Science.gov

Sample records for reducing environmental damage

  1. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Lloyd, W. R.

    2002-06-01

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stages, aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point of penetration of the opposing surface. We also aim to quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will quantify the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to justify life extension through retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001.

  2. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Williamson, Richard L.; Lloyd, W. R.; Rashid, Mark M.

    2003-06-01

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point o f penetration of the opposing surface. Ultimately we aim to also quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will investigate the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to guide safe retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001.

  3. Reducing Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenbecler, Richard

    2006-06-05

    This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

  4. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  5. Employee environmental efforts reduce costs

    SciTech Connect

    Small, M. )

    1994-05-01

    At the same time Sony's San Diego manufacturing center underwent expansion and diversification in the late 1980s, management began pollution prevention and energy conservation programs. Through team programs, engineering strategies to reduce pollution resulted in significant cost savings and environmental benefits. By reducing waste between 1991 to 1993, the company also reduced manufacturing costs by $954,000 through recycling, hazardous waste source reduction and eliminating or reducing chemical usage. Pollution has been reduced, and resources and energy are being used more efficiently. Hazardous waste generation is down more than 56 percent.

  6. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  7. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  8. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  9. Environmental damage of a cast nickel base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodford, D. A.

    1981-02-01

    Exposure in air in the temperature range 900 to 1100 °C produces a major loss in stress rupture life and ductility of IN738. The sensitivity to this environmental damage increases with decreasing test temperature in the range 1000 to 700 °C. Oxygen is identified as the source of the damage for air exposure and indirect evidence supports grain boundary penetration of the gas to considerable depth. It is argued that oxygen segregation can lead to grain boundary immobilization and unstable intergranular fracture at intermediate temperatures. It is shown that compositional modifications, particularly boron and hafnium additions, may reduce the oxygen damage susceptibility, and that a cobalt base coating effectively eliminates the susceptibility. The relevance of these observations in understanding the effect of test environment on creep-rupture and fatigue crack propagation is considered.

  10. [Environmental damage assessment: international regulations and revelation to China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-zhen; Cao, Dong; Yu, Fang; Wang, Jin-nan; Qi, Ji; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Tian-zhu; Luo, Yong-ming

    2013-05-01

    As the whole society gradually realizes the scarcity of nature resources and environmental value, countries all over the world have evolved and improved the system of environmental damage assessment through the practices of pollution prevention and ecological environmental protection. On one hand, in the research prospective, the practices of environmental damage assessment brought new challenges to environmental law, environmental economics, environmental science, environmental engineering, etc. On the other hand, they constantly promoted and developed relevant laws and regulations, techniques, working mechanism, and guidelines on procedure in practice. On the hasis of comparison and analysis of international practices and experiences from US, EU, and Japan, etc., this article identified relevant concepts, content, and scope of environmental damage assessment, and presented its scientific positioning and development direction. At present, both theory and practice of environmental damage assessment in China are in their infancy period. Considering current environmental situation and socioeconomic development features of China, learning international practices and experiences and raising the orientation of environmental damage assessment have great meaning in exploring the suitable environmental damage assessment system. PMID:23914513

  11. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Cheryl R.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Burns, Bruce R.; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID:26771384

  12. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    PubMed

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID:26771384

  13. Improving the distribution and reducing the magnitude of pavement damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, W. R.; Chou, U. T.

    1980-08-01

    In the analysis of flexible pavement, the layered elastic theory was used to compute the pavement response. For the rigid pavement, finite difference, layered elastic theory, and Westergard procedures were used to compute tensile stresses in concrete that formed the basis for predicting allowable stress repetitions. For flexible pavement, the only effective means to reduce pavement damage was to modify the wheel assembly to reduce stress or strain at the critical locations in the pavement systems. The most effective modification would be to increase the spacing between duals. For rigid pavements, the edge effect was critical, thus suggesting that modifications to shift the loading away from the pavement edge would be effective.

  14. Reducing formation damage through two-stage polymer filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Houchin, L.R.; Hudson, L.M.; Caothien, S.; Daddazio, G.; Hashemi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Formation damage resulting from the use of unfiltered polymers during gravel pack completion operations has been addressed as it relates to HEC completion fluids. However, other filtered polymer systems exhibit properties which, in specific applications, may out perform HEC systems. Thus, the performance characteristics of six commonly used polymer systems, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), clarified xanthan gum (XC), HEC/XC blends, crosslinked carboxymethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (CMHEC), hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), and standard xanthan gum (XCD), required additional evaluation. Fluid modelling was employed using a new two-stage filtration process (gel filtration) in which the viscosified fluids were optimally sheared and fine-filtered to improve sand placement efficiency and reduce formation damage. The data obtained from this study establishes mixing and filtration design criteria for optimizing completion techniques such as gravel packing, sand washing, polymer diverting, and lost circulation control.

  15. Reducing environmental bias when measuring natural selection.

    PubMed

    Scheiner, Samuel M; Donohue, Kathleen; Dorn, Lisa A; Mazer, Susan J; Wolfe, Lorne M

    2002-11-01

    Crucial to understanding the process of natural selection is characterizing phenotypic selection. Measures of phenotypic selection can be biased by environmental variation among individuals that causes a spurious correlation between a trait and fitness. One solution is analyzing genotypic data, rather than phenotypic data. Genotypic data, however, are difficult to gather, can be gathered from few species, and typically have low statistical power. Environmental correlations may act through traits other than through fitness itself. A path analytic framework, which includes measures of such traits, may reduce environmental bias in estimates of selection coefficients. We tested the efficacy of path analysis to reduce bias by re-analyzing three experiments where both phenotypic and genotypic data were available. All three consisted of plant species (Impatiens capensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Raphanus sativus) grown in experimental plots or the greenhouse. We found that selection coefficients estimated by path analysis using phenotypic data were highly correlated with those based on genotypic data with little systematic bias in estimating the strength of selection. Although not a panacea, using path analysis can substantially reduce environmental biases in estimates of selection coefficients. Such confidence in phenotypic selection estimates is critical for progress in the study of natural selection. PMID:12487346

  16. Environmentally friendly cowsreducing our environmental hoof print

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of natural resources impacts the environment in five areas: 1) Energy, 2) Water, 3) Nutrients, 4) Greenhouse gases and 5) Biodiversity. The greatest opportunities for decreasing environmental impacts of the Holstein cow would seem to be enhancing utilization of nutrients and reducing emissio...

  17. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Funk, Paul A

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with nonattainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs) detailing measures to reduce regional PM2.5 levels by reducing PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emissions. These plans need to account for increases in emissions caused by operating control technologies. Potential PM2.5 emissions reductions realized by adding a second set of dust cyclones were estimated for the cotton ginning industry. Increases in energy consumption were calculated based on dust cyclone air pressure drop. Additional energy required was translated into increased emissions using published emission factors and state emissions inventories. Reductions in gin emissions were compared with increases in emissions at the power plant. Because of the electrical energy required, reducing one unit of agricultural PM2.5 emissions at a cotton gin results in emitting 0.11-2.67 units of direct PM2.5, 1.39-69.1 units of PM2.5 precursors, 1.70-76.8 units of criteria pollutants, and 692-15,400 units of greenhouse gases at the point where electricity is produced. If regulations designed to reduce rural PM2.5 emissions increase electrical power consumption, the unintended net effect may be more emissions, increased environmental damage, and a greater risk to public health. PMID:20564993

  18. Grounding after moderate eccentric contractions reduces muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard; Chevalier, Gaétan; Hill, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Grounding a human to the earth has resulted in changes in the physiology of the body. A pilot study on grounding and eccentric contractions demonstrated shortened duration of pain, reduced creatine kinase (CK), and differences in blood parameters. This follow-up study was conducted to investigate the effects of grounding after moderate eccentric contractions on pain, CK, and complete blood counts. Thirty-two healthy young men were randomly divided into grounded (n=16) and sham-grounded (n=16) groups. On days 1 through 4, visual analog scale for pain evaluations and blood draws were accomplished. On day 1, the participants performed eccentric contractions of 200 half-knee bends. They were then grounded or sham-grounded to the earth for 4 hours on days 1 and 2. Both groups experienced pain on all posttest days. On day 2, the sham-grounded group experienced significant CK increase (P<0.01) while the CK of the grounded group did not increase significantly; the between-group difference was significant (P=0.04). There was also an increase in the neutrophils of the grounded group on day 3 (P=0.05) compared to the sham-grounded group. There was a significant increase in platelets in the grounded group on days 2 through 4. Grounding produced changes in CK and complete blood counts that were not shared by the sham-grounded group. Grounding significantly reduced the loss of CK from the injured muscles indicating reduced muscle damage. These results warrant further study on the effects of earthing on delayed onset muscle damage. PMID:26443876

  19. Methods to reduce lint cleaner waste and damage

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, W.S.

    2000-04-01

    New technology to automatically engage/disengage grid bars in saw-type lint cleaners to reduce fiber waste and associated fiber damage was evaluated in five studies. The number of active grid bars in the studies varied from 0 to 10, and as the number of grid bars increased, fiber loss and damage increased. Typically for a single 5-grid bar lint cleaner, about 50% of the material that was removed was removed by the first two grid bars; for two lint cleaners, about 40% of the material was removed by the first two grid bars. Short fiber content and neps increased over 30% as grid bars increased from 2 to 10, and mill performance was degraded. Material removed from lint by saw-type lint cleaners is strongly related to variety, growing conditions and harvesting, and ranged from 6.1 to 17.5 kg (13.4 to 38.6 lb) per bale when two lint cleaners were used. In a 39,000 bale field study where lint cleaning was optimized by a computerized process control system, fiber loss from two grid bars (3.6 kg or 8 lb/bale) was about 25% of that from five grid bars (13.6 kg or 30 lb/bale).

  20. Effective materials for reducing damage rates to PWR pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Abrefah, J.; Olander, D.; Shayer, Z. )

    1993-01-01

    Among the proposed measures for reducing the damage rate to pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessels are the following: 1. replacement of fuel rods in peripheral fuel assemblies with dummy rods-the [open quotes]fuel replacement[close quotes] (FR) approach; 2. insertion of neutron reflecting and attenuating materials between the core baffle and the core barrel-the [open quotes]reflector-shield[close quotes] (RS) approach; 3. attachment of shielding patches to the thermal shield-the [open quotes]thermal shield[close quotes] approach. The material commonly proposed for all three approaches is stainless steel (SS). While searching for optimal compact shield compositions, Gilai et al. found that a combination of tungsten and titanium hydride is significantly more effective than SS for attenuating fusion and fission neutrons. A preliminary feasibility study later indicated that tungsten and titanium-hydride can, indeed, make a more effective reflector shield than SS.

  1. Reduced Renal Methylarginine Metabolism Protects against Progressive Kidney Damage.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, James A P; Caplin, Ben; Boruc, Olga; Bruce-Cobbold, Claire; Cutillas, Pedro; Dormann, Dirk; Faull, Peter; Grossman, Rebecca C; Khadayate, Sanjay; Mas, Valeria R; Nitsch, Dorothea D; Wang, Zhen; Norman, Jill T; Wilcox, Christopher S; Wheeler, David C; Leiper, James

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production is diminished in many patients with cardiovascular and renal disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis, and elevated plasma levels of ADMA are associated with poor outcomes. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) is a methylarginine-metabolizing enzyme that reduces ADMA levels. We reported previously that a DDAH1 gene variant associated with increased renal DDAH1 mRNA transcription and lower plasma ADMA levels, but counterintuitively, a steeper rate of renal function decline. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced renal-specific ADMA metabolism protects against progressive renal damage. Renal DDAH1 is expressed predominately within the proximal tubule. A novel proximal tubule-specific Ddah1 knockout (Ddah1(PT-/-)) mouse demonstrated tubular cell accumulation of ADMA and lower NO concentrations, but unaltered plasma ADMA concentrations. Ddah1(PT-/-) mice were protected from reduced kidney tissue mass, collagen deposition, and profibrotic cytokine expression in two independent renal injury models: folate nephropathy and unilateral ureteric obstruction. Furthermore, a study of two independent kidney transplant cohorts revealed higher levels of human renal allograft methylarginine-metabolizing enzyme gene expression associated with steeper function decline. We also report an association among DDAH1 expression, NO activity, and uromodulin expression supported by data from both animal and human studies, raising the possibility that kidney DDAH1 expression exacerbates renal injury through uromodulin-related mechanisms. Together, these data demonstrate that reduced renal tubular ADMA metabolism protects against progressive kidney function decline. Thus, circulating ADMA may be an imprecise marker of renal methylarginine metabolism, and therapeutic ADMA reduction may even be deleterious to kidney function. PMID:25855779

  2. DNA damage as a biological sensor for environmental sunlight.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Andr Passaglia; Garcia, Camila Carrio Machado; Makita, Kazuo; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2013-08-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known as an environmental genotoxic agent that affects ecosystems and the human population, generating concerns and motivating worldwide scientific efforts to better understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, cell death, mutagenesis, and ultimately, carcinogenesis. In this review, general aspects of UV radiation at the Earth's surface are reported, considering measurements by physical and biological sensors that monitor solar UV radiation under different environmental conditions. The formation of DNA photoproducts and other types of DNA damage by different UV wavelengths are compared with the present information on their roles in inducing biological effects. Moreover, the use of DNA-based biological dosimeters is presented as a feasible molecular and cellular tool that is focused on the evaluation of DNA lesions induced by natural sunlight. Clearly, direct environmental measurements demonstrate the biological impact of sunlight in different locations worldwide and reveal how this affects the DNA damage profile at different latitudes. These tools are also valuable for the quantification of photoprotection provided by commercial sunscreens against the induction of DNA damage and cell death, employing DNA repair-deficient cells that are hypersensitive to sunlight. Collectively, the data demonstrate the applicability of DNA-based biosensors as alternative, complementary, and reliable methods for registering variations in the genotoxic impact of solar UV radiation and for determining the level of photoprotection sunscreens provided at the level of DNA damage and cell death. PMID:23525255

  3. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... may be viewed by visiting the APHIS feral swine Web page at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/wildlife_damage... Web site at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/regulations/ws/ws_nepa_environmental_documents.shtml#EAs... include, but are not limited to, fencing, frightening devices, cage traps, corral traps, drop...

  4. Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50–200 μM) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200 μM H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca2+ influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

  5. Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Taichi; Yan, Hanxu; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50-200??M) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200??M H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca(2+) influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

  6. Environmental enrichment reduces impulsivity during appetitive conditioning.

    PubMed

    Wood, David A; Siegel, Amy K; Rebec, George V

    2006-06-15

    Although environmental enrichment is presumed to enhance learning, appetitive behavior may also be altered by this experience: anticipatory responding for sucrose is reduced in environmentally enriched (EE) rats [van der Harst, J.E., Baars, A.M. and Spruijt, B.M. Standard housed rats are more sensitive to rewards than enriched housed rats as reflected by their anticipatory behaviour. Behav Brain Res 2003;142:151-156]. To assess the impact of differential environmental experience on learning and appetitive behavior, we trained 17 EE and socially isolated (SI) rats in a three-phase, operant-shaping procedure for sucrose reinforcement. In phase one, a feeder cue was paired with sucrose availability. In phase two, a nose poke to either one of two lit holes on the opposing wall activated the feeder cue. In phase three, the feeder cue was elicited by a poke to a single lit hole. While acquisition rates in phase one and phase two were similar, EE animals reached phase-three criteria [completion of 100 trials in 45 min and 15 or fewer bad pokes] faster than SI animals. These two groups showed similar session completion rates, reinforced and non-reinforced licking responses, and overall behavioral activity during phase three acquisition; however, SI rats performed more bad pokes (responses to the non-lit hole after nose-poke cue onset) and intertrial interval (ITI) pokes during this training period. Because all ITI (and presumably many bad) pokes were initiated before onset of nose-poke cue, this difference indicates greater anticipatory responding in SI animals. This experience-dependent alteration in appetitive behavior may explain, in part, the tendency of SI rats to show attenuated learning rates in appetitive contexts in which complex contingencies exist. PMID:16678224

  7. [Hazardous environmental factors causing renal damage in children].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Quan; Yi, Zhu-Wen

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous environmental factors invade the body through multiple routes, including ingestion, inhalation and absorption by contact with the skin and mucous membrane. They are from various sources and soil, water, air, building and decorative materials, foods and daily necessities are the main carriers. According to their physical and chemical properties and morphological characteristics, these hazardous factors are classified as metals, inorganic matter, organic matter, radioactive substances, biological toxins, viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and parasites. They cause diseases through blood and urine and also have kidney susceptibility. This article suggests that pediatricians should fully understand the characteristics and seriousness of hazardous environmental factors that cause renal damage, and pay attention to the prevention and control of these factors so as to minimize renal damage in children. PMID:24750822

  8. Reducing Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide for Schools. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    This videotape describes the nonstructural areas within a school that can be damaged and create hazards for students, teachers, and staff during and after an earthquake; and discusses preventive measures to lower the injury potential from these hazards. It confirms that the best procedure to use during an earthquake to protect oneself from

  9. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie

    2012-11-20

    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  10. Consideration of environmental and operational variability for damage diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, H.; Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    Damage diagnosis is a problem that can be addressed at many levels. Stated in its most basic form, the objective is to ascertain simply if damage is present or not. In a statistical pattern recognition paradigm of this problem, the philosophy is to collect baseline signatures from a system to be monitored and to compare subsequent data to see if the new 'pattern' deviates significantly from the baseline data. Unfortunately, matters are seldom as simple as this. In reality, structures will be subjected to changing environmental and operational conditions that will affect measured signals. In this case, there may be a wide range of normal conditions, and it is clearly undesirable to signal damage simply because of a change in the environment. In this paper, a unique combination of time series analysis, neural networks, and statistical inference techniques is developed for damage classification explicitly taking into account these natural variations of the system in order to minimize false positive indication of true system changes.

  11. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Kreibich, H., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2013) Detailed insights into the influence of flood-coping appraisals on mitigation behaviour. Global Environmental Change. DOI:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.05.009. Kreibich, H., Thieken, A. H., Petrow, T., Müller, M., Merz, B. (2005): Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures - Lessons Learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002. NHESS, 5, 1, 117-126. Kreibich, H., Christenberger, S., Schwarze, R. (2011) Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods. NHESS, 11, 2, 309-321.

  12. Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex reduces interpersonal disgust

    PubMed Central

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Sperotto, Rebecca G.; Mattioli, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Disgust for contaminating objects (core disgust), immoral behaviors (moral disgust) and unsavory others (interpersonal disgust), have been assumed to be closely related. It is not clear, however, whether different forms of disgust are mediated by overlapping or specific neural substrates. We report that 10 patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) avoided behaviors that normally elicit interpersonal disgust (e.g. using the scarf of a busker) less frequently than healthy and brain-damaged controls, whereas they avoided core and moral disgust elicitors at normal rates. These results indicate that different forms of disgust are dissociated neurally. We propose that the vmPFC is causally (and selectively) involved in mediating interpersonal disgust, shaping patterns of social avoidance and approach. PMID:22842816

  13. Environmental damage and countermeasures in Chinese coal mine areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, B.; Cui, Z.

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses three aspects of the ecological environmental damage in China: ground subsidence due to underground coal mining, pollution of mine refuse from underground, and release of fly ash from power plants within coal mine areas. The paper proposes the comprehensive countermeasures for solving these problems. The author puts forward several ways and applications of disposal which could help alleviate the problems, and introduces the subsidence prediction principle in long wall mining. This technology calculates the subsidence, displacement and deformation at every point according to mining schedule. It provides a very useful tool for subsidence control. Finally, the author provides some suggestions to improve the environment in Chinese coal mine areas.

  14. Reducing the environmental impact of uranium in-situ recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Simmons, Ardyth

    2010-10-01

    This session will explore the current technical approaches to reducing the environmental effects of uranium ISR in comparison to the historical environmental impact of uranium mining to demonstrate advances in this controversial subject.

  15. Reducing pressure damage: care bundles and collaborative learning.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alison M; Barklam, Dwynwen; Hone, Karen; Ellis, Gemma; Whitlock, Joy

    Reduction of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers is a patient and nursing priority. Although evidence-based interventions to prevent such ulcers are well known, reducing this healthcare burden has proven consistently difficult. Via case studies, this article describes how a bundle approach to pressure ulcer prevention may be adapted for use within different clinical areas. It illustrates how collaborative learning may facilitate the spread of improvement work across a health board and build improvement skills within nursing. PMID:24151722

  16. Xenon preconditioning reduces brain damage from neonatal asphyxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daqing; Hossain, Mahmuda; Pettet, Garry K J; Luo, Yan; Lim, Ta; Akimov, Stanislav; Sanders, Robert D; Franks, Nicholas P; Maze, Mervyn

    2006-02-01

    Xenon attenuates on-going neuronal injury in both in vitro and in vivo models of hypoxic-ischaemic injury when administered during and after the insult. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether the neuroprotective efficacy of xenon can be observed when administered before an insult, referred to as 'preconditioning'. In a neuronal-glial cell coculture, preexposure to xenon for 2 h caused a concentration-dependent reduction of lactate dehydrogenase release from cells deprived of oxygen and glucose 24 h later; xenon's preconditioning effect was abolished by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Preconditioning with xenon decreased propidium iodide staining in a hippocampal slice culture model subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. In an in vivo model of neonatal asphyxia involving hypoxic-ischaemic injury to 7-day-old rats, preconditioning with xenon reduced infarction size when assessed 7 days after injury. Furthermore, a sustained improvement in neurologic function was also evident 30 days after injury. Phosphorylated cAMP (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-response element binding protein (pCREB) was increased by xenon exposure. Also, the prosurvival proteins Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were upregulated by xenon treatment. These studies provide evidence for xenon's preconditioning effect, which might be caused by a pCREB-regulated synthesis of proteins that promote survival against neuronal injury. PMID:16034370

  17. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate matter emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

  18. Solastalgia: living with the environmental damage caused by natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-02-01

    Forced separation from one's home may trigger emotional distress. People who remain in their homes may experience emotional distress due to living in a severely damaged environment. These people experience a type of 'homesickness' similar to nostalgia because the land around them no longer resembles the home they knew and loved. What they lack is solace or comfort from their home; they long for the home environment to be the way it was before. "Solastalgia" is a term created to describe feelings which arise in people when an environment changes so much that it negatively affects an individual's quality of life. Such changed environments may include drought-stricken areas and open-cut mines. The aim of this article is to describe how solastalgia, originally conceptualized as the result of man-made environmental change, can be similarly applied to the survivors of natural disasters. Using volcanic eruptions as a case example, the authors argue that people who experience a natural disaster are likely to suffer from solastalgia for a number of reasons, which may include the loss of housing, livestock and farmland, and the ongoing danger of living in a disaster-prone area. These losses and fears challenge people's established sense of place and identity and can lead to feelings of helplessness and depression. PMID:24438454

  19. Comparison between the environmental damages of two axial air compressors manufactured by the firm Fini Compressori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Paolo; Bernardi, Giuseppe; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldi, Giovanni; Saric, Miroslav; Tani, Giovanni

    2001-02-01

    This study was performed jointly by ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment), Bologna and Florence Universities and the firm FINI COMPRESSORI. A comparison is carried out between the environmental damages of two models (MK10 and MK94) of air axial compressors manufactured by FINI COMPRESSORI, with a volume of intaken air of 226 l/min, a power of 1.8 kW and a maximum pressure of 10 bar. The comparison is obtained by using LCA calculated by SimaPro 3.1 code and two methods: Eco-indicator 95 and a new method obtained by adding to the Eco-indicator 95 method other damage categories such as some raw material depletion, solid and energy. The system boundaries include raw material extraction and the end of life of the components and some special tools for manufacturing such as dies, moulds and shells. All metallic materials have the recycling as waste scenario. For LCA study we have considered the three components crankshaft, crankcase and valve plate for both the models, the air cooling conveyor for the MK94 and the surplus of consumed energy for the MK10. The conveyor decreases the temperature of air and therefore increases the compressor efficiency and reduces the electrical energy consumption during the use. From the LCA results, we can conclude that the introduction of the conveyor reduces the damage of MK10 model of 114.07 mPt and that the other modifications of the design increase the damage of MK10 model of 11 mPt. The damage of air compressor can be diminished by reusing crankshaft and crankcase. A design modification of the blades of the ventilator is proposed to avoid the conveyor.

  20. Oxidative damage increases with reproductive energy expenditure and is reduced by food-supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Quinn E.; Selman, Colin; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G.; Woods, Sarah B.; Seo, Arnold Y.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Speakman, John R.; Humphries, Murray M.

    2013-01-01

    A central principle in life-history theory is that reproductive effort negatively affects survival. Costs of reproduction are thought to be physiologically-based, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using female North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), we test the hypothesis that energetic investment in reproduction overwhelms investment in antioxidant protection, leading to oxidative damage. In support of this hypothesis we found that the highest levels of plasma protein oxidative damage in squirrels occurred during the energetically-demanding period of lactation. Moreover, plasma protein oxidative damage was also elevated in squirrels that expended the most energy and had the lowest antioxidant protection. Finally, we found that squirrels that were food-supplemented during lactation and winter had increased antioxidant protection and reduced plasma protein oxidative damage providing the first experimental evidence in the wild that access to abundant resources can reduce this physiological cost. PMID:23617928

  1. Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  2. BPC-15 reduces trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colonic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Veljaca, M; Lesch, C A; Pllana, R; Sanchez, B; Chan, K; Guglietta, A

    1995-01-01

    The effect of BPC-15 (Booly Protection Compound-15) was evaluated in a rat model of colonic injury. A single intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in ethanol induces severe colonic damage, which is characterized by areas of necrosis surrounded by areas of acute inflammation. The damage is associated with high myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, mainly as a reflection of neutrophilic infiltration into the damaged tissue. In this study, 1 hr before a single intracolonic administration of 50 mg/kg of TNBS in 50% ethanol, the animals were treated with one of the following doses of BPC-15: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 or 10 nmol/kg administered i.p. or with a dose of 10 nmol/kg administered intracolonically. The animals were sacrificed 3 days later and the extent of colonic necrosis and hyperemia was measured with an image analyzer. The i.p. administration of BPC-15 significantly reduced the extent of TNBS-induced colonic damage in a dose-dependent manner. This was associated with a statistically significant and dose-dependent reduction in colonic tissue MPO activity. At the dose tested (10 nmol/kg), intracolonic administration of BPC-15 did not significantly reduce either the extent of the colonic damage or the increase in MPO activity induced by TNBS. In conclusion, this study showed that i.p. administration of BPC-15 reduced TNBS-induced colonic damage in rats. PMID:7815358

  3. Gadolinium reduces short-term stretch-induced muscle damage in isolated mdx mouse muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Ella W; Head, Stewart I; Allen, David G

    2003-10-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal muscle disease caused by absence of the protein dystrophin which is part of a glycoprotein complex located on the intracellular surface of the surface membrane. The precise function of dystrophin and the reason why its absence causes severe muscle damage are unclear. Stretch-induced muscle damage is well recognised in normal muscle and is more severe in muscles from animals lacking dystrophin (mdx mice). It has been proposed that stretch-induced damage underlies the progression of damage in muscular dystrophy. In the present study we confirm that single fibres from mdx muscle are more susceptible to stretch-induced damage and show that there is an associated rise in intracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]i) which is greater than in wild-type mice. We show that this rise in [Na+]i can be prevented by Gd3+, which is an established blocker of stretch-activated channels. mdx fibres have a higher than normal resting [Na+]i and this is also reduced by Gd3+. If Gd3+ is applied over the period in which [Na+]i rises following stretched contraction, it prevents one component of the reduced force. The other component of reduced force is caused by inhomogeneity of sarcomeres and can be minimised by stretching the muscle to its new optimum length. These experiments show that part of the short-term damage caused by stretch in mdx fibres can be prevented by blocking stretch-activated channels. PMID:14561828

  4. Proposed definition of environmental damage illustrated by the cases of genetically modified crops and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Robert; Heink, Ulrich; Kowarik, Ingo

    2010-06-01

    The introduction of non-native plant species and the release of genetically modified (GM) crops can induce environmental changes at gene to ecosystem levels. Regulatory frameworks such as the Convention on Biological Diversity or the EU Deliberate Release Directive aim to prevent environmental damage but do not define the term. Although ecologists and conservationists often refer to environmental effects of GM crops or invasive species as damage, most authors do not disclose their normative assumptions or explain why some environmental impacts are regarded as detrimental and others are not. Thus far, a concise definition of environmental damage is missing and is necessary for a transparent assessment of environmental effects or risks. Therefore, we suggest defining environmental damage as a significant adverse effect on a biotic or abiotic conservation resource (i.e., a biotic or abiotic natural resource that is protected by conservational or environmental legislation) that has an impact on the value of the conservation resource, the conservation resource as an ecosystem component, or the sustainable use of the conservation resource. This definition relies on three normative assumptions: only concrete effects on a conservation resource can be damages; only adverse effects that lead to a decrease in the value of the conservation resource can be damages; and only significant adverse effects constitute damage to a conservation resource. Applying this definition within the framework of environmental risk assessment requires further normative determinations, for example, selection of a threshold to distinguish between adverse and significant adverse effects and approaches for assessing the environmental value of conservation resources. Such determinations, however, are not part of the definition of environmental damage. Rather they are part of the definition's operationalization through assessment procedures, which must be grounded in a comprehensible definition of environmental damage. PMID:20015260

  5. Experimental Colitis Is Attenuated by Cardioprotective Diet Supplementation That Reduces Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mucosal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Citalán Madrid, Alí Francisco; García Ponce, Alexander; Silva Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Betanzos, Abigail; Del Valle Mondragón, Leonardo; Nava, Porfirio; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are multifactorial, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the etiology is still poorly understood but involves altered immune responses, epithelial dysfunction, environmental factors, and nutrition. Recently, we have shown that the diet supplement corabion has cardioprotective effects due to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are also prominent risk factors in IBD, we speculated that corabion also has beneficial effects on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male mice by administration of 3.5% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for a period of 3 or 7 days with or without daily gavage feeding of corabion consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. We found that corabion administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Mechanistically, these effects could be explained by reduced neutrophil recruitment, oxidative stress, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and internalization of the junctional proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin leading to less edema formation. Thus, corabion may be a useful diet supplement for the management of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders such as IBD. PMID:26881044

  6. Experimental Colitis Is Attenuated by Cardioprotective Diet Supplementation That Reduces Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Mucosal Damage.

