results are recapitulated in human HD striata and HD skin fibroblasts that show significant mtDNA damage (increased lesion frequency and mtDNA depletion) and significant decreases in spare respiratory capacity, respectively. These data suggest that mtDNA is a major target of mutant huntingtin-associated oxidative stress and may contribute to subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction and that APE1 (and, by extension, BER) is an important target in the maintenance of mitochondrial function in HD.

Siddiqui, Almas; Rivera-Sanchez, Sulay; del R. Castro, Maria; Acevedo-Torres, Karina; Rane, Anand; Torres-Ramos, Carlos A.; Nicholls, David G.; Andersen, Julie K.; Ayala-Torres, Sylvette

2013-01-01

129

Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry  

PubMed Central

The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers.

Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D. J.

2013-01-01

130

Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

2014-01-01

131

Deferoxamine reduces tissue damage during endotoxin-induced mastitis in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The protective effects of 3 antioxidants on polymorphonuclear neutrophil-induced damage to mammary cells were evaluated in vivo using an endotoxin-induced mastitis model. Fifteen healthy, midlactation cows with no history of clinical Escherichia coli mastitis were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 treatment groups corresponding to each modulator to be evaluated, that is, deferoxamine, catechin, and glutathione ethyl ester. Each cow had 1 quarter infused with saline and 1 quarter infused with the selected modulator; a third quarter was infused with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), whereas the fourth quarter received a combination of LPS and the modulator. Infusion of LPS caused acute mastitis as determined by visual observations and by large increases in milk somatic cell count, BSA, and proteolytic activity. These parameters were not affected by antioxidant administration. The extent of cell damage was evaluated by measuring milk levels of lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity. Levels of these parameters were several times higher after LPS administration. Intramammary infusions of catechin or glutathione ethyl ester did not exert any protective effect, whereas infusion of deferoxamine, a chelator of iron, decreased milk lactate dehydrogenase and NA-Gase activity, suggesting a protective effect against neutrophil-induced damage. The protective effect of deferoxamine was also evidenced by a lower milk level of haptoglobin. The proteolytic activity of mastitic milk was not influenced by the presence of deferoxamine. Overall, our results suggest that local infusion of deferoxamine may be an effective tool to protect mammary tissue against neutrophil-induced oxidative stress during bovine mastitis. PMID:16960060

Lauzon, K; Zhao, X; Lacasse, P

2006-10-01

132

USING THE DNA ALKALINE UNWINDING ASSAY TO DETECT DNA DAMAGE IN LABORATORY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED CELLS AND TISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. n preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. ultured mammalian fib...

133

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical\\/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of

Joanna Burger

2008-01-01

134

Neutron damage in reduced activation martensitic alloys in inertial and magnetic fusion reactors: Comparison with fission reactors*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron irradiation damage in terms of displacement and transmutant production, is assessed in inertial (ICF) and magnetic (MCF) confinement fusion reactors, for the reduced activation martensitic steel, B-TAHF. These results, along with current experimental and theoretical information available on ferritic/martensitic steels, have been used to infer irradiation responses, such as swelling and ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). The ICF approach can lead to concepts with a first structural wall (FSW) able to last the power plant's entire lifetime. In MCF, the material at end of life does not fulfill the technological requirements. Damage calculations have also been carried out in the HFIR and the FFTF reactors, for purposes of planning and assessing irradiation experiments in fission reactors in the light of fusion reactor needs. Fission irradiations can be very useful for assessing ICF reactor materials, but appear to have little engineering relevance for MCF commercial applications.

Sanz, J.; Perlado, J. M.

1991-03-01

135

Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

1992-05-01

136

Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

1992-01-01

137

ENVIRONMENTAL TEDCHNOLOGY VERIFICATION TO REDUCE THE RISK OF USING INNOVATIVE COATING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The papeer discusses the use of environmental technology verification (ETV) to reduce the risk of using innovative coating technologies. It presents key concepts of the ETV program, reviews the scope of the ETV program's coatings and coating equipment pilot (CCEP) and its use of ...

138

Health and Environmental Benefits of Reduced Pesticide Use in Uganda: An Experimental Economics Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experimental procedures were employed to value both health and environmental benefits from reducing pesticide use in Uganda. The first experiment, an incentive compatible auction involved subjects with incomplete information placing bids to avoid consuming potentially contaminated groundnuts\\/water in a framed field experimental procedure. Three experimental treatments (information, proxy good, and group treatments) were used. Subjects were endowed with a

Jackline Bonabana-Wabbi; Daniel B. Taylor

2008-01-01

139

Reduced Phonological Similarity Effects in Patients with Damage to the Cerebellum  

PubMed Central

Ten cerebellar patients were compared to ten control subjects on a verbal working memory task in which the phonological similarity of the words to be remembered and their modality of presentation were manipulated. Cerebellar patients demonstrated a reduction of the phonological similarity effect relative to controls. Further, this reduction did not depend systematically upon the presentation modality. These results first document that qualitative differences in verbal working memory may be observed following cerebellar damage, indicating altered cognitive processing, even though behavioral output as measured by the digit span may be within normal limits. However, the results also present problems for the hypothesis that the cerebellar role is specifically associated with articulatory rehearsal as conceptualized in the Baddeley-Hitch model of working memory.

Justus, Timothy; Ravizza, Susan M.; Fiez, Julie A.; Ivry, Richard B.

2009-01-01

140

Inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission reduced aberrant autophagy and neuronal damage caused by LRRK2 G2019S mutation.  

PubMed

LRRK2 G2019S mutation is the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cellular pathology caused by this mutant is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and augmented autophagy. However, the underlying mechanism is not known. In this study, we determined whether blocking excessive mitochondrial fission could reduce cellular damage and neurodegeneration induced by the G2019S mutation. In both LRRK2 G2019S-expressing cells and PD patient fibroblasts carrying this specific mutant, treatment with P110, a selective peptide inhibitor of fission dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) recently developed in our lab, reduced mitochondrial fragmentation and damage, and corrected excessive autophagy. LRRK2 G2019S directly bound to and phosphorylated Drp1 at Threonine595, whereas P110 treatment abolished this phosphorylation. A site-directed mutant, Drp1(T595A), corrected mitochondrial fragmentation, improved mitochondrial mass and suppressed excessive autophagy in both cells expressing LRRK2 G2019S and PD patient fibroblasts carrying the mutant. Further, in dopaminergic neurons derived from LRRK2 G2019S PD patient-induced pluripotent stem cells, we demonstrated that either P110 treatment or expression of Drp1(T595A) reduced mitochondrial impairment, lysosomal hyperactivity and neurite shortening. Together, we propose that inhibition of Drp1-mediated excessive mitochondrial fission might be a strategy for treatment of PD relevant to LRRK2 G2019S mutation. PMID:23813973

Su, Yu-Chin; Qi, Xin

2013-11-15

141

Spirulina prevents memory dysfunction, reduces oxidative stress damage and augments antioxidant activity in senescence-accelerated mice.  

PubMed

Spirulina has proven to be effective in treating certain cancers, hyperlipidemia, immunodeficiency, and inflammatory processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Spirulina on memory dysfunction, oxidative stress damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. Three-month-old male senescence-accelerated prone-8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly assigned to either a control group or to one of two experimental groups (one receiving daily dietary supplementation with 50 mg/kg BW and one with 200 mg/kg BW of Spirulina platensis water extract). Senescence-accelerated-resistant (SAMR1) mice were used as the external control. Results showed that the Spirulina-treated groups had better passive and avoidance scores than the control group. The amyloid ?-protein (A?) deposition was significantly reduced at the hippocampus and whole brain in both Spirulina groups. The levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced at the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex in both Spirulina groups, while catalase activity was significantly higher only in the 200 mg/kg BW Spirulina group than in the control group. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher only in the cortex of the 200 mg/kg group than in that of the SAMP8 control group. However, superoxide dismutase activity in all parts of the brain did not significantly differ among all groups. In conclusion, Spirulina platensis may prevent the loss of memory possibly by lessening A? protein accumulation, reducing oxidative damage and mainly augmenting the catalase activity. PMID:21697639

Hwang, Juen-Haur; Lee, I-Te; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Wang, Ming-Fu; Hou, Rolis Chien-Wei; Wu, Su-Mei; Chan, Yin-Ching

2011-01-01

142

Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: results from an intervention study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and experimental evidence increasingly suggests coffee consumption to be correlated to prevention or delay of degenerative diseases connected with oxidative cellular stress. In an intervention study comprising 33 healthy volunteers, we examined DNA-protective and antioxidative effects exerted in vivo by daily ingestion of 750 mL of freshly brewed coffee rich in both green coffee bean constituents as well as roast products. The study design encompassed an initial 4 wk of wash-out, followed by 4 wk of coffee intake and 4 wk of second wash-out. At the start and after each study phase blood samples were taken to monitor biomarkers of oxidative stress response. In addition, body weight/composition and intake of energy/nutrients were recorded. In the coffee ingestion period, the primary endpoint, oxidative DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay (± FPG), was markedly reduced (p<0.001). Glutathione level (p<0.05) and GSR-activity (p<0.01) were elevated. Body weight (p<0.01)/body fat (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.001)/nutrient (p<0.001-0.05) intake were reduced. Our results allow to conclude that daily consumption of 3-4 cups of brew from a special Arabica coffee exerts health beneficial effects, as evidenced by reduced oxidative damage, body fat mass and energy/nutrient uptake. PMID:21462335

Bakuradze, Tamara; Boehm, Nadine; Janzowski, Christine; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Albert, Franz W; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

2011-05-01

143

Efficiency of mitochondrially targeted gallic acid in reducing brain mitochondrial oxidative damage.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is associated with mitochondrial impairments. Supplying mitochondria with potent antioxidants can reduce oxidative stress—induced mitochondrial impairment. Gallic acid can be used to reduce oxidative burden in mitochondria. In order to increase the bioavailability of gallic acid inside the mitochondria we synthesized mitochondrially targeted gallic acid and explored its preventive effects against sodium nitroprusside induced oxidative stress in isolated mitochondria. Our observations revealed an increase in oxidative stress,decrease in reduced glutathione in mitochondria and increase in the mitochondrial permeability pore transition due to sodium nitroprusside treatment. Pre—treatment of gallic acid and mitochondrially targeted gallic acid to sodium nitroprusside treated mitochondria not only significantly reduced the oxidative stress but also prevented mitochondrial permeability pore transition to a significant difference. Mitochondrially targeted gallic acid was found more effective in reducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability pore transition than gallic acid. We conclude that mitochondrially targeted gallic acid can be used for preventing mitochondrial impairment caused by oxidative stress. PMID:24998301

Parihar, P; Jat, D; Ghafourifar, P; Parihar, M S

2014-01-01

144

Hypertonic saline reduces neutrophil-epithelial interactions in vitro and gut tissue damage in a mouse model of colitis  

PubMed Central

Transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) plays a crucial role in inflammatory conditions of the intestine, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Hypertonic saline (HS) exerts various inhibitory effects on PMN function. We hypothesized that HS could inhibit transepithelial migration of PMN and thereby prevent inflammatory events in experimental colitis. Isolated human PMN were treated with HS (40 mM), and their transmigration across a monolayer of T84 epithelial cells was induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Monolayer disruption was assessed by monitoring changes in transepithelial conductance in an Ussing chamber. Colitis in mice was induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Animals were treated with 4 or 8 ml/kg of 7.5% saline intraperitoneally two times daily for 7 days. Controls received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS, n = 6) or no intraperitoneal treatment (DSS, n = 12). The severity of inflammation was evaluated based on disease activity index and histology score. HS treatment of PMN in vitro significantly reduced cell migration and the disruption of T84 monolayers compared with untreated control cells (n = 5, P < 0.05). This effect of HS was dose dependent. HS treatment in vivo also reduced colitis-induced gut tissue damage, as indicated by an improved histology score compared with the NS and DSS groups. We conclude that HS inhibits transepithelial migration of PMN in vitro and gut tissue damage in vivo in a mouse model of colitis. Thus HS may have clinical value to reduce PMN-mediated intestinal damage.

Tillinger, Wolfgang; McCole, Declan F.; Keely, Stephen J.; Bertelsen, Lone S.; Wolf, Paul L.; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Barrett, Kim E.

2008-01-01

145

Optimal {open_quotes}Adders{close_quotes} for environmental damage by public utilities  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Social costing{close_quotes} refers to the consideration of environmental damages and other external costs and benefits in resource planning or dispatch decisions by electric utilities. Typically, utility regulators must take existing regulations promulgated by other levels of government as parametric, so social costing represents a second layer of regulatory review with regard to many issues. The consideration of external costs at the level of utility regulation will have efficiency implications that are not obvious. For example, the practice is particularly contentious when it is believed that industry emissions of a pollutant are {open_quotes}overcontrolled,{close_quotes} in that they are subject to an emission limitation more stringent than what would be considered economically efficient. Within a simple but fairly general normative model, this paper presents some simple analytics for the consideration of social costs in utility decision making, assuming the objective of the regulator is to maximize social welfare. The efficient policy depends on the institutional characteristics of preexisting regulation. The role of deviations from marginal cost pricing in electricity pricing and the possibility of customer bypass of the utility grid are explicitly modeled. 31 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Burtraw, D.; Harrington, W.; Krupnick, A.J. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

146

Test validation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability and damage tolerance modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will establish a process for using a computational approach, validated at a specimen level, to predict reliably in the future component level performance without resorting to extensive testing.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.

2014-03-01

147

Study of genetic damage in the Japanese oyster induced by an environmentally-relevant exposure to diuron: evidence of vertical transmission of DNA damage.  

PubMed

Pesticides represent a major proportion of the chemical pollutants detected in French coastal waters and hence a significant environmental risk with regards to marine organisms. Commercially-raised bivalves are particularly exposed to pollutants, among them pesticides, as shellfish farming zones are subject to considerable pressure from agricultural activities on the mainland. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the genotoxic effects of diuron exposure on oyster genitors and (2) the possible transmission of damaged DNA to offspring and its repercussions on oyster fitness. To investigate these points, oysters were exposed to concentrations of diuron close to those detected in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (two 7-day exposure pulses at 0.4 and 0.6 ?g L(-1)) during the gametogenesis period. Genomic abnormalities were characterized using two complementary approaches. The Comet assay was applied for the measurement of early and reversible primary DNA damage, whereas flow cytometry was used to assess the clastogenic and aneugenic effect of diuron exposure. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were used in exposed and assay tanks to confirm the waterborne concentration of diuron reached during the experiment. The results obtained by the Comet assay clearly showed a higher level of DNA strand breaks in both the hemocytes and spermatozoa of diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of damaged genetic material to gamete cells could be responsible for the genetic damage measured in offspring. Indeed, flow cytometry analyses showed the presence of DNA breakage and a significant decrease in DNA content in spat from diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of DNA damage to the offspring could be involved in the negative effects observed on offspring development (decrease in hatching rate, higher level of larval abnormalities, delay in metamorphosis) and growth. In this study, the vertical transmission of DNA damage was so highlighted by subjecting oyster genitors to short exposures to diuron at medium environmental concentrations. The analysis of POCIS showed that oysters were exposed to integrated concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 ?g L(-1), emphasizing the relevance of the results obtained and the risk associated to chemical contamination for oyster recruitment and fitness. PMID:24291084

Barranger, A; Akcha, F; Rouxel, J; Brizard, R; Maurouard, E; Pallud, M; Menard, D; Tapie, N; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Benabdelmouna, A

2014-01-01

148

Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : I. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus).  

PubMed

The effectiveness of predator odors (fecal, urine, and anal scent gland) in suppressing feeding damage by snowshoe hares was investigated in pen bioassays at the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. A total of 28 bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on hare consumption of willow browse and coniferous seedlings. Lynx and bobcat feces, weasel anal gland secretion, and lynx, bobcat, wolf, coyote, fox, and wolverine urines resulted in the most effective suppression of hare feeding damage. Novel odors of domestic dog urine and 2-methylbutyric acid did not reduce feeding. A field bioassay with lodgepole pine seedlings and weasel scent provided significant results comparable to the pen bioassays. The short-term (up to seven days) effectiveness of these treatments was more likely due to evaporative loss of the active repellent components of a given odor than habituation of hares to the stimulus. Predator odors as repellents have a biological basis compared with the anthropomorphic origins of commercial repellents. When encapsulated in weather-proof controlled-release devices, these odors could provide long-term protection for forestry plantations and agricultural crops which experience hare/rabbit feeding damage. PMID:24310275

Sullivan, T P; Nordstrom, L O; Sullivan, D S

1985-07-01

149

Conversion of NO2 to NO by reduced coenzyme F420 protects mycobacteria from nitrosative damage  

PubMed Central

In mycobacteria, F420, a deazaflavin derivative, acts as a hydride transfer coenzyme for an F420-specific glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Fgd). Physiologically relevant reactions in the mycobacteria that use Fgd-generated reduced F420 (F420H2) are unknown. In this work, F420H2 was found to be oxidized by NO only in the presence of oxygen. Further analysis demonstrated that NO2, produced from NO and O2, was the oxidant. UV-visible spectroscopic and NO-sensor-based analyses proved that F420H2 reduced NO2 to NO. This reaction could serve as a defense system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is more sensitive to NO2 than NO under aerobic conditions. Activated macrophages produce NO, which in acidified phagosomes is converted to NO2. Hence, by converting NO2 back to NO with F420H2, M. tuberculosis could decrease the effectiveness of antibacterial action of macrophages; such defense would correspond to active tuberculosis conditions where the bacterium grows aerobically. This hypothesis was consistent with the observation that a mutant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a nonpathogenic relative of M. tuberculosis, which either did not produce or could not reduce F420, was ?4-fold more sensitive to NO2 than the wild-type strain. The phenomenon is reminiscent of the anticancer activity of ?-tocopherol, which reduces NO2 to NO and protects human cells from NO2-induced carcinogenesis.

Purwantini, Endang; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

2009-01-01

150

Leaf variegation is associated with reduced herbivore damage in Hydrophyllum virginianum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf variegation refers to local regions of the upper surface of a leaf having reduced or obstructed chlorophyll, which results in whitish spots. These lighter spots may compromise the photosynthetic efficiency of a leaf, and many com- peting hypotheses have been put forward to explain why this patterning may be adaptive. It has been suggested that varie- gation is either

Brandon E. Campitelli; Ivana Stehlik; John R. Stinchcombe

2008-01-01

151

Power Line Damage, Electrical Outages Reduced in the ''Sleet Belt'': NICE3 Steel Project Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The AR Windamper System was developed through a grant from the Inventions and Innovation Program, to protect power transmission lines in sleet belt states and provinces by eliminating the ''galloping'' phenomenon. Wind damping products minimize power outages and reduce repair costs to transmission lines.

NONE

2000-04-25

152

Reduced 5-HT2A receptor signaling following selective bilateral amygdala damage  

PubMed Central

Neurobiological evidence implicates the amygdala as well as serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) signaling via postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors as essential substrates of anxiety behaviors. Assuming a functional interdependence of these substrates, we hypothesized that a low-fear behavioral phenotype due to bilateral lesion of the amygdala would be associated with significant 5-HT2A receptor changes. Thus, we used [18F]altanserin positron emission tomography (PET) referenced to radioligand plasma levels and corrected for partial volume effects to quantify the spatial distribution of 5-HT2A receptor binding potential (BPP) in a rare patient with Urbach–Wiethe disease and selective bilateral amygdala calcification damage relative to 10 healthy control subjects. Consistent with our a priori hypothesis, we observed a 70% global decrease in 5-HT2A receptor BPP in the Urbach–Wiethe patient relative to controls. Thus, brain abnormalities in this patient are not restricted to the amygdala, but extend to overall 5-HT neurotransmission via 5-HT2A receptors. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular architecture of human anxiety behaviors and suggest the 5-HT2A receptor as a promising pharmacological target to control pathological anxiety.

Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Matusch, Andreas; Reich, Harald; Shah, Nadim J.; Zilles, Karl; Maier, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas

2009-01-01

153

Optimization of phytoplankton preservative concentrations to reduce damage during long-term storage.  

PubMed

A study was performed to establish the optimal concentration of traditional preservatives or fixatives such as formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine, in order to preserve phytoplankton samples for long-term storage without the introduction of artifacts or other physical aberrations. The goal of the study was to avoid any visible morphological changes to the preserved cells, minimizing the errors induced by traditional preservative concentrations, and ensuring better accuracy of ecological analyses. We found that both formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine have adverse effects on the preservation of samples. Trichodesmium erythraeum was found to be most susceptible to the effects of acidic Lugol's iodine, since it displayed the highest degree of chain fragmentation when this preservative was used. However, we found that 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde, 2.5% (v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine, and 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde+2.5%(v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine combined were most promising, with the latter the most effective even after 3 weeks of preservation. This study also revealed that, in general, the centric diatom species were more sensitive to long-term preservation than their pennate counterparts. The present study is significant as it sheds light on the damage endured by phytoplankton cells during long-term preservation, which can lead to erroneous and biased results upon analyses. The optimal concentration of preservative established experimentally from a wide variety of concentrations caused comparatively moderate changes to the cell dimensions as well as effectively prevented microbial contamination. PMID:24749881

Mukherjee, Abhishek; Das, Subhajit; Bhattacharya, Tanima; De, Minati; Maiti, Tusharkanti; Kumar De, Tarun

2014-04-01

154

Efforts to reduce mortality to hydroelectric turbine-passed fish: locating and quantifying damaging shear stresses.  

PubMed

Severe fluid forces are believed to be a source of injury and mortality to fish that pass through hydroelectric turbines. A process is described by which laboratory bioassays, computational fluid dynamics models, and field studies can be integrated to evaluate the significance of fluid shear stresses that occur in a turbine. Areas containing potentially lethal shear stresses were identified near the stay vanes and wicket gates, runner, and in the draft tube of a large Kaplan turbine. However, under typical operating conditions, computational models estimated that these dangerous areas comprise less than 2% of the flow path through the modeled turbine. The predicted volumes of the damaging shear stress zones did not correlate well with observed fish mortality at a field installation of this turbine, which ranged from less than 1% to nearly 12%. Possible reasons for the poor correlation are discussed. Computational modeling is necessary to develop an understanding of the role of particular fish injury mechanisms, to compare their effects with those of other sources of injury, and to minimize the trial and error previously needed to mitigate those effects. The process we describe is being used to modify the design of hydroelectric turbines to improve fish passage survival. PMID:16485161

Cada, Glenn; Loar, James; Garrison, Laura; Fisher, Richard; Neitzel, Duane

2006-06-01

155

Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. Methods This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. Results A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. Conclusions There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.

2013-01-01

156

Combination of Dexamethasone and Aminoguanidine Reduces Secondary Damage in Compression Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was performed to investigate the effect of combination therapy with aminoguanidine (AG) and dexamethasone (DEX)\\u000a on the compression spinal cord injury (SCI) in rat. Compared to the control group, the combination therapy group with AG (75 mg\\/kg)\\u000a and DEX (0.025 mg\\/kg) significantly reduced the degree of (1) spinal cord edema, (2) the permeability of blood spinal cord\\u000a barrier (measured by

Wei-bing Xu; Gang Lv; Yan-feng Wang; Xu-hua Lu; Tao Huang; Yue Zhu; Lian-shun Jia

2009-01-01

157

The Curry Spice Curcumin Reduces Oxidative Damage and Amyloid Pathology in an Alzheimer Transgenic Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is character- ized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemi- ological studies suggest reduced AD risk associates with long- term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw mouse model (Tg2576), excessive use of NSAIDs targeting cyclooxygenase I can cause gastrointestinal, liver, and

Giselle P. Lim; Teresa Chu; Fusheng Yang; Walter Beech; Sally A. Frautschy; Greg M. Cole

2001-01-01

158

Cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rice leaves is reduced by polyamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of polyamines against Cd toxicity of rice (Oryza sativa) leaves was investigated. Cd toxicity to rice leaves was determined by the decrease in protein content. CdCl2 treatment results in (1) increased Cd content, (2) induction of Cd toxicity, (3) increase in H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, (4) decrease in ascorbic acid (ASC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents,

Yi Ting Hsu; Ching Huei Kao

2007-01-01

159

Environmental Flows Can Reduce the Encroachment of Terrestrial Vegetation into River Channels: A Systematic Literature Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Encroachment of riparian vegetation into regulated river channels exerts control over fluvial processes, channel morphology, and aquatic ecology. Reducing encroachment of terrestrial vegetation is an oft-cited objective of environmental flow recommendations, but there has been no systematic assessment of the evidence for and against the widely-accepted cause-and-effect mechanisms involved. We systematically reviewed the literature to test whether environmental flows can reduce the encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into river channels. We quantified the level of support for five explicit cause-effect hypotheses drawn from a conceptual model of the effects of flow on vegetation. We found that greater inundation, variously expressed as changes in the area, depth, duration, frequency, seasonality, and volume of surface water, generally reduces riparian vegetation abundance in channels, but most studies did not investigate the specific mechanisms causing these changes. Those that did show that increased inundation results in increased mortality, but also increased germination. The evidence was insufficient to determine whether increased inundation decreases reproduction. Our results contribute to hydro-ecological understanding by using the published literature to test for general cause-effect relationships between flow regime and terrestrial vegetation encroachment. Reviews of this nature provide robust support for flow management, and are more defensible than expert judgement-based approaches. Overall, we predict that restoration of more natural flow regimes will reduce encroachment of terrestrial vegetation into regulated river channels, partly through increased mortality. Conversely, infrequent deliveries of environmental flows may actually increase germination and subsequent encroachment.

Miller, Kimberly A.; Webb, J. Angus; de Little, Siobhan C.; Stewardson, Michael J.

2013-11-01

160

A MODEL OF SPECTRAL FILTERING TO REDUCE PHOTOCHEMICAL DAMAGE IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background/Purpose Cumulative sunlight exposure and cataract surgery are reported risk factors for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Laboratory studies suggest that accumulation and photochemical reactions of A2E (N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine) and its epoxides, components of lipofuscin, are important in AMD. To relate this data to the clinical setting, we modeled the effects of macular irradiance and spectral filtering on production of A2E and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in pseudophakic eyes with a clear or “yellow” intraocular lens (IOL) and in phakic eyes. Methods We calculated relative changes of macular irradiance as a function of light (390 to 700 nm) intensity, pupil size, age, and lens status, and modeled resulting all-trans-retinal concentration and rates of production of A2E-related photochemicals and photon-induced ROIs in rods and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We compared these photoproducts following cataract surgery and IOL implantation with and without spectral sunglasses to normal age-related nuclear sclerotic lens changes. Results Following cataract and IOL surgery, all-trans-retinal and lipofuscin photochemistry would theoretically increase average generation of 1) A2E-related photochemicals, 2) ROI in rods and 3) ROI in RPE, respectively, 2.6-, 15- and 6.6-fold with a clear IOL, and 2.1-, 4.1- and 2.6 fold with a yellow IOL, but decrease approximately 30-, approximately 20-and 4-fold with a vermillion filter sunglass and clear IOL compared to an average 70 year old phakic eye. Conclusion Sunglasses that strongly decrease both deep blue light and rod photobleaching, while preserving photopic sensitivity and color perception, would provide upstream protection from potential photochemical damage in subjects at risk for AMD progression after cataract surgery.