    PubMed

    Vargas Robles, Hilda; Citaln Madrid, Al Francisco; Garca Ponce, Alexander; Silva Olivares, Angelica; Shibayama, Mineko; Betanzos, Abigail; Del Valle Mondragn, Leonardo; Nava, Porfirio; Schnoor, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are multifactorial, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the etiology is still poorly understood but involves altered immune responses, epithelial dysfunction, environmental factors, and nutrition. Recently, we have shown that the diet supplement corabion has cardioprotective effects due to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are also prominent risk factors in IBD, we speculated that corabion also has beneficial effects on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male mice by administration of 3.5%?(w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for a period of 3 or 7 days with or without daily gavage feeding of corabion consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. We found that corabion administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Mechanistically, these effects could be explained by reduced neutrophil recruitment, oxidative stress, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and internalization of the junctional proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin leading to less edema formation. Thus, corabion may be a useful diet supplement for the management of chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders such as IBD. PMID:26881044

  7. Environmental Enrichment Protects the Retina from Early Diabetic Damage in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Damin; Aranda, Marcos L.; Gonzlez Fleitas, Mara Florencia; Chianelli, Mnica S.; Fernandez, Diego C.; Sande, Pablo H.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Available treatments are not completely effective. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on retinal damage induced by experimental diabetes in adult Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Three days after vehicle or streptozotocin injection, animals were housed in enriched environment or remained in a standard environment. Retinal function (electroretinogram, and oscillatory potentials), retinal morphology, blood-retinal barrier integrity, synaptophysin, astrocyte and Mller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-?, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed in retina from diabetic animals housed in standard or enriched environment. Environmental enrichment preserved scotopic electroretinogram a-wave, b-wave and oscillatory potential amplitude, avoided albumin-Evan's blue leakage, prevented the decrease in retinal synaptophysin and astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein levels, the increase in Mller cell glial fibrillary acidic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-? levels, as well as oxidative stress induced by diabetes. In addition, enriched environment prevented the decrease in retinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels induced by experimental diabetes. When environmental enrichment started 7 weeks after diabetes onset, retinal function was significantly preserved. These results indicate that enriched environment could attenuate the early diabetic damage in the retina from adult rats. PMID:25004165

  8. Reduced winter snowfall damages the structure and function of wintergreen ferns.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Jack T

    2014-05-20

    • Premise of the study: The full impact of climate change on ecosystems and the humans that depend on them is uncertain. Anthropogenic climate change is resulting in winters with less snow than is historically typical. This deficit may have an impact on wintergreen ferns whose fronds lie prostrate under the snowpack and are thereby protected from frost.• Methods: Frost damage and ecophysiological traits were quantified for three species of wintergreen fern (Dryopteris intermedia, Dryopteris marginalis, and Polystichum acrostichoides) near Delhi, NY following the winters of 2012 (which had very little snowfall) and 2013 (which had typical snowfall).• Key results: Dryopteris intermedia was the most common species and had the highest percentage of frost-damaged fronds and the highest percentage of its cover damaged in 2012. Frost damage was significantly less in 2013 for all species. Polystichum acrostichoides had the highest vernal photosynthetic rate in undamaged fronds, and all three species had a negative net photosynthetic rate in frost-damaged fronds. The wintergreen fern community lost 36.69 ± 2.80% of its productive surface area to frost damage in 2012. Dryopteris intermedia had the thinnest leaves and this trait may have made it the most susceptible to frost damage.• Conclusions: These results demonstrate that repeated winters of little snow may have a significant impact on the structure and functioning of the wintergreen fern community, and species will respond to a reduced snowpack on an individual basis. PMID:24844709

  9. Cyclophosphamide priming reduces intestinal damage in man following high dose melphalan chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Selby, P J; Lopes, N; Mundy, J; Crofts, M; Millar, J L; McElwain, T J

    1987-05-01

    A small pre-treatment 'priming' dose of cyclophosphamide will reduce gut damage due to high dose i.v. melphalan in mice and sheep but efforts to demonstrate this effect in man have been hampered by difficulty in the measurement of gut damage. We have evaluated the 51CR EDTA absorption test, a new method for measuring intestinal permeability, as a means of assessing damage due to high dose melphalan. The test was reliable, with a narrow normal range, easy to use and well tolerated. It detected an increase in intestinal permeability after high dose melphalan with a maximum occurring between 9 and 15 days after treatment and subsequently returning to normal. It was shown in 19 patients that a pre-treatment dose of cyclophosphamide was capable of significantly reducing the abnormalities in intestinal permeability which resulted from high dose melphalan. PMID:3111515

  10. VITAMIN E REDUCES MUSCLE DAMAGE AND BIOMARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER EXERCISE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strenuous exercise can cause muscle injury resulting in inflammation and oxidative stress. We examined whether supplementation with vitamin E could reduce this muscle damage and whether there were age-related differences in this response. 16 young (YM, 26.4 ± 3.3 y) and 16 older (OM, 71.1 ± 4.0 y) m...

  11. Damage Characterization Method for Structural Health Management Using Reduced Number of Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, T.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Gallegos, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of validated multidisciplinary Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) tools, technologies, and techniques to enable detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation in the presence of adverse conditions during flight will provide effective solutions to deal with safety related challenges facing next generation aircraft. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage (cracks) due to fatigue and low velocity foreign impacts that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. Hence, development of efficient methodologies to determine the presence, location, and severity of damage in critical structural components is highly important in developing efficient structural health management systems.

  12. Polyphenolic apple juice extracts and their major constituents reduce oxidative damage in human colon cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sandra; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Janzowski, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Apple juice containing high amounts of antioxidative polyphenols might protect the intestine against oxidative cell damage. We investigated the preventive effectiveness of polyphenolic juice extracts of different origins (cider and table apples) in comparison to their major constituents in human colon cell lines (Caco-2, HT29). Parameters studied were (oxidative) DNA damage (Comet assay), glutathione level (photometric kinetic assay), cellular redox status (dichlorofluorescein assay) and antioxidant capacity. The extracts (50-250 microg/mL) modulated DNA damage and redox status in a concentration-dependent manner at 24-h incubation. The pomace extraction technology, applied for juice preparation, and the preferential selection of cider apple varieties influenced the polyphenolic pattern and increased the biological effectiveness of the extracts. The preventive potential of major juice constituents (1-100 microM, 24 h) strongly differed: rutin, epicatechin and caffeic acid clearly reduced (oxidative) DNA damage (Caco-2), chlorogenic acid efficiently decreased cellular reactive oxygen species level (HT29, Caco-2). The aglyca quercetin and phloretin exhibited the highest preventive/antioxidant capacity in all assays. The stability of the compounds inversely correlated with their preventive effectiveness and might contribute to the observed cell specific sensitivities. In conclusion, apple juice extracts distinctly reduce oxidative cell damage in human colon cell lines, an effect, which in part can be accounted for by their major constituents. PMID:16317784

  13. Environmentally harmonized CF{sub 3}I plasma for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching

    SciTech Connect

    Samukawa, Seiji; Ichihashi, Yoshinari; Ohtake, Hiroto; Soda, Eiichi; Saito, Shuichi

    2008-03-01

    Low-damage, high-rate, and highly selective low-k etching can be simultaneously satisfied using a plasma with an environmentally harmonized gas chemistry (CF{sub 3}I). Such a CF{sub 3}I plasma can drastically reduce the irradiation damage by ultraviolet (UV) photons during low-k etching, because the intensity of UV in CF{sub 3}I plasma is much lower than that in conventional CF{sub 4} plasma. The etching selectivity of SiOCH to a photoresist can be drastically improved by using CF{sub 3}I plasma because of reducing F radical generation. In addition, pulse-time-modulated CF{sub 3}I plasma causes a drastic increase in the etching rate because a large amount of negative ions can be generated. These results show that CF{sub 3}I plasma is a very promising candidate for low-damage and highly selective low-k etching.

  14. US Navy environmental compliance and engineering for reduced maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaznoff, A.; Rudroff, J.

    1997-12-31

    Improving corrosion protection for typically high maintenance areas aboard marine vessels (i.e. seawater ballast tanks) continues to be a top priority for the US Navy. Extending the service-life performance of shipboard applied paints reduces overall maintenance costs and minimizes impacts on the environment. This may be achieved through the implementation of QA-enhanced maintenance procedures which include: controlling environmental conditions of the work space, minimizing substrate surface contamination, minimizing edge corrosion, and application of environmentally compliant, high solid content paints and coatings.

  15. Chemical genoprotection: reducing biological damage to as low as reasonably achievable levels

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, M; Armero, D; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Fernandez, H; Alcaraz-Saura, M; Canteras, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances present in the human diet with an antimutagenic protective capacity against genotoxic damage induced by exposure to X-rays in an attempt to reduce biological damage to as low a level as reasonably possible. Methods Ten compounds were assessed using the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome test. The compounds studied were added to human blood at 25 μM 5 min before exposure to irradiation by 2 Gy of X-rays. Results The protective capacity of the antioxidant substances assessed was from highest to lowest according to the frequency of the MN generated by X-ray exposure: rosmarinic acid = carnosic acid = δ-tocopherol = l-acid ascorbic = apigenin = amifostine (P < 0.001) > green tea extract = diosmine = rutin = dimetylsulfoxide (P < 0.05) > irradiated control. The reduction in genotoxic damage with the radiation doses administered reached 58%, which represents a significant reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage (P < 0.001). This degree of protection is greater than that obtained with amifostine, a radioprotective compound used in radiotherapy and which is characterised by its high toxicity. Conclusion Several antioxidant substances, common components of the human diet and lacking toxicity, offer protection from the biological harm induced by ionizing radiation. Administering these protective substances to patients before radiological exploration should be considered, even in the case of small radiation doses and regardless of the biological damage expected. PMID:21697157

  16. Eculizumab reduces complement activation, inflammation, endothelial damage, thrombosis, and renal injury markers in aHUS

    PubMed Central

    Cofiell, Roxanne; Kukreja, Anjli; Bedard, Krystin; Yan, Yan; Mickle, Angela P.; Ogawa, Masayo; Bedrosian, Camille L.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a genetic, life-threatening disease characterized by uncontrolled complement activation, systemic thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and vital organ damage. We evaluated the effect of terminal complement blockade with the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab on biomarkers of cellular processes involved in TMA in patients with aHUS longitudinally, during up to 1 year of treatment, compared with in healthy volunteers. Biomarker levels were elevated at baseline in most patients, regardless of mutational status, plasma exchange/infusion use, platelet count, or lactate dehydrogenase or haptoglobin levels. Eculizumab reduced terminal complement activation (C5a and sC5b-9) and renal injury markers (clusterin, cystatin-C, β2-microglobulin, and liver fatty acid binding protein-1) to healthy volunteer levels and reduced inflammation (soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1), coagulation (prothrombin fragment F1+2 and d-dimer), and endothelial damage (thrombomodulin) markers to near-normal levels. Alternative pathway activation (Ba) and endothelial activation markers (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) decreased but remained elevated, reflecting ongoing complement activation in aHUS despite complete terminal complement blockade. These results highlight links between terminal complement activation and inflammation, endothelial damage, thrombosis, and renal injury and underscore ongoing risk for systemic TMA and progression to organ damage. Further research regarding underlying complement dysregulation is warranted. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01194973. PMID:25833956

  17. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-01-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  18. Reducing environmental risk associated with laboratory decommissioning and property transfer.

    PubMed

    Dufault, R; Abelquist, E; Crooks, S; Demers, D; DiBerardinis, L; Franklin, T; Horowitz, M; Petullo, C; Sturchio, G

    2000-12-01

    The need for more or less space is a common laboratory problem. Solutions may include renovating existing space, leaving or demolishing old space, or acquiring new space or property for building. All of these options carry potential environmental risk. Such risk can be the result of activities related to the laboratory facility or property (e.g., asbestos, underground storage tanks, lead paint), or the research associated with it (e.g., radioactive, microbiological, and chemical contamination). Regardless of the option chosen to solve the space problem, the potential environmental risk must be mitigated and the laboratory space and/or property must be decommissioned or rendered safe prior to any renovation, demolition, or property transfer activities. Not mitigating the environmental risk through a decommissioning process can incur significant financial liability for any costs associated with future decommissioning cleanup activities. Out of necessity, a functioning system, environmental due diligence auditing, has evolved over time to assess environmental risk and reduce associated financial liability. This system involves a 4-phase approach to identify, document, manage, and clean up areas of environmental concern or liability, including contamination. Environmental due diligence auditing includes a) historical site assessment, b) characterization assessment, c) remedial effort and d) final status survey. General practice standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials are available for conducting the first two phases. However, standards have not yet been developed for conducting the third and final phases of the environmental due diligence auditing process. Individuals involved in laboratory decommissioning work in the biomedical research industry consider this a key weakness. PMID:11121365

  19. Modified otter trawl legs to reduce damage and mortality of benthic organisms in North East Atlantic fisheries (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyonnet, B.; Grall, J.; Vincent, B.

    2008-07-01

    Despite a consensus about the significant damages to marine benthos and commercial fish stocks induced by mobile fishing gear, the extent and intensity of this practice have currently grown all over the world. The main problems of fisheries management are the capture and killing of juvenile and undersized fish and thus restrictions mainly concern mesh size in cod-end. However another recurrent problem and non-negligible is the by-catch of undersize commercial fish and of non-target species. Hence, regulations to reduce such by-catch have formed a part of fisheries management techniques since the early 20th century. As a consequence, successful developments and technical modification have been used to reduce capture of undersized fish and discards (i.e. mesh size, separator panels, and sorting grids) in the last decades. Technical modification concerning reduction of damage and mortality to benthic communities are less documented. Most of the tentative to replace tickler chain, panels or legs by other systems have failed, while results showed a decrease in non-target catch, and a decrease in commercial catch was observed. This paper presents fishing experiments with modified otter trawl aimed at reducing discard rates and direct mortality of benthic infauna and epifauna without affecting the level of landings (i.e. a comparison of environmental effects caused by a conventional otter trawl compared to a modified otter trawl with enlighten experimental legs). Catch composition, by-catch and short-term effects to macro- and megafauna communities of both fishing gear (conventional and modified) were investigated. Results show that no differences for commercial catch biomass or for benthic communities' structure were observed. Moreover, by-catch analysis showed no difference while significant higher damage and direct mortality were observed for target and non-target species caught by the normal otter trawl compared to those caught by the modified one. Consequently, although limited, the severity of the damage appears to be linked with the type of trawl-legs used. The modified otter trawl permits to decrease damage and mortality to captured and non-captured organism and thus to reduce impacts to exploited marine ecosystems. These results are of interest and appear attractive in the framework of marine ecosystems preservation and conservation, as well as of fisheries management.

  20. Great Tits (Parus major) Reduce Caterpillar Damage in Commercial Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Mols, Christel M.M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), as well as Organic Farming (OF), by setting up an area with nest boxes while leaving a comparable area as a control within 12 commercial orchards. We showed that in IPM orchards, but not in OF orchards, in the areas with breeding great tits, apples had 50% of the caterpillar damage of the control areas. Offering nest boxes to attract insectivorous passerines in orchards can thus lead to more limited pesticide use, thereby adding to the natural biological diversity in an agricultural landscape, while also being economically profitable to the fruit growers. PMID:17285148

  1. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: a Czech case study.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, Martina; Kroeze, Carolien

    2010-07-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the OEI in 2020 by 20% are 12 MEuro. It is most cost effective to achieve this reduction by improving the efficiency of animal manure used as fertilizer. We tested the sensitivity of the model to assumptions about the following: 1) the relative importance of environmental problems as expressed in weighting factors, and 2) future cattle numbers and milk yield per milking cow. The first case indicates that disagreement on which problem is most urgent need not lead to disagreement about policies to be undertaken. Regardless of the weighting factors used, aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the most important problems. However, the overall costs of reducing the OEI differ with alternative sets of weighting factors, because the costs of emission reduction differ among pollutants. The second case shows that the DAIRY model results are more sensitive to changes in cattle numbers than to changes in milk yield. This study is the first integrated assessment of dairy cattle production for a Central European country and illustrates how systematic analyses may help to find optimal solutions. PMID:20821700

  2. Efficacy of curcumin to reduce hepatic damage induced by alcohol and thermally treated oil in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Deen, Nasr A M N; Eid, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of curcumin on markers of oxidative stress and liver damage in rats that chronically ingested alcohol and heated oil. Nine groups of ten Wistar male rats received combinations of curcumin 100 mg/kg body weight daily, ethanol 5 mg/kg, 15% dietary sunflower oil and 15% heated sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Serum and liver tissue were collected. Groups 4-6, which had received compounds causing oxidative stress, showed increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and reduced high density lipoprotein, protein and albumin, compared with the controls. Reductions were observed in glutathione peroxidase and reductase gene expression, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione concentration and catalase enzyme activity. Groups 7, 8 and 9 which received curcumin with heated oil, ethanol or both, showed lower elevations in serum and oxidative damage markers compared with the corresponding non-curcumin treated groups. It can be concluded that curcumin reduces markers of liver damage in rats treated with heated sunflower oil or ethanol. PMID:20391370

  3. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Microglial Activation and Neurodegenerative Events in Light Damaged Retina

    PubMed Central

    Fiorani, Lavinia; Passacantando, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The first target of any therapy for retinal neurodegeneration is to slow down the progression of the disease and to maintain visual function. Cerium oxide or ceria nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, which is known to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles were able to mitigate neurodegeneration including microglial activation and related inflammatory processes induced by exposure to high intensity light. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were injected intravitreally or intraveinously in albino Sprague-Dawley rats three weeks before exposing them to light damage of 1000 lux for 24 h. Electroretinographic recordings were performed a week after light damage. The progression of retinal degeneration was evaluated by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and TUNEL staining to quantify photoreceptors death. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate retinal stress, neuroinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. Only intravitreally injected ceria nanoparticles were detected at the level of photoreceptor outer segments 3 weeks after the light damage and electoretinographic recordings showed that ceria nanoparticles maintained visual response. Moreover, this treatment reduced neuronal death and hot spot extension preserving the outer nuclear layer morphology. It is noteworthy that in this work we demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of ceria nanoparticles to reduce microglial activation and their migration toward outer nuclear layer. All these evidences support ceria nanoparticles as a powerful therapeutic agent in retinal neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26469804

  4. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Reduce Microglial Activation and Neurodegenerative Events in Light Damaged Retina.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Lavinia; Passacantando, Maurizio; Santucci, Sandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Bisti, Silvia; Maccarone, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The first target of any therapy for retinal neurodegeneration is to slow down the progression of the disease and to maintain visual function. Cerium oxide or ceria nanoparticles reduce oxidative stress, which is known to play a pivotal role in neurodegeneration. Our aim was to investigate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles were able to mitigate neurodegeneration including microglial activation and related inflammatory processes induced by exposure to high intensity light. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were injected intravitreally or intraveinously in albino Sprague-Dawley rats three weeks before exposing them to light damage of 1000 lux for 24 h. Electroretinographic recordings were performed a week after light damage. The progression of retinal degeneration was evaluated by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and TUNEL staining to quantify photoreceptors death. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate retinal stress, neuroinflammatory cytokines and microglial activation. Only intravitreally injected ceria nanoparticles were detected at the level of photoreceptor outer segments 3 weeks after the light damage and electoretinographic recordings showed that ceria nanoparticles maintained visual response. Moreover, this treatment reduced neuronal death and "hot spot" extension preserving the outer nuclear layer morphology. It is noteworthy that in this work we demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of ceria nanoparticles to reduce microglial activation and their migration toward outer nuclear layer. All these evidences support ceria nanoparticles as a powerful therapeutic agent in retinal neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26469804

  5. Experimental Evidence Shows Salubrinal, an eIF2? Dephosphorylation Inhibitor, Reduces Xenotoxicant-Induced Cellular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masato; Komoike, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in the pathogenesis of not only the protein misfolding disorders such as certain neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, but also in the cytotoxicity of environmental pollutants, industrial chemicals, and drugs. Thus, the modulation of ER stress signaling pathways is an important issue for protection against cellular damage induced by xenotoxicants. The substance salubrinal has been shown to prevent dephosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2?). The phosphorylation of eIF2? appears to be cytoprotective during ER stress, because inhibition of the translation initiation activity of eIF2? reduces global protein synthesis. In addition, the expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a transcription factor that induces the expression of UPR target genes, is up-regulated through alternative translation. This review shows that salubrinal can protect cells from the damage induced by a wide range of xenotoxicants, including environmental pollutants and drugs. The canonical and other possible mechanisms of cytoprotection by salubrinal from xenotoxicant-induced ER stress are also discussed. PMID:26193263

  6. Vitamin D3 Reduces Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress Caused by Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Yang, Fwu-Lin; Wu, Wen-Tien; Chung, Chen-Han; Lee, Ru-Ping; Yang, Wan-Ting; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Liao, Kuang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise results in inflammation and oxidative stress, which can damage tissue. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D has both anti-inflammatory and antiperoxidative activity. Therefore, we aimed to test if vitamin D could reduce the damage caused by exhaustive exercise. Rats were randomized to one of four groups: control, vitamin D, exercise, and vitamin D+exercise. Exercised rats received an intravenous injection of vitamin D (1 ng/mL) or normal saline after exhaustive exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and blood samples were collected for biochemical testing. Histological examination and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed on lungs and kidneys after the animals were sacrificed. In comparison to the exercise group, blood markers of skeletal muscle damage, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the vitamin D+exercise group. The exercise group also had more severe tissue injury scores in the lungs (average of 2.4 ± 0.71) and kidneys (average of 3.3 ± 0.6) than the vitamin D-treated exercise group did (1.08 ± 0.57 and 1.16 ± 0.55). IHC staining showed that vitamin D reduced the oxidative product 4-Hydroxynonenal in exercised animals from 20.6% to 13.8% in the lungs and from 29.4% to 16.7% in the kidneys. In summary, postexercise intravenous injection of vitamin D can reduce the peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise and ameliorate tissue damage, particularly in the kidneys and lungs. PMID:26941574

  7. Reducing X-Ray Induced Oxidative Damages in Fibroblasts with Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Chaoming; Ma, Liyuan; Su, Ming

    2014-01-01

    A major issue of X-ray radiation therapy is that normal cells can be damaged, limiting the amount of X-rays that can be safely delivered to a tumor. This paper describes a new method based on graphene oxide (GO) to protect normal cells from oxidative damage by removing free radicals generated by X-ray radiation using grapheme oxide (GO). A variety of techniques such as cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative assay, apoptosis, ?-H2AX expression, and micro-nucleus assay have been used to assess the protective effect of GO in cultured fibroblast cells. It is found that although GO at higher concentration (100 and 500 ?g/mL) can cause cell death and DNA damage, it can effectively remove oxygen free radicals at a lower concentration of 10 ?g/mL. The level of DNA damage and cell death is reduced by 48%, and 39%, respectively. Thus, low concentration GO can be used as an effective radio-protective agent in occupational and therapeutic settings. PMID:25530873

  8. Damage detection under varying environmental and operational conditions using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima decay lines similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjirkallis, A.; Kyprianou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, there have been increasing demands to develop and deploy Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems for engineering structures in service. Since these structures are subjected to varying environmental and operational conditions, reliable SHM methodologies must be capable of not misattributing to damage changes due to environmental conditions. This paper presents a novel damage detection methodology based on the similarity between maxima decay lines of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of the structural responses obtained under different operational and environmental conditions. The normalized cross correlation (NCC) is used as a measure of this similarity. In addition, the pointwise summation of similar Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) decay lines is used to identify changes due to the presence of damage from different force realizations and/or varying environmental conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a simulated 3DOF system and an experimental cantilever beam.

  9. Reducing Environmental Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles through Shape Control.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Danielle E; Osterberg, Joshua S; Gwin, Carley A; Colman, Benjamin P; Meyer, Joel N; Bernhardt, Emily S; Gunsch, Claudia K; DiGulio, Richard T; Liu, Jie

    2015-08-18

    The use of antibacterial silver nanomaterials in consumer products ranging from textiles to toys has given rise to concerns over their environmental toxicity. These materials, primarily nanoparticles, have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of organisms; thus methods and materials that reduce their environmental toxicity while retaining their useful antibacterial properties can potentially solve this problem. Here we demonstrate that silver nanocubes display a lower toxicity toward the model plant species Lolium multiflorum while showing similar toxicity toward other environmentally relevant and model organisms (Danio rerio and Caenorhabditis elegans) and bacterial species (Esherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) compared to quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles and silver nanowires. More specifically, in the L. multiflorum experiments, the roots of silver nanocube treated plants were 5.3% shorter than the control, while silver nanoparticle treated plant roots were 39.6% shorter than the control. The findings here could assist in the future development of new antibacterial products that cause less environmental toxicity after their intended use. PMID:26146787

  10. Evaluating the Thermal Damage Resistance of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Lamuel; Feldman, Ari; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Lehman, John; Singh, Gurpreet; National Institute of Standards and Technology Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene are known to exhibit some exceptional thermal (K ~ 2000 to 4400 W.m-1K-1 at 300K) and optical properties. Here, we demonstrate preparation and testing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chemically modified graphene-composite spray coatings for use on thermal detectors for high-power lasers. The synthesized nanocomposite material was tested by preparing spray coatings on aluminum test coupons used as a representation of the thermal detector's surface. These coatings were then exposed to increasing laser powers and extended exposure times to quantify their damage threshold and optical absorbance. The graphene/carbon nanotube (prepared at varying mass% of graphene in CNTs) coatings demonstrated significantly higher damage threshold values at 2.5 kW laser power (10.6 ?m wavelength) than carbon paint or MWCNTs alone. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of irradiated specimens showed that the composite coating endured high laser-power densities (up to 2 kW.cm-2) without significant visual damage. This research is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation (Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems Division), under grant no. 1335862 to G. Singh.

  11. Soft perches in an aviary system reduce incidence of keel bone damage in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, Ariane; Frhlich, Ernst K F; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J; Wrbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  12. Soft Perches in an Aviary System Reduce Incidence of Keel Bone Damage in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Ariane; Frhlich, Ernst K. F.; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra; Schrader, Lars; Toscano, Michael J.; Wrbel, Hanno; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.

    2015-01-01

    Keel bone fractures and deviations are one of the major welfare and health issues in commercial laying hens. In non-cage housing systems like aviaries, falls and collisions with perches and other parts of the housing system are assumed to be one of the main causes for the high incidence of keel bone damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of a soft perch material to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations in white (Dekalb White) and brown laying hens (ISA Brown) kept in an aviary system under commercial conditions. In half of 20 pens, all hard, metal perches were covered with a soft polyurethane material. Palpation of 20 hens per pen was conducted at 18, 21, 23, 30, 38, 44 and 64 weeks of age. Production data including egg laying rate, floor eggs, mortality and feed consumption were collected over the whole laying period. Feather condition and body mass was assessed twice per laying period. The results revealed that pens with soft perches had a reduced number of keel bone fractures and deviations. Also, an interaction between hybrid and age indicated that the ISA hybrid had more fractured keel bones and fewer non-damaged keel bones compared with the DW hybrid at 18 weeks of age, a response that was reversed at the end of the experiment. This is the first study providing evidence for the effectiveness of a soft perch material within a commercial setting. Due to its compressible material soft perches are likely to absorb kinetic energy occurring during collisions and increase the spread of pressure on the keel bone during perching, providing a mechanism to reduce keel bone fractures and deviations, respectively. In combination with genetic selection for more resilient bones and new housing design, perch material is a promising tool to reduce keel bone damage in commercial systems. PMID:25811980

  13. Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2010-01-01

    Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

  14. Reduced cognition in Syngap1 mutants is caused by isolated damage within developing forebrain excitatory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Emin D.; Creson, Thomas K.; Kramr, Enik A.; Rojas, Camilo; Seese, Ron R.; Babyan, Alex H.; Shi, Yulin; Lucero, Rocco; Xu, Xiangmin; Noebels, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Courtney A.; Lynch, Gary; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Syngap1 haploinsufficiency is a common cause of sporadic intellectual disability. Syngap1 mutations disrupt developing pyramidal neurons, though it remains unclear if this process contributes to cognitive abnormalities. Here, we found that haploinsufficiency restricted to forebrain glutamatergic neurons was sufficient to disrupt cognition, while removing mutations from this population prevented cognitive abnormalities. In contrast, manipulating Syngap1 function in GABAergic neurons had no effect on cognition, excitability or neurotransmission, highlighting the specificity of Syngap1 mutations within forebrain excitatory neurons. Interestingly, cognitive abnormalities were reliably predicted by the emergence of enhanced excitatory synaptic function in mature superficial cortical pyramidal cells, which was a neurophysiological disruption caused by Syngap1 dysfunction in developing, but not adult, forebrain neurons. We conclude that reduced cognition in Syngap1 mutants is caused by isolated damage to developing forebrain glutamatergic neurons. This damage triggers secondary disruptions to synaptic homeostasis in mature cortical pyramidal cells, which perpetuates brain dysfunction into adulthood. PMID:24945774

  15. Reduced cognition in Syngap1 mutants is caused by isolated damage within developing forebrain excitatory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Emin D; Creson, Thomas K; Kramr, Enik A; Rojas, Camilo; Seese, Ron R; Babyan, Alex H; Shi, Yulin; Lucero, Rocco; Xu, Xiangmin; Noebels, Jeffrey L; Miller, Courtney A; Lynch, Gary; Rumbaugh, Gavin

    2014-06-18

    Syngap1 haploinsufficiency is a common cause of sporadic intellectual disability. Syngap1 mutations disrupt developing pyramidal neurons, although it remains unclear if this process contributes to cognitive abnormalities. Here, we found that haploinsufficiency restricted to forebrain glutamatergic neurons was sufficient to disrupt cognition and removing mutations from this population prevented cognitive abnormalities. In contrast, manipulating Syngap1 function in GABAergic neurons had no effect on cognition, excitability, or neurotransmission, highlighting the specificity of Syngap1 mutations within forebrain excitatory neurons. Interestingly, cognitive abnormalities were reliably predicted by the emergence of enhanced excitatory synaptic function in mature superficial cortical pyramidal cells, which was a neurophysiological disruption caused by Syngap1 dysfunction in developing, but not adult, forebrain neurons. We conclude that reduced cognition in Syngap1 mutants is caused by isolated damage to developing forebrain glutamatergic neurons. This damage triggers secondary disruptions to synaptic homeostasis in mature cortical pyramidal cells, which perpetuates brain dysfunction into adulthood. PMID:24945774

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of electrolyzed reduced water against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wen-Kang; Chang, Wen-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2009-08-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Male ICR mice were randomly divided into control, CCl(4), CCl(4)+silymarin, and CCl(4)+ERW groups. CCl(4)-induced liver lesions include leukocytes infiltration, hepatocyte necrosis, ballooning degeneration, mitosis, calcification, fibrosis and an increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aminotransferase (AST) activity. In addition, CCl(4) also significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). By contrast, ERW or silymarin supplement significantly ameliorated the CCl(4)-induced liver lesions, lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and increased the activities of SOD, catalase, and GSH-Px in liver. Therefore, the results of this study show that ERW can be proposed to protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced oxidative damage in mice, and the hepatoprotective effect might be correlated with its antioxidant and free radical scavenging effect. PMID:19477216

  17. Protected areas mitigate diseases of reef-building corals by reducing damage from fishing.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Joleah B; Williamson, David H; Russ, Garry R; Willis, Bette L

    2015-09-01

    Parks and protected areas have been instrumental in reducing anthropogenic sources of damage in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Pathogen invasion often succeeds physical wounding and injury, yet links between the reduction of damage and the moderation of disease have not been assessed. Here, we examine the utility of no-take marine reserves as tools for mitigating diseases that affect reef-building corals. We found that sites located within reserves had fourfold reductions in coral disease prevalence compared to non-reserve sites (80466 corals surveyed). Of 31 explanatory variables assessed, coral damage and the abundance of derelict fishing line best explained differences in disease assemblages between reserves and non-reserves. Unexpectedly, we recorded significantly higher levels of disease, coral damage, and derelict fishing line in non-reserves with fishing gear restrictions than in those without gear restrictions. Fishers targeting stocks perceived to be less depleted, coupled with enhanced site access from immediately adjacent boat moorings, may explain these unexpected patterns. Significant correlations between the distance from mooring sites and prevalence values for a ciliate disease known to infest wounded tissue (r = -0.65), coral damage (r = -0.64), and the abundance of derelict fishing line (r = -0.85) corroborate this interpretation. This is the first study to link disease with recreational use intensity in a park, emphasizing the need to evaluate the placement of closures and their direct relationship to ecosystem health. Since corals are modular, ecological processes that govern reproductive and competitive fitness are frequently related to colony surface area therefore, even low levels of cumulative tissue loss from progressing diseases pose significant threats to reef coral persistence. Disease mitigation through reductions in physical injury in areas where human activities are concentrated is another mechanism by which protected areas may improve ecosystem resilience in a changing climate. PMID:26594711

  18. Agricultural chemical application practices to reduce environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Bode, L E

    1990-01-01

    Current practices of applying agricultural chemicals play a major role in the environmental health concerns of agriculture. Those who mix, load, and handle the concentrated formulations run the greatest risk of exposure but field hands and others can encounter significant levels of pesticides. Drift can be a major source of contamination to residents, wildlife, and water sources. Improved methods of application and ways of reducing the total amount of pesticide applied can help reduce environmental contamination. Chemigation, direct injection, closed system handling, and fertilizer impregnation are examples of technology that affect the efficiency of applying agricultural chemicals. An area of beneficial research is related to leak and spill technology. Current surveys indicate that point sources such as spills, mixing and loading areas, back-siphoning, and direct routes for surface water movement into the ground are often a major cause of pesticides reaching groundwater. The commercial dealer/applicator provides storage, handling, mixing, and loading for large amounts of chemicals and has received limited guidance regarding the products. Education remains an important element of any rural environmental health strategy. With appropriate information about pesticide risks and groundwater, people will be better equipped to address environmental concerns. By design, agricultural chemicals are biologically active and, in most cases, toxic. Thus, they pose potential risks to humans, wildlife, water, and the environment in general. The magnitude of the risks depends to some degree on the methods and techniques used to apply the chemicals. Pesticides are applied by persons possessing a variety of skills, using equipment ranging from hand-operated systems to aircraft. PMID:2248252

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT REDUCES THE MNEMONIC AND NEURAL BENEFITS OF ESTROGEN

    PubMed Central

    GRESACK, J. E.; FRICK, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The degree to which memory is enhanced by estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women may depend on environmental factors such as education. The present study utilized an animal model of environmental enrichment to determine whether environmental factors influence the mnemonic and neural response to estrogen. Female mice were raised in standard (SC) or enriched (EC) conditions from weaning until adulthood (7 months). All mice were ovariectomized at 10 weeks, and tested in object recognition and water-escape motivated radial arm maze (WRAM) tasks at 6 months. Each day at the completion of training, mice received injections of 0.1 mg/kg cyclodextrin-encapsulated 17-β-estradiol (E2), 0.2 mg/kg E2, or cyclodextrin vehicle (VEH). At the completion of behavioral testing, hippocampal levels of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin and of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured. Enrichment effects were evident in VEH-treated mice; relative to SC-VEH females, EC-VEH females committed fewer working memory errors in the WRAM and exhibited increased hippocampal synaptophysin levels. Estrogen effects depended on environmental conditions. E2 (0.2 mg/kg) improved object memory only in SC females. The same dose improved working memory in SC females, but somewhat impaired working memory in EC females. Furthermore, both doses reduced hippocampal synaptophysin levels in EC, but not SC, females. In contrast, E2 reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in SC, but not EC, females. This study is the first to compare the effects of estrogen on memory and hippocampal function in enriched and non-enriched female mice. The results suggest that: (1) estrogen benefits object and working memory more in mice raised in non-enriched environments than in those raised in enriched environments, and (2) the changes induced by estrogen and/or enrichment may be associated with alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:15381276

  20. Reduced inflammation accompanies diminished myelin damage and repair in the NG2 null mouse spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which blood-derived immune cells and activated microglia damage myelin in the central nervous system. While oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are essential for generating oligodendrocytes for myelin repair, other cell types also participate in the damage and repair processes. The NG2 proteoglycan is expressed by OPCs, pericytes, and macrophages/microglia. In this report we investigate the effects of NG2 on these cell types during spinal cord demyelination/remyelination. Methods Demyelinated lesions were created by microinjecting 1% lysolecithin into the lumbar spinal cord. Following demyelination, NG2 expression patterns in wild type mice were studied via immunostaining. Immunolabeling was also used in wild type and NG2 null mice to compare the extent of myelin damage, the kinetics of myelin repair, and the respective responses of OPCs, pericytes, and macrophages/microglia. Cell proliferation was quantified by studies of BrdU incorporation, and cytokine expression levels were evaluated using qRT-PCR. Results The initial volume of spinal cord demyelination in wild type mice is twice as large as in NG2 null mice. However, over the ensuing 5 weeks there is a 6-fold improvement in myelination in wild type mice, versus only a 2-fold improvement in NG2 null mice. NG2 ablation also results in reduced numbers of each of the three affected cell types. BrdU incorporation studies reveal that reduced cell proliferation is an important factor underlying NG2-dependent decreases in each of the three key cell populations. In addition, NG2 ablation reduces macrophage/microglial cell migration and shifts cytokine expression from a pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory phenotype. Conclusions Loss of NG2 expression leads to decreased proliferation of OPCs, pericytes, and macrophages/microglia, reducing the abundance of all three cell types in demyelinated spinal cord lesions. As a result of these NG2-dependent changes, the course of demyelination and remyelination in NG2 null mice differs from that seen in wild type mice, with both myelin damage and repair being reduced in the NG2 null mouse. These studies identify NG2 as an important factor in regulating myelin processing, suggesting that therapeutic targeting of the proteoglycan might offer a means of manipulating cell behavior in demyelinating diseases. PMID:22078261

  1. Toxin GhoT of the GhoT/GhoS toxin/antitoxin system damages the cell membrane to reduce adenosine triphosphate and to reduce growth under stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yao; Soo, Valerie W C; Islam, Sabina; McAnulty, Michael J; Benedik, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-06-01

    Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems perhaps enable cells to reduce their metabolism to weather environmental challenges although there is little evidence to support this hypothesis. Escherichia coli GhoT/GhoS is a TA system in which toxin GhoT expression is reduced by cleavage of its messenger RNA (mRNA) by antitoxin GhoS, and TA system MqsR/MqsA controls GhoT/GhoS through differential mRNA decay. However, the physiological role of GhoT has not been determined. We show here through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and fluorescent stains that GhoT reduces metabolism by damaging the membrane and that toxin MqsR (a 5'-GCU-specific endoribonuclease) causes membrane damage in a GhoT-dependent manner. This membrane damage results in reduced cellular levels of ATP and the disruption of proton motive force (PMF). Normally, GhoT is localized to the pole and does not cause cell lysis under physiological conditions. Introduction of an F38R substitution results in loss of GhoT toxicity, ghost cell production and membrane damage while retaining the pole localization. Also, deletion of ghoST or ghoT results in significantly greater initial growth in the presence of antimicrobials. Collectively, these results demonstrate that GhoT reduces metabolism by reducing ATP and PMF and that this reduction in metabolism is important for growth with various antimicrobials. PMID:24373067

  2. Reducing spatial variation in environmental assessment of marine benthic fauna.

    PubMed

    Leonardsson, Kjell; Blomqvist, Mats; Rosenberg, Rutger

    2016-03-15

    The Benthic Quality Index, BQI, is widely used for benthic quality assessment. Here, we investigated if spatial variation in the BQI can be reduced by accounting for the environmental factors instead of having different boundaries for different salinity regimes between status classes in the EU Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. For this purpose we tested salinity, sediment structure, and depth in a regression model to test their contribution to variations in BQI. The spatial variation in BQI was better explained by depth than by salinity or sediment structure. The proposed assessment method uses the residuals from the regression model between BQI and depth. With this method the variance in BQI between samples was reduced by 50% to 75% in the majority of situations. A method to establish the boundary between good and moderate status and how to derive EQR-values according to the WFD is presented. PMID:26856645

  3. Analysis of reduced phosphorus in samples of environmental interest.

    PubMed

    Morton, Siyuan C; Glindemann, Dietmar; Wang, Xiaorong; Niu, Xiaojun; Edwards, Marc

    2005-06-15

    The combination of ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) was used forthe sensitive and specific detection of hypophosphite (PO2), phosphite (PO3), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and phosphate (PO4). Application of this technique to a wide range of environmental samples proved that reduced phosphorus was present in some situations including process water from thermal phosphorus plants, drinking water contacting cast iron, and phosphorus corrosion inhibitor used in water treatment and in sewage wastewater. Preliminary testing did not detect high concentrations of reduced phosphorus and phosphine in situations where it was previously reported to be very important, including anaerobic digesters in wastewater treatment plants. The new IC-ICP-ES technique is a promising tool for use in corrosion and soil research where phosphites are likely to be present. PMID:16047769

  4. Sub-chronic copper pretreatment reduces oxidative damage in an experimental Huntington's disease model.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Lazcano, Juan Carlos; Montes, Sergio; Snchez-Mendoza, Mara Alicia; Rodrguez-Pez, Lorena; Prez-Neri, Ivn; Boll, Marie Catherine; Campos-Arroyo, Hortensia Denise; Ros, Camilo; Prez-Severiano, Francisca

    2014-12-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) striatal injection in rat reproduces the main neurochemical features of Huntington's disease (HD), including oxidative damage. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a copper (Cu) supplement in drinking water (90 ppm Cu, 28 days) on the QUIN-induced HD model in the rat. Copper exposure caused no signs of liver toxicity; however, it produced significant Cu accumulation in striatum. It is noteworthy that QUIN also caused increased striatal Cu content; when the supplement was administered to animals with QUIN-injury, an even higher metal striatal accumulation was observed. Cu pre-treatment preserved striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, which was reduced by QUIN intrastriatal injection. Similarly, apomorphine-induced circling behavior was reduced in Cu-pretreated QUIN-damaged rats. Metal supplement in drinking water prevented both lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation caused by QUIN in striatum. In Cu-treated groups, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) activity showed a significant increase, while SOD2 activity was slightly enhanced. Although the pathophysiological role for higher Cu levels in patients with HD and in experimental models of the disease is not fully understood, results in the present study suggest that Cu oral intake stimulates anti-oxidant defenses, an effect that may be a potential factor for reducing the progression of HD. PMID:25319005

  5. Plant diversity affects behavior of generalist root herbivores, reduces crop damage, and enhances crop yield.

    PubMed

    Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Thalinger, Bettina; Wallinger, Corinna; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Soil-dwelling pests inflict considerable economic damage in agriculture but are hard to control. A promising strategy to reduce pest pressure on crops is to increase the plant diversity in agroecosystems. This approach, however, demands a sound understanding of species' interactions, which is widely lacking for subterranean herbivore-plant systems. Here, we examine the effects of plant diversification on wireworms, the soil-dwelling larvae of click beetles that threaten crops worldwide. We conducted a field experiment employing plant diversification by adding either wheat or a mix of six associated plants (grasses, legumes, and forbs) between rows of maize to protect it from Agriotes wireworms. Wireworm feeding behavior, dispersal between crop and associated plants, as well as maize damage and yield were examined. The former was assessed combining molecular gut content and stable isotope analysis. The pests were strongly attracted by the associated plants in August, when the crop was most vulnerable, whereas in September, shortly before harvest, this effect occurred only in the plant mix. In maize monoculture, the larvae stayed in the principal crop throughout the season. Larval delta13C signatures revealed that maize feeding was reduced up to sevenfold in wireworms of the vegetationally diversified treatments compared to those of the maize monoculture. These findings were confirmed by molecular analysis, which additionally showed a dietary preference of wireworms for specific plants in the associated plant mix. Compared to the monoculture, maize damage was reduced by 38% and 55% in the wheat and plant mix treatment, which translated into a yield increase of 30% and 38%, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that increasing the plant diversity in agroecosystems provides an effective insurance against soil pests. The underlying mechanisms are the diversion of the pest from the principle crop and a changed feeding behavior. The deployment of diverse mixes of associated plants, tailored to the specific preferences of the soil herbivores, provides a promising strategy for managing subterranean pests while maintaining crop yield. PMID:23967581

  6. Does financial development reduce environmental degradation? Evidence from a panel study of 129 countries.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Tang, Chor Foon; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of financial development on CO2 emission in 129 countries classified by the income level. A panel CO2 emission model using urbanisation, GDP growth, trade openness, petroleum consumption and financial development variables that are major determinants of CO2 emission was constructed for the 1980-2011 period. The results revealed that the variables are cointegrated based on the Pedroni cointegration test. The dynamic ordinary least squares (OLS) and the Granger causality test results also show that financial development can improve environmental quality in the short run and long run due to its negative effect on CO2 emission. The rest of the determinants, especially petroleum consumption, are determined to be the major source of environmental damage in most of the income group countries. Based on the results obtained, the investigated countries should provide banking loans to projects and investments that can promote energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy to help these countries reduce environmental damage in both the short and long run. PMID:25994273

  7. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Reduce Acute and Chronic Kidney Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Silva, Marina; Semedo-Kuriki, Patricia; Donizetti-Oliveira, Cassiano; Costa, Priscilla Barbosa; Cenedeze, Marco Antonio; Hiyane, Meire Ioshie; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic kidney injuries (AKI and CKI) constitute syndromes responsible for a large part of renal failures, and are today still associated with high mortality rates. Given the lack of more effective therapies, there has been intense focus on the use stem cells for organ protective and regenerative effects. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown great potential in the treatment of various diseases of immune character, although there is still debate on its mechanism of action. Thus, for a greater understanding of the role of MSCs, we evaluated the effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (AdSCs) in an experimental model of nephrotoxicity induced by folic acid (FA) in FVB mice. AdSC-treated animals displayed kidney functional improvement 24h after therapy, represented by reduced serum urea after FA. These data correlated with cell cycle regulation and immune response modulation via reduced chemokine expression and reduced neutrophil infiltrate. Long-term analyses, 4 weeks after FA, indicated that AdSC treatment reduced kidney fibrosis and chronic inflammation. These were demonstrated by reduced interstitial collagen deposition and tissue chemokine and cytokine expression. Thus, we concluded that AdSC treatment played a protective role in the framework of nephrotoxic injury via modulation of inflammation and cell cycle regulation, resulting in reduced kidney damage and functional improvement, inhibiting organ fibrosis and providing long-term immune regulation. PMID:26565621

  8. Integrating natural resource damage assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  9. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120 of CERCLA also could subject DOE to liability for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process is used to determine whether natural resources have been injured and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In addition to restoration costs, damages may include costs of conducting the damage assessment and compensation for interim losses of natural resource services that occur before resource restoration is complete. Natural resource damages represent a potentially significant source of additional monetary claims under CERCLA, but are not well known or understood by many DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. This report describes the requirements and procedures of NRDA in order to make DOE managers aware of what the process is designed to do. It also explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, showing how the technical and cost analysis concepts of NRDA can be borrowed at strategic points in the CERCLA process to improve decisionmaking and more quickly restore natural resource services at the lowest total cost to the public.

  10. Environmental impact of offshore operation reduced using innovative engineering solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, C.J.; Wensel, E.A.; Edelblum, L.S.; Beal, D.

    1994-12-31

    The North Dauphin Island Tract 73 platform is located in eleven feet (3.4 m) of water and one mile (1.6 km) from shore in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The platform is designed to dehydrate and compress up to 70 MMSCFD (1.98 x 10{sup 6} SM{sup 3}) from five remote gas production wells. Located near the city of Mobile, Alabama, the surrounding metropolitan and coastal areas has multiple uses including manufacturing, tourism, commercial and sport fishing, and wetlands and wildlife conservation. The multiple and interdependent economic uses of the area required that the platform be designed to minimize any adverse environmental impact. A cost-effective environmental engineering solution was desired at the design phase of the project. A water catchment, containment and disposal system was designed to meet the zero discharge requirement. Pollution from air emissions was reduced by the installation of lean burning engines. A floatover installation process was used to prevent dredging of the bay, thus protecting the bay water quality. An aesthetically concealing paint and lighting scheme was chosen and applied to the entire structure. These cost-effective engineering solutions during the design phase of the project saved time and money over the life of the project. All regulatory permits were obtained in a timely manner, with little or no opposition. The operator of the North Dauphin Island Development won several environmental awards due to the implementation of innovative solutions and their commitment to conservation of the natural environment.

  11. Protecting children: reducing their environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Lorraine

    2004-04-01

    The present review examines the current status of efforts to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) among infants and young children. Estimates of the number of children exposed vary, but it is probably over 20 million or about 35% of all U.S. children. Healthy People 2010 sets as an objective the reduction, to 10%, of the proportion of children regularly exposed to tobacco smoke at home. Children with ETS exposure are at higher risk for upper respiratory illnesses, asthma, otitis media, and sudden infant death syndrome. Eight experimental or quasi-experimental studies of attempts to reduce children' ETS exposure with sample sizes of greater than 100 were conducted in the United States and published between 1990 and 2003. Most of these studies showed a significant impact on maternal smoking and on the number of cigarettes smoked in the home, although intervention-control differences were relatively small. Despite support from professional organizations and federal government groups, many pediatricians and family physicians do not routinely engage in intensive efforts to reduce children's ETS exposure. Training in techniques for reducing tobacco dependence should be included in professional education programs. Public and private insurance should reimburse providers for efforts in this area. An overall strategy for reducing children's ETS exposure should combine individual counseling and education in offices, clinics, and homes with community education and regulatory and economic policies (i.e., smoking bans and excise taxes). Additional funding is needed for studies of provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices; of the effectiveness of various communication strategies; and of office- and community-based strategies to reduce ETS exposure. PMID:15203824

  12. DNA damage responses in Drosophila nbs mutants with reduced or altered NBS function

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sushmita; LaFave, Matthew C.; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The MRN complex, composed of MRE11, RAD50 and NBS, plays important roles in responding to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In metazoans, functional studies of genes encoding these proteins have been challenging because complete loss-of-function mutations are lethal at the organismal level and because NBS has multiple functions in DNA damage responses. To study functions of Drosophila NBS in DNA damage responses, we used a separation-of-function mutation that causes loss of the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. Loss of the FHA domain resulted in hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and defects in gap repair by homologous recombination, but had only a small effect on the DNA damage checkpoint response and did not impair DSB repair by end joining. We also found that heterozygosity for an nbs null mutation caused reduced gap repair and loss of the checkpoint response to low-dose irradiation. These findings shed light on possible sources of the cancer predisposition found in human carriers of NBN mutations. PMID:19395318

  13. Medical Malpractice Reform: Noneconomic Damages Caps Reduced Payments 15 Percent, With Varied Effects By Specialty

    PubMed Central

    Seabury, Seth A.; Helland, Eric; Jena, Anupam B.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of medical malpractice reforms on the average size of malpractice payments in specific physician specialties is unknown and subject to debate. We analyzed a national sample of 220,653 malpractice claims from 1985–2010 merged with information on state liability reforms. We estimated the impact of state noneconomic damage caps on average malpractice payment size for physicians overall and for 10 different specialties, and compared how the effects differed according to the restrictiveness of the cap ($250,000 vs. $500,000 cap). We found noneconomic damage caps reduced payments by $42,980 (15%; p<0.001), with a $250,000 cap reducuing average payments by $59,331 (20%; p<0.001), while a $500,000 cap had no significant effect. Effects varied according to specialty and were largest in specialties with high average payments, such as pediatrics. This suggests that the effect of noneconomic damage caps differs by specialty, and only more restrictive caps result in lower average payments. PMID:25339633

  14. The effect of lidocaine on reducing the tracheal mucosal damage following tracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Saeed; Mahjobipoor, Hosein; Kashefi, Parviz; Massumi, Gholamreza; Aghadavoudi, Omid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Sajedi, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of lidocaine solution in the cuff of the endotracheal tube in reducing mucosal damage following tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial study undertaken in the intensive care unit patients. Participants, who met all eligibility criteria, were randomly assigned to one of two groups of patients, according to whether lidocaine or air was used to fill the tracheal tube cuff. The tracheal mucosa at the site of cuff inflation was inspected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and scored at the 24 h and 48 h after intubation. Results: In all, 51 patients (26 patients in the lidocaine group and 25 patients in the control group) completed the study. After 24 h, erythema and/or edema of tracheal mucosa were seen in 2 patients (7.7%) of lidocaine group and 6 patients (24%) of air group (P = 0.109). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that lidocaine has a significant protective effect against mucosal damage (odds ratio = 0.72, confidence interval = 0.60-0.87). Conclusion: The inflation of the tracheal tube cuff with lidocaine was superior to air in decreasing the incidence of mucosal damage in the 24 h and 48 h post intubation. PMID:24381613

  15. Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Felipe S.; Burton, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

  16. Exogenous spermidine alleviates oxidative damage and reduce yield loss in rice submerged at tillering stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Chu, Meijie; Ding, Yanfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenghui; Tang, She; Ding, Chengqiang; Li, Ganghua

    2015-01-01

    To figure out whether spermidine (Spd) can alleviate oxidative damage on rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by submergence stress, Ningjing 3 was used in this study. The results showed that, spraying Spd on rice leaves at a concentration of 0.5 mM promoted the growth recovery of rice after drainage, such as green leaves, tillers, and aboveground dry mass. According to physiological analysis, Spd accelerate restored chlorophylls damage by submergence, and decreased the rate of O2·− generation and H2O2 content, inhibited submergence-induced lipid peroxidation. Spd also helped to maintain antioxidant enzyme activities after drainage, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and GR, which ultimately improved the recovery ability of submerged rice. With the effect of Spd, the rice yields increased by 12.1, 17.9, 13.5, and 18.0%, of which submerged for 1, 3, 5, 7 days, respectively. It is supposed that exogenous Spd really has an alleviate effect on submergence damage and reduce yield loss of rice. PMID:26583021

  17. Reduced Sensitivity to Sooner Reward During Intertemporal Decision-Making Following Insula Damage in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sellitto, Manuela; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Mattioli, Flavia; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    During intertemporal choice, humans tend to prefer small-sooner rewards over larger-delayed rewards, reflecting temporal discounting (TD) of delayed outcomes. Functional neuroimaging (fMRI) evidence has implicated the insular cortex in time-sensitive decisions, yet it is not clear whether activity in this brain region is crucial for, or merely associated with, TD behavior. Here, patients with damage to the insula (Insular patients), control patients with lesions outside the insula, and healthy individuals chose between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. Insular patients were less sensitive to sooner rewards than were the control groups, exhibiting reduced TD. A Voxel-based Lesion-Symptom Mapping (VLSM) analysis confirmed a statistically significant association between insular damage and reduced TD. These results indicate that the insular cortex is crucial for intertemporal choice. We suggest that he insula may be necessary to anticipate the bodily/emotional effects of receiving rewards at different delays, influencing the computation of their incentive value. Devoid of such input, insular patients’ choices would be governed by a heuristic of quantity, allowing patients to wait for larger options. PMID:26793084

  18. Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    DING, MEI; SI, DAOYUAN; ZHANG, WENQI; FENG, ZHAOHUI; HE, MIN; YANG, PING

    2014-01-01

    Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. PMID:25371725

  19. Red yeast rice repairs kidney damage and reduces inflammatory transcription factors in rat models of hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mei; Si, Daoyuan; Zhang, Wenqi; Feng, Zhaohui; He, Min; Yang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used for the management of hyperlipidemia and coronary heart disease (CHD); however, the effects of XZK treatment on kidney injury have not yet been fully identified. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of XZK on the kidneys and investigate the related mechanisms in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect on inflammatory transcription factors and kidney damage was investigated with in vitro and in vivo experiments on hyperlipidemic rats following XZK treatment. The results revealed that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were significantly upregulated in the XZK treatment group, as compared with those in the hyperlipidemia group (P<0.05). In addition, the results demonstrated that XZK was able to repair the kidney damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammatory transcription factors, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, were shown to be reduced in the XZK group when compared with the hyperlipidemia group. In summary, XZK reduces kidney injury, downregulates the levels of TG, TC and LDL-C, as well as the expression levels of inflammatory transcription factors, and upregulates HDL-C. These results further the understanding of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms underlying hyperlipidemia and aid the development of XZK as an effective therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. PMID:25371725

  20. Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergs, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2015-04-01

    Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05 mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

  1. Structural damage detection for in-service highway bridge under operational and environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Christenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Structural health monitoring has drawn significant attention in the past decades with numerous methodologies and applications for civil structural systems. Although many researchers have developed analytical and experimental damage detection algorithms through vibration-based methods, these methods are not widely accepted for practical structural systems because of their sensitivity to uncertain environmental and operational conditions. The primary environmental factor that influences the structural modal properties is temperature. The goal of this article is to analyze the natural frequency-temperature relationships and detect structural damage in the presence of operational and environmental variations using modal-based method. For this purpose, correlations between natural frequency and temperature are analyzed to select proper independent variables and inputs for the multiple linear regression model and neural network model. In order to capture the changes of natural frequency, confidence intervals to detect the damages for both models are generated. A long-term structural health monitoring system was installed on an in-service highway bridge located in Meriden, Connecticut to obtain vibration and environmental data. Experimental testing results show that the variability of measured natural frequencies due to temperature is captured, and the temperature-induced changes in natural frequencies have been considered prior to the establishment of the threshold in the damage warning system. This novel approach is applicable for structural health monitoring system and helpful to assess the performance of the structure for bridge management and maintenance.

  2. Pomegranate extract attenuates unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced renal damage by reducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Cakir, Suleyman Sami; Polat, Emre Can; Dursun, Murat; Cekmen, Mustafa; Somay, Adnan; Ozbay, Nurver

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Ureteral obstruction may cause permanent kidney damage at late period. We know that the pomegranate extract (PE) play a strong role on removal of free oxygen radicals and prevention of oxidative stress. In the current study study, we evaluated the effect of PE on kidney damage after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Settings and Design: A total of 32 rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was a control, Group 2 was a sham, Group 3 was rats with UUO and Group 4 was rats with UUO that were given PE (oral 100 μL/day). After 14 days, rats were killed and their kidneys were taken and blood analysis was performed. Subjects and Methods: Tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis scoring were determined histopathologically in a part of kidneys; nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were determined in the other part of kidneys. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were performed by the Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: There was no difference significantly for urea-creatinine levels between groups. Pathologically, there was serious tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrosis in Group 3, and there was significantly decreasing for tubular necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrosis in Group 4 (P < 0.005). Furthermore, there was significantly increasing for NO and MDA levels; decreasing for GSH levels in Group 3 compared the other groups (P < 0.005). Conclusions: We think that the PE prevents kidney damage by decreasing oxidative stress in kidney. PMID:25838069

  3. High effectiveness of tailored flower strips in reducing pests and crop plant damage.

    PubMed

    Tschumi, Matthias; Albrecht, Matthias; Entling, Martin H; Jacot, Katja

    2015-09-01

    Providing key resources to animals may enhance both their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. We examined the performance of annual flower strips targeted at the promotion of natural pest control in winter wheat. Flower strips were experimentally sown along 10 winter wheat fields across a gradient of landscape complexity (i.e. proportion non-crop area within 750 m around focal fields) and compared with 15 fields with wheat control strips. We found strong reductions in cereal leaf beetle(CLB) density (larvae: 40%; adults of the second generation: 53%) and plant damage caused by CLB (61%) in fields with flower strips compared with control fields. Natural enemies of CLB were strongly increased in flower strips and in part also in adjacent wheat fields. Flower strip effects on natural enemies, pests and crop damage were largely independent of landscape complexity(8-75% non-crop area). Our study demonstrates a high effectiveness of annual flower strips in promoting pest control, reducing CLB pest levels below the economic threshold. Hence, the studied flower strip offers a viable alternative to insecticides. This highlights the high potential of tailored agri-environment schemes to contribute to ecological intensification and may encourage more farmers to adopt such schemes. PMID:26311668

  4. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering.