Meyers, Sanford M; Ostrovsky, Mikhail A; Bonner, Robert F

2004-01-01

161

Therapeutic efficacy of silymarin from milk thistle in reducing manganese-induced hepatic damage and apoptosis in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in manganese (Mn) toxicity. Using natural antioxidants against metal-induced hepatotoxicity is a modern approach. The present study investigated the beneficial role of silymarin, a natural flavonoid, in Mn-induced hepatotoxicity focusing on histopathology and biochemical approaches. Male Wistar rats were exposed orally to manganese chloride (20 mg/mL) for 30 days followed by intraperitoneal cotreatment with silymarin (100 mg/kg). Exposure to Mn resulted in a significant elevation of the plasma marker enzyme activities and bilirubin level related to liver dysfunction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hepatic oxidative stress indices. This metal reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels such as reduced glutathione, total sulfhydryl groups and vitamin C. In addition, it caused hepatic hemorrhage, cellular degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes as indicated by liver histopathology and DNA fragmentation studies. Coadministration of silymarin alleviated Mn oxidative damage effects by inhibiting ROS generation. Histological studies also supported the beneficial role of silymarin against Mn-induced hepatic damages. Combining all, results suggested that silymarin could protect hepatic tissues against Mn-induced oxidative stress probably through its antioxidant activity. Therefore, its supplementation could provide a new approach for the reduction in hepatic complication due to Mn poisoning. PMID:22899727

Chtourou, Y; Garoui, Em; Boudawara, T; Zeghal, N

2013-01-01

162

Chaos Control in Random Boolean Networks by Reducing Mean Damage Percolation Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaos control in random Boolean networks is implemented by freezing part of the network to drive it from chaotic to ordered phase. However, controlled nodes are only viewed as passive blocks to prevent perturbation spread. We propose a new control method in which controlled nodes can exert an active impact on the network. Controlled nodes and frozen values are deliberately selected according to the information of connection and Boolean functions. Simulation results show that the number of nodes needed to achieve control is largely reduced compared to the previous method. Theoretical analysis is also given to estimate the least fraction of nodes needed to achieve control.

Jiang, Nan; Chen, Shi-Jian

2011-04-01

163

Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage.  

PubMed

Free radicals are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, such as ischemia and aging. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with diets enriched with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina have been shown to reduce neurodegenerative changes in aged animals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these diets have neuroprotective effects in focal ischemic brain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with equal amounts of diets (blueberry, spinach, and spirulina) or with control diet. After 4 weeks of feeding, all animals were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. The right middle cerebral artery was ligated with a 10-O suture for 60 min. The ligature was later removed to allow reperfusional injury. Animals were sacrificed and brains were removed for caspase-3 enzymatic assays and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining at 8 and 48 h after the onset of reperfusion. A subgroup of animals was used for locomotor behavior and biochemical assays. We found that animals which received blueberry, spinach, or spirulina enriched diets had a significant reduction in the volume of infarction in the cerebral cortex and an increase in post-stroke locomotor activity. There was no difference in blood biochemistry, blood CO2, and electrolyte levels among all groups, suggesting that the protection was not indirectly mediated through the changes in physiological functions. Animals treated with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina had significantly lower caspase-3 activity in the ischemic hemisphere. In conclusion, our data suggest that chronic treatment with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis and cerebral infarction. PMID:15817266

Wang, Yun; Chang, Chen-Fu; Chou, Jenny; Chen, Hui-Ling; Deng, Xiaolin; Harvey, Brandon K; Cadet, Jean Lud; Bickford, Paula C

2005-05-01

164

Parallel Run Length Encoding Compression: Reducing I\\/o in dYnamic Environmental Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic simulations based on time-varying inputs are extremely I\\/O intensive. This is shown by industrial appli cations generating environmental projections based on seasonal-to-interannual climate forecasts that have a compute to data access ratio of O(n) leading to significant performance degradation. Exploitation of compression techniques such as run length encoding (RLE) signifi cantly reduces the I\\/O bottleneck and storage require ments.

G. Davis; L. Lau; R. Young; F. Duncalfe; L. Brebber

1998-01-01

165

Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology

C T Hendrickson; D H Matthews; M Ashe; P Jaramillo; F C McMichael

2010-01-01

166

Extra-virgin olive oil-enriched diets reduce indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

Olive oil, the main fat component of the Mediterranean diet, has been found to be protective against oxidative stress and could be beneficial in inflammatory and gastrointestinal disorders. First-pressed, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) has appreciable amounts of powerful antioxidants such as polyphenolic compounds that prevent its autoxidation and are responsible for its high stability. The aim of the present study was to determine whether diets supplemented with EVOO could reduce the severity of indomethacin-induced gastric oxidative damage and also to study changes in the activities of certain oxidative stress-related enzymes such as xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase as a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Lipid peroxidation and possible modifications in gluthatione metabolism were also studied. Weanling rats were maintained on semisynthetic diet for 6 weeks; a standard diet containing 5% (w/w) of fat as control or EVOO supplemented diets (5% and 20% w/w). Gastric lesions were induced on the last day by oral administration of indomethacin (60 mg/kg body wt). In animals fed EVOO diets, gastric lesions were decreased significantly and in parallel with dietary fat, when compared to animals consuming a standard diet. These protective effects were related to a reduction of lipid peroxides generation, neutrophil infiltration, and xanthine oxidase activity. Superoxide dismutase, an important enzyme to scavenger of lipid peroxides, was unaffected by feeding conditions. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with EVOO significantly increased both glutathione peroxidase activity and total glutathione content. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that fat diets containing EVOO reduces indomethacin-induced gastric damage in rats. This effect may be partly due not only to reducing oxidative stress and neutrophil-induced toxicity but also to enhancing the glutathione antioxidant defense system. PMID:12498302

Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Barranco, M D; Martín, M J; Herrerías, J; Motilva, V

2002-12-01

167

Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da\\/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the

Robert S. Piascik; Richard P. Gangloff

1992-01-01

168

Reducing the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination by using brackish groundwater resources.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to find out whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination are reduced when brackish groundwater is used instead of sea water. In order to answer this question, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used, and two water production plants are compared. The brackish groundwater scenario is based on a plant located in Almería (southern Spain), while the sea water scenario is based on literature data. Four impact categories and two environmental indicators, one of them related to brine discharge, are included. The results show that the key life-cycle issue of brackish groundwater desalination is electricity consumption, and since this is substantially reduced with regard to using sea water, the life-cycle impacts are found to be almost 50% lower. An uncertainty analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation shows that these environmental savings are significant for all impact categories. Potential local impacts provoked by brine discharge are also found to be lower, due to a reduced content of salts. It is concluded that, when and wherever possible, exploitation of brackish groundwater resources should be assigned priority to sea water resources as an input for reverse osmosis desalination, although it must be taken into account that groundwater, as opposed to sea water, is a limited resource. PMID:17826817

Muñoz, Ivan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

2008-02-01

169

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.  

PubMed

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

2013-05-01

170

Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids  

PubMed Central

The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties.

Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wackers, Felix L.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Olson, Dawn M.; Ruberson, John R.; Romeis, Jorg

2013-01-01

171

Pomegranate seed oil reduces intestinal damage in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate seed oil (PSO), which is the major source of conjugated linolenic acids such as punicic acid (PuA), exhibits strong anti-inflammatory properties. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease associated with severe and excessive intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered PSO on the development of NEC, intestinal epithelial proliferation, and cytokine regulation in a rat model of NEC. Premature rats were divided into three groups: dam fed (DF), formula-fed rats (FF), or rats fed with formula supplemented with 1.5% of PSO (FF + PSO). All groups were exposed to asphyxia/cold stress to induce NEC. Intestinal injury, epithelial cell proliferation, cytokine production, and trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) production were evaluated in the terminal ileum. Oral administration of PSO (FF+PSO) decreased the incidence of NEC from 61 to 26%. Feeding formula with PSO improved enterocyte proliferation in the site of injury. Increased levels of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-23, and TNF-? in the ileum of FF rats were normalized in PSO-treated animals. Tff3 production in the FF rats was reduced compared with DF but not further affected by the PSO. In conclusion, administration of PSO protects against NEC in the neonatal rat model. This protective effect is associated with an improvement of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and a strong anti-inflammatory effect of PSO on the developing intestinal mucosa.

Coursodon-Boyiddle, Christine F.; Snarrenberg, Chelsea L.; Adkins-Rieck, Camille K.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J. Thomas; Jouni, Zeina E.

2012-01-01

172

Preischemic exercise reduces brain damage by ameliorating metabolic disorder in ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

Physical exercise preconditioning is known to ameliorate stroke-induced injury. In addition to several other mechanisms, the beneficial effect of preischemic exercise following stroke is due to an upregulated capacity to maintain energy supplies. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in exercise and control groups. After 1-3 weeks of exercise, several enzymes were analyzed as a gauge of the direct effect of physical exercise on cerebral metabolism. As a measure of metabolic capacity, an ADP/ATP ratio was obtained. Glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3) were monitored to assess glucose influx, and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was measured to determine the rate of glycolysis. Hypoxia-induced factor-1? (HIF-1?) and 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels were also determined. These same analyses were performed on preconditioned and control rats following an ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) insult. Our results show that GLUT1, GLUT3, PFK, AMPK, and HIF-1? were all increased following 3 weeks of exercise training. In addition, the ADP/ATP ratio was chronically elevated during these 3 weeks. After I/R injury, HIF-1? and AMPK were significantly higher in exercised rats. The ADP/ATP ratio was reduced in preconditioned rats in the acute phase after stroke, suggesting a lower level of metabolic disorder. GLUT1 and GLUT3 were also increased in the acute phase in exercise rats, indicating that these rats were better able to increase rates of metabolism immediately after ischemic injury. In addition, PFK expression was increased in exercise rats showing an enhanced glycolysis resulting from exercise preconditioning. Altogether, exercise preconditioning increased the rates of glucose metabolism, allowing a more rapid and more substantial increase in ATP production following stroke. PMID:23553672

Dornbos, David; Zwagerman, Nathan; Guo, Miao; Ding, Jamie Y; Peng, Changya; Esmail, Fatema; Sikharam, Chaitanya; Geng, Xiaokun; Guthikonda, Murali; Ding, Yuchuan

2013-06-01

173

Doxycycline, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, reduces vascular remodeling and damage after cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of zinc peptidases involved in extracellular matrix turnover. There is evidence that increased MMP activity is involved in remodeling of resistance vessels in chronic hypertension. Thus we hypothesized that inhibition of MMP activity with doxycycline (DOX) would attenuate vascular remodeling. Six-week-old male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with DOX (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in the drinking water) for 6 wk. Untreated SHRSP were controls. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry during the last week. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) passive structures were assessed by pressure myography. MMP-2 expression in aortas was measured by Western blot. All results are means ± SE. DOX caused a small increase in mean arterial pressure (SHRSP, 154 ± 1; SHRSP + DOX, 159 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.001). Active MMP-2 expression was reduced in aorta from SHRSP + DOX (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.49 ± 0.13 arbitrary units; P < 0.05). In the MCA, at 80 mmHg, DOX treatment increased the lumen (273.2 ± 4.7 vs. 238.3 ± 6.3 ?m; P < 0.05) and the outer diameter (321 ± 5.3 vs. 290 ± 7.6 ?m; P < 0.05) and reduced the wall-to-lumen ratio (0.09 ± 0.002 vs. 0.11 ± 0.003; P < 0.05). Damage after transient cerebral ischemia (transient MCA occlusion) was reduced in SHRSP + DOX (20.7 ± 4 vs. 45.5 ± 5% of hemisphere infarcted; P < 0.05). In the MRA, at 90 mmHg DOX, reduced wall thickness (29 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 ?m; P < 0.001) and wall-to-lumen ratio (0.08 ± 0.004 vs. 0.11 ± 0.008; P < 0.05) without changing lumen diameter. These results suggest that MMPs are involved in hypertensive vascular remodeling in both the peripheral and cerebral vasculature and that DOX reduced brain damage after cerebral ischemia. PMID:21551278

Pires, Paulo W; Rogers, Curt T; McClain, Jonathon L; Garver, Hannah S; Fink, Gregory D; Dorrance, Anne M

2011-07-01

174

Use of predator odors as repellents to reduce feeding damage by herbivores : II. Black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).  

PubMed

The effectiveness of predator odors (fecal and urine) in suppressing feeding damage by black-tailed deer was investigated in pen bioassays at the University of British Columbia Research Forest, Maple Ridge, British Columbia, Canada. A total of eight bioassay trials tested the effects of these odors on deer consumption of salal leaves and coniferous seedlings. Cougar, coyote,and wolf feces as well as coyote, wolf, fox, wolverine, lynx, and bobcat urines provided the most effective suppression of deer feeding damage. Novel odors of ammonia and human urine did not reduce feeding. Predator fecal odor formulations in direct foliar application, adhesive application, and in plastic vials were all effective in suppressing deer feeding. Of all urines tested, coyote provided the most consistent suppression of deer browsing on salal. Deer consumed significantly more untreated Douglas fir and western red cedar seedlings than those protected by coyote urine odor. The active repellent components of predator odors which suppress deer feeding may be suitable for encapsulation in controlled-release devices which could provide long-term protection for forest and agricultural crops. PMID:24310276

Sullivan, T P; Nordstrom, L O; Sullivan, D S

1985-07-01

175

Short-term calorie restriction protects against renal senescence of aged rats by increasing autophagic activity and reducing oxidative damage.  

PubMed

To explore the effect of short-term calorie restriction (CR) on renal aging, 8-week CR with 60% of the food intake of the ad libitum group was administered in 25-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Aged rats subjected to short-term CR had lower body weight, level of triglycerides and ratio of urine protein to urine creatinine, respectively. Short-term CR blunted the increased glomerular volume, the degree of fibrosis, p16 and the positive rate of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining of the kidneys in old ad libitum group. Light chain 3/Atg8 as an autophagy marker exhibited a marked decline in aged kidneys, which was increased by short-term CR. The levels of p62/SQSTM1 and polyubiquitin aggregates, which were increased in older kidneys, were blunted by short-term CR. Short-term CR retarded the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of mitochondrial DNA oxidative damage. Moreover, we found an increased level of SIRT1 and AMPK, and a decreased level of mTOR in aged kidneys after short-term CR. These results suggested that short-term CR could be considered as a potential intervention for retardation of renal senescence by increasing autophagy and subsequently reducing oxidative damage. Three master regulators of energy metabolism, SIRT1, AMPK and mTOR are associated with these effects. PMID:24291536

Ning, Yi-Chun; Cai, Guang-Yan; Zhuo, Li; Gao, Jian-Jun; Dong, Dan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Feng, Zhe; Shi, Suo-Zhu; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

2013-01-01

176

The doubtful environmental benefit of reduced maximum sulfur limit in international shipping fuel.  

PubMed

On January 1st, 2012, the maximum limit for sulfur concentration in marine fuels on the high seas was lowered from 4.50% to 3.50% by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). It was one of a series of planned steps toward reducing the negative environmental and health impacts of international shipping. This study investigates the effectiveness of the IMO regulation in reducing global sulfur emissions. We found a reduction in global average sulfur concentration of only 0.07% points from 2011 to 2012. On the positive side, we also found that only 2.3% of the bunkerings were noncompliant in 2012, that is, exceeded the new 3.50% sulfur concentration cap. The analysis furthermore suggests that compliance with the new regulation is achieved by blending high sulfur fuel with lower sulfur fuel, rather than by removing high sulfur fuel from the market or removing the excess sulfur. The main conclusion is that the regulation has been effective in reducing the maximum sulfur concentration but has not been very effective in reducing the average sulfur concentration. Thus, the regulation may have resulted in local environmental benefits but has not resulted in global benefits with respect to global sulfur emissions from international shipping. PMID:23713707

Mestl, Thomas; Løvoll, Grunde; Stensrud, Erik; Le Breton, Arnaud

2013-06-18

177

Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (gly-gly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the gly-gly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping

2014-04-01

178

Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.  

PubMed

The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

Menzies, Kevin

2014-08-13

179

DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants  

PubMed Central

Background Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in less developed countries. Aims To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in outdoor workers from two Mexican cities. Methods DNA damage (Comet assay) and personal exposure to volatile organic compounds, PM2.5, and ozone were investigated in 55 outdoor and indoor workers from México City and Puebla. Results In México City, outdoor workers had greater DNA damage, reflected by a longer tail length, than indoor workers (median 46.8 v 30.1??m), and a greater percentage of highly damaged cells (cells with tail length ?41??m); in Puebla, outdoor and indoor workers had similar DNA damage. There were more alkali labile sites in outdoor than indoor workers. The DNA damage magnitude was positively correlated with PM2.5 and ozone exposure. Outdoor and indoor workers with ?60% of highly damaged cells (highly damaged workers) had significantly higher exposures to PM2.5, ozone, and some volatile organic compounds. The main factors associated with the highly damaged workers were ozone, PM2.5, and 1?ethyl?2?methyl benzene exposure. Conclusions With this approach, the effects of some air pollutants could be correlated with biological endpoints from the Comet assay. It is suggested that the use of personal exposure assessment and biological endpoints evaluation could be an important tool to generate a more precise assessment of the associated potential health risks.

Tovalin, H; Valverde, M; Morandi, M T; Blanco, S; Whitehead, L; Rojas, E

2006-01-01

180

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

SciTech Connect

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

2011-04-20

181

Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling  

SciTech Connect

In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens. The High Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

Edward Marks

2005-09-09

182

Satisfaction of farm animal behavioral needs in behaviorally restricted systems: Reducing stressors and environmental enrichment.  

PubMed

In modern intensive husbandry, systems often restrict farm animal behavior. Behavioral needs will be generated by external stimuli such as stressors deriving from environmental factors or the method of animal care, or some internal factor in farm animals. This means that behavioral restriction would induce maladaptation to stressors or chronic stress. Such a risk of behavioral restriction degrades an animal's physical and mental health and leads to economic loss at a farm. Methods to reduce the risk of behavioral restrictions are to ameliorate the source of a stressor through adequate animal management or to carry out environmental enrichment. This review is intended to describe the relation between animal management and behavioral needs from the perspective of animal motivation. PMID:24889092

Ninomiya, Shigeru

2014-06-01

183

On the plausible association between environmental conditions and human eye damage.  

PubMed

The increase in solar ultraviolet radiation can have various direct and indirect effects on human health, like the incidence of ocular damage. Data of eye damage in residents of three suburban regions in Greece and in two groups of monks/nuns and fishermen are examined here. The statistics performed on these data provides new information about the plausible association between increased levels of solar ultraviolet radiation, air-pollution at ground level, and the development of ocular defects. PMID:12094527

Feretis, Elias; Theodorakopoulos, Panagiotis; Varotsos, Costas; Efstathiou, Maria; Tzanis, Christos; Xirou, Tzina; Alexandridou, Nancy; Aggelou, Michael

2002-01-01

184

The potential of five winter-grown crops to reduce root-knot nematode damage and increase yield of tomato.  

PubMed

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel; Ploeg, Antoon

2010-06-01

185

Humus-reducing microorganisms and their valuable contribution in environmental processes.  

PubMed

Humus constitutes a very abundant class of organic compounds that are chemically heterogeneous and widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Evidence accumulated during the last decades indicating that humic substances play relevant roles on the transport, fate, and redox conversion of organic and inorganic compounds both in chemically and microbially driven reactions. The present review underlines the contribution of humus-reducing microorganisms in relevant environmental processes such as biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of greenhouse gases emission in anoxic ecosystems, redox conversion of industrial contaminants in anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, and on the microbial production of nanocatalysts and alternative energy sources. PMID:24220793

Martinez, Claudia M; Alvarez, Luis H; Celis, Lourdes B; Cervantes, Francisco J

2013-12-01

186

A 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative reduces DNA damage and stimulates DNA repair in human cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Compounds of the 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) series have been shown to reduce spontaneous, alkylation- and radiation-induced mutation rates in animal test systems. Here we report studies using AV-153, the 1,4-DHP derivative that showed the highest antimutagenic activity in those tests, to examine if it modulates DNA repair in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in two human lymphoblastoid cell lines, Raji and HL-60. AV-153 caused a 50% inhibition of growth (IC50) of Raji and HL-60 cells at 14.9+/-1.2 and 10.3+/-0.8mM, respectively, but did not show a cytotoxic effect at concentrations <100 microM. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assays showed that AV-153 reduced the number of DNA strand breaks in untreated cells and also in cells exposed to 2 Gy of gamma-radiation, 100 microM ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), or 100 microM H2O2. DNA damage was reduced by up to 87% at AV-153 concentrations between 1 and 10nM, and a positive dose-effect relationship was seen between 0.01 and 1 nM. Comparison of the kinetics of DNA strand-break rejoining in the presence and absence of AV-153 revealed a considerable influence on the rate of repair. In view of the resemblance of this compound's structure to that of dihydronicotinamide, a substrate for poly(ADP-rybose)polymerase, the modulation of DNA repair by AV-153 could involve an influence on poly(ADP)ribosylation. PMID:16202640

Ryabokon, Nadezhda I; Goncharova, Rose I; Duburs, Gunars; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

2005-11-10

187

Time evolution of damage due to environmentally assisted aging in a fiber bundle model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage growth in composite materials is a complex process which is of interest in many fields of science and engineering. We consider this problem in a fiber bundle model where fibers undergo an aging process due to the accumulation of damage driven by the locally acting stress in a chemically active environment. By subjecting the bundle to a constant external load, fibers fail either when the load on them exceeds their individual intrinsic strength or when the accumulated internal damage exceeds a random threshold. We analyze the time evolution of the breaking process under low external loads where aging of fibers dominates. In the mean field limit, we show analytically that the aging system continuously accelerates in a way which can be characterized by an inverse power law of the event rate with a singularity that defines a failure time. The exponent is not universal; it depends on the details of the aging process. For localized load sharing, a more complex damage process emerges which is dominated by distinct spatial regions of the system with different degrees of stress concentration. Analytical calculations revealed that the final acceleration to global failure is preceded by a stationary accumulation of damage. When the disorder is strong, the accelerating phase has the same functional behavior as in the mean field limit. The analytical results are verified by computer simulations.

Lennartz-Sassinek, S.; Main, I. G.; Danku, Z.; Kun, F.

2013-09-01

188

Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

2013-03-01

189

Reducing the environmental impact of dietary choice: perspectives from a behavioural and social change approach.  

PubMed

Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area. PMID:22754580

Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

2012-01-01

190

Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach  

PubMed Central

Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.

Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

2012-01-01

191

Reduced carbon intensity in highly developed countries: environmental kuznets curves for carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) postulates that pollution increases with the income per capita up to a maximum, above which it decreases with the further increase in income per capita, i.e. following an inverse U-shape in the pollution vs. income per capita. It is commonly believed that EKC occurs for "local" pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, but does not hold for CO2 emissions. This is attributed to the fact that while "local" pollutants cause a visible environmental damage on the local/regional scale (which authorities/governments seek to avoid), the consequences of CO2 emission have no immediate attributable local/regional consequences. We review EKC for CO2 exploring its relation between CO2 per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI) between 1990 and 2010 obtained from the World Bank database. We find evidence for a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita in highly developed countries. We propose a model according to which the emissions per capita of a country are composed of a component related to the actual state of development and a component related to the change of development. The model leads to four distinct cases of which two have EKC shape and two imply saturation. This outcome is in line with previously suggested qualitative relations. Our analysis indicates that the EKC shaped cases better describes the empirical values. We explore the less extreme version corresponding to the so-called conventional EKC and study the maximum of the fitted curve, providing a threshold-value for the HDI and a typical maximum value for the emissions per capita. We find that approx. 5 countries have crossed the CO2-HDI maximum, corresponding to approx. 1.5% of the world population.

Kornhuber, Kai; Rybski, Diego; Costa, Luis; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

2014-05-01

192

Radiation Damage in Minerals: From Point Defects to Amorphization. Mineralogical and Environmental Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minerals exhibit radiation damage, produced by the decay of substituted U and Th or by high-energy radiation emitted by short-lived radionuclides transported by fluids. We will present three domains of application. At low radiation doses, point defects are created, often associated to impurities. This results in the coloration of many minerals, such as fluorite, quartz or tourmaline. Thermal annealing of

G. Calas; T. Allard; E. Balan; G. Morin

2006-01-01

193

Energy system analysis of the inclusion of monetary values of environmental damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an analysis of the effect on the technical solution when monetary values of externalities are included in a model for optimising energy systems. The focus of the study is on heating in domestic houses, non-residential premises, multi-dwelling buildings and district heating systems. The included monetary values of damage to the environment and health are those resulting from atmospheric

Annelie Carlson

2002-01-01

194

Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts  

PubMed Central

The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ?28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ?35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance.

Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

2014-01-01

195

Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures  

PubMed Central

A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkc? or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/ nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures.

Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E.

2012-01-01

196

Use of EPO as an adjuvant in PDT of brain tumors to reduce damage to normal brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce damage to surrounding normal brain in the treatment of brain tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT), we have investigated the use of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) to exploit its well-established role as a neuroprotective agent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that EPO does not confer protection from PDT to rat glioma cells. In vivo testing of the possibility of EPO protecting normal brain tissue was carried out. The normal brains of Lewis rats were treated with Photofrin mediated PDT (6.25 mg/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and the outcome of the treatment compared between animals that received EPO (5000 U/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and controls. This comparison was made based on the volume of necrosis, as measured with the viability stain 2,3,5- Triphenyl tetrazoium chloride (TTC), and incidence of apoptosis, as measured with in situ end labeling assay (ISEL). Western blotting showed that EPO reaches the normal brain and activates the anti-apoptotic protein PKB/AKT1 within the brain cortex. The comparison based on volume of necrosis showed no statistical significance between the two groups. No clear difference was observed in the ISEL staining between the groups. A possible lack of responsivity in the assays that give rise to these results is discussed and future corrections are described.

Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar

2004-10-01

197

Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures.  

PubMed

A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkc? or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures. PMID:22253051

Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S W; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E

2012-06-01

198

Genus- and Group-Specific Hybridization Probes for Determinative and Environmental Studies of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of six oligonucleotides, complementary to conserved tracts of 16S rRNA from phylogenetically-defined groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was characterized for use as hybridization probes in determinative and environmental microbiology. Four probes ...

R. Devereux M. D. Kane J. Winfrey D. A. Stahl

1992-01-01

199

Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands  

PubMed Central

Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public.

Burger, Joanna

2014-01-01

200

Low-dose calcium antagonists reduce energy demand and cellular damage of isolated hearts during both ischemia and reperfusion.  

PubMed

Calcium antagonists may protect against postischemic reperfusion injury of the heart, but neither the time and mode of action leading to cardioprotection is resolved, nor is the generality of this effect proven. Accordingly, the functional and metabolic influence of four different Ca2+-antagonists (diltiazem, 3x10(-8) M; nifedipine, 3x10(-9) M; amlodipine, 3x 10(-9) M; barnidipine, 3x10(-11) M) was examined in preparations of guinea pig hearts (n=7/group) performing pressure-volume work after being subjected to low-flow ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (35 min). The drugs were applied throughout the study at concentrations without negative inotropic or chronotropic effect, as would be mandatory for any therapeutic application, and without overt coronary dilatation. All calcium antagonists improved postischemic recovery of external heart work: from 42% in controls (post- vs. preischemic value) to 59% for diltiazem, 61% for nifedipine, 65% for amlodipine, and 73% for barnidipine (all P<0.05). Efficiency of myocardial performance (work in relation to oxygen consumption) was low in postischemic controls (8% of total energy equivalents), but significantly improved in treated hearts, especially by barnidipine (15% efficiency). Release of lactate dehydrogenase in the first 5 min of reperfusion, a sign of cell damage, increased from basal (65 mU/min) to 208 mU/min in controls. This increase was fully suppressed by all drugs tested. Myocardial release of lactate and of purine catabolites of adenine nucleotides (markers of anaerobic metabolism) was markedly reduced by Ca2+-antagonists. Interestingly, these metabolic effects were evident not only in the reperfusion phase, but already in the period of low-flow ischemia. Oxidative consumption of pyruvate was enhanced, whereas coronary flow and heart rate showed no postischemic effect of treatment. These findings on isolated guinea pig hearts suggest that Ca2+-antagonists generally improve postischemic pump function and aerobic metabolism without any requirements for negative inotropic action or coronary dilatation. The protective effects seemed to rely on an attenuation of both ischemic stress and reperfusion damage. This could implicate a benefit from prophylactic use of Ca2+-antagonists in patients at risk for myocardial ischemia. PMID:10543430

Becker, B F; Möbert, J

1999-09-01

201

A laboratory-based comparison of a molluscicide and an alternative food source (red clover) as means of reducing slug damage to winter wheat.  

PubMed

Slugs are major pests of many crops in the UK, including winter wheat, yet current methods of control are often unreliable. This study investigates the potential use of red clover, as an alternative food source, to reduce the amount of damage caused to winter wheat by the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Two laboratory-based studies, each conducted over a 7-day period, investigated the effects of red clover seedlings and commercial metaldehyde pellets on damage to winter wheat seeds and seedlings. The results indicate that metaldehyde applications, in the form of commercially available pellets, resulted in significantly greater protection to wheat seeds compared with red clover, whereas metaldehyde and red clover were equally as effective in reducing damage to wheat seedlings. A further laboratory experiment investigated the effect of two slug population densities (48 and 16 adults m(-2)) and high and low red clover seed rates (125% and 75% of a standard rate) on damage to wheat seeds. Results showed that, at the highest slug population density, red clover sown at 125% of the standard rate gave 99% protection to wheat seeds, compared with the 75% seed rate which gave 55%. At the lower slug population density, both seed rates of red clover resulted in similar levels of protection. Implications for the potential use of red clover as an alternative food source for reducing damage to winter wheat in field conditions are discussed. PMID:15838932

Brooks, Andrew S; Wilcox, Andrew; Cook, Richard T; Crook, Mitchell J

2005-07-01

202

Genomic selection using indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production.  

PubMed

The aim of this simulation study was to test the hypothesis that phenotype information of specific indicator traits of environmental importance recorded on a small-scale can be implemented in breeding schemes with genomic selection to reduce the environmental impact of milk production. A stochastic simulation was undertaken to test alternative breeding strategies. The breeding goal consisted of milk production, a functional trait, and environmental impact (EI). The indicator traits (IT) for EI were categorized as large-, medium-, or small-scale, depending on how the traits were recorded. The large-scale traits were stayability and stature; the medium-scale traits were live weight and methane in the breath of the cow measured during milking; and the small-scale traits were residual feed intake and methane recorded in a respiration chamber. Simulated scenarios considered information for just one IT in addition to information for milk production and functional traits. The annual monetary genetic gain was highest in the large-scale scenario that included stayability as IT. The annual monetary gain in the scenarios with medium- or small-scale IT varied from €50.5 to 47.5. The genetic gain improvement in EI was, however, best in the scenarios where the genetic correlation between IT and EI was ?0.30 and the accuracy of direct genomic value was ?0.40. The genetic gain in EI was 26 to 34% higher when indicator traits such as greenhouse gases in the breath of the cow and methane recorded in respiration chamber were used compared with a scenario where no indicator trait was included. It is possible to achieve increased genetic gain in EI by using a highly correlated indicator trait, but it requires that the established reference population for the indicator trait is large enough so that the accuracy of direct genomic values will be reasonably high. PMID:23726422

Axelsson, H Hansen; Fikse, W F; Kargo, M; Sørensen, A C; Johansson, K; Rydhmer, L

2013-08-01

203

Genotoxicity assessment of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings by tissue DNA damage and micronucleus test, after environmental exposure to fenitrothion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of sublethal doses of fenitrothion, an organophosphothionate insecticide on brain, gill, liver, and muscle tissues as a ratio of 8-OHdG to dG to indicate the DNA damage and erythrocyte micronucleus frequency for genotoxicity of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings. In our study, the mean weights and lengths of the fish (n?=?4-12) were 31.13?±?14.24?g and 12.53?±?1.41, respectively. Before the experiment, fish were maintained in aerated dechlorinated tap water at 21.8?±?1 °C and fed daily with commercial feed at a rate of 2% of their body weights. Experiments were conducted under static conditions in the aquaria. Technical grade (95%) fenitrothion was diluted in acetone to give a dosing solution of 10?mg/L. The increased lesions/10? DNA bases (p?damage were detectable in gill and muscle tissues of control groups, and in exposure groups altered levels of damage were detected for gill (0.06?±?0.05) and muscle (0.16?±?0.21) tissues. The increased micronucleus frequencies (%) in erythrocytes of carp following the exposure to 48?h fenitrothion (6.43?±?3.89; p<0.05) was observed when compared to control group (1.29?±?1.03). The available data indicate that there is still lack of well-established dose-response relationships between occupational or environmental exposures and the induction of 8-OHdG. Such biomarkers may be used in assessing adverse/toxic effects of pesticides as environmental stressors. PMID:21417631

Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Sahin, Duygu; Karasu Benli, A Caglan; Sarikaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoc, Figen; Altan, Nilgun

2011-06-01

204

Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.

1973-01-01

205

Coexistence of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Enhancing or reducing environmental risks?  

PubMed

Due to their bactericidal and photocatalytic characteristics, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in the fields of environment and physiology. Once these untreated nanoparticles are released into an aquatic environment and encounter one another, there is more uncertainty about their fate and ecotoxicological risks compared with the single nanoparticles. To expand our knowledge of the health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles, we investigated the possible risk of the co-existence of TiO2 NPs and Ag NPs in an aquatic environment using ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) as an aquatic animal model. In this study, silver ion (Ag(+)) release and physicochemical properties, as well as their effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, were monitored. Continuous illumination (12,000lx) led to the 20.0% decrease in Ag(+) release in comparison with dark conditions, while TiO2 NPs and continuous illumination resulted in decreasing the Ag(+) concentration to 64.3% in contrast with Ag NPs-only suspensions. Toxicity tests indicated that different illumination modes exerted distinct effects of TiO2 NPs on the toxicity of Ag NPs: no effects, antagonism and synergism in dark, natural light and continuous light, respectively. In the presence of 1.5mg/L (18.8?M) TiO2 NPs, the toxicity of 1.5mg/L (13.9?M) Ag NPs was reduced by 28.7% and increased by 6.93% in natural light and 12,000lx of continuous light, respectively. After culturing in 12,000lx continuous light for 24h, SOD activity of the light control surged to 1.96 times compared to the dark control (P<0.001). TiO2 NPs induced a reduction of CAT activity by an average of (36.1±1.7) % in the light. In the natural light reductions in the toxicity of Ag, NPs decrease Ag(+) concentrations via adsorption of Ag(+) onto TiO2 NPs surfaces. The enhancement of Ag NPs toxicity can contribute to the formation of activated TiO2-Ag NPs complexes in continuous light. The existence of TiO2 NPs in various illumination modes changed the surface chemistry of Ag NPs and then led to different toxicity effects. TiO2 NPs reduce the environmental risks of Ag NPs in natural light, but in continuous light, TiO2 NPs enhance the environmental risks of Ag NPs. PMID:24907921

Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng; Zhang, Hongwu

2014-09-01

206

Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology can reduce material and manufacturing burdens by considering the ease of disassembly, potential for remanufacturing, and recovery of parts and materials for reuse and recycling. We use teardowns of three commercial solid-state lighting products designed to fit in conventional Edison light bulb sockets to analyze potential end-of-life reuse strategies for solid-state lighting and recommend strategies for the industry. Current lamp designs would benefit from standardization of part connections to facilitate disassembly and remanufacturing of components, and fewer material types in structural pieces to maximize homogeneous materials recovery. The lighting industry should also start now to develop an effective product take-back system for collecting future end-of-life products.

Hendrickson, C. T.; Matthews, D. H.; Ashe, M.; Jaramillo, P.; McMichael, F. C.

2010-01-01

207

Effects of occupational environmental controls and work management on chromosomal damage in dental technicians in Japan.  

PubMed

Dental technicians use various materials, particularly metal alloys and monomers and polymers based on methylmethacrylate. Environmental hygiene issues surrounding the work of dental technicians have been recognized. Despite the need for observance of occupational environmental controls and work management, compliance among dental laboratories appears to be low. We evaluated the relationship between genotoxic effects in dental technicians and occupational environmental controls and work management. We used cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei (CB-MN) frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes and metal levels in scalp hair. We also assessed nutritional factors related to anti-genotoxic effects using a self-administered brief diet history questionnaire. Study subjects were 54 male dental technicians and 38 male clerical workers. The parameters on the micronuclei (MN) frequency in dental technicians and clerical workers were analyzed by forward stepwise multiple regression analyses. Age (P < 0.01, ? = 0.561), occupation as a dental technician (P < 0.01, ? = 0.636) and aluminum levels in scalp hair (P < 0.05, ? = 0.213) were risk factors that significantly increased MN frequency. The significant parameters on the MN frequency in dental technicians were observance of hand-washing as work management (P < 0.01, ? = -0.304), work period (P < 0.01, ? = 0.509), germanium levels in scalp hair (P < 0.01, ? = -0.314) and workplace (P < 0.05, ? = 0.235). To avoid genotoxic effects, observance of occupational environmental controls and work management is necessary for dental technicians. PMID:22424646

Ishikawa, Shigeo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shindo, Taku; Yoshida, Takafumi; Shimoyama, Yasuaki; Satomi, Takashi; Fujii, Satoshi; Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Iino, Mitsuyoshi; Fukao, Akira

2013-01-01

208

Environmentally Induced Damage to Children: A Call for Broadening the Critical Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of environmentally related illnesses, such as tuberculosis, asthma, allergies, respiratory disease, depression, and violent anger is increasing, particularly in the inner cities. The effects of these illnesses is often overlooked in discussions of educational and social inequity. This article discusses the significance of this…

Books, Sue

209

Phenotypic diversity and altered environmental plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana with reduced Hsp90 levels.  

PubMed

The molecular chaperone HSP90 aids the maturation of a diverse but select set of metastable protein clients, many of which are key to a variety of signal transduction pathways. HSP90 function has been best investigated in animal and fungal systems, where inhibition of the chaperone has exceptionally diverse effects, ranging from reversing oncogenic transformation to preventing the acquisition of drug resistance. Inhibition of HSP90 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers novel morphologies dependent on normally cryptic genetic variation and increases stochastic variation inherent to developmental processes. The biochemical activity of HSP90 is strictly conserved between animals and plants. However, the substrates and pathways dependent on HSP90 in plants are poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the necessity of reliance on light-sensitive HSP90 inhibitors due to redundancy in the A. thaliana HSP90 gene family. Here we present phenotypic and genome-wide expression analyses of A. thaliana with constitutively reduced HSP90 levels achieved by RNAi targeting. HSP90 reduction affects a variety of quantitative life-history traits, including flowering time and total seed set, increases morphological diversity, and decreases the developmental stability of repeated characters. Several morphologies are synergistically affected by HSP90 and growth temperature. Genome-wide expression analyses also suggest a central role for HSP90 in the genesis and maintenance of plastic responses. The expression results are substantiated by examination of the response of HSP90-reduced plants to attack by caterpillars of the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni. HSP90 reduction potentiates a more robust herbivore defense response. In sum, we propose that HSP90 exerts global effects on the environmental responsiveness of plants to many different stimuli. The comprehensive set of HSP90-reduced lines described here is a vital instrument to further examine the role of HSP90 as a central interface between organism, development, and environment. PMID:17653275

Sangster, Todd A; Bahrami, Adam; Wilczek, Amity; Watanabe, Etsuko; Schellenberg, Kurt; McLellan, Catherine; Kelley, Alicia; Kong, Sek Won; Queitsch, Christine; Lindquist, Susan

2007-01-01

210

Phenotypic Diversity and Altered Environmental Plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana with Reduced Hsp90 Levels  

PubMed Central

The molecular chaperone HSP90 aids the maturation of a diverse but select set of metastable protein clients, many of which are key to a variety of signal transduction pathways. HSP90 function has been best investigated in animal and fungal systems, where inhibition of the chaperone has exceptionally diverse effects, ranging from reversing oncogenic transformation to preventing the acquisition of drug resistance. Inhibition of HSP90 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers novel morphologies dependent on normally cryptic genetic variation and increases stochastic variation inherent to developmental processes. The biochemical activity of HSP90 is strictly conserved between animals and plants. However, the substrates and pathways dependent on HSP90 in plants are poorly understood. Progress has been impeded by the necessity of reliance on light-sensitive HSP90 inhibitors due to redundancy in the A. thaliana HSP90 gene family. Here we present phenotypic and genome-wide expression analyses of A. thaliana with constitutively reduced HSP90 levels achieved by RNAi targeting. HSP90 reduction affects a variety of quantitative life-history traits, including flowering time and total seed set, increases morphological diversity, and decreases the developmental stability of repeated characters. Several morphologies are synergistically affected by HSP90 and growth temperature. Genome-wide expression analyses also suggest a central role for HSP90 in the genesis and maintenance of plastic responses. The expression results are substantiated by examination of the response of HSP90-reduced plants to attack by caterpillars of the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni. HSP90 reduction potentiates a more robust herbivore defense response. In sum, we propose that HSP90 exerts global effects on the environmental responsiveness of plants to many different stimuli. The comprehensive set of HSP90-reduced lines described here is a vital instrument to further examine the role of HSP90 as a central interface between organism, development, and environment.

Sangster, Todd A.; Bahrami, Adam; Wilczek, Amity; Watanabe, Etsuko; Schellenberg, Kurt; McLellan, Catherine; Kelley, Alicia; Kong, Sek Won; Queitsch, Christine; Lindquist, Susan

2007-01-01

211

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides reduce methotrexate-induced small intestinal damage in mice via induction of epithelial cell proliferation and migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To study the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced small intestinal damage in mice and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:BALB\\/c mice were used for in vivo study. The mice were administered with Gl-PS (50, 100, or 200 mg\\/kg, ig) for 10 d, and injected with MTX (50 mg\\/kg, ip) on d 7 and 8 to induce intestinal damage, and

Li-hua Chen; Zhi-bin Lin; Wei-dong Li

2011-01-01

212

Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems  

PubMed Central

Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30–60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550–600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service.

Ju, Xiao-Tang; Xing, Guang-Xi; Chen, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xue-Jun; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Yin, Bin; Christie, Peter; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2009-01-01

213

Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems.  

PubMed

Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30-60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550-600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service. PMID:19223587

Ju, Xiao-Tang; Xing, Guang-Xi; Chen, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xue-Jun; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Yin, Bin; Christie, Peter; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

2009-03-01

214

Integrating environmental variables and WorldView-2 image data to improve the prediction and mapping of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug) damage in plantation forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study integrated environmental variables together with high spectral resolution WorldView-2 imagery to detect and map Thaumastocoris peregrinus damage in Eucalypt plantation forests in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The WorldView-2 bands, vegetation indices and environmental variables were entered separately into PLS regression models to predict T. peregrinus damage. The datasets were then integrated to test the collective strength in predicting T. peregrinus damage. Important variables were identified by variable importance (VIP) scores and were re-entered into a PLS regression model. The VIP model was then extrapolated to map the severity of damage and predicted T. peregrinus damage with an R2 value of 0.71 and a RMSE of 3.26% on an independent test dataset. The red edge and near-infrared bands of the WorldView-2 sensor together with the temperature dataset were identified as important variables in predicting T. peregrinus damage. The results indicate the potential of integrating WorldView-2 data and environmental variables to improve the mapping and monitoring of insect outbreaks in plantation forests. The result is critical for plantation health monitoring using a new sensor which contains important vegetation wavelengths.

Oumar, Zakariyyaa; Mutanga, Onisimo

2014-01-01

215

Use of reduced-order observers for feedback control in large wind turbines may reduce fatigue damage from excitement of flexible modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While full-order observers have been successfully applied in state-space blade-pitch control of large wind turbines, the use of reduced-order observers has, apparently, not been documented. Using a model of a 600kW horizontal-axis wind turbine, we demonstrate that the use of a reduced-order observer to obtain wind speed estimates for disturbance accommodation control may dampen flexible modes and lead to reduced

Glenn A. Parker; C. D. Johnson

2010-01-01

216

Evaluation of a possible role for antimutagens, antiteratogens, and anticarcinogens in reducing environmental health hazards.  

PubMed Central

The use of protective agents (e.g., sulfhydryl compounds, certain vitamins, amino acids, cations, and antibiotics) offers a novel and promising means of dealing with the ever increasing burden of environmental hazards facing man. Through the daily uptake of minimal doses as a prophylactic measure by the most endangered groups of the population or by direct mixing of the appropriate protective agent with the inducer (e.g., pesticides or anticancer drugs) it should be possible to reduce or prevent some of the most serious toxic side effects including those of a mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic nature. Among some of the most outstanding protection examples cited are the antimutagenic, antiteratogenic and anticarcinogenic effects of L-cystein, and of some of the vitamins. However, in view of our limited understanding of protection mechanisms in this fairly new field of research and due to the toxic side effects of some of the protection agents themselves, a large-scale application of this approach cannot be recommended as yet. More research is urgently needed to study protection mechanisms in suitable standardized model systems and to develop safer and more efficient protective agents.

Nashed, N

1976-01-01

217

Dual home screening and tailored environmental feedback to reduce radon and secondhand smoke: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

Combined exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and radon increases lung cancer risk 10-fold. The authors assessed the feasibility and impact of a brief home screening and environmental feedback intervention to reduce radon and SHS (Freedom from Radon and Smoking in the Home [FRESH]) and measured perceived risk of lung cancer and synergistic risk perception (SHS x radon). Participants (N = 50) received home radon and SHS kits and completed baseline surveys. Test results were shared using an intervention guided by the Teachable Moment Model. Half of the participants completed online surveys two months later. Most (76%) returned the radon test kits; 48% returned SHS kits. Of the returned radon test kits, 26% were >4.0 pCi/L. Of the returned SHS kits, 38% had nicotine > .1 microg/m3. Of those with high radon, more than half had contacted a mitigation specialist or planned contact. Of those with positive air nicotine, 75% had adopted smoke-free homes. A significant increase occurred in perceived risk for lung cancer and synergistic risk perception after FRESH. PMID:24645427

Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kercsmar, Sarah E; Adkins, Sarah M; Wright, Ashton Potter; Robertson, Heather E; Rinker, Gwendolyn

2014-01-01

218

Long-Term Effects of Chromatin Remodeling and DNA Damage in Stem Cells Induced by Environmental and Dietary Agents  

PubMed Central

The presence of histones acts as a barrier to protein access; thus chromatin remodeling must occur for essential processes such as transcription and replication. In conjunction with histone modifications, DNA methylation plays critical roles in gene silencing through chromatin remodeling. Chromatin remodeling is also interconnected with the DNA damage response, maintenance of stem cell properties, and cell differentiation programs. Chromatin modifications have increasingly been shown to produce long-lasting alterations in chromatin structure and transcription. Recent studies have shown environmental exposures in utero have the potential to alter normal developmental signaling networks, physiologic responses, and disease susceptibility later in life during a process known as developmental reprogramming. In this review we discuss the long-term impact of exposure to environmental compounds, the chromatin modifications that they induce, and the differentiation and developmental programs of multiple stem and progenitor cell types altered by exposure. The main focus is to highlight agents present in the human lifestyle that have the potential to promote epigenetic changes that impact developmental programs of specific cell types, may promote tumorigenesis through altering epigenetic marks, and may be transgenerational, for example, those able to be transmitted through multiple cell divisions.

Bariar, Bhawana; Vestal, C. Greer; Richardson, Christine

2014-01-01

219

Down-regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis reduces brain damage and number of seizures following hypoxia/ischaemia in rats.  

PubMed

Several reports suggest that the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) is increased following hypoxia/ischaemia and that this might be associated with increased neuronal vulnerability. The main goal of this study was to examine the effects of down-regulation of the HPA-axis on the hypoxia/ischaemia-induced (1) rise of plasma corticosterone levels, (2) seizures, and (3) brain damage. Down-regulation of the HPA-axis was induced by prolonged corticosterone treatment lasting until 24 h before hypoxia/ischaemia exposure. When compared to 8 days vehicle (sesame oil)-treated animals (CONT), 8 days daily corticosterone (40 mg/animal)-treated animals (CORT) showed significantly reduced adrenal-and thymus weight. Shortly after hypoxia/ischaemia plasma corticosterone levels in CORT animals were significantly reduced (17.30 micrograms/dl +/- 3.50) when compared to CONT animals (54.80 micrograms/dl +/- 7.78). This correlated with the brain damage which is expressed as the ratio between the damaged area and the total area. The total brain damage was significantly less in CORT-treated animals (28% +/- 11%) than in CONT animals (69% +/- 2%). Following hypoxia/ischaemia the number of seizures was significantly reduced in CORT animals (56 +/- 26) when compared to CONT animals (217 +/- 50). We conclude that prolonged corticosterone treatment resulting in down-regulation of the HPA-axis leads to (1) lower plasma corticosterone levels during hypoxia/ischaemia, (2) a reduction in brain damage following hypoxia/ischaemia, and (3) less hypoxia/ischaemia-induced seizures. PMID:7496805

Krugers, H J; Knollema, S; Kemper, R H; Ter Horst, G J; Korf, J

1995-08-28

220

Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.  

PubMed

1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment. PMID:23815735

Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

2013-01-01

221

The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

2013-01-01

222

Reducing the influence of environmental main-effects on pattern analysis of plant breeding environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant breeding yield trials the environmental range often exceeds the genotypic range. In such instances environmental main-effects (mean yields) may confound characterization of selection environments, as the general productivity of an environment may be unrelated to tendencies in the relative performance (ranking) of genetic material grown in that environment.

P. N. Fox; A. A. Rosielle

1982-01-01

223

Nerve growth factor (NGF) reduces and NGF antibody exacerbates retinal damage induced in rabbit by experimental ocular hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Background: It has been shown that intravitreal injection of NGF inhibits ganglion cell degeneration after optic nerve transection\\u000a and ischemic injury. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of NGF in aqueous humor and its involvement in retinal\\u000a damage during ocular hypertension. • Methods: We used an experimental model of ocular hypertension in rabbit. Before treatment

Alessandro Lambiase; Marco Centofanti; Alessandra Micera; Gian Luca Manni; Eleonora Mattei; Alessandra De Gregorio; Giuseppe de Feo; Massimo Gilberto Bucci; Luigi Aloe

1997-01-01

224

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15

225

Low-dose ketamine pretreatment reduces oxidative damage and inflammatory response following CO2 pneumoperitoneum in rats.  

PubMed

Purpose: The duration of pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic procedures may contribute to post-surgical oxidative stress. Previous studies have shown that low-dose ketamine, an anesthetic with anti-inflammatory properties, protects various organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study investigated the effects of low-dose ketamine on the overproduction of oxidants and the tissue damage caused by intra-abdominal pressure during CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats received a CO2 pneumoperitoneum of 15 mmHg and preceded by either low-dose ketamine (KP1, 5 mg/kg; KP2, 10 mg/kg) or 0.9% saline (PR, 3 ml). General anethesia was provided by pentobarbital and sevoflurane. The control group (CR) received an intraperitoneal saline injection and sham surgery. Three hours after pneumoperitoneum, serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP) were measured and liver, kidney, lung, and intestine were evaluated for tissue damage. Results: The highest plasma MDA, TNF-?, IL-6 and iFABP values were observed at T1 (after 3 hours of pneumoperitoneum) in the PR group, followed by the KP1, KP2, and CR groups (P < 0.01). SOD concentrations showed an opposite trend and were highest in the CR group, followed by the KP2, KP1, and PR groups (P < 0.01). TNF-? concentration was significantly lower in the KP2 than the KP1 group (P < 0.05). Histopathologic scoring of organ sections demonstrated the lowest scores in the KP2 group, followed by the KP1 and PR groups, in an increasing order (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pretreatment with low-dose ketamine before general anaesthesia protects against potential oxidative damage and inflammatory response caused by CO2 pneumoperitoneum. PMID:24895987

Xingwei, Xu; Xin, Gao; Peng, Zheng; Tao, Feng; Bowen, Ding; Xiaoming, Kao; Wu, Ji; Ning, Li; Jieshou, Li

2014-01-01

226

Amifostine reduces the seminiferous epithelium damage in doxorubicin-treated prepubertal rats without improving the fertility status  

PubMed Central

Background Amifostine is an efficient cytoprotector against toxicity caused by some chemotherapeutic drugs. Doxorubicin, a potent anticancer anthracycline, is known to produce spermatogenic damage even in low doses. Although some studies have suggested that amifostine does not confer protection to doxorubicin-induced testicular damage, schedules and age of treatment have different approach depending on the protocol. Thus, we proposed to investigate the potential cytoprotective action of amifostine against the damage provoked by doxorubicin to prepubertal rat testes (30-day-old) by assessing some macro and microscopic morphometric parameters 15, 30 and 60 days after the treatment; for fertility evaluation, quantitative analyses of sperm parameters and reproductive competence in the adult phase were also carried out. Methods Thirty-day-old male rats were distributed into four groups: Doxorubicin (5 mg/kg), Amifostine (400 mg/kg), Amifostine/Doxorubicin (amifostine 15 minutes before doxorubicin) and Sham Control (0.9% saline solution). "Standard One Way Anova" parametric and "Anova on Ranks" non-parametric tests were applied according to the behavior of the obtained data; significant differences were considered when p < 0.05. Results The rats killed 30 and 60 days after doxorubicin treatment showed diminution of seminiferous epithelium height and reduction on the frequency of tubular sections containing at least one type of differentiated spermatogonia; reduction of sperm concentration and motility and an increase of sperm anomalous forms where observed in doxorubicin-treated animals. All these parameters were improved in the Amifostine/Doxorubicin group only when compared to Doxorubicin group. Such reduction, however, still remained below the values obtained from the Sham Control group. Nevertheless, the reproductive competence of doxorubicin-treated rats was not improved by amifostine pre-administration. Conclusions These results suggest that amifostine promotes a significant reduction of the doxorubicin long-term side effects on the seminiferous epithelium of prepubertal rats, which is reflected in the epidydimal fluid parameters in the adult phase. However, fertility status results suggest that such protection may not be effective against sperm DNA content damage. Further investigation of sperm DNA integrity must be carried out using amifostine and doxorubicin-treated experimental models.