    PubMed

    Capellari, Giovanni; Eftekhar Azam, Saeed; Mariani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615

  5. Damage Detection in Flexible Plates through Reduced-Order Modeling and Hybrid Particle-Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Capellari, Giovanni; Eftekhar Azam, Saeed; Mariani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated. PMID:26703615

  6. [Hypoxic brain damage after carbon monoxide poisoning. Visual agnosia, reduced initiative and memory and delayed sequelae].

    PubMed

    Tvedt, B; Krogstad, J M; Berstad, J

    1996-10-20

    Four patients with hypoxic brain damage caused by carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three of these had attempted suicide with car exhaust fumes. Two patients had visual agnosia due to lesions in the parieto-occipital cortex. Three patients had temporary Parkinsonian symptoms. In two of these patients CT and MRI showed lesions in the globus pallidus. They also showed reduced initiative, and in one patient this was combined with minor tics and obsessive symptoms. One patient had impaired memory as the only symptom. The patient with the longest lasting exposure developed delayed sequelae; three weeks after the poisoning he became apathetic and confused, with failing memory, Parkinsonian symptoms, and urinary and faecal incontinence. MRI showed demyelination in the periventricular white matter. His condition started to improve two months after the accident. PMID:8975424

  7. Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: a mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Kocan, R; Lapatra, S; Gregg, J; Winton, J; Hershberger, P

    2006-09-01

    Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyophonus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of uninfected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltration of immune cells and fibrotic (granuloma) tissue surrounding the parasite. Diminished swimming stamina is hypothesized to be due to cardiac failure resulting from the combination of parasite-damaged heart muscle and low myocardial oxygen supply during sustained aerobic exercise. Loss of stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected salmonids could explain the poor performance previously reported for wild Chinook and sockeye salmon stocks during their spawning migration. PMID:16948701

  8. Ichthyophonus-induced cardiac damage: A mechanism for reduced swimming stamina in salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; LaPatra, S.; Gregg, J.; Winton, J.; Hershberger, P.

    2006-01-01

    Swimming stamina, measured as time-to-fatigue, was reduced by approximately two-thirds in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Ichthyophonus. Intensity of Ichthyophonus infection was most severe in cardiac muscle but multiple organs were infected to a lesser extent. The mean heart weight of infected fish was 40% greater than that of uninfected fish, the result of parasite biomass, infiltration of immune cells and fibrotic (granuloma) tissue surrounding the parasite. Diminished swimming stamina is hypothesized to be due to cardiac failure resulting from the combination of parasite-damaged heart muscle and low myocardial oxygen supply during sustained aerobic exercise. Loss of stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected salmonids could explain the poor performance previously reported for wild Chinook and sockeye salmon stocks during their spawning migration. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Photomultiplier circuit including means for rapidly reducing the sensitivity thereof. [and protection from radiation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A simple, reliable and inexpensive control circuit is described for rapidly reducing the bias voltage across one or more of the dynode stages of a photomultiplier, to substantially decrease its sensitivity to incoming light at those times where excess light intensity might damage the tube. The control circuit comprises a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), coupled between a pair of the electrodes in the tube, preferably the cathode and first dynode, or the first and second dynodes, the switching device operating in response to a trigger pulse applied to its gate to short circuit the two electrodes. To insure the desired reduction in sensitivity, two switching stages, the devices be employed between two of the electrode stages, the devices being operated simultaneously to short circuit both stages.

  10. Deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hemorrhage-induced white matter damage in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Okauchi, Masanobu; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Gu, Yuxiang; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2015-10-01

    Iron contributes to c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation in young rats and white matter injury in piglets after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we examined the effect of deferoxamine on ICH-induced white matter injury and JNK activation and in aged rats. Male Fischer 344 rats (18months old) had either an intracaudate injection of 100?l of autologous blood or a needle insertion (sham). The rats were treated with deferoxamine or vehicle with different regimen (dosage, duration and time window). White matter injury and activation of JNK were examined. We found that a dose of DFX should be at more than 10mg/kg for a therapeutic duration more than 2days with a therapeutic time window of 12h to reduce ICH-induced white matter loss at 2months. ICH-induced white matter injury was associated with JNK activation. The protein levels of phosphorylated-JNK (P-JNK) were upregulated at day-1 after ICH and then gradually decreased. P-JNK immunoreactivity was mostly located in white matter bundles. ICH-induced JNK activation was reduced by DFX treatment. This study demonstrated that DFX can reduce ICH-induced JNK activation and white matter damage. PMID:25749188

  11. Deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hemorrhage-induced white matter damage in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Wei; Okauchi, Masanobu; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Gu, Yuxiang; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Iron contributes to c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation in young rats and white matter injury in piglets after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we examined the effect of deferoxamine on ICH-induced white matter injury and JNK activation and in aged rats. Male Fischer 344 rats (18 months old) had either an intracaudate injection of 100 l of autologous blood or a needle insertion (sham). The rats were treated with deferoxamine or vehicle with different regimen (dosage, duration and time window). White matter injury and activation of JNK were examined. We found that a dose of DFX should at more than 10 mg/kg for a therapeutic duration more than 2 days with a therapeutic time window of 12 hours to reduce ICH-induced white matter loss at 2 months. ICH-induced white matter injury was associated with JNK activation. The protein levels of phosphorylated-JNK (P-JNK) were upregulated at day-1 after ICH and then gradually decreased. P-JNK immunoreactivity was mostly located in white matter bundles. ICH-induced JNK activation was reduced by DFX treatment. This study demonstrated that DFX can reduce ICH-induced JNK activation and white matter damage. PMID:25749188

  12. The influence of operational and environmental loads on the process of assessing damages in beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furdui, H.; Muntean, F.; Minda, A. A.; Praisach, Z. I.; Gillich, N.

    2015-07-01

    Damage detection methods based on vibration analysis make use of the modal parameter changes. Natural frequencies are the features that can be acquired most simply and inexpensively. But this parameter is influenced by environmental conditions, e.g. temperature and operational loads as additional masses or axial loads induced by restraint displacements. The effect of these factors is not completely known, but in the numerous actual research it is considered that they affect negatively the damage assessment process. This is justified by the small frequency changes occurring due to damage, which can be masked by the frequency shifts due to external loads. The paper intends to clarify the effect of external loads on the natural frequencies of beams and truss elements, and to show in which manner the damage detection process is affected by these loads. The finite element analysis, performed on diverse structures for a large range of temperature values, has shown that the temperature itself has a very limited effect on the frequency changes. Thus, axial forces resulted due to obstructed displacements can influence more substantially the frequency changes. These facts are demonstrated by experimental and theoretical studies. Finally, we succeed to adapt a prior contrived relation providing the frequency changes due to damage in order to fit the case of known external loads. Whereas a new baseline for damage detection was found, considering the effect of temperature and external loads, this process can be performed without other complication.

  13. Long-lived Indy induces reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Neretti, Nicola; Wang, Pei-Yu; Brodsky, Alexander S; Nyguyen, Hieu H; White, Kevin P; Rogina, Blanka; Helfand, Stephen L

    2009-02-17

    Decreased Indy activity extends lifespan in D. melanogaster without significant reduction in fecundity, metabolic rate, or locomotion. To understand the underlying mechanisms leading to lifespan extension in this mutant strain, we compared the genome-wide gene expression changes in the head and thorax of adult Indy mutant with control flies over the course of their lifespan. A signature enrichment analysis of metabolic and signaling pathways revealed that expression levels of genes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway are significantly lower in Indy starting at day 20. We confirmed experimentally that complexes I and III of the electron transport chain have lower enzyme activity in Indy long-lived flies by Day 20 and predicted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria could be reduced. Consistently, we found that both ROS production and protein damage are reduced in Indy with respect to control. However, we did not detect significant differences in total ATP, a phenotype that could be explained by our finding of a higher mitochondrial density in Indy mutants. Thus, one potential mechanism by which Indy mutants extend life span could be through an alteration in mitochondrial physiology leading to an increased efficiency in the ATP/ROS ratio. PMID:19164521

  14. Reduced-order modeling for mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Chunlin; He, Zhengjia

    2014-12-01

    An efficient method for nonlinear vibration analysis of mistuned centrifugal impellers with crack damages is presented. The main objective is to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the vibration features of centrifugal impellers and to explore effective techniques for crack detection. Firstly, in order to reduce the input information needed for component mode synthesis (CMS), the whole model of an impeller is obtained by rotation transformation based on the finite element model of a sector model. Then, a hybrid-interface method of CMS is employed to generate a reduced-order model (ROM) for the cracked impeller. The degrees of freedom on the crack surfaces are retained in the ROM to simulate the crack breathing effects. A novel approach for computing the inversion of large sparse matrix is proposed to save memory space during model order reduction by partitioning the matrix into many smaller blocks. Moreover, to investigate the effects of mistuning and cracks on the resonant frequencies, the bilinear frequency approximation is used to estimate the resonant frequencies of the mistuned impeller with a crack. Additionally, statistical analysis is performed using the Monte Carlo simulation to study the statistical characteristics of the resonant frequencies versus crack length at different mistuning levels. The results show that the most significant effect of mistuning and cracks on the vibration response is the shift and split of the two resonant frequencies with the same nodal diameters. Finally, potential quantitative indicators for detection of crack of centrifugal impellers are discussed.

  15. Integrating Natural Resource Damage Assessment and environmental restoration activities at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bascietto, J.J.; Sharples, F.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1993-06-01

    Environmental restoration activities are currently under way at several sites owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE is the CERCLA lead response agency for these activities. Section 120(a) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act also subjects DOE to liability under Section 107 of CERCLA for natural resource damages resulting from hazardous substance releases at its sites. The Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, by which natural resource injuries are determined and compensatory monetary damages are calculated, is not well known or understood by DOE staff and contractors involved in environmental restoration activities. Nevertheless, natural resource liabilities are potentially a significant source of additional monetary claims for CERCLA hazardous substance releases. This paper describes the requirements of NRDA and explains how to integrate the NRDA and CERCLA Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study processes, in order to more quickly restore environmental services at the lowest total cost to the public. The first section of the paper explains the statutory and regulatory mandates for the NRDA process. The second section briefly describes the four phases of the NRDA process, while the third section examines the three steps in the assessment phase in considerable detail. Finally, the last section focuses on the integration of the CERCLA and NRDA processes.

  16. Treatment with selectin blocking antibodies after lengthening contractions of mouse muscle blunts neutrophil accumulation but does not reduce damage.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Darce D; Brooks, Susan V

    2016-01-01

    P- and E-selectins are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and may contribute to neutrophil recruitment following injurious lengthening contractions of skeletal muscle. Blunting neutrophil, but not macrophage, accumulation after lengthening contractions may provide a therapeutic benefit as neutrophils exacerbate damage to muscle fibers, while macrophages promote repair. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P- and E-selectins contribute to neutrophil, but not macrophage, accumulation in muscles after contraction-induced injury, and that reducing neutrophil accumulation by blocking the selectins would be sufficient to reduce damage to muscle fibers. To test our hypothesis, we treated mice with antibodies to block P- and E-selectin function and assessed leukocyte accumulation and damage in muscles 2days after lengthening contractions. Treatment with P/E-selectin blocking antibodies reduced neutrophil content by about half in muscles subjected to lengthening contractions. In spite of the reduction in neutrophil accumulation, we did not detect a decrease in damage 2days after lengthening contractions. We conclude that P- and/or E-selectin contribute to the neutrophil accumulation associated with contraction-induced muscle damage and that only a portion of the neutrophils that typically accumulate following injurious lengthening contractions is sufficient to induce muscle fiber damage and force deficits. Thus, therapeutic interventions based on blocking the selectins or other adhesion proteins will have to reduce neutrophil numbers by more than 50% in order to provide a benefit. PMID:26733249

  17. Reducing the environmental impact of poultry breeding by genetic selection.

    PubMed

    de Verdal, H; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Bastianelli, D; Mme, N; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Narcy, A

    2013-02-01

    Improving the sustainability of poultry production involves limiting its environmental impact and maintaining effectiveness. It has recently been shown that genetic selection on the ability of chickens to digest wheat at 23 d of age can decrease chicken excretion without decreasing BW at this age. The aim of this study was to check whether selection on digestibility modified excretion and growth performance over the whole production cycle. The 2 divergent lines selected for high (D+) and low (D-) apparent metabolizable energy corrected for 0 N balance (AMEn) values were compared with a reference line used at the beginning of the selection experiment (RL) to evaluate the potential excretion improvement that could be expected with such selection. These 3 lines were therefore compared for growth and excretion (raw and relative to feed intake, fresh and dry excreta weights, and moisture content of excreta) from 4 to 53 d. Between 4 and 7 d, 17 and 21 d, and 49 and 53 d, AMEn and N and P excretion rates were also compared between the 3 lines. Furthermore, body composition (breast meat and abdominal fat yields), bone breaking strength, and meat quality traits (lightness, redness, yellowness, and ultimate pH) were compared between lines at 53 d. Over the whole rearing period, D+ birds excreted significantly less fresh and dry excreta (-56 and -61%) than D- and RL birds (-6 and -26%). Similarly, N and P excretion rates of D+ birds were 13% to 30% less than those of D- birds and 12% to 19% less than RL birds, depending on age. These excretion differences may be related to the differential development of the gastrointestinal tract. Differences between lines were already present at 7 d for relative gizzard weight and the weight of the upper to the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract ratio. Anatomic differences were maximum at 23 d for all traits except for relative weight of the duodenum. At slaughter age, BW, breast and fat yields, and meat color did not differ between D+ and RL birds, but D- birds were fatter than D+ and RL birds. Finally, ultimate meat pH was 1% to 2% greater in RL birds than in the D+ and D- lines. In conclusion, this study showed that selection of chickens for AMEn is a possible way to reduce the environmental impact of production over the whole rearing period without a negative impact on growth, body composition, or meat quality. PMID:23243164

  18. Detection of structural damage using novelty detection algorithm under variational environmental and operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mountassir, M.; Yaacoubi, S.; Dahmene, F.

    2015-07-01

    Novelty detection is a widely used algorithm in different fields of study due to its capabilities to recognize any kind of abnormalities in a specific process in order to ensure better working in normal conditions. In the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), this method is utilized as damage detection technique because the presence of defects can be considered as abnormal to the structure. Nevertheless, the performance of such a method could be jeopardized if the structure is operating in harsh environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). In this paper, novelty detection statistical technique is used to investigate the detection of damages under various EOCs. Experiments were conducted with different scenarios: damage sizes and shapes. EOCs effects were simulated by adding stochastic noise to the collected experimental data. Different levels of noise were studied to determine the accuracy and the performance of the proposed method.

  19. The beneficial effects of dietary restriction: reduced oxidative damage and enhanced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wachsman, J T

    1996-02-19

    There is compelling evidence for the central role of oxidative damage in the aging process and for the participation of reactive oxygen species in tumor initiation and promotion. Caloric restriction (CR) or energy restriction retards age-associated increases in mitochondrial free-radical production and reduces the accumulation of oxidatively damaged cell components. CR has also been shown to slow down age-related declines in various repair capabilities, including some types of DNA repair. It is proposed that inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport and/or uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation (rotenone, amytal, amiodarone, valinomycin, etc.), when used at extremely low doses, could mimic the effects of CR in model systems. The objective is to lower mitochondrial free-radical production by decreasing the fraction of electron carriers in the reduced state. In addition to a variety of other effects, CR has been shown to increase the rate of apoptosis, particularly in preneoplastic cells, and in general, to promote elevated levels of free glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs are known to induce tissue-specific apoptosis and to upregulate gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC). Tumor promoters like phorbol esters have the opposite effect, in that they inhibit both the process of apoptosis and GJIC. The enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is thought to play a central role in apoptosis, in a manner that has been highly conserved in evolution. There is good evidence that the apoptosis-associated Ca/Mg-dependent DNA endonuclease is maintained in a latent form by being poly (ADP-ribosylated). Apoptosis would require the removal of this polymer from the endonuclease, and, most likely, its removal from topoisomerase II and histone H1 as well. The role of poly (ADP-ribose) in apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and aging could be studied by the use of modulators of PARP activity (3-aminobenzamide, 3-nitrosobenzamide, 1% ethanol, etc.), inhibitors of poly ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity (ethacridine, 43 degrees C, etc.), and inhibitors of the PARP-specific protease (interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE)-like protease). Also, it would be of interest to determine if CR can decrease the half-life of poly (ADP-ribose), upregulate GJIC, and modulate the activities of PARP, the glycohydrolase, and the PARP-specific protease, factors potentially important in these processes. PMID:8657188

  20. Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin enhances the antitumor efficacy of enediyne lidamycin in association with reduced DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei-Fei; Li, Liang; Shang, Bo-Yang; Shao, Rong-Guang; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) leads to inappropriate processing of proteins involved in DNA damage repair pathways after DNA damage and may enhance tumor cell radio- and chemo-therapy sensitivity. To investigate the potentiation of antitumor efficacy of lidamycin (LDM), an enediyne agent by the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin (GDM), and possible mechanisms, we have determined effects on ovarian cancer SKOV- 3, hepatoma Bel-7402 and HepG2 cells by MTT assay, apoptosis assay, and cell cycle analysis. DNA damage was investigated with H2AX C-terminal phosphorylation (?H2AX) assays. We found that GDM synergistically sensitized SKOV-3 and Bel-7402 cells to the enediyne LDM, and this was accompanied by increased apoptosis. GDM pretreatment resulted in a greater LDM-induced DNA damage and reduced DNA repair as compared with LDM alone. However, in HepG2 cells GDM did not show significant sensitizing effects both in MTT assay and in DNA damage repair. Abrogation of LDM-induced G2/M arrest by GDM was found in SKOV-3 but not in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the expression of ATM, related to DNA damage repair responses, was also decreased by GDM in SKOV-3 and Bel-7402 cells but not in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibitors may potentiate the antitumor efficacy of LDM, possibly by reducing the repair of LDM-induced DNA damage. PMID:25227788

  1. Observations and Modeling of Environmental and Human Damages by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, K.; Imamura, F.; Koshimura, S.; Yanagisawa, H.

    2008-05-01

    On 26 December 2004, one of the largest tsunamis in human history (the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) struck coastal areas of countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, causing severe property damage and loss of life and causing us to think anew about the fearful consequences of a tsunami disaster. The tsunami devastated more than 10 countries around the ocean including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. Since its energy remains almost constant, the tsunami wave height grows tremendously in shallow water. It ranged in runups of ~48m on the western shore of Sumatra, ~18m in Thailand, and ~15m in Sri Lanka. The tsunami killed nearly 230,000 people, including visitors from foreign countries, resulting in great economic losses. The tsunami was also affected coastal environment at these countries and induced severe topographic change, and damages to the marine ecosystems as well as vegetations on land. Immediately following the tsunami, number of research teams has investigated damages of environment and human communities by tsunamis. Numerical analyses of tsunami propagation have also been carried out to understand the behavior and wave properties of tsunamis. However, there are few studies that focused on the integration of the field observations and numerical results, nevertheless that such analysis is critically important to evaluate the environmental and human damages by the tsunami. In this contribution, we first review damages to the environment and humans due to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami at Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka based on our field observations, and then we evaluate these damages based on high resolution numerical results. For example, we conducted field observation as well as high-resolution (17 m grid cells) numerical calculation for damages of corals (reef rocks) and mangroves at Pakarang Cape, Thailand. We found that hundreds of reef rocks were emplaced on the tidal bench, and 70 % of mangroves were destroyed at the cape. Our numerical results further clarified that these damages are well explained by the calculated hydraulic force of tsunamis. This kind of analysis that integrated the observation and numerical results is important to evaluate environmental and human damages quantitatively, and to make a future disaster prevention plan.

  2. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    PubMed

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Šmilauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems. PMID:24516587

  3. Chromatin Modifications during Repair of Environmental Exposure-Induced DNA Damage: A Potential Mechanism for Stable Epigenetic Alterations

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposures to environmental toxicants and toxins cause epigenetic changes that likely play a role in the development of diseases associated with exposure. The mechanism behind these exposure-induced epigenetic changes is currently unknown. One commonality between most environmental exposures is that they cause DNA damage either directly or through causing an increase in reactive oxygen species, which can damage DNA. Like transcription, DNA damage repair must occur in the context of chromatin requiring both histone modifications and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. These chromatin changes aid in DNA damage accessibility and signaling. Several proteins and complexes involved in epigenetic silencing during both development and cancer have been found to be localized to sites of DNA damage. The chromatin-based response to DNA damage is considered a transient event, with chromatin being restored to normal as DNA damage repair is completed. However, in individuals chronically exposed to environmental toxicants or with chronic inflammatory disease, repeated DNA damage-induced chromatin rearrangement may ultimately lead to permanent epigenetic alterations. Understanding the mechanism behind exposure-induced epigenetic changes will allow us to develop strategies to prevent or reverse these changes. This review focuses on epigenetic changes and DNA damage induced by environmental exposures, the chromatin changes that occur around sites of DNA damage, and how these transient chromatin changes may lead to heritable epigenetic alterations at sites of chronic exposure. PMID:24259318

  4. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-03-30

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such developments. PMID:25754645

  5. Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes

    PubMed Central

    Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E.; Butterly, Matthew S.; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E.

    2014-01-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance. PMID:25071194

  6. Vardenafil reduces testicular damage following ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Erol, Bulent; Tokgoz, Husnu; Hanci, Volkan; Bektas, Sibel; Akduman, Bulent; Yencilek, Faruk; Mungan, Gorkem; Mungan, Aydin

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the effect of intraperitoneal vardenafil (1 mg/kg) administration during an ischemic period in a rat model of testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D). Twenty-one adult Wistar rats were equally randomized into a control group, a T/D group and a vardenafil group. The control group was designed to collect basal values for biochemical and histopathological parameters. The T/D group underwent testicular torsion for 1 hour. The vardenafil group received vardenafil (1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after torsion. All rats were sacrificed 4 hours after reperfusion to evaluate the tissue levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant status. Germ cell apoptosis was evaluated using the apoptosis protease activating factor 1 antibody in all groups. The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and inducible NOS were also assessed in both testes of all rats. The malondialdehyde levels in the T/D group were significantly higher than in the control and vardenafil groups. There were also significant decreases in total antioxidant status in the T/D group compared with the control and vardenafil groups. Vardenafil treatment significantly reduced apoptosis protease activating factor 1, endothelial NOS and inducible NOS levels in the vardenafil group compared with the T/D group. Administration of 1 mg/kg vardenafil during testicular torsion decreased ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage. Our results indicate that the reduction in oxidative stress by vardenafil may play a major role in its cytoprotective effects. PMID:19605329

  7. A copper-complex reduced gastric damage caused by acetylsalicylic acid and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Franco, L; Velo, G P

    1996-05-01

    We investigated the effect of oral administration of CuNSN, a bis(2-benzimidazolyl) thioether (see structure 1) on gastric lesions induced in rats by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or ethanol. The involvement of endogenous eicosanoids and nitric oxide in protection by CuNSN was evaluated with indomethacin and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), inhibitors of prostaglandin and NO synthesis respectively. L-arginine and its enantiomer D-arginine were also used. Pretreatment with graded doses of CuNSN inhibited ASA- and ethanol-induced mucosal injury. CuNSN increased PGE2 output in rat ex vivo gastric mucosal pieces after administration of 100 mg/kg of ASA. Pretreatment with indomethacin only partially counteracted the protective activity of CuNSN against ethanol-induced damage. L-NNA did not attenuate the protection by CuNSN, which was reduced but not prevented by indomethacin, suggesting that prostanoids contribute to the CuNSN protective effect, together with some mechanism(s) other than NO synthesis. PMID:8792443

  8. Environmental Enrichment Reduces Signs of Boredom in Caged Mink

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Mason, Georgia J.

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled ‘bored’. They have also been called ‘apathetic’ or ‘depressed’, particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic ‘scrabbling’ or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

  9. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    PubMed

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Mason, Georgia J

    2012-01-01

    Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest), by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom) should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE) cages than in complex, enriched (E) cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE) to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs), rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing) or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles). Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P?=?0.003) than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013). With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures). NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P?=?0.037). Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing) predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing) did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication). Boredom can thus be operationalized and assessed empirically in non-human animals. It can also be reduced by environmental enrichment. PMID:23155462

  10. Normobaric hyperoxia markedly reduces brain damage and sensorimotor deficits following brief focal ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Emmrich, Julius V; Sitnikov, Sergey L; Hong, Young T; Sawiak, Stephen J; Fryer, Tim D; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; Williamson, David J; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2016-03-01

    'True' transient ischaemic attacks are characterized not only clinically, but also radiologically by a lack of corresponding changes on magnetic resonance imaging. During a transient ischaemic attack it is assumed that the affected tissue is penumbral but rescued by early spontaneous reperfusion. There is, however, evidence from rodent studies that even brief focal ischaemia not resulting in tissue infarction can cause extensive selective neuronal loss associated with long-lasting sensorimotor impairment but normal magnetic resonance imaging. Selective neuronal loss might therefore contribute to the increasingly recognized cognitive impairment occurring in patients with transient ischaemic attacks. It is therefore relevant to consider treatments to reduce brain damage occurring with transient ischaemic attacks. As penumbral neurons are threatened by markedly constrained oxygen delivery, improving the latter by increasing arterial O2 content would seem logical. Despite only small increases in arterial O2 content, normobaric oxygen therapy experimentally induces significant increases in penumbral O2 pressure and by such may maintain the penumbra alive until reperfusion. Nevertheless, the effects of normobaric oxygen therapy on infarct volume in rodent models have been conflicting, although duration of occlusion appeared an important factor. Likewise, in the single randomized trial published to date, early-administered normobaric oxygen therapy had no significant effect on clinical outcome despite reduced diffusion-weighted imaging lesion growth during therapy. Here we tested the hypothesis that normobaric oxygen therapy prevents both selective neuronal loss and sensorimotor deficits in a rodent model mimicking true transient ischaemic attack. Normobaric oxygen therapy was applied from the onset and until completion of 15 min distal middle cerebral artery occlusion in spontaneously hypertensive rats, a strain representative of the transient ischaemic attack-prone population. Whereas normoxic controls showed normal magnetic resonance imaging but extensive cortical selective neuronal loss associated with microglial activation (present both at Day 14 in vivo and at Day 28 post-mortem) and marked and long-lasting sensorimotor deficits, normobaric oxygen therapy completely prevented sensorimotor deficit (P < 0.02) and near-completely Day 28 selective neuronal loss (P < 0.005). Microglial activation was substantially reduced at Day 14 and completely prevented at Day 28 (P = 0.002). Our findings document that normobaric oxygen therapy administered during ischaemia nearly completely prevents the neuronal death, microglial inflammation and sensorimotor impairment that characterize this rodent true transient ischaemic attack model. Taken together with the available literature, normobaric oxygen therapy appears a promising therapy for short-lasting ischaemia, and is attractive clinically as it could be started at home in at-risk patients or in the ambulance in subjects suspected of transient ischaemic attack/early stroke. It may also be a straightforward adjunct to reperfusion therapies, and help prevent subtle brain damage potentially contributing to long-term cognitive and sensorimotor impairment in at-risk populations. PMID:26767570

  11. Improvement of the bulk laser damage threshold of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by reducing the organic impurities in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Y.; Yokotani, A.; Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, K.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1988-02-01

    We obtained damage-resistant crystals of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) by reducing organic impurities in the growth solution. To prevent organic impurity exuded from the wall of the growth vessel, Pyrex glass was used. The residual organic impurities, which mainly derived from KDP raw powder, were reduced by photochemical dissociation using a combination of ultraviolet light and an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide). The resultant total organic carbon of the solution was less than 0.1 ppm. The damage threshold of the crystals grown from this solution was always high (20-22 J/cm2), which is about three times higher than that of crystals grown by conventional methods.

  12. Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage: A Practical Guide. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitherman, Robert

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide practical information to owners, operators, and occupants of office and commercial buildings on the vulnerabilities posed by earthquake damage to nonstructural items and the means available to deal with these potential problems. Examples of dangerous nonstructural damages that have occurred in past…

  13. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection.