2010-01-01

227

May cause environmental damage the diversion of the Danube in the Szigetköz area, Hungary?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary The floodplain area between the main channel of Danube and its branch river Mosoni-Duna is called the Szigetköz. This wetland area has special flora and fauna, and it is a natural protection area. Underneath of the Szigetköz, there are a thick (several hundreds meters) sedimentary sequence, the so called Kisalföld Quaternary Aquifer. This aquifer system is fed by the surface river system of Danube and supplies excellent quality drinking water for several hundred thousands of people in Hungary and Slovakia. The Szigetköz Monitoring Network was established in 1991 to describe the environmental effects of the B?s-Nagymaros Dam System, which was partly built in 1992 on the Slovakian part of the Danube. The dam diverts three-quarter of the Danube runoff to a 40 km long artificial concrete channel north of the original river bed. The effect of this diversion is spectacular on the wetland area. Water level in the meandering channels have decreased significantly, part of the wetland area frequently becomes dry. The natural flow pattern has disappeared. As a consequence, the channel characteristics of the river network, therefore the flow pattern, the quantity and quality of surface and subsurface water on the upper region of the Danube have significantly changed. The aim of our research is to describe the relationship between surface water and groundwater and considering the variable geology of the area, to describe trends in chemistry and to find the possible reasons for extreme values. Also to detect possible connection between the extreme values and the changes in flow pattern caused by the human intervention. Water sample pairs from surface water and shallow and deeper ground water were taken in every season at 18 locations. To sample shallow ground-water 1,5 m long, screened metal probes were derived into the sediment at the possible nearest point to the surface water. On the field pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, and in the wells redox potential were measured. Samples were taken for further laboratory analyses (major and trace components, nitrate. The chemical parameters of surface and subsurface water show seasonal changes, due to the changes of temperature, of precipitation, of biological and microbiological activity. At the monitoring points along the main channel the surface and subsurface water is closely related, and the velocity of groundwater can be calculated by the seasonal periodical dislocation. At the monitoring points on the north-western part of the study area (point 1), subsurface water replenished by the rivers, and water level in the probes follow the surface water level changes with short shift. Practically water quality is the same in the probe as in the surface. It is the same on the south-eastern part of the study area, where the diverted channel rejoins to the original river channel (point 10). The middle section (at points 4 and 5) of the study area, water level in the probes is higher than surface water level. Also concentrations of some chemical components are higher in the subsurface water here. These components are typically the results of water - sediment interaction. Based on these observations, the study area can be differentiated by the hydrochemical composition for losing and gaining sections. At the monitoring points along the meandering sub-branch system, water in the probes is reductive, the connection between surface and subsurface water is week, furthermore at some point is non-existent. At some points surface water has slow flow, or it is even stagnant. This means reductive environments, and high concentrations of some components, especially at the monitoring points of 31 and 41. For example, concentrations of ammonium, sulphate, phosphate, magnesium, iron, manganese are extremely high in the shallow groundwater. Originally the Danube supplied fresh, oxygen-rich water to the area, while nowadays at these locations surface water and subsurface water almost has no connection, and these sections of river bed already turned muddy, and organic material

Novak, Brigitta

2009-04-01

228

Using the DNA alkaline unwinding assay to detect DNA damage in laboratory and environmentally exposed cells and tissues  

SciTech Connect

The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. In preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. Cultured mammalian fibroblasts and sperm from marine fish and invertebrates (Pseudopleuronectes, Arbacia and Mytilus) showed concentration-dependent increases in DNA strand breaks after brief exposures to alkylating agents. DNA unwinding methods were also used on DNA extracted from marine animals injected with genotoxicants and from animals exposed in situ at an estuarine site. Gills from blue mussels caged at the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site (MA, USA) highly contaminated with many organic (e.g. PCBs) and inorganic contaminants, were also examined. A significant increase in DNA strand breaks was seen in gill tissues of animals held in the contaminated site for as little as 3 days. Although not as severe, an increase in strand breaks was also seen in animals held at the control site for 28 days.

Nacci, D.; Jackim, E.

1990-01-01

229

Reduced 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy)-Initiated Oxidative DNA Damage and Neurodegeneration in Prostaglandin H Synthase-1 Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

The neurodegenerative potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and underlying mechanisms are under debate. Here, we show that MDMA is a substrate for CNS prostaglandin H synthase (PHS)-catalyzed bioactivation to a free radical intermediate that causes reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and neurodegenerative oxidative DNA damage. In vitro PHS-1-catalyzed bioactivation of MDMA stereoselectively produced free radical intermediate formation and oxidative DNA damage that was blocked by the PHS inhibitor eicosatetraynoic acid. In vivo, MDMA stereoselectively caused gender-independent DNA oxidation and dopaminergic nerve terminal degeneration in several brain regions, dependent on regional PHS-1 levels. Conversely, MDMA-initiated striatal DNA oxidation, nerve terminal degeneration, and motor coordination deficits were reduced in PHS-1 +/? and ?/? knockout mice in a gene dose-dependent fashion. These results confirm the neurodegenerative potential of MDMA and provide the first direct evidence for a novel molecular mechanism involving PHS-catalyzed formation of a neurotoxic MDMA free radical intermediate.

2010-01-01

230

Do carbon-based defences reduce foliar damage? Habitat-related effects on tree seedling performance in a temperate rainforest of Chiloé Island, Chile.  

PubMed

Carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs), such as phenols or tannins, have been considered as one of the most important and general chemical barriers of woody plants against a diverse array of herbivores. Herbivory has been described as a critical factor affecting the growth and survival of newly established tree seedlings or juveniles then, the presence of secondary metabolites as defences against herbivores should be a primary strategy to reduce foliar damage. We examined whether light-induced changes in leaf phenolic chemistry affected insect herbivory on seedlings of two rainforest tree species, Drimys winteri (Winteraceae) and Gevuina avellana (Proteaceae). Seedlings of both species were planted under closed canopy and in a canopy gap within a large remnant forest patch. Half of the seedlings in each habitat were disinfected with a wide-spectrum systemic insecticide and the other half were used as controls. Seedling growth, survival, and foliar damage (estimated by an herbivory index) due to insect herbivores were monitored over a period of 16 months (December 2001-April 2003). The total leaf content of phenols and condensed tannins were assessed in seedlings from both habitats. As expected, access to light induced a greater production of CBSCs in seedlings of both tree species, but these compounds did not seem to play a significant defensive role, as seedlings grown in gaps suffered greater leaf damage than those planted in forest interior. In addition, in both habitats, seedlings without insecticide treatment suffered a greater foliar damage than those with insecticide, especially 16 months after the beginning of the experiment. Canopy openness and herbivory had positive and negative effects, respectively, on seedling growth and survival in both tree species. In conclusion, despite the higher levels of defence in tree-fall gap, the higher densities of herbivore override this and lead to higher damage levels. PMID:16170562

Chacón, Paulina; Armesto, Juan J

2006-01-01

231

Environmental controls in reducing house dust mites and nasal symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

A randomized comparison group pretest-posttest experimental design was used to quantitatively determine the effects of environmental control measures on patients with allergic rhinitis. Environmental controls included wrapping the mattress with a vinyl cover, washing the top bedding cover with 55 degrees C hot water every two weeks, removal of soft furniture, and wet cleaning of the bedroom floor every day. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The amount of house dust mites in dust samples collected from the bedroom floor, bedding and mattress, as well as the nasal symptoms of patients, were measured twice at one-month intervals. A significant decrease in house dust mites in dust samples and relief in patients' nasal symptoms were observed in the experimental group who had environmental controls. PMID:10412335

Moon, J S; Choi, S O

1999-06-01

232

Using Planarized p-GaN Layer to Reduce Electrostatic Discharged Damage in Nitride-Based Light-Emitting Diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrostatic discharge damage is a serious problem on nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), due to their large lattice mismatch between III-nitride material and the sapphire substrate, which induces high-density threading dislocations. In this study, GaN/GaInN-based LEDs with various thicknesses of the low-temperature planarized p-GaN layer were fabricated. We found that when the V-shaped defects were filled by the planarized p-GaN layer, the survival rate of LEDs under human-body mode -4000 V stress increases from 23 to 93% and the survival rate under machine mode -600 V stress increases from 20 to 67%. Thus the ability to endure higher electrostatic discharge stress will be greatly improved.

Lee, Chi-Ling; Lee, Wei-I

2007-05-01

233

Plant flavone apigenin binds to nucleic acid bases and reduces oxidative DNA damage in prostate epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress has been linked to prostate carcinogenesis as human prostate tissue is vulnerable to oxidative DNA damage. Apigenin, a dietary plant flavone, possesses anti-proliferative and anticancer effects; however, its antioxidant properties have not been fully elucidated. We investigated sub-cellular distribution of apigenin, it's binding to DNA and protective effects against H2O2-induced DNA damage using transformed human prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells and prostate cancer LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 cells. Exposure of cells to apigenin exhibited higher accumulation in RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, compared to PC-3 and DU145 cells. The kinetics of apigenin uptake in LNCaP cells was estimated with a Km value of 5 µmole/L and Vmax of 190 pmoles/million cells/h. Sub-cellular fractionation demonstrated that nuclear matrix retains the highest concentration of apigenin (45.3%), followed by cytosol (23.9%), nuclear membranes (17.9%) and microsomes (12.9%), respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of apigenin with calf-thymus DNA exhibited intercalation as the dominant binding mode to DNA duplex. Apigenin exposure resulted in significant genoprotective effects in H2O2-stressed RWPE-1 cells by reduction in reactive oxygen species levels. In addition, apigenin exposure suppressed the formation of 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine and protected exposed cells from apoptosis. Our studies demonstrate that apigenin is readily taken up by normal prostatic epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells, and is incorporated into their nuclei, where its intercalation with nucleic acid bases may account for its antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. PMID:24614817

Sharma, Haripaul; Kanwal, Rajnee; Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-01-01

234

Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.DATA SOURCESLiterature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.STUDY SELECTIONReview and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a

Melbourne F Hovell; Joy M Zakarian; Dennis R Wahlgren; Georg E Matt

2000-01-01

235

Reducing children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in homes: issues and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well established that children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) results in substantial public health and economic impacts. Children are more likely than adults to suffer health effects from ETS exposure, and the home is the most important site of such exposure. Although the responsibility and authority of the community and health professionals to protect children from

Mary Jane Ashley; Roberta Ferrence

1998-01-01

236

FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

237

Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.  

PubMed

Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

2014-06-25

238

Policies to reduce energy use and environmental emissions in the transport sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to analyze factors influencing energy consumption pattern and emission levels in the transport sector of Delhi, and extrapolates total energy demand and the vehicular emissions, using a computer-based software called ‘Long Range Energy Alternative Planning’ (LEAP) and the associated ‘Environmental Database (EDB)’. The study is restricted to passenger modes of transport in Delhi and does not include

Ranjan Kumar Bose; V Srinivasachary

1997-01-01

239

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: REDUCING WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COST IN THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents the economics of wastewater reduction and materials recovery technologies in the electroplating industry. t serves as a companion publication to the Environmental Regulations and Technology document covering the same industry (625/10-85/001a). apital and op...

240

Intervention to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Latino children: null effects on hair biomarkers and parent reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a lay delivered intervention to reduce Latino children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The a priori hypothesis was that children living in households that were in the intervention group would have lower exposure over time than measurement only controls.Design: A two group, randomised control trial was conducted.Setting: Areas of San Diego county with

T L Conway; S I Woodruff; C C Edwards; M F Hovell; J Klein

2004-01-01

241

The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways  

PubMed Central

Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution.

Gotic, Marijan

2014-01-01

242

Administration of the optimized ?-Lapachone-poloxamer-cyclodextrin ternary system induces apoptosis, DNA damage and reduces tumor growth in a human breast adenocarcinoma xenograft mouse model.  

PubMed

?-Lapachone (?-Lap) is a 1,2-orthonaphthoquinone that selectively induces cell death in human cancer cells through NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1). NQO1 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors, as compared to normal adjacent tissue. However, the low solubility and non-specific distribution of ?-Lap limit its suitability for clinical assays. We formulated ?-Lap in an optimal random methylated-?-cyclodextrin/poloxamer 407 mixture (i.e., ?-Lap ternary system) and, using human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and immunodeficient mice, performed in vitro and in vivo evaluation of its anti-tumor effects on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, and tumor growth. This ternary system is fluid at room temperature, gels over 29 °C, and provides a significant amount of drug, thus facilitating intratumoral delivery, in situ gelation, and the formation of a depot for time-release. Administration of ?-Lap ternary system to MCF-7 cells induces an increase in apoptosis and DNA damage, while producing no changes in cell cycle. Moreover, in a mouse xenograft tumor model, intratumoral injection of the system significantly reduces tumor volume, while increasing apoptosis and DNA damage without visible toxicity to liver or kidney. These anti-tumoral effects and lack of visible toxicity make this system a promising new therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. PMID:23333901

Seoane, Samuel; Díaz-Rodríguez, Patricia; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Gallego, Rosalia; Pérez-Fernández, Román; Landin, Mariana

2013-08-01

243

Accelerated Repair and Reduced Mutagenicity of DNA Damage Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Human Bronchial Cells Transfected with E.coli Formamidopyrimidine DNA Glycosylase  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP). Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na+K+-ATPase locus (ouar) were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells’ capacity to repair damaged DNA.

Foresta, Mara; Izzotti, Alberto; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Poggi, Alessandro; Vecchio, Donatella; Frosina, Guido

2014-01-01

244

Syzygium cumini (Jamun) reduces the radiation-induced DNA damage in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The effects of various concentrations (0.0, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml) of the leaf extract of Syzygium cumini Linn. or Eugenia cumini (SC; black plum, Jamun, family Myrtaceae) was studied on the alteration in the radiation-induced micronuclei formation in the cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment of lymphocytes to various concentrations of SC resulted in a dose dependent increase in the micronuclei-induction, especially after 25-100 microg/ml extract. The exposure of human lymphocytes to various concentrations of SC extract before 3 Gy gamma-irradiation resulted in a significant decline in the micronuclei-induction at all the drug doses when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated cultures. A nadir in MNBNC frequency was observed for 12.5 microg/ml drug concentration, where the MNBNC frequency was approximately fourfold lower than that of the non-drug treated irradiated cultures. Therefore, this dose may be considered as an optimum dose for radiation protection. Our study demonstrates that the leaf extract of S. cumini, a plant traditionally used to treat diabetic disorders protects against the radiation-induced DNA damage. PMID:12084616

Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2002-06-01

245

The effect of urbanization in an arid region: Formation of a perched water table that causes environmental damages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction in a new neighborhood in the israeli town of Dimona, situated in an arid region in the south of the country (150 mm average annual rainfall), resulted in a rise in groundwater levels during the subsequent rainy seasons This caused flooding of shelter basements, soil sliding, and sagging which permanently damaged walls and buildings The neighborhood had been built on continental sands and marls blanketed by loess, on a valley slope near a rocky anticlinal dip-slope Subsurface studies, using piezometer holes and groundwater analyses, revealed the presence of sand lenses alternating with plastic marls, which act as seasonal aquifers with perched water tables Groundwaters obtain high SO{4/-2} and Cl- corrosivity through contact with these nonflushed marls of the Neogene valley fill (Hazeva Formation) The reasons for the rising of groundwater were found to be (a) artificial interference with the natural (pre-construction) drainage system—interception of the hillside runoff by building plots, roads, etc, (b) partial denudation of the loess blanket, increasing the local infiltration and the build-up of local, perched water tables, and (c) corrosion of concrete and steel pipelines, as well as foundations, by prolonged contact with corrosive groundwater, resulting in haphazard but massive leakage Guidelines are proposed for an environmental improvement plan, which would include terracing and planting of the watershed above town to increase evapotranspiration, lowering of the water table by pumping, and diverting the water to suburban parks (groves of saltresistant trees), and replacement of steel and cement pipes by a non-corrodable plastic pipe system

Karnieli, A.; Issar, A.; Wolf, M.

1984-03-01

246

An effective, economical method of reducing environmental noise in the vivarium.  

PubMed

High levels of ambient noise can have detrimental effects on laboratory animal wellbeing and may affect experimental results. In addition, excessive noise can reduce technician comfort and performance. This study was performed to determine whether inexpensive, passive acoustic noise abatement measures could meaningfully reduce noise levels. Sound level measurements for various activities were obtained in the incoming processing room for pigs before and after installing gypsum acoustic paneling, covering metal-to-metal contact points with strips of adhesive-backed rubber, and replacing hard plastic wheels on transport carts with neoprene wheels. The modifications reduced the overall average noise level by 8.1 dB. Average noise levels for each activity were all less than 85 dB after the modifications. Average noise levels can be reduced effectively and economically with passive abatement methods. Intermittent spikes in noise are more difficult to control and may require attention to the individual activity. PMID:21838981

Young, Maggie T; French, Alan L; Clymer, Jeffrey W

2011-07-01

247

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation reduces ischaemic brain damage following stroke in Type 2 diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a strong risk factor for premature and severe stroke. The GLP-1R (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor) agonist Ex-4 (exendin-4) is a drug for the treatment of T2D (Type 2 diabetes) that may also have neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of Ex-4 against stroke in diabetes by using a diabetic animal model, a drug administration paradigm and a dose that mimics a diabetic patient on Ex-4 therapy. Furthermore, we investigated inflammation and neurogenesis as potential cellular mechanisms underlying the Ex-4 efficacy. A total of seven 9-month-old Type 2 diabetic Goto–Kakizaki rats were treated peripherally for 4 weeks with Ex-4 at 0.1, 1 or 5 ?g/kg of body weight before inducing stroke by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and for 2–4 weeks thereafter. The severity of ischaemic damage was measured by evaluation of stroke volume and by stereological counting of neurons in the striatum and cortex. We also quantitatively evaluated stroke-induced inflammation, stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. We show a profound anti-stroke efficacy of the clinical dose of Ex-4 in diabetic rats, an arrested microglia infiltration and an increase of stroke-induced neural stem cell proliferation and neuroblast formation, while stroke-induced neurogenesis was not affected by Ex-4. The results show a pronounced anti-stroke, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effect of peripheral and chronic Ex-4 treatment in middle-aged diabetic animals in a preclinical setting that has the potential to mimic the clinical treatment. Our results should provide strong impetus to further investigate GLP-1R agonists for their neuroprotective action in diabetes, and for their possible use as anti-stroke medication in non-diabetic conditions.

Darsalia, Vladimer; Mansouri, Shiva; Ortsater, Henrik; Olverling, Anna; Nozadze, Nino; Kappe, Camilla; Iverfeldt, Kerstin; Tracy, Linda M.; Grankvist, Nina; Sjoholm, Ake; Patrone, Cesare

2011-01-01

248

The use of an alternative food source (red clover) as a means of reducing slug pest damage to winter wheat: towards field implementation.  

PubMed

Slugs are major pests of many crops in the UK, including winter wheat, yet current methods of control are often unreliable. The aim of this study was to investigate three issues key to the successful field implementation of a control strategy that uses red clover as an alternative food source to reduce the amount of damage caused to winter wheat by the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). A series of three experiments was designed to assess this aim. Firstly, under laboratory conditions, red clover was consumed in greater quantities than wheat, even when wheat was presented as a novel food. Secondly, red clover had no significant effects on the emergence and early growth of wheat in a polytunnel experiment. Both these results are crucial to the successful implementation of a strategy that uses red clover as an alternative food source. Lastly, the results of a field experiment were consistent with the results of the polytunnel experiment, in that red clover did not significantly affect wheat emergence. However, plots in which red clover was left to grow until the time of wheat harvest resulted in significantly lower (43%) wheat yields than plots without red clover. These results suggest that red clover must be removed from the field after the wheat has passed its vulnerable seedling stage. Recommendations for the potential use of red clover as an alternative food source for reducing damage to winter wheat in field conditions are discussed and opportunities for further work are suggested. PMID:16475236

Brooks, Andrew S; Wilcox, Andrew; Cook, Richard T; James, Katherine L; Crook, Mitchell J

2006-03-01

249

The Master of Science in Environmental Architecture-An Appropriate Response to Reducing Greenhouse Gasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past decade, politicians have applied different shades of ``green-wash'' to global environmental issues in order to help juggle their positions in the political spectrum. This has created the illusion that effective measures are being pursued in the public interest for both this and future generation(s). The reality is, however, that nearly of all these initiatives are ``input focused'' and the various States of the Environment reports confirm that, despite decades of endeavour and large financial investment, there is little return on investment and that the rate of environmental degradation, particularly of the global atmosphere, continues to increase. Despite fierce posturing from the global warming sceptics, it seems that finally, the long-term data indices of global warming are being accepted seriously and politicians around the world are responding by investing public funds in the quest for options. This paper contends that with global warming the major trends will be inexorable but the manifestations complex so humans will need to embrace uncertainty and manage change. Innovation and cooperation across all disciplines and the cooperation of the entire political and social spectrum will be required to solve the ecological disasters that have already begun to unfold and accelerate in frequency. It looks from a strategic viewpoint at how specialist education can catalyse change and play an important role in managing the change. The case study used in this analysis is the RISE Master of Science Course in Environmental Architecture. It explores the implications of linking to converging interests from other emerging course streams for Engineering and other Built Environment disciplines such as Planning, Project Management and Interior design as well as socio-economic disciplines and the integrative discipline of Systems Dynamics.

Baverstock, Garry; Parker, Ian

2007-10-01

250

Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336  

SciTech Connect

There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink{sup R} technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO{sup TM} automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

251

Olive oil reduces oxidative damage in a 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like rat model.  

PubMed

Free radicals contribute to altered neuronal functions in neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging, by producing lipid- and other molecule-dependent modifications. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of neurodegenerative disease. This study sought to verify whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) exerted a brain antioxidant effect, protecting the brain against the oxidative stress caused by 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP). 3NP was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight over four consecutive days. EVOO (representing 10% of calorie intake in the total standard daily diet of rats) and hydroxytyrosol (HT; 2.5 mg/kg body weight) were administered for 14 days. In all studied samples, 3NP caused a rise in lipid peroxides (LPO) and a reduction in glutathione (GSH) content. While the results showed that EVOO and HT reduces lipid peroxidation product levels and blocks the GSH depletion prompted by 3NP in both striatum and rest of the brain in Wistar rats. In addition, EVOO blocks and reverses the effect of 3NP on succinate dehydrogenase activity. In brief, the data obtained indicate that EVOO and HT act as a powerful brain antioxidant. PMID:21756531

Tasset, I; Pontes, A J; Hinojosa, A J; de la Torre, R; Túnez, I

2011-05-01

252

Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sitzlar, M. A.; Mora, M. A.; Fleming, J. G. W.; Bazer, F. W.; Bickham, J. W.; Matson, C. W.

2009-01-01

253

Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas.  

PubMed

Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. PMID:18670880

Sitzlar, M A; Mora, M A; Fleming, J G W; Bazer, F W; Bickham, J W; Matson, C W

2009-01-01

254

Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective  

PubMed Central

Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change.

Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

2011-01-01

255

Environmental enrichment reduces cocaine seeking and reinstatement induced by cues and stress but not by cocaine  

PubMed Central

Whereas previous studies have focused on the preventive effects of enriched environments (EE) in drug addiction, in a recent study we suggested that EE can also have “curative” effects. In fact, we found that cocaine addiction-related behaviors can be eliminated by housing cocaine-treated mice in EE during periods of forced abstinence. However, those results were obtained with two simple models of addiction, conditioned place preference (CPP) and behavioral sensitization. In this study, we used intravenous drug self-administration procedures in rats to further investigate the beneficial effects of EE on cocaine addiction in a reinstatement model of relapse. Singly housed rats learned to self-administer cocaine during 10 consecutive daily sessions (0.6 mg/injection, 6h/day). They were then housed three per cage in either standard environments (SE) or EE and were kept abstinent in the animal facility until testing for extinction and reinstatement. We found that 30 days of EE significantly and consistently reduced cocaine seeking during a 6-h extinction session. In addition, EE significantly reduced cue- and stress-induced reinstatement. Surprisingly, given our previous results in mice with CPP, EE did not reduce cocaine-induced reinstatement regardless of the level of exposure to cocaine and the duration of the period of abstinence and exposure to EE. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce cocaine-induced craving and highlight the importance of positive life conditions in facilitating abstinence and preventing relapse to cocaine addiction.

Chauvet, Claudia; Lardeux, Virginie; Goldberg, Steven R.; Jaber, Mohamed; Solinas, Marcello

2011-01-01

256

ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  

EPA Science Inventory

Insecticide levels and application costs supplied by 31 entomological experts, plus estimates of the other costs involved with various insect control strategies, indicate that many insect control strategies that may significantly reduce insecticide use on cotton and corn may be m...

257

COULOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SULFUR AND REDUCED INORGANIC SULFUR FRACTIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of the solid-phase partitioning of sulfur is frequently an important analytical component of risk assessments at hazardous waste sites because minerals containing reduced-sulfur can significantly affect the transport and fate of organic and inorganic contaminants in na...

258

Reducing the Electric Field in Coil Systems Used for Environmental Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Series resonant coil systems are being used to study the effects of ELF magnetic fields on living systems. High inductive voltages generate electric fields that prevent the separation of magnetic and electric field effects. These electric fields can be reduced by using multiple capacitor banks and connecting the coils and capacitors so that the electric fields cancel each other.

James D. Grissett

1975-01-01

259

Improved Cerebrovascular Function and Reduced Histological Damage with Darbepoietin Alfa Administration after Cortical Impact Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Darbepoetin alfa (darbEpo) is an erythropoietic glycoprotein that activates the erythropoietin receptor. The aim of our study was to determine whether darbEpo is neuroprotective in a cortical impact injury (CII) model and to determine the characteristics of dose response and time window. To better understand the vascular mechanism of darbEpo neuroprotection, the reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to l-arginine administration was also studied. Rats were given saline or darbEpo from 2.5 to 50 ?g/kg at 5 min after CII or a dose of 25 ?g/kg darbEpo at times ranging from 5 min to 24 h after CII. Histological assessment was determined 2 weeks after a severe CII. Other rats were given either darbEpo (25 ?g/kg) or saline daily for 3 days before injury. Five minutes after severe CII, they were given either l-arginine or d-arginine. Hemodynamic variables were monitored for 2 h after injury. In the dose-response study, darbEpo in doses of 25 and 50 ?g/kg significantly reduced contusion volume from 39.1 ± 6.7 to 8.1 ± 3.1 and 11.2 ± 6.0 mm3, respectively. In the time window study, darbEpo reduced contusion volume when given in a dose of 25 ?g/kg at 5 min to 6 h after the impact injury. In animals pretreated with darbEpo, the CBF response to l-arginine was significantly greater than in the animals pretreated with saline. These data demonstrate that darbEpo has neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that vascular effects of darbEpo may have a role in neuroprotection.

Goodman, J. Clay; Robertson, Claudia

2011-01-01

260

False recall is reduced by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex: implications for understanding the neural correlates of schematic memory.  

PubMed

Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the "false memory effect" of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

Warren, David E; Jones, Samuel H; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel

2014-05-28

261

A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of the schematic method is validated by comparing its benchmark results on 104 chemicals with that from the conventional Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. This dissertation concludes with discussions on environmental impact assessment of nanotechnologies and sustainability management of nano-particles. As nano-manufacturing is emerging for wide industrial applications, improvement and expansion of the system approach would be valuable for use in the environmental management of nano-manufacturing and in the risk control of nano-particles in the interests of public health and the environment.

Yuan, Yingchun

262

Environmental enrichment reduces methamphetamine cue-induced reinstatement but does not alter methamphetamine reward or VMAT2 function.  

PubMed

Environmental factors influence a variety of health-related outcomes. In general, being raised in an environment possessing social, sensory, and motor enrichment reduces the rewarding effects of various drugs, thus protecting against abuse vulnerability. However, in the case of methamphetamine (METH), which acts at the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) to enhance dopamine release from the cytosol, previous evidence suggests that METH reward may not be altered by environmental enrichment. This study examined the influence of an enriched environment on measures of METH reward, METH seeking, and VMAT2 function. Rats were raised from weaning to adulthood in either an enriched environment (presence of social cohorts and novel objects) or an isolated environment (no cohorts or novel objects). Rats in these two conditions were subsequently tested for their acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP), METH self-administration, maintenance of self-administration at various unit doses of METH (0.001-0.5mg/kg/infusion), and cue-induced reinstatement. VMAT2 function in striatum from these two groups also was assessed. No significant environment effects were found in CPP or METH self-administration, which paralleled a lack of effect in VMAT2 function between groups. However, cue-induced reinstatement was reduced by environmental enrichment. Together, these results suggest that environmental enrichment does not alter VMAT2 function involved in METH reward. However, the enrichment-induced decrease in cue-induced reinstatement indicates that enrichment may have a beneficial effect against relapse following a period of extinction via a neural mechanism other than striatal VMAT2 function. PMID:24821405

Hofford, Rebecca S; Darna, Mahesh; Wilmouth, Carrie E; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

2014-08-15

263

Environmental integration of measures to reduce railway noise in the Brussels Capital Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brussels Capital Region is a densely populated area with a surface area of 63 square miles and a total of 40 miles of railway lines. Earlier studies have already registered a large number of problems regarding railway noise. Moreover, the transport policy of the federal government aims to increase train travel and plans an expansion of the railway network. In order to be able to control railway noise, the Brussels authority needs an instrument that provides technical and practical information concerning: minimizing the noise produced by railways (both existing and new); the environmental integration of noise abatement measures. This paper discusses the objectives of the study, the methodology that was applied, and the main conclusions reached.

Van Doninck, N.; Schillemans, L.

2003-10-01

264

Environmental application of nanomaterials and metal-reducing bacteria to remediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to remediate As-contaminated groundwater using both nanomaterials and metal-reducing bacteria. In the batch experiment, a set of Pd-akaganeite in combination with the bacteria removed 95% of the arsenic from the contaminated groundwater. This result suggested that nanotechnology and biotechnology has the potential to create novel and effective treatment technologies for arsenic-contaminated groundwater. PMID:21456243

Sun, Eun-Young; Kim, Yumi; Park, Byungno; Roh, Yul

2011-02-01

265

Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage "FOD" Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/ health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite-element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

Turso, James A.; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan S.

2007-01-01

266

Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

Turso, James; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan

2004-01-01

267

Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells instruct phagocytes and reduce secondary tissue damage in the injured spinal cord.  

PubMed

Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells possess peculiar therapeutic plasticity and can simultaneously instruct several therapeutic mechanisms in addition to cell replacement. Here, we interrogated the therapeutic plasticity of neural stem/precursor cells after their focal implantation in the severely contused spinal cord. We injected syngeneic neural stem/precursor cells at the proximal and distal ends of the contused mouse spinal cord and analysed locomotor functions and relevant secondary pathological events in the mice, cell fate of transplanted neural stem/precursor cells, and gene expression and inflammatory cell infiltration at the injured site. We used two different doses of neural stem/precursor cells and two treatment schedules, either subacute (7 days) or early chronic (21 days) neural stem/precursor cell transplantation after the induction of experimental thoracic severe spinal cord injury. Only the subacute transplant of neural stem/precursor cells enhanced the recovery of locomotor functions of mice with spinal cord injury. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells survived undifferentiated at the level of the peri-lesion environment and established contacts with endogenous phagocytes via cellular-junctional coupling. This was associated with significant modulation of the expression levels of important inflammatory cell transcripts in vivo. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells skewed the inflammatory cell infiltrate at the injured site by reducing the proportion of 'classically-activated' (M1-like) macrophages, while promoting the healing of the injured cord. We here identify a precise window of opportunity for the treatment of complex spinal cord injuries with therapeutically plastic somatic stem cells, and suggest that neural stem/precursor cells have the ability to re-programme the local inflammatory cell microenvironment from a 'hostile' to an 'instructive' role, thus facilitating the healing or regeneration past the lesion. PMID:22271661

Cusimano, Melania; Biziato, Daniela; Brambilla, Elena; Donegà, Matteo; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Snider, Silvia; Salani, Giuliana; Pucci, Ferdinando; Comi, Giancarlo; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; De Palma, Michele; Martino, Gianvito; Pluchino, Stefano

2012-02-01

268

Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells instruct phagocytes and reduce secondary tissue damage in the injured spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells possess peculiar therapeutic plasticity and can simultaneously instruct several therapeutic mechanisms in addition to cell replacement. Here, we interrogated the therapeutic plasticity of neural stem/precursor cells after their focal implantation in the severely contused spinal cord. We injected syngeneic neural stem/precursor cells at the proximal and distal ends of the contused mouse spinal cord and analysed locomotor functions and relevant secondary pathological events in the mice, cell fate of transplanted neural stem/precursor cells, and gene expression and inflammatory cell infiltration at the injured site. We used two different doses of neural stem/precursor cells and two treatment schedules, either subacute (7 days) or early chronic (21 days) neural stem/precursor cell transplantation after the induction of experimental thoracic severe spinal cord injury. Only the subacute transplant of neural stem/precursor cells enhanced the recovery of locomotor functions of mice with spinal cord injury. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells survived undifferentiated at the level of the peri-lesion environment and established contacts with endogenous phagocytes via cellular–junctional coupling. This was associated with significant modulation of the expression levels of important inflammatory cell transcripts in vivo. Transplanted neural stem/precursor cells skewed the inflammatory cell infiltrate at the injured site by reducing the proportion of ‘classically-activated’ (M1-like) macrophages, while promoting the healing of the injured cord. We here identify a precise window of opportunity for the treatment of complex spinal cord injuries with therapeutically plastic somatic stem cells, and suggest that neural stem/precursor cells have the ability to re-programme the local inflammatory cell microenvironment from a ‘hostile’ to an ‘instructive’ role, thus facilitating the healing or regeneration past the lesion.

Cusimano, Melania; Biziato, Daniela; Brambilla, Elena; Donega, Matteo; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Snider, Silvia; Salani, Giuliana; Pucci, Ferdinando; Comi, Giancarlo; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Palma, Michele De; Martino, Gianvito; Pluchino, Stefano

2013-01-01

269

ABSTRACT: The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement  

SciTech Connect

Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies. Finally, the CEMP provides training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs, which help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

T. Hartwell

2007-02-28

270

The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) reduces urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100-400?mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100-400?mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100?mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400?mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

Moraes, Janaína P; Pereira, Denyson S; Matos, Alexandre S; Santana, Danielle G; Santos, Cliomar A; Estevam, Charles S; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A

2013-01-01

271

Chlorpromazine reduces UV-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis in hairless mice and enhances UV-induced DNA damage in cultured cells.  

PubMed Central

Administration of the photoactivable compound chlorpromazine (CPZ) to SKH-1 hairless mice via their drinking water (CPZ, 0.01%) significantly reduced the rates of accumulation and yields of squamous cell carcinomas induced by long-term repeated exposures of these animals to solar UV radiation. This protective effect of CPZ was partially reversed in mice given a single injection of ethyl nitrosourea at birth. In in vitro studies, the presence of CPZ (0.2 mM) in mammalian cell cultures enhanced the yield of DNA single-strand breaks induced in the cells by exposure to monochromatic UVA radiation at 334 nm. Collectively, the results suggest that CPZ may exert antineoplastic effects against UV-induced skin tumours by the induction of DNA damage.

Peak, M. J.; Pfaff, M.; Peraino, C.

1989-01-01

272

Concomitant administration of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulphonate (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide reduces effectiveness of DMPS in restoring damage induced by mercuric chloride in mice.  

PubMed

The effect of combined therapy with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)(2) and sodium 2,3-dimercapto-propane-1-sulphonate (DMPS) against alterations induced by mercury (Hg(2+)) was evaluated. Mice were exposed to mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) (1mg/kg, subcutaneously) for two weeks. After that, mice received (PhSe)(2) (15.6 mg/kg), or DMPS (12.6 mg/kg), or a combination of both for one week. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), ascorbic acid and Hg(2+) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities were carried out in kidney. Hematological parameters, plasmatic bilirubin, uric acid, urea and creatinine levels as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. (PhSe)(2) or DMPS restored the increase in LDH activity and TBARS, bilirubin, uric acid, urea and creatinine levels caused by HgCl(2). The levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit reduced by HgCl(2) exposure were restored by (PhSe)(2) or DMPS administration in mice. Leukocyte and platelet counts modified by HgCl(2) exposure were restored by (PhSe)(2) or DMPS therapy. DMPS restored the increase in Hg(2+) levels induced by exposure to HgCl(2). Concomitant administration of (PhSe)(2) and DMPS reduced the effectiveness of DMPS in restoring damage induced by HgCl(2). Combined therapy with (PhSe)(2) and DMPS was less effective than isolated therapies in restoring the damage induced by HgCl(2) in mice. PMID:19406194

Brandão, Ricardo; Borges, Lysandro Pinto; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

2009-08-01

273

A low-cost environmental intervention for reducing smoking among cardiac inpatients.  

PubMed

Abstinence rates for smokers following a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass graft surgery may not be superior to those for nonpatient groups, and thus there is a need for novel approaches to smoking cessation in this population. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of using two sets of educational posters to reduce smoking among veterans in an inpatient cardiology unit's designated smoking area. One set of posters outlined the benefits of cessation (positive message) for cardiac patients while the other highlighted the risks of continued smoking (negative message). The positive posters had no consistent effect on indices of smoking, but the negative posters produced a substantial decline in both number of observed smokers and daily cigarette butts. PMID:3793301

Perkins, K A; Scott, R R

1986-11-01

274

DNA and chromosomal damage induced in fish (Anguilla anguilla L.) by aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)-the major environmental breakdown product of glyphosate.  

PubMed

The assessment of the direct impact of breakdown products of pesticide components on aquatic wildlife is ecotoxicologically relevant, but frequently disregarded. In this context, the evaluation of the genotoxic hazard posed by aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA-the major natural degradation product of glyphosate) to fish emerges as a critical but unexplored issue. Hence, the main goal of the present research was to assess the AMPA genotoxic potential to fish following short-term exposures (1 and 3 days) to environmentally realistic concentrations (11.8 and 23.6 ?g L(-1)), using the comet and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) assays, as reflecting different levels of damage, i.e. DNA and chromosomal damage, respectively. Overall, the present findings pointed out the genotoxic hazard of AMPA to fish and, subsequently, the importance of including it in future studies concerning the risk assessment of glyphosate-based herbicides in the water systems. PMID:24696215

Guilherme, S; Santos, M A; Gaivão, I; Pacheco, M

2014-07-01

275

Using a nutrition model to implement the NRCS Feed Management Standard to reduce the environmental impact of a concentrated cattle feeding operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental hurdles to sustainable livestock production Livestock farms are under increasing pressure to reduce manure nutrient excretions and nutrient accumulation on agricultural land in order to meet environmental regulations. To date, nutrient management regulations in New York (NY) and other states in the US have addressed the Clean Water Act through implementation of the National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) 590

D. G. Fox; T. P. Tylutki; L. O. Tedeschi; P. E. Cerosaletti

2006-01-01

276

Blocking of bradykinin receptor B1 protects from focal closed head injury in mice by reducing axonal damage and astroglia activation  

PubMed Central

The two bradykinin receptors B1R and B2R are central components of the kallikrein–kinin system with different expression kinetics and binding characteristics. Activation of these receptors by kinins triggers inflammatory responses in the target organ and in most situations enhances tissue damage. We could recently show that blocking of B1R, but not B2R, protects from cortical cryolesion by reducing inflammation and edema formation. In the present study, we investigated the role of B1R and B2R in a closed head model of focal traumatic brain injury (TBI; weight drop). Increased expression of B1R in the injured hemispheres of wild-type mice was restricted to the later stages after brain trauma, i.e. day 7 (P<0.05), whereas no significant induction could be observed for the B2R (P>0.05). Mice lacking the B1R, but not the B2R, showed less functional deficits on day 3 (P<0.001) and day 7 (P<0.001) compared with controls. Pharmacological blocking of B1R in wild-type mice had similar effects. Reduced axonal injury and astroglia activation could be identified as underlying mechanisms, while inhibition of B1R had only little influence on the local inflammatory response in this model. Inhibition of B1R may become a novel strategy to counteract trauma-induced neurodegeneration.

Albert-Weissenberger, Christiane; Stetter, Christian; Meuth, Sven G; Gobel, Kerstin; Bader, Michael; Siren, Anna-Leena; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

2012-01-01

277

The phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor rolipram protects from ischemic stroke in mice by reducing blood-brain-barrier damage, inflammation and thrombosis.  

PubMed

Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption, inflammation and thrombosis are important steps in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke but are still inaccessible to therapeutic interventions. Rolipram specifically inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Rolipram has been shown to relief inflammation and BBB damage in a variety of neurological disorders. We investigated the therapeutic potential of rolipram in a model of brain ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Treatment with 10mg/kg rolipram, but not 2 mg/kg rolipram, 2 h after 60 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) reduced infarct volumes by 50% and significantly improved clinical scores on day 1 compared with vehicle-treated controls. Rolipram maintained BBB function upon stroke as indicated by preserved expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5. Accordingly, the formation of vascular brain edema was strongly attenuated in mice receiving rolipram. Moreover, rolipram reduced the invasion of neutrophils as well as the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF? but increased the levels of TGF?-1. Finally, rolipram exerted antithrombotic effects upon stroke and fewer neurons in the rolipram group underwent apoptosis. Rolipram is a multifaceted antiinflammatory and antithrombotic compound that protects from ischemic neurodegeneration in clinically meaningful settings. PMID:23570902

Kraft, Peter; Schwarz, Tobias; Göb, Eva; Heydenreich, Nadine; Brede, Marc; Meuth, Sven G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

2013-09-01

278

The phytochemical, EGCG, extends lifespan by reducing liver and kidney function damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy rats.  

PubMed

It is known that phytochemicals have many potential health benefits in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term consumption of the phytochemical, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on body growth, disease protection, and lifespan in healthy rats. 68 male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control and EGCG groups. Variables influencing lifespan such as blood pressure, serum glucose and lipids, inflammation, and oxidative stress were dynamically determined from weaning to death. The median lifespan of controls was 92.5 weeks. EGCG increased median lifespan to 105.0 weeks and delayed death by approximately 8-12 weeks. Blood pressure and serum glucose and lipids significantly increased with age in both groups compared with the levels at 0 week. However, there were no differences in these variables between the two groups during the whole lifespan. Inflammation and oxidative stress significantly increased with age in both groups compared with 0 week and were significantly lower in serum and liver and kidney tissues in the EGCG group. Damage to liver and kidney function was significantly alleviated in the EGCG group. In addition, EGCG decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of transcription factor NF-?B and increased the upstream protein expressions of silent mating type information regulation two homolog one (SIRT1) and forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a). In conclusion, EGCG extends lifespan in healthy rats by reducing liver and kidney damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress through the inhibition of NF-?B signaling by activating the longevity factors FoxO3a and SIRT1. PMID:23834676

Niu, Yucun; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Gong, Liya; Zhao, Yue; Li, Qiang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

2013-12-01

279

Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines  

PubMed Central

Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the U.S. Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in 7 isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of ?H2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis.

Yamamoto, Kimiyo N.; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P.; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.

2012-01-01

280

An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation  

PubMed Central

Background Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems. Methods We performed a decision analysis in a poorly studied area, trip aggregation, and studied decisions from the perspective of two different stakeholders, the passenger and society. We modelled the impact and potential of composite traffic, a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, where a centralised system would collect the information on all trip demands online, would merge the trips with the same origin and destination into public vehicles with eight or four seats, and then would transmit the trip instructions to the passengers' mobile phones. Results We show here that in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health, environmental, and other detrimental impacts of car traffic typically by 50–70%, and if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, and within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies. Conclusion Composite traffic provides new degrees of freedom in urban decision-making in identifying novel solutions to the problems of urban traffic.

Tuomisto, Jouni T; Tainio, Marko

2005-01-01

281

Impairment of vitamin D metabolism due to environmental cadmium exposure, and possible relevance to sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether depleted serum 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) concentrations are associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced renal damage, the relationships between four indices of renal function and two indicators of bone metabolism, that is, serum VD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, were analyzed in 30 male and 44 female subjects exposed to environmental Cd. Also, these associations were compared in male and female subjects to evaluate sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage observed in Cd-exposed persons. Serum VD decreased significantly with declines in creatinine clearance and percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and with increases in serum creatinine and serum [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]m) concentrations in the female subjects exposed to Cd, but not in the male subjects. The correlation between serum VD and PTH levels was also significant only in the females. Correlation coefficients between serum [beta][sub 2]m and VD and those between serum PTH and VD in both sexes were significantly different. These results suggest that renal damage due to Cd exposure leads to the decreases in the serum VD level and increases in serum PTH level, and that the more marked changes in serum VD and PTH in the women may play a role in the development of sex-related differences in Cd-induced bone injury.

Tsuritani, Ikiko; Honda, Ryumon; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamada, Yuichi (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)); Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji (Chiba Univ. (Japan))

1992-12-01

282

Examining a home environmental strategy to reduce availability of legal products that can be misused by youth.  

PubMed

This article presents results from a study of a home environmental strategy (HES) designed to reduce availability of harmful legal products (HLPs) in the home that can be used by youth to get high. HLPs include inhalants, prescription and nonprescription drugs, and household products that can be ingested to get high. Availability is one of the most consistent predictors of substance use among youth. Parents of 5th- to 7th-grade students in four Alaskan communities participated in telephone interviews as part of a larger study of a multicomponent community prevention model (CPM) that included a HES. The strategy was designed to encourage parents to reduce availability of HLPs by removing them from the home, and by locking up and monitoring the supplies of HLPs in the home. Data from 402 parents at Wave 1 and 371 parents at Wave 2 were analyzed using hierarchical non-Linear modeling (HNLM). Results show there was a significant decrease in HLPs in the home from Wave 1 to Wave 2, mostly inhalants and prescription and nonprescription drugs. Parents also reported a significant increase in locking up prescription and nonprescription drugs in the home. Parents' direct exposure to the HES was marginally associated with the change over time in HLP availability in the home. Indirect exposure through others and media was not associated with this change. Study lessons learned and conclusions are highlighted. PMID:22943304

Collins, David A; Johnson, Knowlton W; Shamblen, Stephen R

2012-10-01

283

EXAMINING A HOME ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY TO REDUCE AVAILABILITY OF LEGAL PRODUCTS THAT CAN BE MISUSED BY YOUTH  

PubMed Central

This article presents results from a study of a home environmental strategy (HES) designed to reduce availability of harmful legal products (HLPs) in the home that can be used by youth to get high. HLPs include inhalants, prescription and non-prescription drugs, and household products that can be ingested to get high. Availability is one of the most consistent predictors of substance use among youth. Parents of 5th to 7th-grade students in four Alaskan communities participated in telephone interviews as part of a larger study of a multi-component Community Prevention Model that included a HES. The strategy was designed to encourage parents to reduce availability of HLPs by removing them from the home, and by locking up and monitoring the supplies of HLPs in the home. Data from 402 parents at Wave 1 and 371 parents at Wave 2 were analyzed using Hierarchical Non-Linear Modeling (HNLM). Results show there was a significant decrease in HLPs in the home from Wave 1 to Wave 2, mostly inhalants, prescription and non-prescription drugs. Parents also reported a significant increase in locking up prescription and non-prescription drugs in the home. Parents’ direct exposure to the HES was marginally associated with the change over time in HLP availability in the home. Indirect exposure through others and media was not associated with this change. Study lessons learned and conclusions are highlighted.

Collins, David A.; Johnson, Knowlton W.; Shamblen, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

284

A Novel Small Molecule Enantiomeric Analogue of Traditional (-)-morphinans has Specific TLR9 Antagonist Properties and Reduces Sterile Inflammation Induced Organ Damage  

PubMed Central

TLR9 is a key determinant of the innate immune responses in both infectious and sterile injury. Specific antagonism of TLR9 is of great clinical interest to reduce tissue damage in a wide range of pathologies, and has been approached by modification of nucleic acids, the recognized ligand for TLR9. Such oligonucleotide-derived pharmacotherapeutics have limitations in specificity for nucleic acid receptors, significant potential for immunologic recognition with generation of innate and adaptive immune responses, and limited bioavailability. We have identified enantiomeric analogues of traditional (?)-morphinans as having TLR9 antagonist properties on reporter cell lines. One of these analogues (COV08-0064) is demonstrated to be a novel small molecule antagonist of TLR9 with greater specificity for TLR9 than oligo based antagonists. COV08-0064 has wide bioavailability, including the subcutaneous and per oral route. It specifically inhibits the action of TLR9 antagonists on reporter cells lines and the production of cytokines by TLR9 agonists from primary cells. It also has efficacy in limiting TLR9 mediated sterile inflammation in in vivo models of acute liver injury and acute pancreatitis. The identification of a morphinan based novel small molecule structure with TLR9 antagonism is a significant step in expanding therapeutic strategies in the field of sterile inflammatory injury.

Hoque, Rafaz; Farooq, Ahmad; Malik, Ahsan; Trawick, Bobby N.; Berberich, David W.; McClurg, Joseph P.; Galen, Karen P.; Mehal, Wajahat

2013-01-01

285

Lactobacillus casei and bifidobacterium lactis supplementation reduces tissue damage of intestinal mucosa and liver after 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid treatment in mice.  

PubMed

Probiotics (PB) are living microorganisms that act as a commensal population in normal intestines and confer numerous beneficial effects on the host. The introduction of probiotics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) prolongs remission. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal and hepatic effects of PB supplementation in an experimental IBD model in mice induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). In the first step of the experimental procedure, CD-1 male mice, 5 to 6 weeks old, were randomly divided into 3 groups and inoculated intrarectally with, respectively, saline, alcohol, or TNBS to assess the experimental IBD model. In the second step, mice treated, or not, with TNBS inoculation, were treated with PB (Lactobacillus Casei, Bifidobacterum Lactis) for 1, 2 or 3 weeks, on a daily basis. Large bowel (colon and rectum) and liver were processed for histological alterations, according to a scoring system. Large bowel was also assessed for apoptosis by TUNEL assay. TNBS induced, as expected, severe damage and inflammation in the large bowel, including nuclear alterations and apoptosis, and, to a lesser extent, to the liver. Administration of PB determined significant reduction of both histological alterations and apoptosis. PB administration in advance protects from inflammation. In conclusion, supplementation with Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterum lactis PB is able to ameliorate the colitis by reversing the histological changes caused by TNBS in mice. Experimentation in human subjects in needed to prove their efficacy in reducing histological alterations that may be present in subjects with IBD. PMID:25001657

Bellavia, M; Rappa, F; Lo Bello, M; Brecchia, G; Tomasello, G; Leone, A; Spatola, G; Uzzo, M L; Bonaventura, G; David, S; Damiani, P; Hajj Hussein, I; Zeenny, M N; Jurjus, A; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Cocchi, M; Zummo, G; Farina, F; Gerbino, A; Cappello, F; Traina, G

2014-01-01

286

Glutamine and Alanyl-Glutamine Increase RhoA Expression and Reduce Clostridium difficile Toxin-A-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Cell Damage  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Glutamine (Gln) is a major fuel for the intestinal cell population. Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) is a dipeptide that is highly soluble and well tolerated. IEC-6 cells were used in the in vitro experiments. Cell morphology was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell proliferation was assessed by WST-1 and Ki-67 and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Cytoskeleton was evaluated by immunofluorescence for RhoA and F-actin. RhoA was quantified by immunoblotting. TcdA induced cell shrinkage as observed by AFM, SEM, and fluorescent microscopy. Additionally, collapse of the F-actin cytoskeleton was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. TcdA decreased cell volume and area and increased cell height by 79%, 66.2%, and 58.9%, respectively. Following TcdA treatment, Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation, significantly increased RhoA by 65.5% and 89.7%, respectively at 24?h. Ala-Gln supplementation increased cell proliferation by 137.5% at 24?h and decreased cell apoptosis by 61.4% at 24?h following TcdA treatment. In conclusion, TcdA altered intestinal cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization, decreased cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis. Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation reduced intestinal epithelial cell damage and increased RhoA expression.

Santos, Ana A. Q. A.; Braga-Neto, Manuel B.; Oliveira, Marcelo R.; Freire, Rosemeire S.; Barros, Eduardo B.; Santiago, Thiago M.; Rebelo, Luciana M.; Mermelstein, Claudia; Warren, Cirle A.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Brito, Gerly A. C.

2013-01-01

287

Reduced mitochondrial ROS, enhanced antioxidant defense, and distinct age-related changes in oxidative damage in muscles of long-lived Peromyscus leucopus  

PubMed Central

Comparing biological processes in closely related species with divergent life spans is a powerful approach to study mechanisms of aging. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging predicts that longer-lived species would have lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and/or an increased antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced oxidative damage with age than in shorter-lived species. In this study, we measured ROS generation in the young adult animals of the long-lived white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (maximal life span potential, MLSP = 8 yr) and the common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus (C57BL/6J strain; MLSP = 3.5 yr). Consistent with the hypothesis, our results show that skeletal muscle mitochondria from adult P. leucopus produce less ROS (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) compared with M. musculus. Additionally, P. leucopus has an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 1 at young age. P. leucopus compared with M. musculus display low levels of lipid peroxidation (isoprostanes) throughout life; however, P. leucopus although having elevated protein carbonyls at a young age, the accrual of protein oxidation with age is minimal in contrast to the linear increase in M. musculus. Altogether, the results from young animals are in agreement with the predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging with the exception of protein carbonyls. Nonetheless, the age-dependent increase in protein carbonyls is more pronounced in short-lived M. musculus, which supports enhanced protein homeostasis in long-lived P. leucopus.

Shi, Yun; Pulliam, Daniel A.; Liu, Yuhong; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Jernigan, Amanda L.; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Sloane, Lauren B.; Qi, Wenbo; Chaudhuri, Asish; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Ungvari, Zoltan; Austad, Steven N.

2013-01-01

288

A novel small-molecule enantiomeric analogue of traditional (-)-morphinans has specific TLR9 antagonist properties and reduces sterile inflammation-induced organ damage.  

PubMed

TLR9 is a key determinant of the innate immune responses in both infectious and sterile injury. Specific antagonism of TLR9 is of great clinical interest to reduce tissue damage in a wide range of pathologies, and has been approached by modification of nucleic acids, the recognized ligand for TLR9. Such oligonucleotide-derived pharmacotherapeutics have limitations in specificity for nucleic acid receptors, significant potential for immunologic recognition with generation of innate and adaptive immune responses, and limited bioavailability. We have identified enantiomeric analogues of traditional (-)-morphinans as having TLR9 antagonist properties on reporter cell lines. One of these analogues (COV08-0064) is demonstrated to be a novel small-molecule antagonist of TLR9 with greater specificity for TLR9 than oligo-based antagonists. COV08-0064 has wide bioavailability, including the s.c. and oral routes. It specifically inhibits the action of TLR9 antagonists on reporter cells lines and the production of cytokines by TLR9 agonists from primary cells. It also has efficacy in limiting TLR9-mediated sterile inflammation in in vivo models of acute liver injury and acute pancreatitis. The identification of a morphinan-based novel small-molecule structure with TLR9 antagonism is a significant step in expanding therapeutic strategies in the field of sterile inflammatory injury. PMID:23509352

Hoque, Rafaz; Farooq, Ahmad; Malik, Ahsan; Trawick, Bobby N; Berberich, David W; McClurg, Joseph P; Galen, Karen P; Mehal, Wajahat

2013-04-15

289

Customized product design scheme selection model with a focus on integration of environmental attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green Manufacturing (GM) is an inevitable trend of the sustainable development of manufacturing enterprise. In order to reduce environmental damage and save resources Green Design (GD) is a key. Customized product design scheme selection taking into account the environmental considerations is a practical approach for reducing the resource consumption and negative environmental impacts in customized production. This paper presents a

Zhenyu Gu; Fei Liu; Huajun Cao

2008-01-01

290

Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work is to test the protective effects of lutein and zeaxanthin against photo-oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and oxidation-induced changes in expression of inflammation-related genes. To mimic lipofuscin-mediated photo-oxidation in vivo, we used ARPE-19 cells that accumulated A2E, a lipofuscin fluorophore and photosensitizer, as a model system to investigate the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation. The data show that supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin in the medium resulted in accumulation of lutein or zeaxanthin in the RPE cells. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in the cells were 2–14-fold of that detected in the medium, indicating that ARPE-19 cells actively take up lutein or zeaxanthin. As compared with untreated cells, exposure of A2E-containing RPE to blue light resulted in a 40–60% decrease in proteasome activity, a 50–80% decrease in expression of CFH and MCP-1, and an ~ 20-fold increase in expression of IL-8. The photo-oxidation-induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and CFH were similar to those caused by chemical inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting that inactivation of the proteasome is involved in the photo-oxidation-induced alteration in expression of these inflammation-related genes. Incubation of the A2E-containing RPE with lutein or zeaxanthin prior to blue light exposure significantly attenuated the photo-oxidation-induced inactivation of the proteasome and photo-oxidation induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and CFH. Together, these data indicate that lutein or zeaxanthin modulates inflammatory responses in cultured RPE in response to photo-oxidation. Protecting the proteasome from oxidative inactivation appears to be one of the mechanisms by which lutein and zeaxanthin modulate the inflammatory response. Similar mechanisms may explain salutary effects of lutein and zeaxanthin in reducing the risk for AMD.