    PubMed

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-04-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3 ) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3 -induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4 ), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23-102 Mt in 2030 - the equivalent of a ~2-8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5-15 billion worldwide (USD2000 ), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ~$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3 -induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 -induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

  14. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-resistant cultivar selection

    PubMed Central

    Avnery, Shiri; Mauzerall, Denise L; Fiore, Arlene M

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the projected 50% increase in global grain demand by 2030 without further environmental degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant negative impact on crop yields, one way to increase future production is to reduce O3-induced agricultural losses. We present two strategies whereby O3 damage to crops may be reduced. We first examine the potential benefits of an O3 mitigation strategy motivated by climate change goals: gradual emission reductions of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric O3 precursor that has not yet been targeted for O3 pollution abatement. Our second strategy focuses on adapting crops to O3 exposure by selecting cultivars with demonstrated O3 resistance. We find that the CH4 reductions considered would increase global production of soybean, maize, and wheat by 23–102 Mt in 2030 – the equivalent of a ∼2–8% increase in year 2000 production worth $3.5–15 billion worldwide (USD2000), increasing the cost effectiveness of this CH4 mitigation policy. Choosing crop varieties with O3 resistance (relative to median-sensitivity cultivars) could improve global agricultural production in 2030 by over 140 Mt, the equivalent of a 12% increase in 2000 production worth ∼$22 billion. Benefits are dominated by improvements for wheat in South Asia, where O3-induced crop losses would otherwise be severe. Combining the two strategies generates benefits that are less than fully additive, given the nature of O3 effects on crops. Our results demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3-induced reductions in crop yields. PMID:23504903

  15. The long amplicon quantitative PCR for DNA damage assay as a sensitive method of assessing DNA damage in the environmental model, Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Meyer, Joel N.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    DNA damage is an important mechanism of toxicity for a variety of pollutants, and therefore, is often used as an indicator of pollutant effects in ecotoxicological studies. Here, we adapted a PCR-based assay for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage for use in an important environmental model, the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). We refer to this assay as the large amplicon quantitative PCR (LA-QPCR) assay. To validate this method in killifish, DNA damage was measured in liver, brain, and muscle of fish dosed with 10 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene. This exposure caused 0.4-0.8 lesions/10 kb. We also measured DNA damage in liver and muscle tissues from killifish inhabiting a Superfund site, confirming the utility of this method for biomonitoring. In both cases, damage levels were comparable in nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Since extensive nDNA sequence data are not readily available for many environmentally relevant species, but mitochondrial genomes are frequently fully sequenced, this assay can be adapted to examine mtDNA damage in virtually any species with little development. Therefore, we argue that this assay will be a valuable tool in assessing DNA damage in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:18706522

  16. Blockade of Thrombopoietin Reduces Organ Damage in Experimental Endotoxemia and Polymicrobial Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    De Giuli, Paolo; Bosco, Ornella; Martin-Conte, Erica; Spatola, Tiziana; Turco, Emilia; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Thrombopoietin (TPO), a growth factor primarily involved in thrombopoiesis may also have a role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. In patients with sepsis, indeed, TPO levels are markedly increased, with disease severity being the major independent determinant of TPO concentrations. Moreover, TPO increases and correlates with ex vivo indices of platelet activation in patients with burn injury upon sepsis development, and may contribute to depress cardiac contractility in septic shock. Still, the role of TPO in sepsis pathophysiology remains controversial, given the protective role of TPO in other experimental disease models, for instance in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of our study was to define the contribution of TPO in the development of organ damage induced by endotoxemia or sepsis, and to investigate the effects of inhibiting TPO in these conditions. Methods We synthesized a chimeric protein able to inhibit TPO, mTPOR-MBP, and studied its effect in two murine experimental models, acute endotoxemia and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Results In both models, TPO levels markedly increased, from 289.80±27.87 pg/mL to 465.60±45.92 pg/mL at 3 hours in the LPS model (P<0.01), and from 265.00±26.02 pg/mL to 373.70±26.20 pg/mL in the CLP model (P<0.05), respectively. Paralleling TPO levels, also platelet-monocyte aggregates increased, from 32.86±2.48% to 46.13±1.39% at 3 hours in the LPS model (P<0.01), and from 43.68±1.69% to 56.52±4.66% in the CLP model (P<0.05). Blockade of TPO by mTPOR-MBP administration reduced histological damage in target organs, namely lung, liver, and gut. In particular, neutrophil infiltration and lung septal thickening were reduced from a score of 1.86±0.34 to 0.60±0.27 (P<0.01) and from 1.43±0.37 to 0.40±0.16 (P<0.05), respectively, in the LPS model at 3 hours, and from a score of 1.75±0.37 to 0.38±0.18 (P<0.01) and from 1.25±0.31 to 0.13±0.13 (P<0.001), respectively, in the CLP model. Similarly, the number of hepatic microabscesses was decreased from 14.14±1.41 to 3.64±0.56 in the LPS model at 3 hours (P<0.001), and from 1.71±0.29 to 0.13±0.13 in the CLP model (P<0.001). Finally, the diameter of intestinal villi decreased from 90.69±3.95 μm to 70.74±3.60 μm in the LPS model at 3 hours (P<0.01), and from 74.29±4.29 μm to 57.50±1.89 μm in the CLP model (P<0.01). This protective effect was associated with the blunting of the increase in platelet-monocyte adhesion, and, on the contrary, with increased platelet-neutrophil aggregates in the circulation, which may be related to decreased neutrophil sequestration into the inflamed tissues. Conversely, circulating cytokine levels were not significantly changed, in both models, by mTPOR-MBP administration. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that TPO participates in the development of organ damage induced by experimental endotoxemia or polymicrobial sepsis via a mechanism involving increased platelet-leukocyte adhesion, but not cytokine release, and suggest that blocking TPO may be useful in preventing organ damage in patients affected by systemic inflammatory response or sepsis. PMID:26963510

  17. Modelling the benefits of flood emergency management measures in reducing damages: a case study on Sondrio, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, D.; Ballio, F.; Menoni, S.

    2013-08-01

    The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.

  18. Antioxidant Enzymes Reduce DNA Damage and Early Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells in Aortic Valve Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Branchetti, Emanuela; Sainger, Rachana; Poggio, Paolo; Grau, Juan B.; Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Chorny, Michael; Lai, Eric; Gorman, Robert C.; Levy, Robert J.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeling of the microstructure of the cusp characterize aortic valve sclerosis, the early phase of calcific aortic valve disease. These events are associated with activation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) toward an osteogenic-like phenotype. Because ROS cause DNA damage and transcriptional activation we investigated the relationship between ROS, DNA damage response, and transdifferentiation of VICs. Methods and Results Human aortic valve cusps and patient-matched VICs were collected from 39 patients both with and without calcific aortic valve disease. VICs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1–1 mmol/L) after cell transduction with extracellular superoxide dismutase/catalase adenoviruses and characterized for DNA-damage response, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and calcification. ROS induce relocalization of phosphorylated γH2AX, MRE11, and XRCC1 proteins with expression of osteogenic signaling molecule RUNX2 via AKT. We report a sustained activation of γH2AX in aortic valve sclerosis-derived VICs suggesting their impaired ability to repair DNA damage. Adenovirus superoxide dismutase/catalase transduction decreases ROS-induced DNA damage and VIC transdifferentiation in aortic valve sclerosis-derived cells. Finally, adenoviral transduction with catalase reverts ROS-mediated calcification and cellular transdifferentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the ROS-induced DNA damage response is dysfunctional in early asymptomatic stages of calcific aortic valve disease. We unveiled an association among ROS, DNA-damage response, and cellular transdifferentiation, reversible by antioxidant enzymes delivery. PMID:23241403

  19. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success

    PubMed Central

    Combes, S. A.; Crall, J. D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory dropescape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival. PMID:20236968

  20. Autoregressive modeling with state-space embedding vectors for damage detection under operational and environmental variability

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Figueiredo, Eloi; Todd, Michael; Flynn, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear time series approach is presented to detect damage in systems by using a state-space reconstruction to infer the geometrical structure of a deterministic dynamical system from observed time series response at multiple locations. The unique contribution of this approach is using a Multivariate Autoregressive (MAR) model of a baseline condition to predict the state space, where the model encodes the embedding vectors rather than scalar time series. A hypothesis test is established that the MAR model will fail to predict future response if damage is present in the test condition, and this test is investigated for robustness in the context of operational and environmental variability. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated using acceleration time series from a base-excited 3-story frame structure.

  1. The effect of environmental exposure to pyrethroids and DNA damage in human sperm.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Sobala, Wojciech; Piskunowicz, Marta; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with sperm DNA damage. Between January 2008 and April 2011 286 men under 45 years of age with a normal sperm concentration of 15-300?10(6)/ml [WHO 2010] were recruited from an infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland. Participants were interviewed and provided urine, saliva, and semen samples. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA), and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analyzed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm DNA damage was assessed using a flow cytometry based on sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). A positive association was observed between CDCCA >50th percentile and the percentage of medium DNA fragmentation index (M DFI) and percentage of immature sperms (HDS) (p?=?0.04, p?=?0.04 respectively). The level of 3PBA >50th percentile in urine was positively related to the percentage of high DNA fragmentation index (H DFI) (p?=?0.03). The TDCCA, DBCA levels, and the sum of pyrethroid metabolites were not associated with any sperm DNA damage measures. Our results suggest that environmental pyrethroid exposure may affect sperm DNA damage measures index indicated the reproductive effects of pyrethroid exposure on adult men. In view of the importance of human reproductive health and the widespread usage of pyrethroids, it is important to further investigate these correlations. PMID:25376306

  2. The red wine polyphenol resveratrol reduces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced DNA damage in MCF-10A cells.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hau Y; Yung, Lai Hang; Shi, Guoli; Lu, A-Lien; Leung, Lai K

    2009-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are procarcinogens that can be commonly found in our food and environment. Upon biotransformation in our body system, they can cause DNA damage through the generation of genotoxic species and oxidative stress. Phase I and II enzymes are pivotal in the process of proximate carcinogen formation and elimination. Some dietary phytochemicals are strong inhibitors to the phase I enzymes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the red wine compound resveratrol on DNA damage induced by PAH in a non-tumorigenic breast cell line MCF-10A. Resveratrol ranging from 1 to 5 microm could significantly suppress the expressions of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1B1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The comet assay indicated that DMBA introduced DNA damage to these cells, and co-treatment of resveratrol at 5 or 10 microm could alleviate the damage. Further investigation illustrated that resveratrol reduced the binding of DMBA metabolites to DNA with no effect on DMBA-induced oxidative DNA damage. Since the phase II enzyme UGT1A1 was suppressed, the elimination of DMBA metabolites would not have contributed to the reduction in the DMBA metabolite-DNA binding. In summary, resveratrol might protect breast cells against PAH-induced DNA damage. The underlying mechanism was mediated by phase I enzyme suppression rather than phase II enzyme induction or oxidative DNA repair. PMID:19811694

  3. Selection of facility location under environmental damage priority and using ELECTRE method.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Ceren Erdin

    2011-03-01

    In the recent years, the environmental problems have reached to a vital extent, which is pushing the boundaries and far beyond daily evaluations. Industrial plants, the energy sources and uncontrolled release of pollutant gases (SO2, CO2 etc.) in the production stage have the greatest share in the occurrence of unfavorable environmental conditions. For this reason, the dimension of the problems that may arise in the production stage of industrial plants is directly related to the selection of facility location. In this study, geographical regions (a total of 7 regions) of our country have been analyzed in terms of environmental values based on their basins and the unfavorable environmental problems that are currently being experienced. Considered as such, with the directives of an expert group composed of nature scientists, the criteria and alternative areas are determined using the data gathered on ecosystem, basin characteristics, and land types. Since the primary goal is to keep the environmental damages at the minimum level, comprehensive definition of the problem is constructed by consultation of the expert group and the criteria are determined. Considering the fact that it will prevent the drawbacks generated by making decisions depending on certain stereotypes toa great extent, ELECTRE (Elimination and Choice Translating Reality English - Elimination Et Choix Traduisant la Realite) method is used to determine in which geographic region our country's industrial plants should be located. PMID:21882659

  4. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, D.E.; Steen, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes.

  5. Assessment of the repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, P.; Cunniffe, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    The cellular repair and damage of DNA induced by parent and reduced RSU-1069, a 2-nitroimidazole-aziridine, was assessed at both the molecular and cellular level. At the molecular level, after in vitro incubation with parent or reduced RSU-1069, plasmid DNA was transfected into Escherichia coli (AB1157) with subsequent selection for gene expression. For equivalent levels of DNA strand breakage following such treatment it is evident from the relative transformation frequencies that interactions with reduced RSU-1069 lead to DNA damage consistent with bifunctional action of a metabolite(s). At the cellular level, the cytoxicity of RSU-1069 was determined for a series of repair deficient mutants of E. coli under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. The differential aerobic:hypoxic cytotoxicity ratio is approximately 3. We conclude that the repair of cellular DNA damage induced by RSU-1069 involves activation of the gene products under the control of the recA gene and not those under the control of the ada gene. The ability of cellular systems to repair damage induced by RSU-1069 may play a significant role in determining its efficiency to act as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer and a hypoxia selective cytotoxin.

  6. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    PubMed Central

    Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystallization or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100?K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions. PMID:21931220

  7. A padding method to reduce edge effects for enhanced damage identification using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Lorenzo; Basu, Biswajit; Spagnoli, Andrea; Broderick, Brian M.

    2015-02-01

    Vibration response based structural damage identification by spatial wavelet analysis is widely considered a powerful tool in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). This work deals with the issue of border distortions in wavelet transform that can mask tiny damages close to the boundary of a structure. Since traditional padding methods (e.g., zero-padding, symmetric padding, linear padding) are often not satisfactory, a simple and computationally inexpensive signal extension method, based on fitting polynomial functions and continuity conditions at the extrema, is proposed. The method is applied to analyze noisy mode shapes and static deflection of cracked cantilever and simply supported beams. The effectiveness and the versatility of the method in localizing tiny damages close to clamped, free or hinged beam boundaries is demonstrated. Furthermore, an extensive comparison with the linear padding method and Messina's isomorphism methods is carried out.

  8. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-radical scavengers that are known to be effective protectors of proteins in solution are found to increase global radiation damage to protein crystals. Protective mechanisms may become deleterious in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystallization or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100 K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions.

  9. PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seong-Ryong; Kim, Hahn-Young; Hong, Jung-Suk; Baek, Won-Ki; Park, Jong-Wook

    2009-02-27

    Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, has shown protective effects against ischemic insult in various tissues. Pioglitazone is also reported to reduce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs can remodel extracellular matrix components in many pathological conditions. The current study was designed to investigate whether the neuroprotection of pioglitazone is related to its MMP inhibition in focal cerebral ischemia. Mice were subjected to 90 min focal ischemia and reperfusion. In gel zymography, pioglitazone reduced the upregulation of active form of MMP-9 after ischemia. In in situ zymograms, pioglitazone also reduced the gelatinase activity induced by ischemia. After co-incubation with pioglitazone, in situ gelatinase activity was directly reduced. Pioglitazone reduced the infarct volume significantly compared with controls. These results demonstrate that pioglitazone may reduce MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following focal ischemia. The reduction of MMP-9 activity may have a possible therapeutic effect for the management of brain injury after focal ischemia.

  10. Overview of the Progress in Reducing Environmental Effects on Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot weather can have negative impacts on feedlot cattle by reducing animal performance and compromising animal well-being. In most circumstances, animals adapt with amazing ease – balancing their heat production (maintenance energy, production levels, feed intake and activity) with their ability to ...

  11. DNA damage and repair in haemolymph cells of golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) exposed to environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Villela, Izabel Vianna; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, Joo Antonio Pgas

    2006-06-16

    The development of methodologies for biomonitoring freshwater ecosystems is of particular relevance in view of the serious problem of aquatic environmental pollution. The mussel species Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) was chosen to be tested as a biomonitor organism based on its population data and distribution. L. fortunei individuals were exposed to UV radiation in vitro, and in vivo to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper sulphate (CuSO(4)), with the aim of standardizing comet assay and micronucleus test methodologies and evaluating the potential of this organism as a biomonitor. Haemolymph cells immobilized in agarose on slides exposed to UV radiation showed a dose-response relationship with maximum damage at 4.2 J/m(2). For the chemical tests, individuals were exposed for 2h for the comet assay and 24 and 48 h for the micronucleus test. A dose-response relationship was observed for both chemicals. 3x10(-5) M CuSO(4) induced high genotoxicity, also producing some toxicity after 48 h of exposure. PCP induced maximum damage in both assays at 150 ?g/L. Individuals exposed to PCP showed 100% repair 2 h after the exposure period, as assessed by the comet assay. Exposure to an environmental sample over 7 days confirmed the mussel sensitivity to water contaminants, detected both by the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The results allow us to suggest the golden mussel as a potential biomonitor organism. PMID:16697250

  12. Pest tradeoffs in technology: Reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have now reported increased levels of non Bt-targeted secondary pests in Bt crops. We carried out a series of greenhouse and field experiments comparing aphid populations on Bt-and non Bt-cotton that were damaged by the Bt-targeted caterpillar, Heliothis virescens. We found in bo...

  13. Reducing risks to human and environmental health: A case study at Point Lisas Industrial Estate, Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, C.; Baetz, B.

    1995-12-31

    Waste audits were completed at four industrial plants on the Point Lisas Industrial Estate in Couva, Trinidad to examine the potential for setting up an industrial ecosystem on the estate. There was no legislation in effect to require treatment of any waste materials and, as a consequence, most materials were disposed of into the environment. The objective of this research was to determine possible sources of contamination, the potential effects on human and environmental health and to assess means of reducing the contamination. The four plants produced 50,270,000 tonnes/year of liquid waste, 986,000,000 tonnes/year of gas waste, 5,400,000 tonnes/year of solid waste and 22,000 tonnes/year of sludge waste. Atmospheric emissions were particularly severe at the ammonia/fertilizer and steel producing plants, sufficient to pose a threat to employee health. Liquid wastes, including solvents, were disposed of into the ocean and previous studies had revealed damage to aquatic life. Solid and sludge wastes were either buried on site or sent to landfill. A number of hazardous materials were in use at the plants. Recommendations were made for reducing waste production, reducing the hazardous nature of materials and for treating or co-treating wastes for reuse or recycling on site or for disposal. Unfortunately there appears to be little interest in setting standards for emissions, effluents or waste disposal in Trinidad and further economic data are required to persuade companies that they should consider spending funds on waste management or on establishing an industrial ecosystem.

  14. Chronic predation risk reduces escape speed by increasing oxidative damage: a deadly cost of an adaptive antipredator response.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2014-01-01

    Prey organisms evolved a multitude of plastic responses to avoid being eaten by predators. Besides the evolution of plastic morphological responses to escape predation, prey also evolved a set of physiological stress responses to avoid dying because of chronic predator stress per se due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. As physiological stress theory predicts increased energy consumption and the inhibition of essential nonemergency body functions, we tested whether chronic predation risk may increase oxidative damage thereby generating negative effects on escape performance. Specifically, we evaluated whether predation risk reduces escape swimming speed in damselfly larvae and whether this operates through stress-associated increases in oxidative damage. Counterintuitively and in contrast with many empirical studies, chronic predation risk decreased escape performance. This is however entirely consistent with the expectation of it being a long-term cost of responding to predation risk (e.g. by increasing respiration or upregulating the stress protein levels). The decreased swimming speed could be explained by an increased oxidative damage to proteins, thereby providing one of the poorly studied ecological links between oxidative damage and whole-animal performance. This likely widespread, understudied cost of chronic predation risk may provide an important pathway of non-consumptive predator effects on prey population dynamics. Moreover, it could play an evolutionary role by acting as a selective force causing prey organisms to adjust the magnitude of the physiological stress response and should be considered when evaluating life history trade-offs thought to be mediated by oxidative damage. PMID:24968142

  15. Chronic Predation Risk Reduces Escape Speed by Increasing Oxidative Damage: A Deadly Cost of an Adaptive Antipredator Response

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2014-01-01

    Prey organisms evolved a multitude of plastic responses to avoid being eaten by predators. Besides the evolution of plastic morphological responses to escape predation, prey also evolved a set of physiological stress responses to avoid dying because of chronic predator stress per se due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. As physiological stress theory predicts increased energy consumption and the inhibition of essential nonemergency body functions, we tested whether chronic predation risk may increase oxidative damage thereby generating negative effects on escape performance. Specifically, we evaluated whether predation risk reduces escape swimming speed in damselfly larvae and whether this operates through stress-associated increases in oxidative damage. Counterintuitively and in contrast with many empirical studies, chronic predation risk decreased escape performance. This is however entirely consistent with the expectation of it being a long-term cost of responding to predation risk (e.g. by increasing respiration or upregulating the stress protein levels). The decreased swimming speed could be explained by an increased oxidative damage to proteins, thereby providing one of the poorly studied ecological links between oxidative damage and whole-animal performance. This likely widespread, understudied cost of chronic predation risk may provide an important pathway of non-consumptive predator effects on prey population dynamics. Moreover, it could play an evolutionary role by acting as a selective force causing prey organisms to adjust the magnitude of the physiological stress response and should be considered when evaluating life history trade-offs thought to be mediated by oxidative damage. PMID:24968142

  16. Environmental hypoxia but not minor shell damage affects scope for growth and body condition in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.).

    PubMed

    Sanders, Trystan; Widdicombe, Steve; Calder-Potts, Ruth; Spicer, John I

    2014-04-01

    The effects of short-term (7 d) exposure to environmental hypoxia (2.11 mg O₂ L⁻¹; control: 6.96 mg O₂ L⁻¹) and varying degrees of shell damage (1 or 2, 1 mm diameter holes; control: no holes) on respiration rate, clearance rate, ammonia excretion rate, scope for growth (SFG) and body condition index were investigated in adult blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). There was a significant hypoxia-related reduction in SFG (>6.70 to 0.92 J g⁻¹ h⁻¹) primarily due to a reduction in energy acquisition as a result of reduced clearance rates during hypoxia. Shell damage had no significant affect on any of the physiological processes measured or the SFG calculated. Body condition was unaffected by hypoxia or shell damage. In conclusion, minor physical damage to mussels had no effect on physiological energetics but environmental hypoxia compromised growth, respiration and energy acquisition presumably by reducing feeding rates. PMID:24485768

  17. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight. PMID:25152862

  18. L-carnosine reduces telomere damage and shortening rate in cultured normal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lan; Li, Qing-Huan; Tan, Zheng

    2004-11-12

    Telomere is the repetitive DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shortens progressively with cell division and limits the replicative potential of normal human somatic cells. L-carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been reported to delay the replicative senescence, and extend the lifespan of cultured human diploid fibroblasts. In this work, we studied the effect of carnosine on the telomeric DNA of cultured human fetal lung fibroblast cells. Cells continuously grown in 20 mM carnosine exhibited a slower telomere shortening rate and extended lifespan in population doublings. When kept in a long-term nonproliferating state, they accumulated much less damages in the telomeric DNA when cultured in the presence of carnosine. We suggest that the reduction in telomere shortening rate and damages in telomeric DNA made an important contribution to the life-extension effect of carnosine. PMID:15474517

  19. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  20. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Plancher, Henry; Petersen, Joseph C.

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  1. LKB1 reduces ROS-mediated cell damage via activation of p38

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua-Guo; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Chen, Jianfeng; Lu, Yibing; Wang, Jian-Wei; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Xiao, Xuxian; He, Qiongqiong; Werle, Kaitlin D.; Kim, Hyung-Gyoon; Lopez, Richard; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1, also known as serine/threonine kinase 11, STK11) is a tumor suppressor mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in a variety of sporadic cancers. Herein, we demonstrate that LKB1 controls the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protects the genome from oxidative damage. Cells lacking LKB1 exhibit markedly increased intracellular ROS levels, excessive oxidation of DNA, increased mutation rates, and accumulation of DNA damage, which are effectively prevented by ectopic expression of LKB1 and by incubation with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The role of LKB1 in suppressing ROS is independent of AMPK, a canonical substrate of LKB1. Instead, under the elevated ROS, LKB1 binds to and maintains the activity of cdc42-PAK1 (p21 activated kinase 1) complex, which triggers the activation of p38 and its downstream signaling targets, such as ATF-2, thereby enhancing the activity of SOD-2 and catalase, two antioxidant enzymes that protect the cells from ROS accumulation, DNA damage, and loss of viability. Our results provide a new paradigm for a non-canonical tumor suppressor function of LKB1 and highlight the importance of targeting ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer cells lacking LKB1. PMID:25263448

  2. Physical exercise increases mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative damage in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciano A; Pinho, Cleber A; Scarabelot, Karoline S; Fraga, Daiane B; Volpato, Ana M J; Boeck, Carina R; De Souza, Cludio T; Streck, Emilio L; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated mitochondrial adaptations and oxidative damage after 4 and 8 weeks of running training in skeletal muscle of mice. Twenty-one male mice (CF1, 30-35 g) were distributed into the following groups (n = 7): untrained (UT); trained-4 weeks (T4); trained-8 weeks (T8). Forty-eight hours after the last training session the animals were killed by decapitation and quadriceps (red portion) were removed and stored at -70 degrees C. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), complexes I, II, II-III and IV, lipoperoxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC) and total thiol content were measured. Results show that endurance training (8-wk) increases the SDH activity and complexes (I, II, III, IV), decreases oxidative damage (TBARS, CP) and increases total thiol content in skeletal muscle when compared to untrained animals. In conclusion, eight weeks of running training are necessary for increases in mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities to occur, in association with decreased oxidative damage. PMID:19153761

  3. Pre-treatment with glutamine reduces genetic damage due to cancer treatment with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R J; Sassaki, E S; Monreal, A C D; Monreal, M T F D; Pesarini, J R; Mauro, M O; Matuo, R; Silva, A F; Zobiole, N N; Siqueira, J M; Ribeiro, L R; Mantovani, M S

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective antineoplastic drug. However, it provokes considerable collateral effects, including genotoxic and clastogenic activity. It has been reported that a diet rich in glutamine can help inhibit such collateral effects. We evaluated this activity in 40 Swiss mice, distributed into eight experimental groups: G1 - Control group (PBS 0.1 mL/10 g body weight); G2 - cisplatin group (cisplatin 6 mg/kg intraperitoneally); G3, G4, G5 - glutamine groups (glutamine at 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, respectively; orally); G6, G7, G8 - Pre-treatment groups (glutamine at 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, respectively; orally and cisplatin 6 mg/kg intraperitonially). For the micronucleus assay, samples of blood were collected (before the first use of the drugs at T0, then 24 (T1) and 48 (T2) hours after the first administration). For the comet assay, blood samples were collected only at T2. The damage reduction percentages for the micronucleus assay were 90.0, 47.3, and 37.3% at T1 and 46.0, 38.6, and 34.7% at T2, for G6, G7, and G8 groups, respectively. For the comet assay, the damage reduction percentages were 113.0, 117.4, and 115.0% for G6, G7, and G8, respectively. We conclude that glutamine is able to prevent genotoxic and clastogenic damages caused by cisplatin. PMID:24338398

  4. The effects of environmental enrichment and beak-trimming during the rearing period on subsequent feather damage due to feather-pecking in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hartcher, K M; Tran, K T N; Wilkinson, S J; Hemsworth, P H; Thomson, P C; Cronin, G M

    2015-05-01

    This experiment investigated effects of environmental enrichment and beak-trimming during the rearing period on behavior in rearing and plumage damage later in life. Treatments were applied in a 2 2 factorial arrangement. Half of the birds were beak-trimmed at 1 d of age using an infra-red laser. A follow-up light-trim was performed at 11 wk of age with a hot blade. Environmental enrichment consisted of pecking strings, whole oats in the litter, and greater litter depth. Sixteen pens of 50 ISA Brown laying hens were used. Four pullets were selected from each pen as focal birds and observed in their home pens between 3 and 14 wk of age. Plumage damage was scored at the end of the experiment in wk 43. Beak-trimmed birds performed less ground-pecking (P= 0.003), less severe feather-pecking (P= 0.021) and more gentle feather-pecking (P= 0.018) than their non-trimmed counterparts during the rearing period. These birds also exhibited less feather damage in wk 43 (P < 0.001). The results indicate that gentle feather-pecking during rearing is not related to plumage damage when older. Additionally, higher rates of ground-pecking and severe feather-pecking during rearing may be predictive of plumage damage later in life. There was no effect of enrichment on plumage damage. It was concluded that while there was no effect on enrichment, beak-trimming appeared to be effective in reducing plumage damage in wk 43. PMID:25717088

  5. Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  6. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of 2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  7. Norepinephrine Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and DNA Damage in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja R; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Theruvathu, Jacob; Mitra, Sankar A; Boldogh, Istvan; Sowers, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the role of norepinephrine (NE) on DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in ovarian surface epithelial cells. Method Non-tumorigenic, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells were treated with NE, bleomycin, and bleomycin followed by NE. The comet assay was performed on each treatment group to determine the amount of single and double-strand breaks induced by treatments. ROS levels for each treatment group were measured using the H2DCF-DA fluorescence assay. Finally, RNA transcripts were measured for each treatment group with regards to the expression of DNA repair and oxidative stress genes. Results The mean tail moment of untreated cells was significantly greater than that of cells treated with NE (p=0.02). The mean tail moment of cells treated with bleomycin was significantly greater than that of cells treated with bleomycin followed by NE (p<0.01). Treatment with NE resulted in significantly less ROS generation than in untreated cells (p<0.01). NE treatment after hydrogen peroxide treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease in ROS generation. Genes associated with oxidative stress were upregulated in cells treated with bleomycin, however this upregulation was blunted when bleomycin-treated cells were treated subsequently with NE. Conclusion NE is associated with decreased DNA damage and ROS production in ovarian surface epithelial cells. This effect is protective in the presence of the oxidative-damaging agent bleomycin. These results suggest an additional physiologic role for the stress hormone NE, in protecting ovarian surface epithelial cells from oxidative stress. PMID:26167254

  8. Monoacylated Cellular Prion Proteins Reduce Amyloid-?-Induced Activation of Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 and Synapse Damage

    PubMed Central

    West, Ewan; Osborne, Craig; Nolan, William; Bate, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-? (A?) and the loss of synapses. Aggregation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) by A? oligomers induced synapse damage in cultured neurons. PrPC is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, the composition of which affects protein targeting and cell signaling. Monoacylated PrPC incorporated into neurons bound natural A?, sequestering A? outside lipid rafts and preventing its accumulation at synapses. The presence of monoacylated PrPC reduced the A?-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and A?-induced synapse damage. This protective effect was stimulus specific, as treated neurons remained sensitive to ?-synuclein, a protein associated with synapse damage in Parkinsons disease. In synaptosomes, the aggregation of PrPC by A? oligomers triggered the formation of a signaling complex containing the cPLA2.a process, disrupted by monoacylated PrPC. We propose that monoacylated PrPC acts as a molecular sponge, binding A? oligomers at the neuronal perikarya without activating cPLA2 or triggering synapse damage. PMID:26043272

  9. Oxidative damage in different tissues of neonatal chicks exposed to low environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Ahmad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-04-01

    Maintenance of body temperature in a cold environment is crucial for survival in homeotherms. However, we have previously reported that on exposure to low environmental temperature, neonatal chicks (Gallus gallus) show hypothermia, decreased behavioral activity, and absence of gene transcript enhancement of putative thermogenic proteins, as well as no change in mitochondrial substrate oxidation enzymes. Various metabolic abnormalities and/or tissue damage may also decline the thermogenic capacity of low-temperature-exposed neonatal chicks. Therefore, to investigate oxidative damage in low-temperature-exposed (20 degrees C for 12 h) neonatal chicks, we studied lipid peroxidation when compared to the control chicks kept at thermoneutral temperature (30 degrees C). Malondialdehyde (MDA), was measured in plasma, brain, heart, liver and skeletal muscle (pectoralis superficialis and gastrocnemius). Weight gain and feed consumption did not change when chicks were exposed to low-temperature as compared to that of control chicks. On low-temperature exposure, body temperature was significantly decreased and plasma non-esterified fatty acid level was 1.3-fold higher than that of control chicks. In low-temperature exposed chicks, brain and heart MDA levels were 2.1- and 1.2-fold higher, respectively, than that of control chicks. This increase in MDA levels was not observed in plasma, liver and muscle of low-temperature-exposed chicks. In conclusion, there is evidence of increased lipid peroxidation in brain and heart of neonatal chicks exposed to low-temperature. We hypothesize that this oxidative damage in brain and heart may contribute to the impaired physiological, behavioral and thermoregulatory responses that potentiate the sensitivity to cold exposure. PMID:19256080

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at 35ºC. This is in contrast to anammox, another anaerobic ammonium oxidation pathway, for which optimal NH4+ oxidation is at temperatures ~ 30ºC. Hence, a Feammox-based process is an attractive candidate for wastewater treatment that could result in further energy savings, by requiring no aeration or heating of the wastewater in temperate climates.

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Bermdez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached. ETS tar solutions, like mainstream tar solutions, produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide appears to be an essential component of the mechanism by which both ETS tar and mainstream tar cause DNA damage in rat thymocytes, as catalase substantially protects against DNA damage. Glutathione also protects against DNA nicking by both ETS and mainstream tar solutions by scavenging radicals and/or oxidants. The chelator diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid also provides partial (40%) protection. The studies demonstrate that the water-soluble components of ETS tar can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9644196

  12. Effect of Temperature on Damage Evolution of Cr25Ni35Nb Alloy Subjected to Combined Mechanical and Environmental Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Limin; Liu, Huansheng; Gong, Jianming; Geng, Luyang

    2015-07-01

    Due to combined mechanical and environmental degradation, i.e. coupled creep and carburization, Cr25Ni35Nb alloy often fails prior to the expected design life. In the present paper, based on the continuum damage mechanics, the constitutive model of coupled multi-damage factors for computing the damage evolution of Cr25Ni35Nb alloy was proposed. The damage prediction was carried out by using finite element method based on ABAQUS code. And then damage evolution processes at different operating temperatures (950 C and 1050 C) were simulated and the effect of service temperature on the damage evolution was discussed. The results showed that the rate of damage increased obviously with operating temperature increasing. The location with maximum damage is along the inner surface of tube, which implies that fracture begins along the inner surface of tube under the action of coupled creep and carburization damage and this is coincident with the actual observation of the failure of furnace tube.

  13. Inhibition of mTOR Pathway by Rapamycin Reduces Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Transient Forebrain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Hei, Changhun; Liu, Ping; Song, Yaozu; Thomas, Taylor; Tshimanga, Sylvie; Wang, Feng; Niu, Jianguo; Sun, Tao; Li, P. Andy

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to clarify the role of mTOR in mediating cerebral ischemic brain damage and the effects of rapamycin on ischemic outcomes. Ten minutes of forebrain ischemia was induced in rats, and their brains were sampled after 3 h, 16 h, and 7 days reperfusion for histology, immunohistochemistry and biochemical analysis. Our data demonstrated that cerebral ischemia resulted in both apoptotic and necrotic neuronal death; cerebral ischemia and reperfusion led to significant increases of mRNA and protein levels of p-mTOR and its downstream p-P70S6K and p-S6; elevation of LC3-II, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm in both the cortex and hippocampus. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin markedly reduced ischemia-induced damage; suppressed p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K and p-S6 protein levels; decreased LC3-II and Beclin-1; and prevented cytochrome c release in the two structures. All together, these data provide evidence that cerebral ischemia activates mTOR and autophagy pathways. Inhibition of mTOR deactivates the mTOR pathway, suppresses autophagy, prevents cytochrome c release and reduces ischemic brain damage. PMID:26681922

  14. Black Currant Nectar Reduces Muscle Damage and Inflammation Following a Bout of High-Intensity Eccentric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Alexander T; Flieller, Emily B; Dillon, Kimber J; Leverett, Betsy D

    2016-01-01

    This investigation determined the efficacy of black currant nectar (BCN) in reducing symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Sixteen college students were randomly assigned to drink either 16 oz of BCN or a placebo (PLA) twice a day for eight consecutive days. A bout of eccentric knee extensions (3 × 10 sets @ 115% of 1RM) was performed on the fourth day. Outcome measures included muscle soreness (subjective scale from 0 to 10) and blood markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, CK), inflammation (interleukin-6, IL-6), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Although there were no differences in reported soreness between groups, consumption of BCN reduced CK levels at both 48 (PLA = 82.13% vs. BCN = -6.71%, p = .042) and 96 h post exercise (PLA = 74.96% vs. BCN = -12.11%, p = .030). The change in IL-6 was higher in the PLA group (PLA = 8.84% vs. BCN = -6.54%, p = .023) at 24 h post exercise. The change in ORAC levels was higher in the treatment group (BCN = 2.68% vs. PLA = -6.02%, p = .039) at 48 h post exercise. Our results demonstrate that consumption of BCN prior to and after a bout of eccentric exercise attenuates muscle damage and inflammation. PMID:25153307

  15. The psychosocial impact of the environmental damage caused by the MT Merapi eruption on survivors in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Warsini, Sri; Buettner, Petra; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Usher, Kim

    2014-12-01

    The eruption of Indonesia's Mount Merapi volcano in 2010 caused extensive environmental degradation. Settlements and hundreds of hectares of farmlands were buried under volcanic ash. Until now, there has been no research on the psychosocial impact of living in an environment damaged by a volcanic eruption. We studied and compared the psychosocial impact of environmental damage on volcano survivors from two subdistricts-Cangkringan and Pakem. Cangkringan survivors affected by the 2010 eruption continue to live in a damaged environment. The Pakem subdistrict was damaged by eruptions of Mt Merapi in the 1990s but there is no recent damage to their environment. The Indonesian-Environmental Distress Scale (I-EDS), a translated revision of the original Environmental Distress Scale (EDS), was used to collect data. Exploratory statistical methods and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relative contributions of demographic variables on the psychosocial impact of living in an environment damaged by volcanic eruption. A total of 348 survivors of the Mt Merapi eruption participated in the survey. The mean I-EDS score for Cangkringan district was 15.8 (SD 1.6; range 11.8-19.8) compared to 14.6 (SD 1.3; range 11.8-18.3) for Pakem district (P < 0.001). This result was confirmed by multiple linear regression analysis showing further that older respondents (P < 0.001), unemployed and retired respondents (P = 0.007), and respondents with no formal school education (P = 0.037) had lower I-EDS scores compared to the respective reference groups. Survivors of the Mt Merapi eruption who continue to live in the environment damaged by the 2010 volcanic eruption experience environmental distress. Relevant interventions should target those from low sosioeconomic groups to deal with the distress. PMID:24763946

  16. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Darrah, Thomas H; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  17. Engineering safer-by-design, transparent, silica-coated ZnO nanorods with reduced DNA damage potential

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Watson, Christa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Elder, Alison; Brain, Joseph D.; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles absorb UV light efficiently while remaining transparent in the visible light spectrum rendering them attractive in cosmetics and polymer films. Their broad use, however, raises concerns regarding potential environmental health risks and it has been shown that ZnO nanoparticles can induce significant DNA damage and cytotoxicity. Even though research on ZnO nanoparticle synthesis has made great progress, efforts on developing safer ZnO nanoparticles that maintain their inherent optoelectronic properties while exhibiting minimal toxicity are limited. Here, a safer-by-design concept was pursued by hermetically encapsulating ZnO nanorods in a biologically inert, nanothin amorphous SiO2 coating during their gas-phase synthesis. It is demonstrated that the SiO2 nanothin layer hermetically encapsulates the core ZnO nanorods without altering their optoelectronic properties. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 on the toxicological profile of the core ZnO nanorods was assessed using the Nano-Cometchip assay by monitoring DNA damage at a cellular level using human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6). Results indicate significantly lower DNA damage (>3 times) for the SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods compared to uncoated ones. Such an industry-relevant, scalable, safer-by-design formulation of nanostructured materials can liberate their employment in nano-enabled products and minimize risks to the environment and human health. PMID:24955241

  18. Pyruvate kinase M2 interacts with DNA damage-binding protein 2 and reduces cell survival upon UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao; Wang, Mingsong; Mei, Ju; Hu, Fengqing; Ding, Fangbao; Lv, Lei

    2015-11-13

    Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2) is highly expressed in many solid tumors and associated with metabolism reprogramming and proliferation of tumors. Here, we report that PKM2 can bind to DNA Damage-Binding Protein 2 (DDB2), which is necessary for global nucleotide excision repair of UV induced DNA damage. The binding is promoted by UV irradiation and K433 acetylation of PKM2. Over expression of PKM2 facilitates phosphorylation of DDB2 and impairs DDB2-DDB1 binding. Furthermore, knocking down of PKM2 increases cell survival upon UV irradiation, while over expression of PKM2 reduces cell survival and over expression of DDB2-DDB1 reverts this effect. These results reveal a previously unknown regulation of PKM2 on DDB2 and provide a possible mechanism for UV induced tumorigenesis. PMID:26410533

  19. Vegetative environmental buffers for reducing downwind odor and VOCs from tunnel-ventilated swine barn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have investigated methods for reducing odor emissions from livestock buildings for decades, yet few technologies have proven effective. Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEBs), which are specially designed combinations of trees, shrubs and grasses, have shown promise in recent years for ...

  20. Dibutyryl cAMP reduces nonparenchymal cell damage during cold preservation of rat livers.

    PubMed

    Van Ness, K; Podkameni, D; Schwartz, M; Boros, P; Miller, C

    1995-06-01

    Sinusoidal lining cells are the main target for cold preservation injury and are further damaged with reperfusion. Different agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels have been shown beneficial. This study was designed to assess the possible protective effect of a cAMP analogue on nonparenchymal cells of rat livers, during cold storage and during reperfusion. Parameters reflecting the status of the liver microvasculature were analyzed. The initial effluent collected after preservation reflects release during the cold storage period; therefore we measured interleukin-1 (IL-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in these samples in order to detect and quantitate the degree of activation and/or disruption of Kupffer and sinusoidal endothelial lining cells. Rat livers were harvested after in situ flush with Ringer's lactate with or without 2 mM dibutyryl cAMP, excised, and stored in the same solution at 4 degrees C. After 6 hr, livers were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 90 min. Physiological parameters were monitored throughout the perfusion. Perfusate samples were collected every 30 min for RIA measurements of IL-1 and ET-1. Treatment resulted in a significant decrease in release of ET-1 and IL-1 during storage. Likewise, livers treated with cAMP had a significantly improved bile output and decreased portal vein resistance during reperfusion. The beneficial effect granted by the analogue during cold storage and reperfusion was evident on parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. Levels of ET-1 and IL-1 in the caval effluent confirm and quantitate preservation damage. PMID:7791353

  1. Delayed but not Early Treatment with DNase Reduces Organ Damage and Improves Outcome in a Murine Model of Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mai, Safiah H C; Khan, Momina; Dwivedi, Dhruva J; Ross, Catherine A; Zhou, Ji; Gould, Travis J; Gross, Peter L; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Liaw, Patricia C

    2015-08-01

    Sepsis is characterized by systemic activation of coagulation and inflammation in response to microbial infection. Although cell-free DNA (cfDNA) released from activated neutrophils has antimicrobial properties, it may also exert harmful effects by activating coagulation and inflammation. The authors aimed to determine whether deoxyribonuclease (DNase) administration reduces cfDNA levels, attenuates coagulation and inflammation, suppresses organ damage, and improves outcome in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of polymicrobial sepsis. Healthy C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to CLP, a surgical procedure involving two punctures of the ligated cecum, or sham surgery (no ligation/puncture). Mice were given DNase or saline by intraperitoneal injection 2, 4, or 6 h after surgery. Two hours after treatment, organs were harvested and plasma levels of cfDNA, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, lung myeloperoxidase, creatinine, alanine transaminase, and bacterial load were quantified. Survival studies were also performed. The CLP-operated mice had rapid time-dependent elevations in cfDNA that correlated with elevations in IL-6, IL-10, and thrombin-antithrombin complexes and had organ damage in the lungs and kidneys. Administration of DNase at 2 h after CLP resulted in increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and organ damage in the lungs and kidneys. In contrast, DNase administration at 4 or 6 h after CLP resulted in reduced cfDNA and IL-6 levels, increased IL-10, and suppressed organ damage and bacterial dissemination. Deoxyribonuclease administration every 6 h after CLP also rescued mice from death. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that delayed but not early administration of DNase may be protective in experimental sepsis. PMID:26009820

  2. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.

    2015-01-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska.

  3. Environmental contaminants and chromosomal damage associated with beak deformities in a resident North American passerine.

    PubMed

    Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    A large cluster of beak abnormalities among black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in Alaska raised concern about underlying environmental factors in this region. Metals and trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD-Fs) were analyzed in adults, nestlings, and eggs of the affected population; local bird seed was also tested for organochlorine pesticides. The results offered no support for the hypothesis that selenium or any other inorganic element was responsible for beak deformities among chickadees, but some evidence that organochlorine compounds may be contributing factors. Adults with beak deformities had an elevated level of chromosomal damage, which was correlated with lipid level and concentrations of several organochlorine compounds. Multivariate analyses of pesticides and PCBs did not distinguish abnormal from normal adults, but subsequent univariate analysis demonstrated higher concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and PCB-123 in abnormal adults. Concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were low, and none is known to cause beak or keratin abnormalities. Patterns of PCB congener concentrations differed between nestlings with normal and abnormal parents. Eggs from clutches with low hatchability had higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene and PCDD-Fs than those with high hatching success, and hexachlorobenzene was found in seeds. Additional testing for PCDD-Fs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other emerging contaminants, including brominated compounds, is needed to rule out environmental contaminants as a cause of beak deformities in chickadees in Alaska. PMID:25376148

  4. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  5. Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hyunhoe

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead

  6. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a

  7. The environmental cost of reducing agricultural fine particulate (PM2.5) dust emissions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 2006, reducing acceptable fine particulate (PM2.5) levels; state environmental protection agencies in states with non-attainment areas are required to draft State Implementation Plans (SIP) det...

  8. Epicatechin Reduces Striatal MPP?-Induced Damage in Rats through Slight Increases in SOD-Cu,Zn Activity.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Osornio, M; Gorostieta-Salas, E; Montes, S; Prez-Severiano, F; Rubio, C; Gmez, C; Ros, C; Guevara, J

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by movement alterations caused by reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway, presumably by oxidative stress (OS). MPP(+) intrastriatal injection leads to the overproduction of free radicals (FR). The increasing formation of FR produces OS, a decline in dopamine (DA) content, and behavioral disorders. Epicatechin (EC) has shown the ability to be FR scavenger, an antioxidant enzyme inductor, a redox state modulator, and transition metal chelator. Acute administration of 100?mg/kg of EC significantly prevented (P < 0.05) the circling MPP(+)-induced behavior (10??g/8??L). Likewise, EC significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the formation of fluorescent lipid products caused by MPP(+). MPP(+) injection produced (P < 0.05) increased enzymatic activity of the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS). This effect was blocked with acute EC pretreatment. Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) activity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced as a consequence of MPP(+) damage. EC produced a slight increase (?20%) in Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the control group. Such effects persisted in animals injured with MPP(+). The results show that EC is effective against MPP(+)-induced biochemical and behavioral damage, which is possible by an increase in Cu/Zn-SOD activity. PMID:26301040

  9. Epicatechin Reduces Striatal MPP+-Induced Damage in Rats through Slight Increases in SOD-Cu,Zn Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Osornio, M.; Gorostieta-Salas, E.; Montes, S.; Prez-Severiano, F.; Rubio, C.; Gmez, C.; Ros, C.; Guevara, J.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by movement alterations caused by reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway, presumably by oxidative stress (OS). MPP+ intrastriatal injection leads to the overproduction of free radicals (FR). The increasing formation of FR produces OS, a decline in dopamine (DA) content, and behavioral disorders. Epicatechin (EC) has shown the ability to be FR scavenger, an antioxidant enzyme inductor, a redox state modulator, and transition metal chelator. Acute administration of 100?mg/kg of EC significantly prevented (P < 0.05) the circling MPP+-induced behavior (10??g/8??L). Likewise, EC significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the formation of fluorescent lipid products caused by MPP+. MPP+ injection produced (P < 0.05) increased enzymatic activity of the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS). This effect was blocked with acute EC pretreatment. Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) activity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced as a consequence of MPP+ damage. EC produced a slight increase (?20%) in Cu/Zn-SOD activity in the control group. Such effects persisted in animals injured with MPP+. The results show that EC is effective against MPP+-induced biochemical and behavioral damage, which is possible by an increase in Cu/Zn-SOD activity. PMID:26301040

  10. Treatment with novel RSV Ig RI-002 controls viral replication and reduces pulmonary damage in immunocompromised Sigmodon hispidus.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalova, M; Blanco, J C G; Falsey, A R; Mond, J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in several high health risk populations, including infants, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with lower respiratory tract RSV infection can exceed 80%. It has been shown that RSV replication in immunosuppressed individuals is significantly prolonged, but the contribution of pulmonary damage, if any, to the pathogenesis of RSV disease in this susceptible population is not known. In this work, we tested RI-002, a novel standardized Ig formulation containing a high level of RSV-neutralizing Ab, for its ability to control RSV infection in immunocompromised cotton rats Sigmodon hispidus. Animals immunosuppressed by repeat cyclophosphamide injections were infected with RSV and treated with RI-002. Prolonged RSV replication, characteristic of immunosuppressed cotton rats, was inhibited by RI-002 administration. Ab treatment reduced detection of systemic dissemination of viral RNA. Importantly, pulmonary interstitial inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia that were significantly elevated in immunosuppressed animals were reduced by RI-002 administration. These results indicate the potential of RI-002 to improve outcome of RSV infection in immunocompromised subjects not only by controlling viral replication, but also by reducing damage to lung parenchyma and epithelial airway lining, but further studies are needed. PMID:26367224

  11. Spirulina prevents memory dysfunction, reduces oxidative stress damage and augments antioxidant activity in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Juen-Haur; Lee, I-Te; Jeng, Kee-Ching; Wang, Ming-Fu; Hou, Rolis Chien-Wei; Wu, Su-Mei; Chan, Yin-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina has proven to be effective in treating certain cancers, hyperlipidemia, immunodeficiency, and inflammatory processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Spirulina on memory dysfunction, oxidative stress damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. Three-month-old male senescence-accelerated prone-8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly assigned to either a control group or to one of two experimental groups (one receiving daily dietary supplementation with 50 mg/kg BW and one with 200 mg/kg BW of Spirulina platensis water extract). Senescence-accelerated-resistant (SAMR1) mice were used as the external control. Results showed that the Spirulina-treated groups had better passive and avoidance scores than the control group. The amyloid ?-protein (A?) deposition was significantly reduced at the hippocampus and whole brain in both Spirulina groups. The levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced at the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex in both Spirulina groups, while catalase activity was significantly higher only in the 200 mg/kg BW Spirulina group than in the control group. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher only in the cortex of the 200 mg/kg group than in that of the SAMP8 control group. However, superoxide dismutase activity in all parts of the brain did not significantly differ among all groups. In conclusion, Spirulina platensis may prevent the loss of memory possibly by lessening A? protein accumulation, reducing oxidative damage and mainly augmenting the catalase activity. PMID:21697639

  12. Efficacy of plastic mesh tubes in reducing herbivory damage by the invasive nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an urban restoration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheffels, Trevor R.; Systma, Mark D.; Carter, Jacoby; Taylor, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of stream corridors is becoming an increasingly important component of urban landscape planning, and the high cost of these projects necessitates the need to understand and address potential ecological obstacles to project success. The nutria(Myocastor coypus) is an invasive, semi-aquatic rodent native to South America that causes detrimental ecological impacts in riparian and wetland habitats throughout its introduced range, and techniques are needed to reduce nutria herbivory damage to urban stream restoration projects. We assessed the efficacy of standard Vexar® plastic mesh tubes in reducing nutria herbivory damage to newly established woody plants. The study was conducted in winter-spring 2009 at Delta Ponds, a 60-ha urban waterway in Eugene, Oregon. Woody plants protected by Vexar® tubes demonstrated 100% survival over the 3-month initial establishment period, while only 17% of unprotected plantings survived. Nutria demonstrated a preference for black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera ssp trichocarpa) over red osier dogwood (Cornussericea) and willow (Salix spp). Camera surveillance showed that nutria were more active in unprotected rather than protected treatments. Our results suggest that Vexar® plastic mesh tubing can be an effective short-term herbivory mitigation tool when habitat use by nutria is low. Additionally, planting functionally equivalent woody plant species that are less preferred by nutria, and other herbivores, may be another method for reducing herbivory and improving revegetation success. This study highlights the need to address potential wildlife damage conflicts in the planning process for stream restoration in urban landscapes.

  13. Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 Reduces Intestinal Epithelial Tight-Junction Damage and Mortality in Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Qiankun; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Shoutao; Wang, Guozheng; Ji, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Objective Damage to intestinal epithelial tight junctions plays an important role in sepsis. Recently we found that Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2) is able to protect LPS-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage and in this study we will investigate if CORM-2 could protect intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the rat cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Materials and Methods The CLP model was generated using male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats according to standard procedure and treated with CORM-2 or inactive CORM-2 (iCORM-2), 8 mg/kg, i.v. immediately after CLP induction and euthanized after 24h or 72h (for mortality rate only). Morphological changes were investigated using both transmission electron and confocal microscopy. The levels of important TJ proteins and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) were examined using Western blotting. Cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α were measured using ELISA kits. The overall intestinal epithelial permeability was evaluated using FD-4 as a marker. Results CORM-2, but not iCORM-2, significantly reduced sepsis-induced damage of intestinal mucosa (including TJ disruption), TJ protein reduction (including zonula occludens-l (ZO-1), claudin-1 and occludin), MLC phosphorylation and proinflammatory cytokine release. The overall outcomes showed that CORM-2 suppressed sepsis-induced intestinal epithelial permeability changes and reduced mortality rate of those septic rats. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that CORM-2 could be a potential therapeutic reagent for sepsis by suppressing inflammation, restoring intestinal epithelial barrier and reducing mortality. PMID:26720630

  14. Deciphering maize genetics and ecology to reduce insect damage and aflatoxin accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ear-colonizing insects and diseases, which reduce yield and impose health threats via mycotoxin contaminations, are critical impediments for maize production in the southern US states. To address this problem a combination of basic and applied research approaches are being conducted by the interdis...

  15. Power Line Damage, Electrical Outages Reduced in the ''Sleet Belt'': NICE3 Steel Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-25

    The AR Windamper System was developed through a grant from the Inventions and Innovation Program, to protect power transmission lines in sleet belt states and provinces by eliminating the ''galloping'' phenomenon. Wind damping products minimize power outages and reduce repair costs to transmission lines.

  16. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  17. Immunobiotic lactobacilli reduce viral-associated pulmonary damage through the modulation of inflammation-coagulation interactions.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Hortensia; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Chiba, Eriko; Marranzino, Gabriela; Alvarez, Susana; Kitazawa, Haruki; Agero, Graciela; Villena, Julio

    2014-03-01

    The exacerbated disease due to immune- and coagulative-mediated pulmonary injury during acute respiratory viruses infection results in severe morbidity and mortality. Identifying novel approaches to modulate virus-induced inflammation-coagulation interactions could be important alternatives for treating acute respiratory viruses infections. In this study we investigated the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 on lung TLR3-mediated inflammation, and its ability to modulate inflammation-coagulation interaction during respiratory viral infection. Our findings reveal for the first time that a probiotic bacterium is able to influence lung immune-coagulative reaction triggered by TLR3 activation, by modulating the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as expression of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in the lung. We also demonstrated that the preventive treatment with the probiotic bacteria beneficially modulates the fine tune balance between clearing respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus) and controlling immune-coagulative responses in the lung, allowing normal lung function to be maintained in the face of a viral attack. Our data also pinpoint a crucial role for IL-10 in the immune protection induced by L. rhamnosus CRL1505 during respiratory viral infections. These observations might be helpful to propose new preventive or therapeutic approaches to better control virus-inflammatory lung damage using probiotic functional foods. PMID:24394565

  18. Glutathione isopropyl ester reduces UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Takehana, M; Tohyama, C

    1996-01-01

    The protective effect of administration of glutathione (GSH) isopropyl ester on photodamage, such as lipid peroxidation, inflammation and tumorigenesis induced by UV exposure (290-400 nm, max. 312 nm), was investigated using hairless mice. Pretreatment with 20 mg/kg GSH isopropyl ester prevented the increases of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) formation in skin and serum sialic acid, indices of lipid peroxidation and inflammatory reaction, respectively, which were caused by a single dose (15 kJ/m2) of UV irradiation. The level of epidermal GSH in skins of the GSH ester-treated mice was maintained within normal limits. When mice were exposed to UV at a dose of 2 kJ/m2, three times weekly, skin tumors developed in all of them after 25 weeks. The formation of skin tumors was significantly inhibited by administration of 10 mg/kg GSH ester prior to each UV irradiation for 25 weeks. Moreover, the increases of cutaneous TBARS and serum sialic acid in the tumor-bearing mice were also prevented by continuous pretreatment with GSH ester. Even after 24 weeks, the epidermal GSH content of the pretreated mice was mostly retained compared to nonirradiated mice. However, administration of GSH prior to acute or chronic UV irradiation had no effect on the UV-induced damage. The present results suggest that the protection from photodamage afforded by pretreatment with GSH ester is due to maintenance of a normal GSH level. PMID:8577862

  19. Bax inhibiting peptide reduces apoptosis in neonatal rat hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng-Ya; Cui, Kai-Jie; Yu, Mao-Min; Zhang, Hui; Peng, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) has been reported to induce apoptosis in neonates. We, therefore, analyzed the ability of Bax-inhibiting peptide (BIP) to provide neuroprotective effects during hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). Seven-day-old wistar rat pups (n = 198) were randomly divided into a sham-operated group (Group S, n = 18), saline group (Group C, n = 90) and BIP group (Group B, n = 90). Pathological changes in the cerebral tissues of rat pups were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, TUNEL and Western blot. The expression of cytochrome c and caspase-3 was determined using western blot technique. Rat pups demonstrated neurobehavioral alteration in Groups C and B. TUNEL-positive cells in the left hippocampus were significantly increased in Group C and Group B after HIBD (P < 0.01) when compared with Group S. There was a marked reduction in TUNEL positive cells in subgroups B1 through B4 when compared with the respective subgroups C1 through C5. Compared with Group S, the expression of caspase-3 and cytochrome c was significantly increased in Groups C and B (P < 0.01). The difference in expression of caspase-3 and cytochrome c between subgroups B1 through B4 and C1 through C4 was significant (P < 0.01). In conclusions, the neuro-protective effect of BIP was due to a reduction of nerve cell apoptosis in our neonatal HIE rat model. We propose that BIP has potential as a neuro-protective drug in neonatal HIE cases. PMID:26823794

  20. Partially flexible MEMS neural probe composed of polyimide and sucrose gel for reducing brain damage during and after implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Myounggun; Cho, Jeiwon; Kim, Yun Kyung; Jung, Dahee; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Shin, Sehyun; Cho, Il-Joo

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a flexible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) neural probe that minimizes neuron damage and immune response, suitable for chronic recording applications. MEMS neural probes with various features such as high electrode densities have been actively investigated for neuron stimulation and recording to study brain functions. However, successful recording of neural signals in chronic application using rigid silicon probes still remains challenging because of cell death and macrophages accumulated around the electrodes over time from continuous brain movement. Thus, in this paper, we propose a new flexible MEMS neural probe that consists of two segments: a polyimide-based, flexible segment for connection and a rigid segment composed of thin silicon for insertion. While the flexible connection segment is designed to reduce the long-term chronic neuron damage, the thin insertion segment is designed to minimize the brain damage during the insertion process. The proposed flexible neural probe was successfully fabricated using the MEMS process on a silicon on insulator wafer. For a successful insertion, a biodegradable sucrose gel is coated on the flexible segment to temporarily increase the probe stiffness to prevent buckling. After the insertion, the sucrose gel dissolves inside the brain exposing the polyimide probe. By performing an insertion test, we confirm that the flexible probe has enough stiffness. In addition, by monitoring immune responses and brain histology, we successfully demonstrate that the proposed flexible neural probe incurs fivefold less neural damage than that incurred by a conventional silicon neural probe. Therefore, the presented flexible neural probe is a promising candidate for recording stable neural signals for long-time chronic applications.

  1. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  2. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  3. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  4. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  5. 36 CFR 223.113 - Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modification of contracts to prevent environmental damage or to conform to forest plans. 223.113 Section 223.113 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST...

  6. USING THE DNA ALKALINE UNWINDING ASSAY TO DETECT DNA DAMAGE IN LABORATORY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED CELLS AND TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. n preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. ultured mammalian fib...

  7. Damage behavior in helium-irradiated reduced-activation martensitic steels at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fengfeng; Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Yao, Z.; Suo, Jinping

    2014-12-01

    Dislocation loops induced by helium irradiation at elevated temperatures in reduced-activation martensitic steels were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Steels were irradiated with 100 keV helium ions to 0.8 dpa between 300 K and 723 K. At irradiation temperatures Tirr ? 573 K, small defects with both Burger vectors b = 1/2<1 1 1> and b = <1 0 0> were observed, while at Tirr ? 623 K, the microstructure was dominated by large convoluted interstitial dislocation loops with b = <1 0 0>. Only small cavities were found in the steels irradiated at 723 K.

  8. Pristanic acid provokes lipid, protein, and DNA oxidative damage and reduces the antioxidant defenses in cerebellum of young rats.