Bian, Qingning; Gao, Shasha; Zhou, Jilin; Qin, Jian; Taylor, Allen; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Tang, Guangwen; Sparrow, Janet R.; Gierhart, Dennis; Shang, Fu

2012-01-01

291

A Crucial Role of Nrf2 in In Vivo Defense against Oxidative Damage by an Environmental Pollutant, Pentachlorophenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal was to elucidate roles of Nrf2 in in vivo defense against pentachlorophenol (PCP), an environmental pollutant and he- patocarcinogen in mice. We examined oxidative stress and cell proliferation, along with other hepatotoxicological parameters, in the livers of nrf2-deficient (wild:+\\/+, heterozygous:+\\/? , homozy- gous:? \\/? ) animals fed PCP in their diet at doses of 0, 150, 300, 600,

Takashi Umemura; Yuichi Kuroiwa; Yasuki Kitamura; Yuji Ishii; Keita Kanki; Yukio Kodama; Ken Itoh; Masayuki Yamamoto; Akiyoshi Nishikawa; Masao Hirose

2006-01-01

292

The Relationship between Environmental Exposures to Phthalates and DNA Damage in Human Sperm Using the Neutral Comet Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalates are industrial chemicals widely used in many commercial applications. The general population is exposed to phthalates through consumer products as well as through diet and medical treatments. To determine whether environmental levels of phthalates are associated with altered DNA integrity in human sperm, we selected a population without identified sources of exposure to phthalates. One hundred sixty-eight subjects recruited

Susan M. Duty; Narendra P. Singh; Manori J. Silva; Dana B. Barr; John W. Brock; Louise Ryan; Robert F. Herrick; David C. Christiani; Russ Hauser

2002-01-01

293

Base Damage within Single-Strand DNA Underlies In Vivo Hypermutability Induced by a Ubiquitous Environmental Agent  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal DNA must be in single-strand form for important transactions such as replication, transcription, and recombination to occur. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA) is more prone to damage than double-strand DNA (dsDNA), due to greater exposure of chemically reactive moieties in the nitrogenous bases. Thus, there can be agents that damage regions of ssDNA in vivo while being inert toward dsDNA. To assess the potential hazard posed by such agents, we devised an ssDNA–specific mutagenesis reporter system in budding yeast. The reporter strains bear the cdc13-1 temperature-sensitive mutation, such that shifting to 37°C results in telomere uncapping and ensuing 5? to 3? enzymatic resection. This exposes the reporter region, containing three closely-spaced reporter genes, as a long 3? ssDNA overhang. We validated the ability of the system to detect mutagenic damage within ssDNA by expressing a modified human single-strand specific cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G induced a high density of substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in frequent, simultaneous inactivation of two reporter genes. We then examined the mutagenicity of sulfites, a class of reactive sulfur oxides to which humans are exposed frequently via respiration and food intake. Sulfites, at a concentration similar to that found in some foods, induced a high density of mutations, almost always as substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in simultaneous inactivation of at least two reporter genes. Furthermore, sulfites formed a long-lived adducted 2?-deoxyuracil intermediate in DNA that was resistant to excision by uracil–DNA N-glycosylase. This intermediate was bypassed by error-prone translesion DNA synthesis, frequently involving Pol ?, during repair synthesis. Our results suggest that sulfite-induced lesions in DNA can be particularly deleterious, since cells might not possess the means to repair or bypass such lesions accurately.

Chan, Kin; Sterling, Joan F.; Roberts, Steven A.; Bhagwat, Ashok S.; Resnick, Michael A.; Gordenin, Dmitry A.

2012-01-01

294

Human mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue reduce functional and tissue damage in a rat model of chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

Therapeutic approaches for CKD (chronic kidney disease) have been able to reduce proteinuria, but not diminish the disease progression. We have demonstrated beneficial effects by injection of BM (bone marrow)-derived MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) from healthy donors in a rat model with CKD. However, it has recently been reported that BM-MSCs derived from uraemic patients failed to confer functional protection in a similar model. This suggests that autologous BM-MSCs are not suitable for the treatment of CKD. In the present study, we have explored the potential of MSCs derived from adipose tissue (AD-MSCs) as an alternative source of MSCs for the treatment of CKD. We have isolated AD-MSCs and evaluated their effect on the progression of CKD. Adult male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats subjected to 5/6 NPX (nephrectomy) received a single intravenous infusion of 0.5×10(6) AD-MSCs or MSC culture medium alone. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by plasma creatinine measurement, structural analysis and angiogenic/epitheliogenic protein expression. AD-MSCs were detected in kidney tissues from NPX animals. This group had a significant reduction in plasma creatinine levels and a lower expression of damage markers ED-1 and ?-SMA (?-smooth muscle actin) (P<0.05). In addition, treated rats exhibited a higher level of epitheliogenic [Pax-2 and BMP-7 (bone morphogenetic protein 7)] and angiogenic [VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)] proteins. The expression of these biomarkers of regeneration was significantly related to the improvement in renal function. Although many aspects of the cell therapy for CKD remain to be investigated, we provide evidence that AD-MSCs, a less invasive and highly available source of MSCs, exert an important therapeutic effect in this pathology. PMID:23480877

Villanueva, Sandra; Carreño, Juan E; Salazar, Lorena; Vergara, César; Strodthoff, Rocío; Fajre, Francisca; Céspedes, Carlos; Sáez, Pablo J; Irarrázabal, Carlos; Bartolucci, Jorge; Figueroa, Fernando; Vio, Carlos P

2013-08-01

295

ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - SUPPLEMENT 1: DETAILED DATA FOR STATIC AND LINEAR ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report lists the expected insect control costs and insecticide use per acre for each insect control method on corn and cotton in each region discussed in Alternatives for Reducing Insecticides on Cotton and Corn: Economic and Environmental Impact. All the runs used in the lin...

296

Loss of p21{sup Sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage accompanied with increase of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 interaction with p21{sup Sdi1} gene promoter  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin or X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.

Choi, Ok Ran [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, In Kyoung, E-mail: iklim@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-08

297

Reducing the effects of environmental inhibition in quantitative real-time PCR detection of adenovirus and norovirus in recreational seawaters.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is used commonly to detect adenovirus (Ads) and norovirus (Nvs) in recreational waters. However, qPCR detection may be limited by interference from inhibitory substances found in recreational waters. In previous work, viruses in Avalon and Doheny Beach water samples were concentrated by electropositive cartridge filtration and PEG precipitation, and high inhibition was found in the samples when using qPCR for detection of Ads and Nvs. Therefore, different approaches were evaluated for removal or blocking of inhibitory compounds that affect qPCR. Avalon and Doheny concentrates were spiked with known amounts of Ads 41 and Nvs GII, and spiked deionized water was used as a positive control. Modifications included gel chromatography with columns of Sephadex G-200/Chelex 100, different sample volumes for nucleic acid extraction, organic solvent extraction, and nucleic acid precipitation. The efficiency of each treatment varied according to sampling location and virus type. The best option for improved Nvs detection by reverse transcription-qPCR was to reduce the sample volume for nucleic acid purification. The best option for improving Ads detection in both beach samples was Sephadex/Chelex spin column chromatography. Chloroform extraction only improved virus detection in Doheny Beach samples but not in Avalon Beach samples. Observed differences in effective treatments between viruses may be related to the different PCR targets, amplification conditions, and enzymes used in each assay, and differences between beaches may be related to differences in PCR inhibitory environmental compounds at each location. The results suggest that methods for detecting viruses from marine beaches, including treatments for the removal of PCR inhibitory compounds, should be optimized for each sampling site and probably for each virus of interest. PMID:22326277

Rodríguez, Roberto A; Thie, Lauren; Gibbons, Christopher D; Sobsey, Mark D

2012-04-01

298

Using expert knowledge to increase realism in environmental system models can dramatically reduce the need for calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual environmental systems models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of model for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, strategies for better parameter identification were developed in the past, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding regarding how a catchment works into the process of parameterizing a conceptual model has still not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effect of imposing semi-quantitative, relational expert knowledge into the model development and parameter selection, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e. wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simplicity to complexity, three model set-ups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC have been developed based on these functional units. While FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC introduce increasingly more complexity by distinguishing 2 and 3 functional units, respectively. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters as well as states and fluxes of their different functional units to each other. Based on these comparisons, expert knowledge based, semi-quantitative relational constraints have been imposed on three models structures. More complexity of models allows more imposed constraints. It was shown that a constrained but uncalibrated semi-distributed model, FLEXC, can predict runoff with similar performance than a calibrated lumped model, FLEXA. In addition, when constrained and calibrated, the semi-distributed model FLEXC exhibits not only higher performance but also reduced uncertainty for prediction, compared to the calibrated, lumped FLEXA model.

Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2013-12-01

299

Novel flashlamp-based time-resolved fluorescence microscope reduces autofluorescence for 30-fold contrast enhancement in environmental samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance of naturally fluorescing components (autofluorophors) encountered in environmentally sourced samples can greatly hinder the detection and identification of fluorescently labeled target using fluorescence microscopy. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy (TRFM) is a technique that reduces the effects of autofluorescence through precisely controlled time delays. Lanthanide chelates have fluorescence lifetimes many orders of magnitude greater than typical autofluorophors, and persist in their luminescence long after autofluorescence has ceased. An intense short pulse of (UV) light is used to excite fluorescence in the sample and after a short delay period the longer persisting fluorescence from the chelate is captured with an image-intensified CCD camera. The choice of pulsed excitation source for TRFM has a large impact on the price and performance of the instrument. A flashlamp with a short pulse duration was selected for our instrument because of the high spectral energy in the UV region and short pulse length. However, flash output decays with an approximate lifetime of 18?s and the TRFM requires a long-lived chelate to ensure probe fluorescence is still visible after decay of the flash plasma. We synthesized a recently reported fluorescent chelate (BHHCT) and conjugated it to a monoclonal antibody directed against the water-borne parasite Giardia lamblia. Fluorescence lifetime of the construct was determined to be 339?s +/- 14?s and provided a 45-fold enhancement of labeled Giardia over background using a gate delay of 100?s. Despite the sub-optimal decay characteristics of the light pulse, flashlamps have many advantages compared to optical chopper wheels and modulated lasers. Their low cost, lack of vibration, ease of interface and small footprint are important factors to consider in TRFM design.

Connally, Russell; Veal, Duncan; Piper, James A.

2003-07-01

300

Intrathecal antagonism of microglial TLR4 reduces inflammatory damage to blood-spinal cord barrier following ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammatory reaction in blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) plays a crucial role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been shown that microglia could be activated through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Therefore, we hypothesize that TLR4 is involved in the microglial activation and BSCB disruption after I/R. Results To verify our hypothesis, we analyzed the behavioral data, changes of BSCB permeability, as well as expressions of microglial marker Iba-1 and TLR4 in spinal cord I/R model induced by 14 min aortic occlusion. Double immunostaining reveals that after I/R, Iba-1 immunoreactivity increased gradually 12 h after reperfusion and maintained at a such level throughout 36 h. Such increasing pattern of Iba-1 expression is consistent with the increases in Evan’s Blue (EB) extravasation, spinal water content and mechanical allodynia demonstrated by lowed withdrawal threshold to Von Frey filaments. Moreover, double immunostaining suggested that TLR4 was highly expressed in microglia. Intrathecal infusion of minocycline and TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) treatment attenuated I/R-induced allodynia and BSCB leakage. In contrast, LPS induced TLR4 expression aggregated above-mentioned injuries. Furthermore, the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activity has a similar profile as TLR4 activity. It is consisted with the results of NF-?B mRNA and protein expression changes and activation of downstream cytokine, IL-1?. Expectedly, intrathecal infusion of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-?B inhibitor, showed similar protective effects as minocycline and TAK-242. In addition, our data show that TLR4 closely involved in I/R-induced inflammatory damage induced neuronal apoptosis. Significantly, neutralizing TLR4 function largely reduced neuronal apoptosis determined by NeuN immunoreactivity in ventral gray matter and increased percentage of double-label cells with cleaved caspase3, whereas LPS reversed these effects. Similarly, inhibitions of microglia and NF-?B with minocycline or PDTC treatment accordingly perform the same protective effects on I/R injury. Conclusion The results indicate that compromised BSCB caused by I/R injury lead to spinal microglial activation and TLR4, its membrane-bound receptor, up-regulation, which then initiate neuro-inflammation and neuro-apoptosis via NF-?B/ IL-1? pathway. To inhibit the positive feedback loop of TLR4-microglia-NF-?B/ IL-1? pathway by minocycline, TAK-242 (TLR4 inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, NF-?B inhibitor) may provide new targets for treating I/R injury in clinic.

2014-01-01

301

An integrative study of the genetic, social and environmental determinants of chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the north central region of sri lanka.  

PubMed

Objectives: Previous investigations on chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology characterized by tubulointerstitial damages (CKDu) in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka have supported the involvement of social, environmental and genetic factors in its pathogenesis. Methods: We conducted a social-environmental-and-genetic epidemiology study on a male population in NCR to investigate the genetic and environmental contributors. We recruited 311 case-series patients and 504 control candidates. Of the 504 control candidates, 218 (43%) were eliminated because of the presence of hypertension, proteinuria, high HbA1c, high serum creatinine or high alpha-1 microglobulin in urine. Results and Discussion: None of 18 metals measured (?g//) in urine, including Cd, As and Pb, showed significantly higher concentrations in cases compared with controls. As speciation results showed that 75-80% of total urinary As was in the form of arsenobetaine, which is non-toxic to humans. None of the metal concentrations in drinking water samples exceeded guideline values. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to determine the genetic contributors. The GWAS yielded a genome-wide significant association with CKDu for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs6066043; p=5.23 × 10(-9) in quantitative trait locus analysis; p=3.73 × 10(-9) in dichotomous analysis) in SLC13A3 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter member 3). The population attributable fraction and odds ratio for this SNP were 50% and 2.13. Genetic susceptibility was identified as the major risk factor for CKDu. However, 43% of the apparently healthy malepopulation suffers from non-communicable diseases, suggesting their possible influence on CKDu progression.(J Occup Health 2014; 56: 28-38). PMID:24351856

Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, Stmld; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Gunarathne, Edl; Yan, Junxia; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Muso, Eri; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo; Watanabe, Takao; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Koizumi, Akio

2014-04-17

302

Assisting People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Actively Reducing Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Gyration Air Mouse through a Controlled Environmental Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing

Shih, Ching-Hsiang

2011-01-01

303

Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites  

SciTech Connect

The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

Kosko, Nancy [US Army Environmental Command (United States); Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie [CALIBRE Systems, Inc. (United States)

2007-07-01

304

Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these

D. E. Jr. Roush; D. E. Beaver

1998-01-01

305

A synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic (EUK-134) inhibits membrane-damage-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and reduces p53 accumulation in ultraviolet B-exposed primary human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Salen-manganese complexes exhibit powerful superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, with pharmacologic efficacy in several oxidative-stress-associated disease models. Ultraviolet (UV) B not only induces direct DNA damage, but also generates oxidative stress. EUK-134, a salen-manganese complex, might therefore confer a direct protection against UVB-induced oxidative stress and consequently alleviate UVB-damage-induced signal transduction. We investigated the effect of EUK-134 on the UVB-induced accumulation and stabilization of the p53 protein. p53 plays a central role in the UVB response, both as sensor of UVB damage and as a mediator of a protective response. Cells treated with EUK-134 before UVB irradiation showed a significantly lower accumulation of the p53 protein in a concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, EUK-134 severely reduced N-terminal phosphorylation of p53. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK and the stress-activated kinases JNK and p38 have been implicated in the UVB-induced N-terminal phosphorylation and accumulation of p53. Pre-treatment with EUK-134 inhibited the UVB-induced activation of these mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. We hypothesize that EUK-134, by direct protection of the membrane from UVB-induced oxidative damage, reduces oxidative stress induced MAPK signaling and consequently lowers the level of p53 induction. The protection conferred by EUK-134 resulted in a significant increase in cell survival following UVB irradiation. PMID:15009734

Decraene, David; Smaers, Katrien; Gan, David; Mammone, Tom; Matsui, Mary; Maes, Daniel; Declercq, Lieve; Garmyn, Marjan

2004-02-01

306

Environmental protection in China  

SciTech Connect

Environmental conditions in China are dramatically worse than those in the USA, but the Chinese are acting with commendable vigor in attempting to contain and ultimately reverse the damage. The Chinese have air, water and soil contamination, along with garbage and trash problems. They are also experiencing deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, destruction of wildlife habitat and wetlands, and the depletion of ground water. Attempts are being made to reduce the pollutants being produced, but economic factors weigh heavily against cleaning up current pollution.

Russell, M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA) Univ. of Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-01-01

307

Inhibitory effects of silk protein, sericin on UVB-induced acute damage and tumor promotion by reducing oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to assess protective effect of an antioxidant protein, sericin, on UVB-induced acute damage and tumor promotion in mouse skin. In experiment 1, HR-1 hairless mice were treated with 180 mJ\\/cm2 of ultraviolet B light (UVB) once daily for 1 and 7 days. The treatment for 7 days caused red sunburn lesions of the skin. The intensity

Siqin Zhaorigetu; Noriyuki Yanaka; Masahiro Sasaki; Hiromitsu Watanabe; Norihisa Kato

2003-01-01

308

Anti-apoptotic PI3K\\/Akt signaling by sodium\\/glucose transporter 1 reduces epithelial barrier damage and bacterial translocation in intestinal ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) causes mucosal barrier damage and bacterial translocation (BT), leading to septic complications. Previous in vitro studies showed that activation of sodium\\/glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) prevented the epithelial apoptosis and permeability rise induced by microbial products. Our aim was to investigate whether luminal glucose uptake by SGLT1 protects against ischemia-induced epithelial cell death and barrier dysfunction, and to

Ching-Ying Huang; Jong-Kai Hsiao; Yen-Zhen Lu; Tsung-Chun Lee; Linda C-H Yu

2011-01-01

309

The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a U.S. College  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. PARTICIPANTS Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973. METHODS Randomly sampled surveys were conducted after a large, annual spring campus celebration. An environmental management plan was initiated in 2003 that included increased enforcement of the minimum age drinking law (MADL). RESULTS In the short-term, drinking at the campus celebration decreased while drinking before the event increased. Over time, the intervention significantly reduced high-risk drinking on the day of the event, especially among those under the age of 21. CONCLUSION These findings are contrary to the argument that enforcement of MADLs simply lead to increased high-risk drinking, and therefore have implications for how colleges approach the challenge of student alcohol misuse.

Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

2013-01-01

310

Environmental relaxation in response to reduced contaminant input: The case of mercury pollution in Haifa Bay, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental relaxation, defined as the rate of return of a polluted environment to an acceptable state following a reduction in the input of contamination, was evaluated for the case of mercury pollution in northern Haifa Bay (Israel) on the basis of the long-term record of mercury levels in sediment cores and biota. Mercury was found to decrease with a half-time

B. Herut; H. Hornung; N. Kress; Y. Cohen

1996-01-01

311

Water Vapor Regeneration of Activated Carbon. A Contribution to Reducing Pollutants to Below the Environmentally Relevant Level.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to work out fundamentals for the development of an improved process for steam regeneration in activated carbon plants which are to be used for the removal of vaporous organic pollutants of up to environmentally relevant concentra...

M. E. Minelli Figueira

1987-01-01

312

Strategies for reducing the environmental impact of reprocessing mercury-contaminated tailings in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining sector: insights from Tapajos River Basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, the environmental impacts of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) are extensive. Annual losses from mercury, which is used to amalgamate gold, are in the range of 1000 tonnes, and at advanced sites, there is the additional threat of cyanide contamination.Recent developments in The Brazilian Amazon, an area populated by 200,000 small-scale gold miners, have the potential to reduce these

Rodolfo N. Sousa; Marcello M. Veiga; Bern Klein; Kevin Telmer; Aaron J. Gunson; Ludovic Bernaudat

2010-01-01

313

Impact of apoptotic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on attenuating organ damage and reducing mortality in Rat sepsis syndrome induced by cecal puncture and ligation  

PubMed Central

Background We tested whether apoptotic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (A-ADMSCs) were superior to healthy (H)-ADMSCs at attenuating organ damage and mortality in sepsis syndrome following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Methods Adult male rats were categorized into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (CLP), group 3 [CLP?+?H-ADMSC administered 0.5, 6, and 18 h after CLP], group 4 [CLP?+?A-ADMSC administered as per group 3]. Results Circulating peak TNF-? level, at 6 h, was highest in groups 2 and 3, and higher in group 4 than group 1 (p?damage parameters of liver (AST, ALT), kidney (creatinine) and lung (arterial oxygen saturation) also displayed a similar pattern to TNF-? levels (all p?damage and improved prognosis in rats with sepsis syndrome.

2012-01-01

314

?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of short-term supplementation with the free acid form of b-hydroxyb-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) on indices of muscle damage, protein breakdown, recovery and hormone status following a high-volume resistance training session in trained athletes. A total of twenty resistance-trained males were recruited to participate in a high-volume resistance training session centred on full squats, bench presses and dead lifts. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 3 g/d of HMB-FA or a placebo. Immediately before the exercise session and 48 h post-exercise, serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistadine (3-MH), testosterone, cortisol and perceived recovery status (PRS) scale measurements were taken. The results showed that CK increased to a greater extent in the placebo (329%) than in the HMB-FA group (104%) (P¼0·004, d ¼ 1·6). There was also a significant change for PRS, which decreased to a greater extent in the placebo (9·1 (SEM 0·4) to 4·6 (SEM 0·5)) than in the HMB-FA group (9·1 (SEM 0·3) to 6·3 (SEM 0·3)) (P¼0·005, d ¼ 20·48). Muscle protein breakdown, measured by 3-MH analysis, numerically decreased with HMB-FA supplementation and approached significance (P¼0·08, d ¼ 0·12). There were no acute changes in plasma total or free testosterone, cortisol or C-reactive protein. In conclusion, these results suggest that an HMB-FA supplement given to trained athletes before exercise can blunt increases in muscle damage and prevent declines in perceived readiness to train following a high-volume, muscle-damaging resistance-training session. PMID:23286834

Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Walters, Joe A; Baier, Shawn M; Fuller, John C; Stout, Jeffrey R; Norton, Layne E; Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Duncan, Nevine M; Zanchi, Nelo E; Rathmacher, John

2013-08-28

315

Enhanced ?-ionone emission in Arabidopsis over-expressing AtCCD1 reduces feeding damage in vivo by the crucifer flea beetle.  

PubMed

Plant carotenoid derived ?-ionone has been shown to have diverse biological effects on some insect herbivores and herbivore parasitoids. In this study, Arabidopsis transgenic plants over-expressing a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase1 gene (AtCCD1) were generated to test whether ?-ionone emissions could be enhanced and used to control feeding by the crucifer flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze). The transgenic plants exhibited a morphological phenotype indistinguishable from the wild type (WT) control over their complete life cycle. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of headspace volatiles collected from 6-wk-old intact flowering plants revealed substantially enhanced ?-ionone emission from transgenic plants compared with WT, but no ?-ionone enhancement occurred at a young vegetative stage (4-wk-old seedlings). Bioassays in an enclosed environment showed that AtCCD1 over-expression resulted in ?50% less leaf area damage by flea beetles on transgenic plants compared with WT plants. The mean number of damaged transgenic leaves per plant also was significantly lower in transgenic plants (P<0.05). Our results indicate that AtCCD1 over-expression and induced ?-ionone emission might find application in the control of pests for Brassica crops grown in greenhouse operations. Potentially, ?-ionone also could be used on crops grown in open-air ecosystems if this allomone is released in sufficient quantities to discourage herbivore foragers. PMID:22217781

Wei, Shu; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Soroka, Julie; Xu, Ning; Li, Xiang; Zebarjadi, Alireza; Gruber, Margaret

2011-12-01

316

Corrosion Damage Functions  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion damage can lead to reduced operational lifetimes. Often this damage is not as obvious as general corrosion but takes the form of pits, intergranular corrosion, crevice corrosion and hydrogen absorption. These types of corrosion damage lead to stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking and corrosion fatigue. A critical step in defining a corrosion damage function is determining the relationship between the corrosion damage, the resulting crack propagation mechanism and component lifetimes. The sequence of events is often some localized corrosion event such as pitting, transition of the pit to a planar crack, propagation of this short crack, transition of the short crack to long crack conditions and continued propagation through Stage I, II, and III of the long crack SCC regimes. A description of critical corrosion damage processes and examples of the transition to long crack SCC conditions will be discussed.

Jones, Russell H.

2002-11-30

317

The Antiepileptic Drug Levetiracetam Suppresses Non-Convulsive Seizure Activity and Reduces Ischemic Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

The antiepileptic drug Levetiracetam (Lev) has neuroprotective properties in experimental stroke, cerebral hemorrhage and neurotrauma. In these conditions, non-convulsive seizures (NCSs) propagate from the core of the focal lesion into perilesional tissue, enlarging the damaged area and promoting epileptogenesis. Here, we explore whether Lev neuroprotective effect is accompanied by changes in NCS generation or propagation. In particular, we performed continuous EEG recordings before and after the permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO) in rats that received Lev (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle immediately before surgery. Both in Lev-treated and in control rats, EEG activity was suppressed after pMCAO. In control but not in Lev-treated rats, EEG activity reappeared approximately 30-45 min after pMCAO. It initially consisted in single spikes and, then, evolved into spike-and-wave and polyspike-and-wave discharges. In Lev-treated rats, only rare spike events were observed and the EEG power was significantly smaller than in controls. Approximately 24 hours after pMCAO, EEG activity increased in Lev-treated rats because of the appearance of polyspike events whose power was, however, significantly smaller than in controls. In rats sacrificed 24 hours after pMCAO, the ischemic lesion was approximately 50% smaller in Lev-treated than in control rats. A similar neuroprotection was observed in rats sacrificed 72 hours after pMCAO. In conclusion, in rats subjected to pMCAO, a single Lev injection suppresses NCS occurrence for at least 24 hours. This electrophysiological effect could explain the long lasting reduction of ischemic brain damage caused by this drug.

Cuomo, Ornella; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Leo, Antonio; Politi, Giovanni Bosco; Vinciguerra, Antonio; di Renzo, Gianfranco; Cataldi, Mauro

2013-01-01

318

77 FR 42487 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement To Reduce Avian Predation on Juvenile...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2010 and 2011, the cormorant colony at East Sand Island (ESI...limited to reducing the ESI colony by 25 percent, by 50 percent...State, local agencies, Native American tribes and other interested...double-crested cormorant colony in the Western Region,...