    PubMed

    Busanello, Estela Natacha Brandt; Lobato, Vannessa Gonalves Araujo; Zanatta, ngela; Borges, Clarissa Gnther; Tonin, Anelise Miotti; Viegas, Carolina Maso; Manfredini, Vanusa; Ribeiro, Csar Augusto Joo; Vargas, Carmen Regla; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Wajner, Moacir

    2014-12-01

    Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and some peroxisomal diseases are severe inherited disorders mainly characterized by neurological symptoms and cerebellum abnormalities, whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. Biochemically, these diseases are mainly characterized by accumulation of pristanic acid (Prist) and other fatty acids in the brain and other tissues. In this work, we evaluated the in vitro influence of Prist on redox homeostasis by measuring lipid, protein, and DNA damage, as well as the antioxidant defenses and the activities of aconitase and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in cerebellum of 30-day-old rats. The effect of Prist on DNA damage was also evaluated in blood of these animals. Some parameters were also evaluated in cerebellum from neonatal rats and in cerebellum neuronal cultures. Prist significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and carbonyl formation and reduced sulfhydryl content and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in cerebellum of young rats. It also caused DNA strand damage in cerebellum and induced a high micronuclei frequency in blood. On the other hand, this fatty acid significantly reduced ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and aconitase activities in rat cerebellum. We also verified that Prist-induced increase of MDA levels was totally prevented by melatonin and attenuated by ?-tocopherol but not by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this effect. Cerebellum from neonate rats also showed marked alterations of redox homeostasis, including an increase of MDA levels and a decrease of sulfhydryl content and GSH concentrations elicited by Prist. Finally, Prist provoked an increase of dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation in cerebellum-cultivated neurons. Our present data indicate that Prist compromises redox homeostasis in rat cerebellum and blood and inhibits critical enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are susceptible to free radical attack. The present findings may contribute to clarify the pathogenesis of the cerebellar alterations observed in patients affected by ZS and some peroxisomal disorders in which Prist is accumulated. PMID:25172216

  9. alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

    2009-10-01

    One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention. PMID:19558415

  10. Concurrent repletion of iron and zinc reduces intestinal oxidative damage in iron- and zinc-deficient rats

    PubMed Central

    Bodiga, Sreedhar; Krishnapillai, Madhavan Nair

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To understand the interactions between iron and zinc during absorption in iron- and zinc-deficient rats, and their consequences on intestinal oxidant-antioxidant balance. METHODS: Twenty-four weanling Wistar-Kyoto rats fed an iron- and zinc-deficient diet (< 6.5 mg Fe and 4.0 mg Zn/kg diet) for 4 wk were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8, each) and orally gavaged with 4 mg iron, 3.3 mg zinc, or 4 mg iron + 3.3 mg zinc for 2 wk. At the last day of repletion, 3 h before the animals were sacrificed, they received either 37 mBq of 55Fe or 65Zn, to study their localization in the intestine, using microautoradiography. Hemoglobin, iron and zinc content in plasma and liver were measured as indicators of iron and zinc status. Duodenal sections were used for immunochemical staining of ferritin and metallothionein. Duodenal homogenates (mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions), were used to assess aconitase activity, oxidative stress, functional integrity and the response of antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: Concurrent repletion of iron- and zinc-deficient rats showed reduced localization of these minerals compared to rats that were teated with iron or zinc alone; these data provide evidence for antagonistic interactions. This resulted in reduced formation of lipid and protein oxidation products and better functional integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Further, combined repletion lowered iron-associated aconitase activity and ferritin expression, but significantly elevated metallothionein and glutathione levels in the intestinal mucosa. The mechanism of interactions during combined supplementation and its subsequent effects appeared to be due to through modulation of cytosolic aconitase, which in turn influenced the labile iron pool and metallothionein levels, and hence reduced intestinal oxidative damage. CONCLUSION: Concurrent administration of iron and zinc corrects iron and zinc deficiency, and also reduces the intestinal oxidative damage associated with iron supplementation. PMID:17963296

  11. Nutrient-Enhanced Diet Reduces Noise-Induced Damage to the Inner Ear and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Gagnon, P. M; Bennett, D. C.; Ohlemiller, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been broadly implicated as a cause of cell death and neural degeneration in multiple disease conditions; however, the evidence for successful intervention with dietary antioxidant manipulations has been mixed. In this study, we investigated the potential for protection of cells in the inner ear using a dietary supplement with multiple antioxidant components, selected for their potential interactive effectiveness. Protection against permanent threshold shift (PTS) was observed in CBA/J mice maintained on a diet supplemented with a combination of ?-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium when compared to PTS in control mice maintained on a nutritionally complete control diet. Although hair cell survival was not enhanced, noise-induced loss of Type II fibrocytes in the lateral wall was significantly reduced (p<0.05), and there was a trend towards less noise-induced loss in strial cell density in animals maintained on the supplemented diet. Taken together, our data suggest that pre-noise oral treatment with the high-nutrient diet can protect cells in the inner ear and reduce PTS in mice. Demonstration of functional and morphological preservation of cells in the inner ear with oral administration of this antioxidant supplemented diet supports the possibility of translation to human patients, and suggests an opportunity to evaluate antioxidant protection in mouse models of oxidative stress-related disease and pathology. PMID:21708355

  12. INCREASING SAFETY AND REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE RISK FROM AGING HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding of the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program, which at the time of this writing is in its early stage...

  13. Study of genetic damage in the Japanese oyster induced by an environmentally-relevant exposure to diuron: evidence of vertical transmission of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Barranger, A; Akcha, F; Rouxel, J; Brizard, R; Maurouard, E; Pallud, M; Menard, D; Tapie, N; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Benabdelmouna, A

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides represent a major proportion of the chemical pollutants detected in French coastal waters and hence a significant environmental risk with regards to marine organisms. Commercially-raised bivalves are particularly exposed to pollutants, among them pesticides, as shellfish farming zones are subject to considerable pressure from agricultural activities on the mainland. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the genotoxic effects of diuron exposure on oyster genitors and (2) the possible transmission of damaged DNA to offspring and its repercussions on oyster fitness. To investigate these points, oysters were exposed to concentrations of diuron close to those detected in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (two 7-day exposure pulses at 0.4 and 0.6 μg L(-1)) during the gametogenesis period. Genomic abnormalities were characterized using two complementary approaches. The Comet assay was applied for the measurement of early and reversible primary DNA damage, whereas flow cytometry was used to assess the clastogenic and aneugenic effect of diuron exposure. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were used in exposed and assay tanks to confirm the waterborne concentration of diuron reached during the experiment. The results obtained by the Comet assay clearly showed a higher level of DNA strand breaks in both the hemocytes and spermatozoa of diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of damaged genetic material to gamete cells could be responsible for the genetic damage measured in offspring. Indeed, flow cytometry analyses showed the presence of DNA breakage and a significant decrease in DNA content in spat from diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of DNA damage to the offspring could be involved in the negative effects observed on offspring development (decrease in hatching rate, higher level of larval abnormalities, delay in metamorphosis) and growth. In this study, the vertical transmission of DNA damage was so highlighted by subjecting oyster genitors to short exposures to diuron at medium environmental concentrations. The analysis of POCIS showed that oysters were exposed to integrated concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 μg L(-1), emphasizing the relevance of the results obtained and the risk associated to chemical contamination for oyster recruitment and fitness. PMID:24291084

  14. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bach, Jordi; Peremart, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam; Marcos, Ricard; Hernndez, Alba

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage-and Ogg1 deficiency-exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell death resistance under a chronic scenario of genotoxic and oxidative stress may in turn contribute to the carcinogenic effects of i-As. PMID:26210637

  15. Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

  16. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  17. Progesterone Reduces Secondary Damage, Preserves White Matter, and Improves Locomotor Outcome after Spinal Cord Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Gonzlez, Susana; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Lima, Anala; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; De Nicola, Alejandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Progesterone is an anti-inflammatory and promyelinating agent after spinal cord injury, but its effectiveness on functional recovery is still controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of chronic progesterone administration on tissue preservation and functional recovery in a clinically relevant model of spinal cord lesion (thoracic contusion). Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed that progesterone reduced both volume and rostrocaudal extension of the lesion at 60 days post-injury. In addition, progesterone increased the number of total mature oligodendrocytes, myelin basic protein immunoreactivity, and the number of axonal profiles at the epicenter of the lesion. Further, progesterone treatment significantly improved motor outcome as assessed using the Basso-Bresnahan-Beattie scale for locomotion and CatWalk gait analysis. These data suggest that progesterone could be considered a promising therapeutical candidate for spinal cord injury. PMID:24460450

  18. Ultrastrong, Chemically Resistant Reduced Graphene Oxide-based Multilayer Thin Films with Damage Detection Capability.

    PubMed

    Guin, Tyler; Stevens, Bart; Krecker, Michelle; D'Angelo, John; Humood, Mohammad; Song, Yixuan; Smith, Ryan; Polycarpou, Andreas; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2016-03-01

    Multilayer thin films of graphene oxide (GO) and poly(vinylamine) (PVAm) were deposited via layer-by-layer assembly. Poly(vinylamine) pH was used to tailor film thickness and GO layer spacing. Graphene oxide concentration in the films was controlled through simple pH adjustment. Thermal reduction of the PVAm/GO multilayer thin films rendered them electrically conductive, which could be further tailored with PVAm pH. These reduced films also exhibited exceptionally high elastic modulus of 30 GPa and hardness of 1.8 GPa, which are among the highest of any graphene-filled polymer composite values ever reported. Cross-linking of these films with glutaraldehyde improved their chemical resistance, allowing them to survive strongly acidic or salty solutions. Additionally, scratches in the films can be instantaneously detected by a simple electrical resistance measurement. These films are promising for a variety of packaging and electronic applications. PMID:26885558

  19. Dose-response information and environmental damage assessments: an economic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.M.; Crocker, T.D.

    1982-10-01

    The concept of a dose-response function is central to the assessment of biological damages associated with air pollution. Dose-response information is also important to the economist who wishes to assess the bioeconomic consequences of such pollution. The need for informed communication between the biological scientist and the economist in pollution research was enhanced in 1981 by President Reagan's Executive Order 12291, which explicitly requires the application of benefit-cost procedures to most rules a federal agency wishes to promulgate. One major determinant of the usefulness of dose-response information has since become the degree to which it contributes to improving the economic efficiency basis of environmental policy decisions. This paper suggests some criteria or guidelines concerning response surface experimental design, estimation, and choice of models which may assist the biologist in acquiring economically informative dose-response data. Also pointed out are some plausible sources of discrepancies between experimentally derived surfaces and those generated under field conditions as a source of estimation bias which may effect benefits assessments.

  20. Test validation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability and damage tolerance modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-03-01

    Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will establish a process for using a computational approach, validated at a specimen level, to predict reliably in the future component level performance without resorting to extensive testing.

  1. Seeking Energy System Pathways to Reduce Ozone Damage to Ecosystems through Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, S. L.; Pinder, R. W.; Loughlin, D. H.; Bash, J. O.; Turner, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Percell, P.; Zhao, S.; Russell, M. G.; Hakami, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) affects the productivity of ecosystems in addition to degrading human health. Concentrations of this pollutant are significantly influenced by precursor gas emissions, many of which emanate from energy production and use processes. Energy system optimization models could inform policy decisions that are intended to reduce these harmful effects if the contribution of precursor gas emissions to human health and ecosystem degradation could be elucidated. Nevertheless, determining the degree to which precursor gas emissions harm ecosystems and human health is challenging because of the photochemical production of ozone and the distinct mechanisms by which ozone causes harm to different crops, tree species, and humans. Here, the adjoint of a regional chemical transport model is employed to efficiently calculate the relative influences of ozone precursor gas emissions on ecosystem and human health degradation, which informs an energy system optimization. Specifically, for the summer of 2007 the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model adjoint is used to calculate the location- and sector-specific influences of precursor gas emissions on potential productivity losses for the major crops and sensitive tree species as well as human mortality attributable to chronic ozone exposure in the continental U.S. The atmospheric concentrations are evaluated with 12-km horizontal resolution with crop production and timber biomass data gridded similarly. These location-specific factors inform the energy production and use technologies selected in the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model.

  2. Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wckers, Felix L.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Olson, Dawn M.; Ruberson, John R.; Romeis, Jrg

    2013-01-01

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties. PMID:23486438

  3. No Evidence for Retinal Damage Evolving from Reduced Retinal Blood Flow in Carotid Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heßler, Henning; Zimmermann, Hanna; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Kadas, Ella Maria; Mikolajczak, Janine; Brandt, Alexander U.; Kauert, Andreas; Paul, Friedemann; Schreiber, Stephan J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Carotid artery disease (CAD) comprising high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis (CAS) or carotid artery occlusion (CAO) may lead to ipsilateral impaired cerebral blood flow and reduced retinal blood supply. Objective. To examine the influence of chronic CAD on retinal blood flow, retinal morphology, and visual function. Methods. Patients with unilateral CAS ≥ 50% (ECST criteria) or CAO were grouped according to the grade of the stenosis and to the flow direction of the ophthalmic artery (OA). Retinal perfusion was measured by transorbital duplex ultrasound, assessing central retinal artery (CRA) blood flow velocities. In addition, optic nerve and optic nerve sheath diameter were measured. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed to study retinal morphology. Visual function was assessed using high- and low-contrast visual paradigms. Results. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Eyes with CAS ≥ 80%/CAO and retrograde OA blood flow showed a significant reduction in CRA peak systolic velocity (no-CAD side: 0.130 ± 0.035 m/s, CAS/CAO side: 0.098 ± 0.028; p = 0.005; n = 12). OCT, optic nerve thicknesses, and visual functional parameters did not show a significant difference. Conclusion. Despite assessable hemodynamic effects, chronic high-grade CAD does not lead to gaugeable morphological or functional changes of the retina. PMID:26558275

  4. Pomegranate seed oil reduces intestinal damage in a rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Coursodon-Boyiddle, Christine F.; Snarrenberg, Chelsea L.; Adkins-Rieck, Camille K.; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J. Thomas; Jouni, Zeina E.

    2012-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil (PSO), which is the major source of conjugated linolenic acids such as punicic acid (PuA), exhibits strong anti-inflammatory properties. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease associated with severe and excessive intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered PSO on the development of NEC, intestinal epithelial proliferation, and cytokine regulation in a rat model of NEC. Premature rats were divided into three groups: dam fed (DF), formula-fed rats (FF), or rats fed with formula supplemented with 1.5% of PSO (FF + PSO). All groups were exposed to asphyxia/cold stress to induce NEC. Intestinal injury, epithelial cell proliferation, cytokine production, and trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) production were evaluated in the terminal ileum. Oral administration of PSO (FF+PSO) decreased the incidence of NEC from 61 to 26%. Feeding formula with PSO improved enterocyte proliferation in the site of injury. Increased levels of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-23, and TNF-? in the ileum of FF rats were normalized in PSO-treated animals. Tff3 production in the FF rats was reduced compared with DF but not further affected by the PSO. In conclusion, administration of PSO protects against NEC in the neonatal rat model. This protective effect is associated with an improvement of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and a strong anti-inflammatory effect of PSO on the developing intestinal mucosa. PMID:22821948

  5. A botanical containing freeze dried aai pulp promotes healthy aging and reduces oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies.

    PubMed

    Laslo, Mara; Sun, Xiaoping; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Zou, Sige

    2013-08-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a critical enzyme against oxidative stress, is implicated in aging and degenerative diseases. We previously showed that a nutraceutical containing freeze-dried aai pulp promotes survival of flies fed a high-fat diet or sod1 knockdown flies fed a standard diet. Here, we investigated the effect of aai supplementation initiated at the early or late young adulthood on lifespan, physiological function, and oxidative damage in sod1 knockdown flies. We found that Aai supplementation extended lifespan even when started at the age of 10days, which is the time shortly before the mortality rate of flies accelerated. Life-long aai supplementation increased lifetime reproductive output in sod1 knockdown flies. Our molecular studies indicate that aai supplementation reduced the protein levels of genes involved in oxidative stress response, cellular growth, and nutrient metabolism. Aai supplementation also affected the protein levels of ribosomal proteins. In addition, aai supplementation decreased the transcript levels of genes involved in oxidative stress response and gluconeogenesis, while increasing the transcript levels of mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Moreover, aai supplementation reduced the level of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, a lipid peroxidation marker. Our findings suggest that aai supplementation promotes healthy aging in sod1-deficient flies partly through reducing oxidative damage, and modulating nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress response pathways. Our findings provide a foundation to further evaluate the viability of using aai as an effective dietary intervention to promote healthy aging and alleviate symptoms of diseases with a high level of oxidative stress. PMID:22639178

  6. Triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise improves session volume load and reduces muscle damage in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen P; Mabon, Tom; Pryde, Mitchell; Feebrey, Sarah; Cannon, Jack

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that triphasic multinutrient supplementation during acute resistance exercise would enhance muscular performance, produce a more favorable anabolic profile, and reduce biochemical markers of muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. Fifteen male strength-trained athletes completed two acute lower-body resistance exercise sessions to fatigue 7 days apart. After a 4-hour fast, participants consumed either a multinutrient supplement (Musashi 1-2-3 Step System, Notting Hill, Australia) (SUPP) or placebo (PLA) beverage preexercise (PRE), during (DUR), and immediately postexercise (IP). Session volume loads were calculated as kilograms × repetitions. Lower-body peak power was measured using unloaded repeated countermovement jumps, and blood samples were collected to assess biochemistry, serum hormones, and muscle damage markers at PRE, DUR, IP, 30 minutes postexercise (P30), and 24 hours postexercise (P24h). The SUPP demonstrated increased glucose concentrations at DUR and IP compared with at PRE (P < .01), whereas PLA demonstrated higher glucose at P30 compared with at PRE (P < .001). Session volume load was higher for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). Cortisol increased at DUR, IP, and P30 compared with at PRE in both treatments (P < .05); however, SUPP also displayed lower cortisol at P24h compared with at PRE and PLA (P < .01). The total testosterone response to exercise was higher for PLA compared with SUPP (P < .01); however, total creatine kinase and C-reactive protein responses to exercise were lower for SUPP compared with PLA (P < .05). These data indicate that although triphasic multinutrient supplementation did not produce a more favorable anabolic profile, it improved acute resistance exercise performance while attenuating muscle damage in strength-trained athletes. PMID:23684439

  7. Dexamethasone loaded core-shell SF/PEO nanofibers via green electrospinning reduced endothelial cells inflammatory damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiming; Li, Dawei; Ei-Shanshory, Ahmed; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Ei-Hamshary, Hany A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; He, Chuanglong; Mo, Xiumei

    2015-02-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)/PEO nanofibers prepared by green electrospinning is safe, non-toxic and environment friendly, it is a potential drug delivery carrier for tissue engineering. In this study, a core-shell nanofibers named as Dex@SF/PEO were obtained by green electrospinning with SF/PEO as the shell and dexamethasone (Dex) in the core. The nanofiber morphology and core-shell structure were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The Dex release behavior from the nanofibers was tested by High Performance liquid (HPLC) method. The protective effect of drug loaded nanofibers mats on Porcine hip artery endothelial cells (PIECs) against LPS-induced inflammatory damage were determined by MTT assay. TEM result showed the distinct core-shell structure of nanofibers. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that dexamethasone can sustain release over 192 h and core-shell nanofibers showed more slow release of Dex compared with the blending electrospinning nanofibers. Anti-inflammatory activity in vitro showed that released Dex can reduce the PIECs inflammatory damage and apoptosis which induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Dex@SF/PEO nanofibers are safe and non-toxic because of no harmful organic solvents used in the preparation, it is a promising environment friendly drug carrier for tissue engineering. PMID:25481687

  8. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  9. Doxycycline, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, reduces vascular remodeling and damage after cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pires, Paulo W; Rogers, Curt T; McClain, Jonathon L; Garver, Hannah S; Fink, Gregory D; Dorrance, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of zinc peptidases involved in extracellular matrix turnover. There is evidence that increased MMP activity is involved in remodeling of resistance vessels in chronic hypertension. Thus we hypothesized that inhibition of MMP activity with doxycycline (DOX) would attenuate vascular remodeling. Six-week-old male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with DOX (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in the drinking water) for 6 wk. Untreated SHRSP were controls. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry during the last week. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) passive structures were assessed by pressure myography. MMP-2 expression in aortas was measured by Western blot. All results are means ± SE. DOX caused a small increase in mean arterial pressure (SHRSP, 154 ± 1; SHRSP + DOX, 159 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.001). Active MMP-2 expression was reduced in aorta from SHRSP + DOX (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.49 ± 0.13 arbitrary units; P < 0.05). In the MCA, at 80 mmHg, DOX treatment increased the lumen (273.2 ± 4.7 vs. 238.3 ± 6.3 μm; P < 0.05) and the outer diameter (321 ± 5.3 vs. 290 ± 7.6 μm; P < 0.05) and reduced the wall-to-lumen ratio (0.09 ± 0.002 vs. 0.11 ± 0.003; P < 0.05). Damage after transient cerebral ischemia (transient MCA occlusion) was reduced in SHRSP + DOX (20.7 ± 4 vs. 45.5 ± 5% of hemisphere infarcted; P < 0.05). In the MRA, at 90 mmHg DOX, reduced wall thickness (29 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 μm; P < 0.001) and wall-to-lumen ratio (0.08 ± 0.004 vs. 0.11 ± 0.008; P < 0.05) without changing lumen diameter. These results suggest that MMPs are involved in hypertensive vascular remodeling in both the peripheral and cerebral vasculature and that DOX reduced brain damage after cerebral ischemia. PMID:21551278

  10. Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces bleomycin-induced lung damage and mucin Muc5ac expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Mata, M; Ruíz, A; Cerdá, M; Martinez-Losa, M; Cortijo, J; Santangelo, F; Serrano-Mollar, A; Llombart-Bosch, A; Morcillo, E J

    2003-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, therefore antioxidants may be of therapeutic value. Clinical work indicates that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be beneficial in this disease. The activity of this antioxidant was examined on bleomycin-induced lung damage, mucus secretory cells hyperplasia and mucin Muc5ac gene expression in rats. NAC (3 mmol x kg(-1) x day(-1)) or saline was given orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 week prior to a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (2.5 U x kg(-1)) and for 14 days postinstillation. NAC decreased collagen deposition in bleomycin-exposed rats (hydroxyproline content was 4,257+/-323 and 3,200+/-192 microg x lung(-1) in vehicle- and NAC-treated rats, respectively) and lessened the fibrotic area assessed by morphometric analysis. The bleomycin-induced increases in lung tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced by NAC treatment. The numbers of mucus secretory cells in airway epithelium, and the Muc5ac messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression, were markedly augmented in rats exposed to bleomycin. These changes were significantly reduced in NAC-treated rats. These results indicate that bleomycin increases the number of airway secretory cells and their mucin production, and that oral N-acetylcysteine improved pulmonary lesions and reduced the mucus hypersecretion in the bleomycin rat model. PMID:14680076

  11. Damage of zona pellucida reduces the developmental potential and quality of porcine circovirus type 2-infected oocytes after parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haijing; Ji, Qianqian; Zhao, Guangyin; Song, Zhenwei; Du, Baozhu; Nie, Yu; Chen, Yaosheng; Cong, Peiqing

    2014-10-01

    The present aimed to study if porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which adhered to zona pellucida (ZP), was able to enter mature porcine oocytes with intact and damaged ZP. Four groups, including uninfected ZP-intact oocytes (UOZI), uninfected ZP-damaged oocytes (UOZD), PCV2-infected ZP-intact oocytes (POZI), and PCV2-infected ZP-damaged oocytes (POZD) were studied. The oocytes were incubated with 1 mL minimum essential medium, containing 3.1 10(8) copies of PCV2 DNA for 1 hour. Mechanical procedure of the insertion by microneedle induced injuries to the ZP of porcine oocytes. At the blastocyst stage, the percentage of PCV2-infected embryos and the ratio of viral antigen-positive cells per embryo were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To assess the effect of ZP injury on the developmental competence and quality of porcine PCV2-infected oocytes after parthenogenetic activation, blastocyst formation rates and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were analyzed. Moreover, real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency at different developmental stages. The results of indirect immunofluorescence showed that only POZD group presented PCV2-infected embryos and viral-positive cells. The blastocyst rate of POZD group dropped down to approximately half of POZI group's (7.1 1.5 vs. 14.5 3.3). At the blastocyst stage, ZP injury increased apoptotic index of PCV2-infected embryos. The relative expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in POZD group than the ones in POZI group at the two- and four-cell stages (not statistically significant). Compared with the one in POZI group, the ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of the ability to resist apoptosis, was lower in POZD group at the one-cell stage, but higher at the two- and four-cell stages. Expression levels of Oct4 and Nanog associated with pluripotency were lower in POZD group than the ones in POZI group at the morula stage (not statistically significant). Noteworthily, the expression of Nanog was significantly lower in POZD group versus POZI group (P < 0.05), whereas relative expression of Oct4 was significantly higher in the former at the blastocyst stage (P < 0.01). In conclusion, PCV2, which attached to ZP, was able to enter mature porcine oocytes with damaged ZP and subsequently reduced the developmental competence and quality of the oocytes after parthenogenetic activation. PMID:25062959

  12. Clay-based Formulations to Reduce the Environmental Impact of the Herbicide Terbuthylazine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled release formulations of pesticides are receiving increasing attention as a way to reduce the environmental impact of pesticides after their application to agricultural soils. Natural and modified clay minerals have been proved to be efficient adsorbents for many pesticides and, accordingl...

  13. Using Environmental Strategies to Reduce Drinking and Driving among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of several environmental strategies that have proven successful in reducing drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults and suggests that integrating such strategies into present institutional initiatives can create significant and enduring reductions in drinking and driving among this population. (Author)

  14. Consumer acceptability of cucumber pickles produced by fermentation in calcium chloride brine for reduced environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentat...

  15. Integrated flood damage modelling in the Ebro river basin under hydrodynamic, socio-economic and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foudi, S.; Galarraga, I.; Oss, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a model of flood damage measurement. It studies the socio-economic and environmental potential damage of floods in the Ebro river basin. We estimate the damage to the urban, rural and environmental sectors. In these sectors, we make distinctions between residential, non residential, cultural, agricultural, public facilities and utilities, environmental and human subsectors. We focus on both the direct, indirect, tangible and intangible impacts. The residential damages refer to the damages on housing, costs of repair and cleaning as direct effects and the re-housing costs as an indirect effect. The non residential and agricultural impacts concern the losses to the economic sectors (industry, business, agricultural): production, capital losses, costs of cleaning and repairs for the direct costs and the consequences of the suspension of activities for the indirect costs. For the human sector, we refer to the physical impacts (injuries and death) in the direct tangible effects and to the posttraumatic stress as indirect intangible impact. The environmental impacts focus on a site of Community Interests (pSCIs) in the case study area. The case study is located the Ebro river basin, Spain. The Ebro river basin is the larger river basin in term of surface and water discharge. The Ebro river system is subject to Atlantic and Mediterranean climatic influences. It gathers most of its water from the north of Spain (in the Pyrenees Mountains) and is the most important river basin of Spain in term of water resources. Most of the flooding occurs during the winter period. Between 1900- 2010, the National Catalogue of Historical Floods identifies 372 events: meanly 33 events every 10 years and up to 58 during the 1990-2000. Natural floods have two origins: (i) persistent rainfalls in large sub basins raised up by high temperature giving rise to a rapid thaw in the Pyrenees, (ii) local rainfalls of short duration and high intensity that gives rise to rapid and wrenching floods. Our integrated model combines hydrologic, land use, environmental and economic data. The combination of the cadastral data with the flood characteristics (flow, depth, duration) for various periods of return enables to draw damage maps expressed as function of flood characteristics (Penning-Rowsell et al. 2005). This methodology also enables to illustrate consequences of risk prevention measures. We can thus measure the value of information in the alert system of Civil Protection Agency, give information on risks for urban development plans and simulate the consequences of hydraulic interventions like river bed cleaning. This methodology would then contribute to match with the requirements of the 2007 EU flood risk Management Directive (2007/60/CE).