2012-07-19

319

Effectiveness of biological geotextiles in reducing runoff and soil loss under different environmental conditions using laboratory and field plot data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary investigations suggest biological geotextiles could be an effective and inexpensive soil conservation method, with enormous global potential. Biological geotextiles are a possible temporary alternative for vegetation cover and can offer immediate soil protection. However, limited data are available on the erosion-reducing effects of biological geotextiles. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of selected types of biological geotextile in reducing runoff and soil loss under controlled laboratory conditions and under field conditions reflecting different environments (i.e. continental, temperate and tropical). In laboratory experiments, interrill runoff, interrill erosion and concentrated flow erosion were simulated using various rainfall intensities, flow shear stresses and slope gradients. Field plot data on the effects of biological geotextiles on sheet and rill erosion were collected in several countries under natural rainfall (U.K., Hungary, Lithuania, South Africa, Brazil, China and Thailand). The laboratory experiments indicate that all tested biological geotextiles were effective in reducing interrill runoff (on average 59% of the value for bare soil) and interrill erosion rates (on average 16% of the value for bare soil). Since simulated concentrated flow discharge sometimes flowed below the geotextiles, the effectiveness in reducing concentrated flow erosion was significantly less (on average 59% of the value for bare soil). On field plots, where both interrill and rill erosion occur, all tested geotextiles reduced runoff depth by a mean of 54% of the control value for bare soil and in some cases, runoff depth increased compared to bare soil surfaces, which can be attributed to the impermeable and hydrophobic characteristics of some biological geotextiles. In the field, soil loss rates due to interrill and rill erosion were reduced by a mean of 21% of the value of bare soil by biological geotextiles. This study demonstrates that data from controlled interrill experiments in the laboratory correspond well to those obtained from field plots. Hence, interrill experiments in the laboratory allow one to predict the hydrological and erosion response of geotextiles on larger field plots. According to the field data, Rice straw geotextiles are the most effective geotextiles in reducing relative runoff and soil loss rates. No impact of plot length on the runoff and soil loss reduction by biological geotextiles was observed.

Smets, T.

2009-04-01

320

Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) containing the herbicide atrazine were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in terms of their herbicidal activity and genotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of three months, considering the variables: size, polydispersion index, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. Tests on plants were performed with target (Brassica sp.) and non-target (Zea mays) organisms, and the nanoparticle formulations were shown to be effective for the control of the target species. Experiments using soil columns revealed that the use of nanoparticles reduced the mobility of atrazine in the soil. Application of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay demonstrated that the nanoparticle systems were able to reduce the genotoxicity of the herbicide. The formulations developed offer a useful means of controlling agricultural weeds, while at the same time reducing the risk of harm to the environment and human health. PMID:24508945

Pereira, Anderson E S; Grillo, Renato; Mello, Nathalie F S; Rosa, Andre H; Fraceto, Leonardo F

2014-03-15

321

Assisting children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder actively reduces limb hyperactive behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through controlling environmental stimulation.  

PubMed

The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the correction of limb hyperactive behavior to assess whether two children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) would be able to actively reduce their limb hyperactive behavior through controlling their favorite stimuli by turning them on/off using a Wii Remote Controller. An ABAB design, in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases, was adopted in this study. Result showed that both participants significantly increased their time duration of maintaining a static limb posture (TDMSLP) to activate the control system in order to produce environmental stimulation in the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21444191

Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Yeh, Jui-Chi; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chang, Man-Ling

2011-01-01

322

The use of third-party review to reduce health and environmental hazards from surfactants and cleaning products in the janitorial industry.  

PubMed

The demand for environmentally preferable products is increasing in the area of Institutional and Industrial (I&I) cleaners. The GreenBlue Institute (GreenBlue) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Design for Environment (DfE) launched two programs to review surfactant ingredients and final cleaning products, with the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) conducting third-party reviews. The Local Hazardous Waste Management Program (LHWMP) in King County, Washington, has a strategic goal to reduce the risk of exposure of hazardous chemicals to vulnerable populations such as janitorial workers. This report summarizes the NSF partnership with GreenBlue, CleanGredients, and U.S. EPA's DfE to perform third-party reviews of cleaning product ingredients and its relevance to LHWMP's interest in reducing risks to workers in the janitorial industry. Due to information barriers, workers in the janitorial industry are at risk daily to these hazardous chemicals. The surfactant and formulator review program will make positive contributions towards the reduction of toxic chemical exposure to the employees of the janitorial industry. With proper communication and an increased use of less toxic cleaners, exposures to vulnerable populations can be reduced. PMID:19452830

Okumura, Kazuhiro

2009-05-01

323

Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions.  

PubMed

A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repair is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase ?, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL. PMID:24631220

Cunniffe, Siobhan; O'Neill, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M; Lomax, Martine E

2014-04-01

324

Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David

2014-05-01

325

Pro-environmental beach driving is uncommon and ineffective in reducing disturbance to beach-dwelling birds.  

PubMed

Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended (P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches. PMID:24599507

Weston, Michael A; Schlacher, Thomas A; Lynn, David

2014-05-01

326

dl-3-n-Butylphthalide prevents oxidative damage and reduces mitochondrial dysfunction in an MPP +-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to explore the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action of dl-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP+)-induced cellular model of Parkinson's disease (PD). NBP was extracted from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn. (Chinese celery). MPP+ treatment of PC12 cells caused reduced viability, formation of reactive oxygen, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results

Jin-zhong Huang; Ying-zhu Chen; Min Su; Hui-fen Zheng; Ya-ping Yang; Jing Chen; Chun-Feng Liu

2010-01-01

327

Tornado Damage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about tornadoes, the damage they cause, and how to rate tornadoes. Specifically, students investigate the Enhanced Fujita Damage Scale of tornado intensity, and use it to complete a mock engineering analysis of damage caused by a tornado. Additional consideration is given to tornado warning systems and how these systems can be improved to be safer. Lastly, students learn basic tornado safety procedures.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

328

Copper/zinc chelation by clioquinol reduces spinal cord white matter damage and behavioral deficits in a murine MOG-induced multiple sclerosis model.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of clioquinol (CQ), a metal chelator, on multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55)) in female mice. Three weeks after the initial immunization, demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord were analyzed. CQ (30mg/kg) was given by gavage once per day for the entire experimental course. CQ profoundly reduced the daily clinical score and incidence rate of EAE mice. The CQ-mediated inhibition of the clinical course of EAE was accompanied by suppression of demyelination and reduced infiltration by encephalitogenic immune cells including CD4, CD8, CD20 and F4/80 positive cells. CQ also remarkably inhibited EAE-associated BBB disruption and MMP-9 activation. Autophagy contributes to clearance of aggregated proteins in astrocytes and neurons. The present study found that EAE increased the induction of autophagy and CQ further increased this expression. Furthermore, the present study found that post-treatment with CQ also reduced the clinical score of EAE and spinal cord demyelination. These results demonstrate that CQ inhibits the clinical features and neuropathological changes associated with EAE. The present study suggests that transition metals may be involved in several steps of multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. PMID:23360710

Choi, Bo Young; Jang, Bong Geom; Kim, Jin Hee; Seo, Jae-Nam; Wu, Guang; Sohn, Min; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Suh, Sang Won

2013-06-01

329

Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves reduced DNA-PK/ATM activation and diminished cell cycle arrest  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells, are partly responsible for resistance to DNA-damaging treatment. Here we addressed if such a phenotype may contribute to radio- and cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23) possess sphere-forming capacity when cultured in stem cell media and three of these display elevated levels of CD133. Indeed, sphere-forming NSCLC cells, hereafter called TICs, showed a reduced apoptotic response and increased survival after irradiation (IR), as compared with the corresponding bulk cell population. Decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic signaling manifested by diminished poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase 3 activity was also evident in TICs after cisplatin treatment. Neither radiation nor cisplatin resistance was due to quiescence as H125 TICs proliferated at a rate comparable to bulk cells. However, TICs displayed less pronounced G2 cell cycle arrest and S/G2-phase block after IR and cisplatin, respectively. Additionally, we confirmed a cisplatin-refractory phenotype of H125 TICs in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. We further examined TICs for altered expression or activation of DNA damage repair proteins as a way to explain their increased radio- and/or chemotherapy resistance. Indeed, we found that TICs exhibited increased basal ?H2AX (H2A histone family, member X) expression and diminished DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), Krüppel-associated protein 1 (KAP1) and monoubiquitination of Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2 (FANCD2). As a proof of principle, ATM inhibition in bulk cells increased their cisplatin resistance, as demonstrated by reduced PARP cleavage. In conclusion, we show that reduced apoptotic response, altered DNA repair signaling and cell cycle perturbations in NSCLC TICs are possible factors contributing to their therapy resistance, which may be exploited for DNA damage-sensitizing purposes.

Lundholm, L; Haag, P; Zong, D; Juntti, T; Mork, B; Lewensohn, R; Viktorsson, K

2013-01-01

330

Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy.

Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jqin710@vip.sina.com; Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com

2013-09-06

331

Changing sources and environmental factors reduce the rates of decline of organochlorine pesticides in the Arctic Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive database of organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations measured at the Norwegian Arctic Monitoring Station was analysed to assess longer-term trends in the Arctic atmosphere. Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) is employed to investigate the seasonal and cyclical behaviour of chlordanes, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and to isolate underlying inter-annual trends. Although a simple comparison of annual mean concentrations (1994-2005) suggest a decline for all of the OCs investigated, the longer-term trends identified by DHR only show a significant decline for p,p'-DDT. Indeed, HCB shows an increase from 2003-2005. This is thought to be due to changes in source types and the presence of impurities in current use pesticides, together with retreating sea ice affecting air-water exchange. Changes in source types were revealed by using isomeric ratios for the chlordanes and DDTs. Declining trends in ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) indicate a shift from primary sources, to more ''weathered'' secondary sources, whereas an increasing trend in o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate a shift from use of technical DDT to dicofol. Continued monitoring of these OC pesticides is required to fully understand the influence of a changing climate on the behaviour and environmental cycling of these chemicals in the Arctic as well as possible impacts from ''new'' sources.

Becker, S.; Halsall, C. J.; Tych, W.; Kallenborn, R.; Schlabach, M.; Manø, S.

2009-01-01

332

Changing sources and environmental factors reduce the rates of decline of organochlorine pesticides in the Arctic atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive database of organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations measured at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, was analysed to assess longer-term trends in the Arctic atmosphere. Dynamic Harmonic Regression (DHR) is employed to investigate the seasonal and cyclical behaviour of chlordanes, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and to isolate underlying inter-annual trends. Although a simple comparison of annual mean concentrations (1994-2005) suggest a decline for all of the OCs investigated, the longer-term trends identified by DHR only show a significant decline for p,p'-DDT. Indeed, HCB shows an increase from 2003-2005. This is thought to be due to changes in source types and the presence of impurities in current use pesticides, together with retreating sea ice affecting air-water exchange. Changes in source types were revealed by using isomeric ratios for the chlordanes and DDTs. Declining trends in ratios of trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) indicate a shift from primary sources, to more "weathered" secondary sources, whereas an increasing trend in o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate a shift from use of technical DDT to dicofol. Continued monitoring of these OC pesticides is required to fully understand the influence of a changing climate on the behaviour and environmental cycling of these chemicals in the Arctic as well as possible impacts from "new" sources.

Becker, S.; Halsall, C. J.; Tych, W.; Kallenborn, R.; Schlabach, M.; Manø, S.

2012-05-01

333

Experimental heart muscle damage in alcohol feeding is associated with increased amounts of reduced- and unreduced-acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde protein adducts.  

PubMed

Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption induces defined myocardial lesions characterized by impaired structural, mechanical and biochemical features. The pathogenic mechanisms are unknown, although it is possible that protein adduct formation by reactive metabolites of ethanol may be a contributory process. Hitherto, this has only been tested with respect to antibodies against reduced-acetaldehyde protein adducts in clinical studies, despite the fact that during alcohol toxicity the formation of reduced-acetaldehyde, unreduced-acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde, malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde and hydroxyethyl protein adducts have been reported in non-cardiac tissues. It was our hypothesis that the heart is particularly sensitive to the formation of protein adducts in alcohol toxicity.To test this hypothesis, we analysed hearts from rats fed nutritionally complete liquid diets containing ethanol as 35% of total calories for 6 weeks, using the Lieber-DeCarli pair-feeding protocol. Control rats were treated identically and fed the same diet in which ethanol was replaced by isocaloric glucose. At the end of the feeding period, the hearts were dissected and ventricular muscle analysed. After 6 weeks' ethanol feeding, ELISA analysis showed increased amounts of reduced-acetaldehyde protein adducts (p < 0.01) unreduced-acetaldehyde (p < 0.01) and malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (p= 0.01) protein adducts. However, malondialdehyde and alpha-hydroxyethyl-protein adducts were not significantly increased in hearts of ethanol-fed rats compared to pair-fed control (p > 0.1 in both instances). This is the first report of acetaldehyde adduct formation in alcoholic cardiomyopathy. This suggests that either immune process may develop or functional impairment of affected proteins may occur. PMID:20575860

Worrall, S; Richardson, P J; Preedy, V R

2000-10-01

334

Single administration of tripeptide ?-MSH(11-13) attenuates brain damage by reduced inflammation and apoptosis after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice.  

PubMed

Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neuroinflammatory processes promote neuronal cell loss. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is a neuropeptide with immunomodulatory properties, which may offer neuroprotection. Due to short half-life and pigmentary side-effects of ?-MSH, the C-terminal tripeptide ?-MSH(11-13) may be an anti-inflammatory alternative. The present study investigated the mRNA concentrations of the precursor hormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and of melanocortin receptors 1 and 4 (MC1R/MC4R) in naive mice and 15 min, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Regulation of POMC and MC4R expression did not change after trauma, while MC1R levels increased over time with a 3-fold maximum at 12 h compared to naive brain tissue. The effect of ?-MSH(11-13) on secondary lesion volume determined in cresyl violet stained sections (intraperitoneal injection 30 min after insult of 1 mg/kg ?-MSH(11-13) or 0.9% NaCl) showed a considerable smaller trauma in ?-MSH(11-13) injected mice. The expression of the inflammatory markers TNF-? and IL-1? as well as the total amount of Iba-1 positive cells were not reduced. However, cell branch counting of Iba-1 positive cells revealed a reduced activation of microglia. Furthermore, tripeptide injection reduced neuronal apoptosis analyzed by cleaved caspase-3 and NeuN staining. Based on the results single ?-MSH(11-13) administration offers a promising neuroprotective property by modulation of inflammation and prevention of apoptosis after traumatic brain injury. PMID:23940690

Schaible, Eva-Verena; Steinsträßer, Arne; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje; Luh, Clara; Sebastiani, Anne; Kornes, Frida; Pieter, Dana; Schäfer, Michael K; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

2013-01-01

335

Structural damage detection based on stochastic subspace identification and statistical pattern recognition: I. Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key issues in vibration-based structural health monitoring is to extract the damage-sensitive but environment-insensitive features from sampled dynamic response measurements and to carry out the statistical analysis of these features for structural damage detection. A new damage feature is proposed in this paper by using the system matrices of the forward innovation model based on the covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification of a vibrating system. To overcome the variations of the system matrices, a non-singularity transposition matrix is introduced so that the system matrices are normalized to their standard forms. For reducing the effects of modeling errors, noise and environmental variations on measured structural responses, a statistical pattern recognition paradigm is incorporated into the proposed method. The Mahalanobis and Euclidean distance decision functions of the damage feature vector are adopted by defining a statistics-based damage index. The proposed structural damage detection method is verified against one numerical signal and two numerical beams. It is demonstrated that the proposed statistics-based damage index is sensitive to damage and shows some robustness to the noise and false estimation of the system ranks. The method is capable of locating damage of the beam structures under different types of excitations. The robustness of the proposed damage detection method to the variations in environmental temperature is further validated in a companion paper by a reinforced concrete beam tested in the laboratory and a full-scale arch bridge tested in the field.

Ren, W. X.; Lin, Y. Q.; Fang, S. E.

2011-11-01

336

Stability of U(VI) and Tc(VII) Reducing Microbial Communities to Environmental Perturbation: Development and Testing of a Thermodynamic Network Model  

SciTech Connect

Previously published research from in situ field experiments at the NABIR Field Research Center have shown that cooperative metabolism of denitrifiers and Fe(III)/sulfate reducers is essential for creating subsurface conditions favorable for U(VI) and Tc(VII) bioreduction (Istok et al., 2004). The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on the composition and functional stability of subsurface microbial communities. The overall scientific hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding reactions performed by broadly defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change. An interactive computer program was developed to calculate the overall growth equation and free energy yield for microorganisms that grow by coupling selected combinations of electron acceptor and electron donor half-reactions. Each group performs a specific function (e.g. oxidation of acetate coupled to reduction of nitrate); collectively the groups provide a theoretical description of the entire natural microbial community. The microbial growth data are combined with an existing thermodynamic data base for associated geochemical reactions and used to simulate the coupled microbial-geochemical response of a complex natural system to substrate addition or any other environmental perturbations.

McKinley, James P.; Istok, Jonathan

2005-06-01

337

Non-Linear Analysis Indicates Chaotic Dynamics and Reduced Resilience in Model-Based Daphnia Populations Exposed to Environmental Stress  

PubMed Central

In this study we present evidence that anthropogenic stressors can reduce the resilience of age-structured populations. Enhancement of disturbance in a model-based Daphnia population lead to a repression of chaotic population dynamics at the same time increasing the degree of synchrony between the population's age classes. Based on the theory of chaos-mediated survival an increased risk of extinction was revealed for this population exposed to high concentrations of a chemical stressor. The Lyapunov coefficient was supposed to be a useful indicator to detect disturbance thresholds leading to alterations in population dynamics. One possible explanation could be a discrete change in attractor orientation due to external disturbance. The statistical analysis of Lyapunov coefficient distribution is proposed as a methodology to test for significant non-linear effects of general disturbance on populations. Although many new questions arose, this study forms a theoretical basis for a dynamical definition of population recovery.

Ottermanns, Richard; Szonn, Kerstin; Preu?, Thomas G.; Ro?-Nickoll, Martina

2014-01-01

338

Adverse effects of reduced oxygen tension on the proliferative capacity of rat kidney and insulin-secreting cell lines involve DNA damage and stress responses  

SciTech Connect

Standard cell culture conditions do not reflect the physiological environment in terms of oxygen tension (20% vs 3%). The effects of lowering oxygen tension on cell proliferation in culture can be beneficial as well as detrimental depending on the cell line studied, but the molecular mechanism underlying such effects is not fully understood. We observed that the proliferative capacity of the rat cell lines NRK and INS-1 was inhibited when cultured under 3% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen. Suppression of proliferation in NRK cells was accompanied by induction of DNA double strand breaks whereas in INS-1 cells it was accompanied by up-regulation of p53 and p27. Although Sirt1 was up-regulated in both cell lines by 3% oxygen the effects on antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, CuZnSOD and catalase) were cell line specific. Marked up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected in both NRK and INS-1 cells when cultured in 3% oxygen. HO-1 expression can be readily induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide in culture. These results suggest that reduced oxygen tension suppresses the proliferative capacity of these two cell lines through a stress response that is similar to an oxidative stress response but the molecular events that lead to the reduced cell proliferation are cell line specific.

Chen Jianhua [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jhc36@cam.ac.uk; Jones, R. Huw; Tarry-Adkins, Jane; Smith, Noel H.; Ozanne, Susan E. [Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

2008-10-01

339

Slam Haplotype 2 Promotes NKT But Suppresses V?4+ T-Cell Activation in Coxsackievirus B3 Infection Leading to Increased Liver Damage But Reduced Myocarditis  

PubMed Central

There are two major haplotypes of signal lymphocytic activation molecule (Slam) in inbred mouse strains, with the Slam haplotype 1 expressed in C57Bl/6 mice and the Slam haplotype 2 expressed in most other commonly used inbred strains, including 129 mice. Because signaling through Slam family receptors can affect innate immunity [natural killer T cell (NKT) and ?-? T-cell receptor], and innate immunity can determine susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, the present study evaluated the response of C57Bl/6 and congenic B6.129c1 mice (expressing the 129-derived Slam locus) to CVB3. CVB3-infected C57Bl/6 male mice developed increased myocarditis but reduced hepatic injury compared with infected B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice also had increased ??+ and CD8+interferon-?+ cells but decreased numbers of NKT (T-cell receptor ? chain + mCD1d tetramer+) and CD4+FoxP3+ cells compared with B6.129c1 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with CVB3 and treated with either ?-galactosylceramide, an NKT cell-specific ligand, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/PBS). Mice treated with ?-galactosylceramide showed significantly reduced myocarditis. Liver injuries, as determined by alanine aminotransferase levels in plasma, were increased significantly, confirming that NKT cells are protective for myocarditis but pathogenic in the liver.

Huber, Sally Ann; Roberts, Brian; Moussawi, Mohamad; Boyson, Jonathan E.

2014-01-01

340

Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells leads to reduced inflammation and cartilage damage in murine antigen-induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating and painful disease leading to increased morbidity and mortality and novel therapeutic approaches are needed. The purpose of this study was to elucidate if mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) injected in the joints of mice with arthritis are therapeutic, reducing joint swelling and cartilage destruction. Methods Murine mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of C57Bl/6 mice and expanded in culture. Cells were tested for immunophenotype and their ability to form colonies and to differentiate into chondrocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced by intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin into the knee joints of preimmunized C57Bl/6 mice. After one day, when peak swelling occurs, 500,000 mMSCs labelled with red fluorescent cell tracker CM-DiI were injected intra-articularly in the right knee joint. Left knee joints were treated as controls by receiving PBS injections. Differences between groups were calculated by Mann Whitney U test or unpaired t tests using GraphPad Prism software version 5. Results Knee joint diameter (swelling) was measured as a clinical indication of joint inflammation and this parameter was significantly less in MSC-treated mice compared to control-treated animals 48 hours after arthritis induction. This difference continued for ~7 days. CM-DiI-labelled MSCs were clearly visualised in the lining and sublining layers of synovium, in the region of the patella and femoral and tibial surfaces. By day 3, parameters indicative of disease severity, including cartilage depletion, inflammatory exudate and arthritic index were shown to be significantly reduced in MSC-treated animals. This difference continued for 7 days and was further confirmed by histological analysis. The serum concentration of tumour necrosis factor ? was significantly decreased following MSC administration. Conclusions Our results reveal that MSCs injected in the joints of mice with AIA are therapeutic, reducing inflammation, joint swelling and cartilage destruction. These cells also integrate into the synovium in AIA.

2014-01-01

341

Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of

Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen

2002-01-01

342

Efficacy and safety of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy for reducing the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy (the Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Damage control laparotomy, or abbreviated initial laparotomy followed by temporary abdominal closure (TAC), intensive care unit resuscitation, and planned re-laparotomy, is frequently used to manage intra-abdominal bleeding and contamination among critically ill or injured adults. Animal data suggest that TAC techniques that employ negative pressure to the peritoneal cavity may reduce the systemic inflammatory response and associated organ injury. The primary objective of this study is to determine if use of a TAC dressing that affords active negative pressure peritoneal therapy, the ABThera Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, reduces the extent of the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis or injury as compared to a commonly used TAC method that provides potentially less efficient peritoneal negative pressure, the Barker’s vacuum pack. Methods/Design The Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial will be a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Adults will be intraoperatively allocated to TAC with either the ABThera or Barker’s vacuum pack after the decision has been made by the attending surgeon to perform a damage control laparotomy. The study will use variable block size randomization. On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood will be collected. Whenever possible, peritoneal fluid will also be collected at these time points from the patient’s abdomen or TAC device. Luminex technology will be used to quantify the concentrations of 65 mediators relevant to the inflammatory response in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The primary endpoint is the difference in the plasma concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at 24 and 48 h after TAC dressing application. Secondary endpoints include the differential effects of these dressings on the systemic concentration of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, collective peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediator profiles, postoperative fluid balance, intra-abdominal pressure, and several patient-important outcomes, including organ dysfunction measures and mortality. Discussion Results from this study will improve understanding of the effect of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy after damage control laparotomy on the inflammatory response. It will also gather necessary pilot information needed to inform design of a multicenter trial comparing clinical outcomes among patients randomized to TAC with the ABThera versus Barker’s vacuum pack. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier http://www.clicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01355094

2013-01-01

343

Angiopoietin-1 treated early endothelial outgrowth cells (eEOCs) are activated in vitro and reduce renal damage in murine acute ischemic kidney injury (iAKI)  

PubMed Central

Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) severely worsens prognosis of hospitalized patients. Early Endothelial Outgrowth Cells act protective in murine acute ischemic renal failure and renoprotective actions of eEOCs have been documented to increase after cell pretreatment with 8-O-cAMP and Melatonin. Angiopoietin-1 is critically involved in maintaining vascular integrity and regeneration. Aim of the study was to analyze the consequences of eEOC treatment with Ang-1 in murine AKI. Methods After 40 minutes of unilateral renal artery clamping with contralateral nephrectomy, male C57/Bl6N mice were injected with either untreated or pretreated (Ang-1) syngeneic murine eEOCs. Two days later serum creatinine levels and morphology were evaluated. Cultured, Ang-1 treated murine eEOCs were analyzed for production/release of proangiogenic and proinflammatory mediators, migratory activity, and cell survival, respectively. Results Angiopoietin-1 pretreatment of eEOCs significantly reduced serum creatinine in cell-injected mice. In vitro analysis showed increased migration of Ang-1 treated eEOCs and supernatant from Ang-1 treated eEOCs stimulated migration of cultured mature endothelial cells. In addition, Ang-1 reduced percentages of Annexin V+/PI+ eEOCs. Intrarenal numbers of eEOCs remained unaffected by Ang-1 and eEOCs did not produce more or less proangiogenic/proinflammatory mediators after being stimulated with Ang-1. Conclusions Angiopoietin-1 pretreatment of eEOCs increases the cells’ renoprotective competence in ischemic AKI. Thus, the armentarium of eEOC agonists in AKI is increasingly being expanded and the treatment of AKI with eEOCs becomes a promising future option.

2013-01-01

344

Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

2012-04-01

345

An environmentally friendly method for the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide foam with a super oil absorption capacity.  

PubMed

Three kinds of graphene oxide (GO) foams were fabricated using different freezing methods (unidirectional freezing drying (UDF), non-directional freezing drying, and air freezing drying), and the corresponding reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared by their thermal reduction of those GO foams. These RGO foams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The absorption process and the factors that influence the absorption capacity were investigated. The RGO foams are hydrophobic and showed extremely high absorbing abilities for organic liquids. The absorption capacity of the RGO foams made by UDF was higher than 100 g g(-1) for all the oils tested (gasoline, diesel oil, pump oil, lubricating oil and olive oil) and had the highest value of about 122 g g(-1) for olive oil. The oil absorption capacity of the GO foams was lower than that of the RGO foams, but for olive oil, the absorption capacity was still high than 70 g g(-1), which is higher than that of most oil absorbents. PMID:23856309

He, Yongqiang; Liu, Yue; Wu, Tao; Ma, Junkui; Wang, Xingrui; Gong, Qiaojuan; Kong, Weina; Xing, Fubao; Liu, Yu; Gao, Jianping

2013-09-15

346

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 49, Number RR-12, November 10, 2000. Strategies for Reducing Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Increasing Tobacco-Use Cessation, and Reducing Initiation in Communities and Health-Care Systems. A Report on Recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reducing tobacco-related morbidity and death is an ongoing challenge for health-care providers, health-care systems, and public health programs. Interventions are available that (1) reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, (2) reduce tobacco-use in...

2000-01-01

347

Deficiency of complement receptors CR2/CR1 in Cr2-/- mice reduces the extent of secondary brain damage after closed head injury  

PubMed Central

Complement activation at the C3 convertase level has been associated with acute neuroinflammation and secondary brain injury after severe head trauma. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that Cr2 -/- mice, which lack the receptors CR2/CD21 and CR1/CD35 for complement C3-derived activation fragments, are protected from adverse sequelae of experimental closed head injury. Adult wild-type mice and Cr2 -/- mice on a C57BL/6 genetic background were subjected to focal closed head injury using a standardized weight-drop device. Head-injured Cr2 -/- mice showed significantly improved neurological outcomes for up to 72 hours after trauma and a significantly decreased post-injury mortality when compared to wild-type mice. In addition, the Cr2 -/- genotype was associated with a decreased extent of neuronal cell death at seven days post-injury. Western blot analysis revealed that complement C3 levels were reduced in the injured brain hemispheres of Cr2 -/- mice, whereas plasma C3 levels remained unchanged, compared to wild-type mice. Finally, head-injured Cr2 -/- had an attenuated extent of post-injury C3 tissue deposition, decreased astrocytosis and microglial activation, and attenuated immunoglobulin M deposition in injured brains compared to wild-type mice. Targeting of these receptors for complement C3 fragments (CR2/CR1) may represent a promising future approach for therapeutic immunomodulation after traumatic brain injury.

2014-01-01

348

Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione.  

PubMed

Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway. PMID:19202298

Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

2009-02-01

349

Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

2014-03-01

350

The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be significant contributors to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of air pollution present in the urban environment for humans. Populations exposed to environmental air pollution show increased levels of PAH DNA adducts and it has been postulated that another contributing cause of carcinogenicity by environmental air pollution may be the production of reactive oxygen species

Rajinder Singh; Radim J. Sram; Blanka Binkova; Ivan Kalina; Todor A. Popov; Tzveta Georgieva; Seymour Garte; Emanuela Taioli; Peter B. Farmer

2007-01-01

351

A School-Based Environmental Intervention to Reduce Smoking among High School Students: The Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT)  

PubMed Central

A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control) in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline = 25%) was followed over four years for 30-day smoking prevalence with the school as the unit of analysis. Although prevalence decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools in Year 2 the significant difference between the two groups at baseline was not overcome by the intervention and increases in prevalence were observed in both groups in Years 3 and 4. The higher the percentage of white students in a school the higher the prevalence rates regardless of intervention/control status. Boys’ and girls’ smoking rates were similar. These outcome data, student feedback and process evaluation provide a basis for continuing to create more innovative adolescent tobacco control programs.

Johnson, Carolyn C.; Myers, Leann; Webber, Larry S.; Boris, Neil W.; He, Hao; Brewer, Dixye

2009-01-01

352

Reducing our environmental footprint and improving our health: greenhouse gas emission and land use of usual diet and mortality in EPIC-NL: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Food choices influence health status, but also have a great impact on the environment. The production of animal-derived foods has a high environmental burden, whereas the burden of refined carbohydrates, vegetables and fruit is low. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) and land use of usual diet with mortality risk, and to estimate the effect of a modelled meat substitution scenario on health and the environment. Methods The usual diet of 40011 subjects in the EPIC-NL cohort was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. GHGE and land use of food products were based on life cycle analysis. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to determine relative mortality risk. In the modelled meat-substitution scenario, one-third (35 gram) of the usual daily meat intake (105 gram) was substituted by other foods. Results During a follow-up of 15.9 years, 2563 deaths were registered. GHGE and land use of the usual diet were not associated with all-cause or with cause-specific mortality. Highest vs. lowest quartile of GHGE and land use adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were respectively 1.00 (95% CI: 0.86-1.17) and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.89-1.23). Modelled substitution of 35 g/d of meat with vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, pasta-rice-couscous, or fish significantly increased survival rates (6-19%), reduced GHGE (4-11%), and land use (10-12%). Conclusions There were no significant associations observed between dietary-derived GHGE and land use and mortality in this Dutch cohort. However, the scenario-study showed that substitution of meat with other major food groups was associated with a lower mortality risk and a reduced environmental burden. Especially when vegetables, fruit-nuts-seeds, fish, or pasta-rice-couscous replaced meat.

2014-01-01

353

Production and Excretion of Nod Metabolites by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii Are Disrupted by the Same Environmental Factors That Reduce Nodulation in the Field  

PubMed Central

Lipooligosaccharides (Nod metabolites) have been shown to be essential for the successful nodulation of legumes. In strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, Nod metabolites were detected predominantly within the cell and to a lesser extent in the periplasmic space and the growth medium. The production, and in particular the excretion, of Nod metabolites was restricted by a range of environmental conditions which are associated with poor nodulation in the field. Lowering the medium pH from 7.0 to 5.0, reducing the phosphate concentration from 1 mM to 5 ?M KH2PO4, and lowering the incubation temperature from 28 to 18°C affected the number and relative concentrations of the Nod metabolites made. The form and concentration of the nitrogen source affected the relative concentrations of the Nod metabolites produced and excreted. KNO3 concentrations of >10 mM did not affect cell growth rate but substantially reduced the number of Nod metabolites released. Environmental stresses differentially altered Nod metabolite production and excretion in the same strain carrying different introduced nod regions. Strain ANU845(pWLH1) produced and excreted comparatively fewer Nod metabolites at pH 5.0 and at 18°C than strain ANU845(pRI4003). The excretion but not the production of Nod metabolites by strain ANU845(pRtO32) was dependent on the presence of both nodI and nodJ. Tn5-induced nodI and nodJ mutants did not accumulate any metabolites either outside the cell or within the outer membrane or periplasmic space. Recognition that Nod metabolite accumulation is a complex system of production and excretion, with each component responding differently to changes in environmental conditions, has many consequences, both at the molecular level and in the field. The ability of different strains to produce and release Nod metabolites is likely to be a major determinant of nodule occupancy and should be considered when screening strains suitable for adverse environments. Images

McKay, Ian A.; Djordjevic, Michael A.

1993-01-01

354

The impact and process of a community-led intervention on reducing environmental inequalities related to physical activity and healthy eating - a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing recognition that a sedentary lifestyle is being driven, at least in part, by environmental factors that affect individuals' physical activity choices and health behaviours. In other words, the environments in which we live, and with which we interact, have become ones that encourage lifestyle choices that decrease physical activity and encourage over-consumption of foods. However, evidence from community-led interventions to change local neighbourhood environments to support physical activity and healthy eating is lacking. This article summarises the research protocol developed to evaluate a community-led intervention "My Health Matters" aimed at reducing health inequalities relating to increasing physical activity and healthy eating as defined by community members themselves. Methods/Design This study includes three of the most deprived electoral wards in Stoke-on-Trent. In each of these areas, environmental factors including proximity of physical activity spaces, greenspace and leisure facilities, neighbourhood connectivity and walkability, land-use-mix and population density, traffic, safety and crime, and food outlets will be mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). A community postal survey of randomly selected addresses assessing environmental characteristics relating to physical activity, perceived health status, social capital, fruit and vegetable consumption and levels of physical activity will be undertaken (baseline and at 2 year follow-up). Based on baseline findings an intervention will be designed and implemented over a 2 year period that includes the following; use of community participatory research to build effective community partnerships; use of partnership consensus to identify, prioritise and design intervention(s) related to specific health disparities; recruitment of local residents to help with the delivery and sustainability of target intervention(s); and the development of local systems for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the intervention(s). Discussion A community-led and multidisciplinary approach to modifying environmental factors that support and reinforce healthful behaviours may be more successful than focusing on individual behaviour change as this approach does not exclusively rely upon individual will and capacity. Study findings will be collated in 2012 and, if successful in improving levels of physical activity and healthy eating, will help to inform the design of a larger area-based, cluster randomized controlled trial to determine effectiveness.

2011-01-01

355

Environmentally Sustainable Technology Transfer of Coal-Fired Energy Techniques: Canada and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems, and our efforts to cope with them, are increasingly viewed in an international context. There is now a corresponding need for more international trade in technologies that will result in cleaner, more efficient energy systems and reduced environmental damage. This need presents an opportunity for Canada. However, to respond to it effectively, we must quickly develop a better

Keith A. J. Hay; Colin A Saravanamuttoo; David R Avon

1991-01-01

356

Escherichia coli Nissle 1917-derived factors reduce cell death and late apoptosis and increase transepithelial electrical resistance in a model of 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage.  

PubMed

We evaluated the capacity for supernatants (SNs) derived from Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN), cultured under different growth conditions, to prevent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage. EcN was cultured in: Luria Bertani (LB) broth, tryptone soya broth (TSB), de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth, and M17 broth supplemented with 10% (v/v) lactose solution (M17). Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were treated with the following EcN SNs: LB(+), TSB(+), MRS(+), and M17(+) in the presence and absence of 5-FU (1.5 or 5 ?M). Cell viability, apoptotic activity and cell monolayer permeability were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), flow cytometry, and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) assays, respectively. 5-FU significantly reduced cell viability (P<0.05) at both 24 and 48 h. However, only EcN SN produced from LB and M17 growth media significantly decreased cell death induced by 5-FU (by approximately 10% after 24 and 48 h; and 10% after 24 h, respectively [P<0.05]). When measured by flow cytometry all EcN SNs in the presence of 5-FU increased the proportion of viable cells (by 3-5% for 24 h, 3-7% for 48 h, P<0.05) and reduced late-apoptotic cells after 24 and 48 h, compared with 5-FU control. Moreover, all EcN SNs significantly reduced the disruption of IEC-6 cell barrier function induced by 5-FU by 7-10% (P<0.05), compared with DMEM control. We conclude that EcN derived factors could potentially reduce the severity of intestinal mucositis. PMID:24556751

Wang, Hanru; Bastian, Susan Ep; Cheah, Ker Y; Lawrence, Andrew; Howarth, Gordon S

2014-05-01

357

REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS IN TANNERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanning, in particular chrome leather production, is still characterised by an inefficient use of raw material and the production of highly polluted wastewater and solid wastes. A part of the emissions can be prevented by introducing clean tanning technologies, the remaining emissions can be treated. Clean production technologies and waste (water) treatment technologies should have a designed complimentarity. Anaerobic wastewater

J. W. van Groenestijn; J. S. A. Langerwerf; M. Lucas

2002-01-01

358

Impact damage in composite laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-velocity impact-damage model for quasi-symmetric graphite-fiber composite plates is presented. The distribution of damage in each layer of the plate was calculated by employing Di Sciuva's composite laminate theory together with Hashin's failure criterion for fiber-reinforced composites. The dynamic deformation of the target plate was represented by the lower vibrational modes of the plate. The principle of virtual work was applied in the formulation of the problem. In the analysis, the material was regarded as 'damaged' when its designed strength was reduced by the failure of its constituents. The constituent failures consisted of matrix crackings, fiber breakages, and delamination between layers. According to damage modes, the moduli of material in the damaged zone were reduced according to the failure criteria. The interaction between layers and its role in damage propagation were also studied.

Wang, Chung-Yue; Yew, Ching H.

1990-01-01

359

Right Hemisphere Brain Damage  

MedlinePLUS

Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain damage ? What are some signs or symptoms of right hemisphere ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage is damage to ...

360

Antioxidants and Sperm DNA Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infertile men have higher levels of sperm DNA damage than do fertile men, and this damage may reduce male fertility potential\\u000a and may impact on reproductive capacity. This is particularly important in the context of assisted reproductive technologies,\\u000a as there is a mounting concern regarding the safety of utilizing DNA-damaged spermatozoa in this setting. A better understanding\\u000a of the etiology

Armand Zini; Maria San Gabriel

361

The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI) is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to M?ori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program). Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth) and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of our study will be important and significant for Indigenous tobacco control in Australia and New Zealand and prevention of respiratory illness in children. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12609000937213)

2010-01-01

362

Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems - Final Report , Project 99-0280  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of

Stephen M. Bruemmer; Edward P. Simonen; Jian Gan; Francis A. Garner; David S. Gelles; Danny J. Edwards; Peter L. Andresen; Lisa M. Young; L. Fournier; Bulent H. Sencer

2002-01-01

363

Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of ?shes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, ?sh were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, ?sh have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Signi?cant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was signi?cantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a signi?cant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a signi?cant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these ?sh exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

Brown, Kim H.; Schultz, Irv; Nagler, James J.

2007-11-01

364

Diagnostics for the detection and evaluation of laser induced damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Laser Damage and Conditioning Group at LLNL is evaluating diagnostics which will help make damage testing more efficient and reduce the risk of damage during laser conditioning. The work to date has focused on photoacoustic and scattered light measure...

L. Sheehan M. Kozlowski F. Rainer

1995-01-01

365

The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20): a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a chemically modified dextran - heparan sulfate mimicking regenerating agent (RGTA) on the healing of the rabbit cornea injured with alkali was examined. The eyes were injured with 0.15 N NaOH applied on the cornea or with 1.0 N NaOH using a 8 mm diameter filter paper disk. Then RGTA or placebo was applied on the cornea. In the last group of rabbits, corneas injured with the high alkali concentration were left without any treatment for four weeks; subsequently, the corneas were treated with RGTA or placebo. The central corneal thickness was measured using a pachymeter. The corneas were examined morphologically, immunohistochemically and for real time-PCR. Compared to control (unaffected) corneas, following the application of low alkali concentration the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase 9, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase was increased in the injured corneal epithelium of placebo-treated eyes, whereas the expression of antioxidant enzymes was reduced. Nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde stainings appeared in the corneal epithelium. RGTA application suppressed the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and reduced the expression of the above-mentioned immunohistochemical markers. The corneal thickness increased after alkali injury, decreased during corneal healing after RGTA treatment faster than after placebo application. Following the injury with the high alkali concentration, corneal inflammation and neovascularization were highly pronounced in placebo-treated corneas, whereas in RGTA-treated corneas they were significantly supressed. When RGTA or placebo application was started later after alkali injury and corneas were ulcerated, subsequent RGTA treatment healed the majority of them. In conclusion, RGTA facilitates the healing of injured corneas via a reduction of proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage. PMID:24105332

Cejkova, Jitka; Olmiere, Celine; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Holan, Vladimir

2014-04-01

366

Mitochondrial DNA damage and its consequences for mitochondrial gene expression.  

PubMed

How mitochondria process DNA damage and whether a change in the steady-state level of mitochondrial DNA damage (mtDNA) contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction are questions that fuel burgeoning areas of research into aging and disease pathogenesis. Over the past decade, researchers have identified and measured various forms of endogenous and environmental mtDNA damage and have elucidated mtDNA repair pathways. Interestingly, mitochondria do not appear to contain the full range of DNA repair mechanisms that operate in the nucleus, although mtDNA contains types of damage that are targets of each nuclear DNA repair pathway. The reduced repair capacity may, in part, explain the high mutation frequency of the mitochondrial chromosome. Since mtDNA replication is dependent on transcription, mtDNA damage may alter mitochondrial gene expression at three levels: by causing DNA polymerase ? nucleotide incorporation errors leading to mutations, by interfering with the priming of mtDNA replication by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, or by inducing transcriptional mutagenesis or premature transcript termination. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA damage, its repair, and its effects on mtDNA integrity and gene expression. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Mitochondrial Gene Expression. PMID:22728831

Cline, Susan D

2012-01-01

367

Energy Taxation as a Policy Instrument to Reduce CO 2 Emissions: A Net Benefit Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the costs and benefits of energy taxation as a policy instrument to conserve energy and reduce CO2 emissions. The study combines economic cost estimates generated with a CGE model and monetary estimates of environmental damages in a comprehensive cost\\/benefit framework. We find that optimal CO2 emissions reductions range from 5 to 38%, depending on different assumptions about

Roy Boyd; Kerry Krutilla; W. Kip Viscusi

1995-01-01

368

Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

2012-02-02

369

Environmental enrichment modulates glucocorticoid receptor expression and reduces anxiety in Indian field male mouse Mus booduga through up-regulation of microRNA-124a.  

PubMed

Enriched environmental condition (EC) has been known to reduce anxiety. In this study, we examined whether an EC could enhance anxiolytic behavior in the Indian field mouse Mus booduga by down-regulating the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) through microRNA-124a. Wild individuals were captured at agricultural field, and then housed at standard conditions (SC) for 7days. After short-term at standard condition (STSC), on 8th day they were divided into three groups as those: (i) STSC mice tested on light/dark box on the same day and then euthanized to examine gene expression, (ii) maintained at long-term in standard condition (LTSC) and (iii) transferred to EC. After 30days, both the LTSC and EC groups were tested on the light/dark box and then euthanized to examine gene expression in amygdala region of brain. EC group preferred to stay at light chamber and exhibited less anxiety-like behavioral components when compared to STSC and LTSC groups. However, between the two groups the STSC mice showed lesser anxiety-like behavior than LTSC mice. The expression of Dicer, Ago-2 and microRNA-124a (miR-124a) was more significantly up regulated in EC mice than in STSC and LTSC mice. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that miR-124a binds with 3'UTR of GR, and subsequently we detected a more decreased level of GR in EC than in STSC, LTSC mice. The results suggest that one of the action of EC could be a GR fine tuning through miR-124a, but there is no demonstration that it could be the only involved molecular mechanism. PMID:24457250

Durairaj, Ragu Varman; Koilmani, Emmanuvel Rajan

2014-04-01

370

DNA damage and repair of human skin keratinocytes concurrently exposed to pyrene derivatives and UVA light  

PubMed Central

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of mutagenic environmental contaminants, insert toxicity through both metabolic activation and light irradiation. Pyrene, one of the most widely studied PAHs, along with its mono-substituted derivatives, 1-amino, 1-bromo, 1-hydroxy, and 1-nitropyrene, were chosen to study the effect of substituents on their phototoxicity, DNA damage and repair. Both alkaline Comet assay, which detects direct DNA damages, and Fpg endonuclease Comet assay, which detects oxidative DNA damages, were conducted at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h of incubation of the cells in minimal growth medium after concomitant exposure to pyrene derivatives and UVA light. All these compounds are photocytotoxic and the phototoxicity is both incubation time and PAH dose dependent; whereas, those without light are not toxic. The LC50 obtained are in the range of 3.5 – 9.3 µM. Cellular DNA damages, both direct and oxidative, are observed immediately after the cells are treated with UVA light and the pyrene derivatives at a concentration of 1.0 µM. The amount of DNA damages (both direct and oxidative) increase from 0 to 4 h of incubation. After 4 hours, subsequent damage induction declines, and this is perceived to be mainly through DNA repair. After longer incubation of 8 h, the damaged cellular DNA start to be repaired, resulting in greatly reduced amount of DNA damages, and the DNA damage reaches the minimum at 24 h of incubation. 1-Amopyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene cause more DNA oxidative damages immediately after the exposure (0 h of incubation), and these damages are repaired within the same timeframe as the other tested compounds. The oxidative DNA damages caused by 1-bromopyrene are repaired starting at 2 h of incubation, earlier than the damages caused by all the other compounds.

Fullove, Tracie Perkins; Yu, Hongtao

2014-01-01

371

Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) modelling demonstrates that ligament fatigue damage accumulates by different mechanisms than creep damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ligaments can be subjected to creep and fatigue damage when loaded to higher than normal stresses due to injury of a complementary joint restraint. Continuum damage mechanics (CDM) assumes that diffuse damage accumulates in a material, thereby reducing the effective cross-sectional area and leading to eventual rupture. The objective of this study was to apply CDM modelling to ligament creep

Timothy D. Schwab; Clifton R. Johnston; Thomas R. Oxland; Gail M. Thornton

2007-01-01

372

SEPARATION METHODS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES - SPECIAL ISSUE: MEMBRANES AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Much of the environmental damage in air, soil, sediment, surface and groundwater can be repaired, and much prevention of further damage achieved through the use of efficient separation technologies. Most environmental challenges arise because of dispersion of harmful pollutants ...

373

5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body ?- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

Grace, Marcy B.; Singh, Vijay K.; Rhee, Juong G.; Jackson, William E.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H.

2012-01-01

374

Recent Advances in Composite Damage Mechanics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art and recent developments in the field of composite material damage mechanics are reviewed, with emphasis on damage accumulation. The kinetics of damage accumulation are considered with emphasis on the general accumulation of discrete local damage events such as single or multiple fiber fractures or microcrack formation. The issues addressed include: how to define strength in the presence of widely distributed damage, and how to combine mechanical representations in order to predict the damage tolerance and life of engineering components. It is shown that a damage mechanics approach can be related to the thermodynamics of the damage accumulation processes in composite laminates subjected to mechanical loading and environmental conditions over long periods of time.

Reifsnider, Ken; Case, Scott; Iyengar, Nirmal

1996-01-01

375

Environmental Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environment Canada has developed a set of environmental indicators that are easily measurable and provide useful clues on the state of the environment. This Web site provides a listing of those indicators that Environment Canada monitors. For each indicator, there is a detailed description of the environmental indicator, how it relates to larger environmental problems, and what is being done to reduce the threat. A number of Web links are provided for further information on each indicator.

2007-12-12

376

ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOBIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental aquatic photobiology is most commonly known for its links to global climate change. Ozone depletion is, however, not the only factor that alters the effects of ultraviolet radiation on biological systems. Alterations in water clarity, by acidification, reduced disso...

377

Remote sensing of forest damage in the Czech Republic using hyperspectral methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current study assesses the potential of hyperspectral data for monitoring the initial stages of damage in Norway spruce forests characterized by subtle changes in foliar chlorophyll and chemistry. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution reflectance measurements were obtained for selected study sites in the Krusne hory, Czech Republic. High spectral resolution airborne canopy data and field foliar samples were acquired simultaneously in August 1998 for a total of 51 study sites within the Krusne hory. The sites were selected to represent a full range of damage conditions in even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands located between 820--920m elevation. Reflectance, foliar pigments, nitrogen and chemical constituents were determined for first-, second- and third-year needles. A strong correlation to damage was established for the foliar chemistry. A significant increase in polar compounds (such as tannins, sugars and starch) and a reduced needle lignification occurs with increasing damage. Foliar chemical constituents appear to be effective indicators of long-term environmental conditions. The strong relationship between damage level and polar compounds suggests high potential for use of these constituents as bio-indicators of stress. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution data separate the initial forest damage classes. Based on field reflectance measurements for third-year needles, derivative indices from the red edge region were most strongly correlated to damage level, followed by indices ratioing damage-sensitive and damage-insensitive bands and a parameter describing the fit of an Inverted Gaussian curve. Red/red edge spectral data from the Airborne Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) had the highest potential for separation of initial levels of damage, which corresponds with the region suggested as most sensitive to damage as seen in conducting the field reflectance measurements. Both optical and derivative indices incorporating reflectance from the red edge region present the most potential as indicators of initial damage in both leaf and canopy spectra.

Entcheva, Petya K.

378

Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and

Matthew D Mordasky

2011-01-01

379

Drug-induced corneal damage.  

PubMed

Corneal damage can have a variety of causes, including infections, chemical splashes, environmental factors (radiation, trauma, contact lenses, etc.), and systemic diseases (genetic, autoimmune, inflammatory, metabolic, etc.). A wide range of drugs can also damage the cornea. The severity of drug-induced corneal changes can range from simple asymptomatic deposits to irreversible, sight-threatening damage. Several factors can influence the onset of corneal lesions. Some factors, such as the dose, are treatment-related, while others such as contact lenses, are patient-related. A variety of mechanisms may be involved, including corneal dryness, changes in the corneal epithelium, impaired wound healing and deposits. Many drugs can damage the cornea through direct contact, after intraocular injection or instillation, including VEGF inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, local anaesthetics, glaucoma drugs, fluoroquinolones, and preservatives. Some systemically administered drugs can also damage the cornea, notably cancer drugs, amiodarone and isotretinoin. Vulnerable patients should be informed of this risk if they are prescribed a drug with the potential to damage the cornea so that they can identify problems in a timely manner. It may be necessary to discontinue the suspect drug when signs and symptoms of corneal damage occur. PMID:24860895

2014-04-01

380

Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

2011-01-01

381

Novel Concepts for Damage-Resistant Alloys in Next Generation Nuclear Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of a damage-resistant alloy based on Hf solute additions to a low-carbon 316SS is the highlight of the Phase II research. This damage resistance is supported by characterization of radiation-induced microstructures and microchemistries along with measurements of environmental cracking. The addition of Hf to a low-carbon 316SS reduced the detrimental impact of radiation by changing the distribution of Hf. Pt additions reduced the impact of radiation on grain boundary segregation but did not alter its effect on microstructural damage development or cracking. Because cracking susceptibility is associated with several material characteristics, separate effect experiments exploring strength effects using non-irradiated stainless steels were conducted. These crack growth tests suggest that irradiation strength by itself can promote environmental cracking. The second concept for developing damage resistant alloys is the use of metastable precipitates to stabilize the microstructure during irradiation. Three alloys have been tailored for evaluation of precipitate stability influences on damage evolution. The first alloy is a Ni-base alloy (alloy 718) that has been characterized at low neutron irradiation doses but has not been characterized at high irradiation doses. The other two alloys are Fe-base alloys (PH 17-7 and PH 17-4) that have similar precipitate structures as alloy 718 but is more practical in nuclear structures because of the lower Ni content and hence lesser transmutation to He.

Stephen M. Bruemmer; Peter L. Andersen; Gary Was

2002-12-27

382

Hypervelocity impact damage assessment for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To inhibit damage and limit the probability of penetration of the Space Station pressure wall by micrometeoroids and orbital debris, a shield placed away from the wall is used to form a double wall. To determine shield effectiveness and assess impact damage, existing test data were reviewed and additional testing was performed for Space Station double wall designs. Empirical spallation and penetration functions derived from the data show that shield thickness and impact angle affect the damage to the wall. Thick shields reduce wall damage for low angle impacts but increase damage for oblique impacts. Multilayer insulation between the shield and wall reduces impact damage to the wall. A relationship between impact velocity and spall damage to the wall is demonstrated. Preliminary test results on Li-Al shield material indicate possible improved effectiveness over Al shields.

Coronado, Alex R.; Gibbins, Martin N.; Stern, Paul H.

1988-01-01

383

Assisting Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Actively Reduces Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through Controlling Environmental Stimulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The latest studies have adopted software technology which turns the Wii Remote Controller into a high-performance limb action detector, we assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulus through limb action. This study extends the functionality of the Wii Remote Controller to the…

Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Yeh, Jui-Chi; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chang, Man-Ling

2011-01-01

384

Fluoroscopy Assisted Minimally Invasive Transplantation of Allogenic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Embedded in HyStem Reduces the Progression of Nucleus Pulposus Degeneration in the Damaged Interverbal Disc: A Preliminary Study in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to develop a technique for minimally invasive and accurate delivery of stem cells to augment nucleus pulposus (NP) in damaged intervertebral discs (IVD). IVD damage was created in noncontiguous discs at L4-L5 level; rabbits (N = 12) were randomly divided into three groups: group I treated with MSCs in HyStem hydrogel, group II treated with HyStem alone, and group III received no intervention. MSCs and hydrogel were administered to the damaged disc under guidance of fluoroscopy. Augmentation of NP was assessed through histological and MRI T2 mapping of the NP after eight weeks of transplantation. T2 weighted signal intensity was higher in group I than in groups II and III (P < 0.05). Disc height index showed maximum disc height in group I compared to groups II and III. Histological score of the degenerative index was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group I (8.6 ± 1.8) than that in groups II (11.6 ± 2.3) and III (18.0 ± 5.7). Immunohistochemistry staining for collagen type II and aggrecan staining were higher in group I as compared to other groups. Our results demonstrate that the minimally invasive administration of MSCs in hyaluronan hydrogel (HyStem) augments the repair of NP in damaged IVD.

Puvanan, Karunanithi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao; Shani, Samuel; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Amir Abbas, Azlina; Mohamed, Jamal Azmi; Kamarul, Tunku

2014-01-01

385