  16. Glutathione administration reduces mitochondrial damage and shifts cell death from necrosis to apoptosis in ageing diabetic mice hearts during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, S; Botta, A; Gottfred, S; Nusrat, A; Laher, I; Ghosh, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effect of antioxidants on ageing type 2 diabetic (T2D) hearts during exercise is unclear. We hypothesized that GSH therapy during exercise reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress (mOXS) and cell death in ageing db/db mice hearts. Experimental Approach The effect of GSH on cardiac mOXS and cell death was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro. Key Results During exercise, GSH treatment protected db/db hearts from exaggerated mOXS without reducing total cell death. Despite similar cell death, investigations on apoptosis-specific single-stranded DNA breaks and necrosis-specific damage provided the first in vivo evidence of a shift from necrosis to apoptosis, with reduced fibrosis following GSH administration in exercised db/db hearts. Further support for a GSH-regulated switch in death phenotypes came from NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and H9c2 cardiomyocytes treated with H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar to in vivo findings, augmenting GSH by overexpressing glutamyl cysteine ligase (GCLc) protected fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes from necrosis induced by H2O2, but elevated caspase-3 and apoptosis instead. Similar to in vivo findings, where GSH therapy in normoglycaemic mice suppressed endogenous antioxidants and augmented caspase-3 activity, GCLc overexpression during staurosporine-induced death, which was not characterized by ROS, increased GSH efflux and aggravated death in fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes, confirming that oxidative stress is required for GSH-mediated cytoprotection. Conclusions and Implications While GSH treatment is useful for reducing mOXS and attenuating necrosis and fibrosis in ageing T2D hearts during exercise, such antioxidant treatment could be counterproductive in the healthy heart during exercise. PMID:25039894

  17. White and dark kidney beans reduce colonic mucosal damage and inflammation in response to dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Liu, Ronghua; Pauls, K Peter; Wood, Geoffrey A; Tsao, Rong; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2015-07-01

    Common beans are a rich source of nondigestible fermentable components and phenolic compounds that have anti-inflammatory effects. We assessed the gut-health-promoting potential of kidney beans in healthy mice and their ability to attenuate colonic inflammation following dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) exposure (via drinking water, 2% DSS w/v, 7 days). C57BL/6 mice were fed one of three isocaloric diets: basal diet control (BD), or BD supplemented with 20% cooked white (WK) or dark red kidney (DK) bean flour for 3 weeks. In healthy mice, anti-inflammatory microbial-derived cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels (acetate, butyrate and propionate), colon crypt height and colonic Mucin 1 (MUC1) and Resistin-like Molecule beta (Relmβ) mRNA expression all increased in WK- and DK-fed mice compared to BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity, gut barrier integrity and antimicrobial defense response. During colitis, both bean diets reduced (a) disease severity, (b) colonic histological damage and (c) increased mRNA expression of antimicrobial and barrier integrity-promoting genes (Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), MUC1-3, Relmβ and Trefoil Factor 3 (TFF3)) and reduced proinflammatory mediator expression [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], which correlated with reduced colon tissue protein levels. Further, bean diets exerted a systemic anti-inflammatory effect during colitis by reducing serum levels of IL-17A, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6. In conclusion, both WK and DK bean-supplemented diets enhanced microbial-derived SCFA metabolite production, gut barrier integrity and the microbial defensive response in the healthy colon, which supported an anti-inflammatory phenotype during colitis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a beneficial colon-function priming effect of bean consumption that mitigates colitis severity. PMID:25841250

  18. Effects of water-damaged homes after flooding: health status of the residents and the environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Hasegawa, Kenichi; Osawa, Haruki

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the health status of residents and the environmental risk factors of housing after flooding. Questionnaires were distributed to 595 selected households (one adult resident per household) in six areas in Japan which were severely flooded between 2004 and 2010. A total of 379 responses were obtained. Indoor dampness and visible mold growth significantly increased in homes with greater flood damage. The incidence of respiratory, dermal, ocular, and nasal symptoms one week after flooding was significantly higher in flooded homes compared with non-flooded homes, the incidence of psychological disorders was significantly high for six months after flooding, and the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly high six months after flooding. Significant risk factors for respiratory and nasal symptoms included proximity to industrial and waste incineration plants. Our results suggest that rapid action should be taken after flooding to ensure adequate public health and environmental hygiene in the water-damaged homes. PMID:23802658

  19. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges by environmental pollutants: relationship of SCE to other measures of genetic damage.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A L; Shimizu, R W; Li, A P; Benson, J M; Dutcher, J S

    1984-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), induced by environmental pollutants from fossil fuel use, were measured in 2 cell systems, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Chinese hamster primary lung cell cultures. The frequency of SCEs induced in these cell systems was related to other measures of genetic damage, namely mutations in CHO cells at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) gene locus and in bacteria (Salmonella mutagenicity test TA-98), produced by the same pollutants. The pollutants were divided into 2 classes: those produced in oxidizing combustion environments--extracts of particles from light-duty diesel cars, spark-ignition cars, and an automotive tunnel; and those produced in reducing environments--extracts from coke oven mains and condensates from a low BTU coal gasifier obtained either before or after cleanup of the process stream. Sister chromatid exchanges were induced by all pollutants without the addition of a rat liver microsomal fraction (S-9 mix), whereas S-9 mix was required to induce a positive response in the CHO/HGPRT assay for all pollutants. The pollutants produced in a reducing environment required metabolic activation by S-9 mix to be mutagenic in the Salmonella mutation assay. The addition of S-9 mix to pollutants produced in an oxidizing environment reduced the response in the Salmonella test. The relative genotoxic potency for each pollutant was determined for all 3 endpoints. The slopes of dose-response curves for each pollutant were plotted for each assay to compare relative potency. When the bacterial mutagenicity test was compared to either mammalian cell assay, SCE or CHO/HGPRT, there was little correlation between relative potencies. However, the data indicated that the responses in the 2 mammalian cell assays, SCE and CHO/HGPRT, showed similar relative responses to the pollutants. Differences in the requirement for S-9 mix seem to be related to both the chemical nature of the mixture and the endpoint measured. Differences in responses are related not only to cell type but also to chemical composition of the complex pollutants. PMID:6085263

  20. The administration of food supplemented with cocoa powder during nutritional recovery reduces damage caused by oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Barragn Meja, Gerardo; Caldern Guzmn, David; Jurez Olgun, Hugo; Hernndez Martnez, Nancy; Garca Cruz, Edna; Morales Ramrez, Aline; Labra Ruiz, Norma; Esquivel Jimnez, Gabriela; Osnaya Brizuela, Norma; Garca lvarez, Raquel; Ontiveros Mendoza, Esperanza

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition contributes to the development of oxidative damage in the central nervous system. The selective administration of nutrients tends to show positive results in individuals who have suffered from malnutrition. To determine the effect of the administration of cocoa powder on the peroxidation of lipids and glutathione level during the nutritional recovery in brain, rats of 21days old were subjected to a protocol that resembles malnutrition (MN) by feeding them with 60% of the daily food consumption of the control group (WN) and later to nutritional recovery with regular rodent feed (RFR) or added with cocoa (10g of cocoa powder/kg of regular rodent feed) (CCR). Animals fed with regular rodent food showed significant reduction in brain glutathione: RFR (84.18??6.38ng/mg protein) vs. CCR (210.61??50.10ng/mg protein) and WN (186.55??33.18ng/mg protein), but with similar level to that of MN (92.12??15.60ng/mg protein). On the contrary, lipid peroxidation in RFR-fed animals increased RFR (1.32??0.2?M malondialdehyde/g of tissue), CCR (0.86??0.07?M malondialdehyde/g of tissue), WN (0.89??0.09?M malondialdehyde/g of tissue), but their thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration is similar to that of MN group (1.50??0.2?M malondialdehyde/g of tissue). Consumption of cocoa powder as a source of antioxidants favors the restoration of the concentration of glutathione and reduces the damage caused by oxidative stress during nutritional recovery in rat brain. PMID:21826449

  1. Low-damage low-k etching with an environmentally friendly CF{sub 3}I plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Soda, Eiichi; Kondo, Seiichi; Saito, Shuichi; Ichihashi, Yoshinari; Sato, Aiko; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2008-07-15

    The feasibility of etching Cu/low-k interconnects by using a low global warming potential CF{sub 3}I plasma was studied. Low-damage etching was done and porous SiOC (p-SiOC, k<2.6) film with low roughness was produced. Exposing p-SiOC film to CF{sub 3}I plasma was found to suppress the decrease in the CH{sub 3} group and the increase in the k value compared to those of conventional CF{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 6} plasmas. These effects are due to the low UV intensity and small amount of F radicals of CF{sub 3}I plasma. The authors also found that the etching profile of CF{sub 3}I plasma was comparable with that of CF{sub 4} plasma. Since the etching selectivity (p-SiOC/ArF photoresist) of CF{sub 3}I plasma is higher than that of CF{sub 4} plasma, the remaining photoresist thickness increases after etching, thus suppressing line edge roughness (LER). The decreased LER mitigated degradation of IV and time dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics in Cu interconnects. They also found that the roughness on the bottom surface of the p-SiOC trench was reduced. These benefits are due to CF{sub 3}I plasma's low reactivity with the carbon in photoresists and p-SiOC films. Based on these findings, they believe that the environmentally friendly CF{sub 3}I gas has great promise as a p-SiOC etching material.

  2. Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José A.; Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Reyes-Ramírez, Patricia; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Sumaya-Martínez, Teresa; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are produced mainly by the mycelial structure of filamentous fungi, or more specifically, molds. These secondary metabolites are synthesized during the end of the exponential growth phase and appear to have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. The contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem for the adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The toxic effect of the ingestion of mycotoxins in humans and animals depends on a number of factors including intake levels, duration of exposure, toxin species, mechanisms of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms. In general, the consumption of contaminated food and feed with mycotoxin induces to neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect in humans and/or animals. The most significant mycotoxins in terms of public health and agronomic perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, fumonisins, patulin, and the ergot alkaloids. Due to the detrimental effects of these mycotoxins, several strategies have been developed in order to reduce the risk of exposure. These include the degradation, destruction, inactivation or removal of mycotoxins through chemical, physical and biological methods. However, the results obtained with these methods have not been optimal, because they may change the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of food. Another alternative strategy to prevent or reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins is by applying antimutagenic agents. These substances act according to several extra- or intracellular mechanisms, their main goal being to avoid the interaction of mycotoxins with DNA; as a consequence of their action, these agents would inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the main strategies used to control AFB1 and ochratoxin A and contains an analysis of some antigenotoxic substances that reduce the DNA damage caused by these mycotoxins. PMID:22069607

  3. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klonek, Florian E.; Güntner, Amelie V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) — an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation — can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations. PMID:26257676

  4. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior.

    PubMed

    Klonek, Florian E; Güntner, Amelie V; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals' self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) - an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation - can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients' verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents' level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients' expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents' verbal threats and change recipients' verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations. PMID:26257676

  5. Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. Methods This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. Results A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. Conclusions There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these. PMID:23663285

  6. Nicotiflorin reduces cerebral ischemic damage and upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase in primarily cultured rat cerebral blood vessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Runping; Guo, Meili; Zhang, Ge; Xu, Xiongfei; Li, Quan

    2006-08-11

    Nicotiflorin is a flavonoid glycoside extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine Flos Carthami. In the current study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of nicotiflorin on a transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model in rats. Nicotiflorin (2.5-10 mg/kg) administered after onset of ischemia markedly reduced brain infarct volume by 24.5-63.2% and neurological deficits. Also the effect of nicotiflorin on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, mRNA and protein expression after hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R) treatment was investigated in an in vitro model mimic cerebrum ischemia-reperfusion in vivo. After total 4 h hypoxia and 12 h reoxygenation, eNOS activity, mRNA and protein levels in the primarily cultured rat cerebral blood vessel endothelial cells treated with nicotiflorin (25-100 microg/ml) 2 h after onset of hypoxia were significantly higher than eNOS activity, mRNA and protein levels in the pure H-R cells and also higher than eNOS activity, mRNA and protein levels in cells cultured under normoxic conditions. The results demonstrated that nicotiflorin had a protective effect against cerebral ischemic damage. The results also gave an important elucidation for the mechanism underlying the protective effect at the cellular level. PMID:16806761

  7. Use of EPO as an adjuvant in PDT of brain tumors to reduce damage to normal brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar

    2004-10-01

    In order to reduce damage to surrounding normal brain in the treatment of brain tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT), we have investigated the use of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) to exploit its well-established role as a neuroprotective agent. In vitro experiments demonstrated that EPO does not confer protection from PDT to rat glioma cells. In vivo testing of the possibility of EPO protecting normal brain tissue was carried out. The normal brains of Lewis rats were treated with Photofrin mediated PDT (6.25 mg/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and the outcome of the treatment compared between animals that received EPO (5000 U/Kg B.W. 22 hours pre irradiation) and controls. This comparison was made based on the volume of necrosis, as measured with the viability stain 2,3,5- Triphenyl tetrazoium chloride (TTC), and incidence of apoptosis, as measured with in situ end labeling assay (ISEL). Western blotting showed that EPO reaches the normal brain and activates the anti-apoptotic protein PKB/AKT1 within the brain cortex. The comparison based on volume of necrosis showed no statistical significance between the two groups. No clear difference was observed in the ISEL staining between the groups. A possible lack of responsivity in the assays that give rise to these results is discussed and future corrections are described.

  8. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles

    PubMed Central

    Rubega, Margaret A.; Sustaita, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles. PMID:25289186

  9. Chlorpyrifos exposure reduces reproductive capacity owing to a damaging effect on gametogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qin-Li; Ju, Jing-Juan; Li, Yun-Hui; Li, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Ran; Liang, Ge-Yu; Zhang, Juan; Pu, Yue-Pu; Wang, Da-Yong; Yin, Li-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have revealed that chlorpyrifos exposure adversely affects the reproductive capacity of male rodents. The present study investigated the reproductive toxicity of chlorpyrifos exposure and possible related mechanisms using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. L4 nematode larvae were exposed to chlorpyrifos at concentrations of 0.003, 0.03, 0.3 and 3.0?mg l(-1) for different durations. In addition to decreased brood size, reduced spermatid size, increased percentage of abnormal spermatids, suppressed spermatid activation and motility of sperm, damaged oocyte morphology, increased numbers of apoptotic cells and unfertilized oocytes were observed in nematodes exposed to various concentrations of chlorpyrifos. Moreover, expression patterns of the genes spe-10, spe-15, fer-1, prg-1, glp-1, mlh-1, cyb-3, ced-3, ced-4 and ced-9 (which are associated with spermatid size, spermatid activation and morphology, oocyte morphology, oocyte function, and apoptosis) were altered after chlorpyrifos exposure. Therefore, chlorpyrifos exposure may adversely affect fertility in nematodes by influencing both spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Alterations in the expression patterns of genes involved in gametogenesis may explain the corresponding changes in gametogenesis in nematodes exposed to chlorpyrifos. Hence, the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans is recommended for assessment of reproductive toxicity relating to gametogenesis. PMID:22180373

  10. Pro-apoptotic gene knockdown mediated by nanocomplexed siRNA reduces radiation damage in primary salivary gland cultures

    PubMed Central

    Arany, Szilvia; Xu, Qingfu; Hernady, Eric; Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Dewhurst, Steve; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    A critical issue in the management of head and neck tumors is radioprotection of the salivary glands. We have investigated whether siRNA-mediated gene knock down of pro-apoptotic mediators can reduce radiation-induced cellular apoptosis in salivary gland cells in vitro. We used novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles to deliver functionally active siRNAs into cultures of salivary gland cells. The nanoparticle molecules are comprised of cationic micelles that electrostatically interact with the siRNA, protecting it from nuclease attack, and also include pH-responsive endosomolytic constituents that promote release of the siRNA into the target cell cytoplasm. Transfection controls with Cy3-tagged siRNA/nanoparticle complexes showed efficiently internalized siRNAs in more than 70% of the submandibular gland cells. We found that introduction of siRNAs specifically targeting the Pkc? or Bax genes significantly blocked the induction of these pro-apoptotic proteins that normally occurs after radiation in cultured salivary gland cells. Furthermore, the level of cell death from subsequent radiation, as measured by caspase-3, TUNEL, and mitochondrial disruption assays, was significantly decreased. Thus, we have successfully demonstrated that the siRNA/ nanoparticle-mediated knock down of pro-apoptotic genes can prevent radiation-induced damage in submandibular gland primary cell cultures. PMID:22253051

  11. Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-09-01

    Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in blood platelet and plasma proteins were determined by ELISA tests. Thiol groups level was estimated by using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid, DTNB). Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results from our work indicate that clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract may reveal the protective properties in the prevention against oxidative stress. The presence of clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract (12.5-100?g/ml) partly inhibited ONOO(-)-mediated protein carbonylation and nitration. All the used concentrations of T. pallidum extract reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma. The antioxidative action of the tested extract in the protection of blood platelet lipids was less effective; the extract at the lowest final concentration (12.5?g/ml) had no protective effect against lipid peroxidation. The present results indicate that the extract from T. pallidum is likely to be a source of compounds with the antioxidative properties, useful in the prevention against the oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:21465272

  12. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B. J.; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S.; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian. PMID:26953824

  13. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian. PMID:26953824

  14. Time evolution of damage due to environmentally assisted aging in a fiber bundle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennartz-Sassinek, S.; Main, I. G.; Danku, Z.; Kun, F.

    2013-09-01

    Damage growth in composite materials is a complex process which is of interest in many fields of science and engineering. We consider this problem in a fiber bundle model where fibers undergo an aging process due to the accumulation of damage driven by the locally acting stress in a chemically active environment. By subjecting the bundle to a constant external load, fibers fail either when the load on them exceeds their individual intrinsic strength or when the accumulated internal damage exceeds a random threshold. We analyze the time evolution of the breaking process under low external loads where aging of fibers dominates. In the mean field limit, we show analytically that the aging system continuously accelerates in a way which can be characterized by an inverse power law of the event rate with a singularity that defines a failure time. The exponent is not universal; it depends on the details of the aging process. For localized load sharing, a more complex damage process emerges which is dominated by distinct spatial regions of the system with different degrees of stress concentration. Analytical calculations revealed that the final acceleration to global failure is preceded by a stationary accumulation of damage. When the disorder is strong, the accelerating phase has the same functional behavior as in the mean field limit. The analytical results are verified by computer simulations.

  15. Reducing the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination by using brackish groundwater resources.

    PubMed

    Muoz, Ivan; Fernndez-Alba, Amadeo Rodrguez

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to find out whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination are reduced when brackish groundwater is used instead of sea water. In order to answer this question, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used, and two water production plants are compared. The brackish groundwater scenario is based on a plant located in Almera (southern Spain), while the sea water scenario is based on literature data. Four impact categories and two environmental indicators, one of them related to brine discharge, are included. The results show that the key life-cycle issue of brackish groundwater desalination is electricity consumption, and since this is substantially reduced with regard to using sea water, the life-cycle impacts are found to be almost 50% lower. An uncertainty analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation shows that these environmental savings are significant for all impact categories. Potential local impacts provoked by brine discharge are also found to be lower, due to a reduced content of salts. It is concluded that, when and wherever possible, exploitation of brackish groundwater resources should be assigned priority to sea water resources as an input for reverse osmosis desalination, although it must be taken into account that groundwater, as opposed to sea water, is a limited resource. PMID:17826817

  16. Cytoprotection against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage by alpha-lipoic acid: implications in reducing occupational cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Budhwar, Roli; Nigam, Akanksha; Priya, Shivam

    2009-11-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), the metabolic antioxidant, was evaluated for its potential to protect against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage. Potassium dichromate was administered to Swiss albino mice orally ad libitum at the doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg body weight in drinking water to set DNA damage in cells, which was characterized in mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bone marrow cells using single-cell gel electrophoresis and analyses of generated comets for Tail moment, Tail DNA and Tail length. DNA damage was dose dependent. Cytoprotection by LA was remarkable. LA (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally) in pre-, co- and post-toxicant administration schedule abrogated DNA damage substantially in both cell types. Protection by LA was also dose dependent. LA annulled DNA damage by Cr(6+) in plasmid relaxation assay. A negligible DNA damage resulted during interaction of Cr(6+) and LA. Compared to ascorbate, LA emerged as a better antioxidant and least DNA damaging. In conclusion, our study advocated an experimental therapeutic research potential in LA against Cr(6+)-induced DNA damage for reduction of occupational cancer risk in humans. PMID:19710206

  17. The doubtful environmental benefit of reduced maximum sulfur limit in international shipping fuel.

    PubMed

    Mestl, Thomas; Lvoll, Grunde; Stensrud, Erik; Le Breton, Arnaud

    2013-06-18

    On January 1st, 2012, the maximum limit for sulfur concentration in marine fuels on the high seas was lowered from 4.50% to 3.50% by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). It was one of a series of planned steps toward reducing the negative environmental and health impacts of international shipping. This study investigates the effectiveness of the IMO regulation in reducing global sulfur emissions. We found a reduction in global average sulfur concentration of only 0.07% points from 2011 to 2012. On the positive side, we also found that only 2.3% of the bunkerings were noncompliant in 2012, that is, exceeded the new 3.50% sulfur concentration cap. The analysis furthermore suggests that compliance with the new regulation is achieved by blending high sulfur fuel with lower sulfur fuel, rather than by removing high sulfur fuel from the market or removing the excess sulfur. The main conclusion is that the regulation has been effective in reducing the maximum sulfur concentration but has not been very effective in reducing the average sulfur concentration. Thus, the regulation may have resulted in local environmental benefits but has not resulted in global benefits with respect to global sulfur emissions from international shipping. PMID:23713707

  18. Phototoxicity and environmental transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-light-induced reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; Sun, Xin; Yu, Hongtao

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of mutagenic and tumorigenic environmental contaminants. Although the mechanisms by which PAHs induce cancer in experimental animals have been extensively studied and the metabolic activation pathways have been determined, the environmental fate of PAHs and the phototoxicity exerted by PAHs, as well as their photoreaction products formed in the environment, have received much less attention. In this review, the formation of oxygenated PAHs, PAH quinones, nitro-PAHs, and halogenated PAHs from photoreaction of environmental PAHs are addressed. Upon light irradiation, PAHs and all PAH photoreaction products can absorb light energy to reach photo-excited states, which react with molecular oxygen, medium, and coexisting chemicals to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive intermediates, such as oxygenated PAHs and free radicals. These intermediates, including ROS, induce lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage including DNA strand breakage, oxidation to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and DNA-adducts. Since these toxicological endpoints are associated with age-related diseases, including cancer, environmental PAHs concomitantly exposed to sunlight may potentially promote human skin damage, leading to ageing and skin cancers. Thus, we suggest that (i) in addition to the widely recognized metabolic pathways, more attention must be paid to photoreaction as an important activation pathway for PAHs, (ii) risk assessment of environmental PAHs should take into consideration the complex photochemical reactions leading to mixtures of products that are also phototoxic; and (iii) the study of structure-toxicity relationships should be expanded to cover the complex photoreactions and extrinsic factors that affect phototoxicity endpoints. PMID:22458855

  19. Neglected Buildings, Damaged Health: A "Snapshot" of New York City Public School Environmental Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advocates for Children of New York, Inc., Long Island City.

    Survey results are presented from 65 parents, students over 12 years, teachers, and other school employees using 39 different schools about environmental conditions in New York City public schools. It shows the results of years of neglect of infrastructure for children and reveals disturbing new information about the environmental health of school

  20. Induced damage in Carrara Marble as a result of long-term low-magnitude environmental stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigtlaender, Anne; Leith, Kerry; Krautblatter, Michael; Walter, Jens M.

    2015-04-01

    Damage of intact rock is commonly driven by the interaction of long-term low-magnitude external environmental stresses in combination with surface chemistry, rather than short-term loading in excess of intact rock strength. In order to determine the contribution of environmental stresses to the propagation of micro- and macroscopic fractures under natural environmental conditions we undertook long-term three-point bending tests on large size Carrara Marble specimens. The interaction of mechanical stresses induced by external loading and corrosive conditions (e.g. the presence of water) at the tip of a pre-existing crack is termed stress corrosion. We investigate stress corrosion below saw cut notches in wet and dry samples of Carrara Marble (M1-5, each 10cm x 10cm x 110cm). These were pre-loaded to about 66% of their assumed ultimate strength (determined by the fracture toughness (Kic) calculated for the crack tip). Two marble beams (M1, M3) were initially loaded to 22% and three (M2, M4, M5) to 55% of Kic. CaC03 saturated water was continuously dripped in the notch of samples --M1-4 to create corrosive conditions, while M5 was kept dry. After a three-week bedding period, loading on sample M1 was increased to 55%, M2 and M5 to 77% and M3 and M4 to 85% of Kic respectively. The tests were interrupted prior to failure of the specimens in order to allow the assessment of the crack-tip structure. During the testing period we used classical strain gages and acoustic emission sensors to measure strain and elastic stress changes through coda wave interferometry. Temperature and humidity were monitored and the outflowing fluid was collected for future analysis, throughout. The effect of induced damage on residual intrinsic stresses was evaluated using neutron diffraction on the SALSA instrument at the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France), while texture measurements were undertaken using the X-ray goniometer at the Geoscience Center, University Gttingen, and optical microscopy. Here we present first results describing induced damage in calcite rocks as a result of imposed environmental stresses. We expect, that our test approach will provide insight into the interaction of environmental stresses and material properties, and their effect on degradation of bedrock exposed to natural environmental conditions.

  1. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens. The High Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  2. Advanced Glycation End-Products Reduce Collagen Molecular Sliding to Affect Collagen Fibril Damage Mechanisms but Not Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Fessel, Gion; Li, Yufei; Diederich, Vincent; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Schneider, Philipp; Sell, David R.; Monnier, Vincent M.; Snedeker, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) contribute to age-related connective tissue damage and functional deficit. The documented association between AGE formation on collagens and the correlated progressive stiffening of tissues has widely been presumed causative, despite the lack of mechanistic understanding. The present study investigates precisely how AGEs affect mechanical function of the collagen fibril the supramolecular functional load-bearing unit within most tissues. We employed synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and carefully controlled mechanical testing after introducing AGEs in explants of rat-tail tendon using the metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO). Mass spectrometry and collagen fluorescence verified substantial formation of AGEs by the treatment. Associated mechanical changes of the tissue (increased stiffness and failure strength, decreased stress relaxation) were consistent with reports from the literature. SAXS analysis revealed clear changes in molecular deformation within MGO treated fibrils. Underlying the associated increase in tissue strength, we infer from the data that MGO modified collagen fibrils supported higher loads to failure by maintaining an intact quarter-staggered conformation to nearly twice the level of fibril strain in controls. This apparent increase in fibril failure resistance was characterized by reduced side-by-side sliding of collagen molecules within fibrils, reflecting lateral molecular interconnectivity by AGEs. Surprisingly, no change in maximum fibril modulus (2.5 GPa) accompanied the changes in fibril failure behavior, strongly contradicting the widespread assumption that tissue stiffening in ageing and diabetes is directly related to AGE increased fibril stiffness. We conclude that AGEs can alter physiologically relevant failure behavior of collagen fibrils, but that tissue level changes in stiffness likely occur at higher levels of tissue architecture. PMID:25364829

  3. Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Kevin

    2014-08-13

    The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process. PMID:25024416

  4. Endothelin B receptor agonist, IRL-1620, reduces neurological damage following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Mary G; Briyal, Seema; Gulati, Anil

    2011-10-28

    Endothelin and its receptors have long been considered therapeutic targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Recent studies indicate that ET(B) receptors may provide both vasodilatation and neuroprotection. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of selectively activating the ET(B) receptors following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. IRL-1620 [Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-Endothelin-1(8-12)], a highly selective ET(B) agonist, was used alone and in conjunction with BQ788, an ET(B) antagonist, to determine the role of ET(B) receptors in cerebral ischemia. Rats were assessed for neurological deficit and motor function, and their brains were evaluated to determine infarct area, oxidative stress parameters, and ET receptor protein levels. Animals treated with IRL-1620 showed significant improvement in all neurological and motor function tests when compared with both vehicle-treated and BQ788-treated middle cerebral artery occluded groups. In addition, there was a significant decrease in infarct volume 24h after occlusion in animals treated with IRL-1620 (24.474.37mm(3)) versus the vehicle-treated group (153.2332.18mm(3)). Blockade of ET(B) receptors by BQ788 followed by either vehicle or IRL-1620 treatment resulted in infarct volumes similar to those of rats treated with vehicle alone (163.5125.41 and 139.2115.20mm(3), respectively). Lipid peroxidation, as measured by malondialdehyde, increased and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione) decreased following infarct. Treatment with IRL-1620 reversed these effects, indicating that ET(B) receptor activation reduces oxidative stress injury following ischemic stroke. Animals pretreated with BQ788 showed similar oxidative stress damage as those in the vehicle-treated group. No significant difference was observed in ET(B) receptor levels in any of the groups. The present study demonstrates that ET(B) receptor activation may be a novel neuroprotective therapy in the treatment of focal ischemic stroke. PMID:21959172

  5. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    SciTech Connect

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

    2011-04-20

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

  6. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule. Workshop summary; interim notification policy: Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups.

  7. Satisfaction of farm animal behavioral needs in behaviorally restricted systems: reducing stressors and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    In modern intensive husbandry, systems often restrict farm animal behavior. Behavioral needs will be generated by external stimuli such as stressors deriving from environmental factors or the method of animal care, or some internal factor in farm animals. This means that behavioral restriction would induce maladaptation to stressors or chronic stress. Such a risk of behavioral restriction degrades an animal's physical and mental health and leads to economic loss at a farm. Methods to reduce the risk of behavioral restrictions are to ameliorate the source of a stressor through adequate animal management or to carry out environmental enrichment. This review is intended to describe the relation between animal management and behavioral needs from the perspective of animal motivation. PMID:24889092

  8. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options to achieve economies of time, energy, and costs. Integration and iteration among these disciplines is possible only with continued interactions among practitioners, regulators, policy-makers, Native American Tribes, and the general public. PMID:18687455

  9. Ambient UV-B exposure reduces the binding of ofloxacin with bacterial DNA gyrase and induces DNA damage mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyoti; Dwivedi, Ashish; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Singh, Krishna P; Pal, Manish Kumar; Chopra, Deepti; Goyal, Shruti; Srivastav, Ajeet K; Dubey, Divya; Gupta, Shailendra K; Haldar, Chandana; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2016-04-01

    Ofloxacin (OFLX) is a broad spectrum antibiotic, which generates photo-products under sunlight exposure. Previous studies have failed to explain the attenuated anti-bacterial activity of OFLX. The study was extended to explore the unknown molecular mechanism of photogenotoxicity on human skin cell line (HaCaT) under environmental UV-B irradiation. Photochemically OFLX generates ROS and caused 2'-dGuO photodegradation. We have addressed the binding affinity of OFLX and its photo-products against DNA gyrase. Significant free radical generation such as (1)O2, O2(•-) and (•)OH reduces antioxidants and demonstrated the ROS mediated OFLX phototoxicity. However, the formation of micronuclei and CPDs showed photogenotoxic potential of OFLX. OFLX induced cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 peak. OFLX triggers apoptosis via permeabilization of mitochondrial membrane with the downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and caspase-3 whereas, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Cyto-C proteins. Our study illustrated that binding affinity of OFLX photo-products with DNA gyrase was mainly responsible for the attenuated antimicrobial activity. It was proved through molecular docking study. Thus, study suggests that sunlight exposure should avoid by drug users especially during peak hours for their safety from photosensitivity. Clinicians may guide patients regarding the safer use of photosensitive drugs during treatment. PMID:26812543

  10. Role of Telematics in Reducing the Negative Environmental Impact of Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Jerzy; Kwa?ny, Aleksandra

    With development of society increase the demand for the movement of people and goods. From years the transportation expand rapidly and is crucial to economic development. Unfortunately, it is also an economic sector with the most harmful effects on the environment. The various modes of transport in different extent impact negative on the environment, which depends mainly on the technical-operating conditions. The up-to-date telematics systems provide the transport industry a revolutionary opportunity to effectively manage. Appropriate use of these systems can help to substantially improve the efficiency of transport and its operating costs, in consequence lead to reduce the negative environmental impact of transport.

  11. Characterization of microbially Fe(III)-reduced nontronite: Environmental cell-transmission electron microscopy study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, J.-W.; Furukawa, Y.; Daulton, T.L.; Lavoie, D.; Newell, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    Microstructural changes induced by the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in nontronite by Shewanella oneidensis were studied using environmental cell (EC)-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conventional TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Direct observations of clays by EC-TEM in their hydrated state allowed for the first time an accurate and unambiguous TEM measurement of basal layer spacings and the contraction of layer spacing caused by microbial effects, most likely those of Fe(III) reduction. Non-reduced and Fe(III)-reduced nontronite, observed by EC-TEM, exhibited fringes with mean d001 spacings of 1.50 nm (standard deviation, ?? = 0.08 nm) and 1.26 nm (?? = 0.10 nm), respectively. In comparison, the same samples embedded with Nanoplast resin, sectioned by microtome, and observed using conventional TEM, displayed layer spacings of 1.0-1.1 nm (non-reduced) and 1.0 nm (reduced). The results from Nanoplast-embedded samples are typical of conventional TEM studies, which have measured nearly identical layer spacings regardless of Fe oxidation state. Following Fe(III) reduction, both EC- and conventional TEM showed an increase in the order of nontronite selected area electron diffraction patterns while the images exhibited fewer wavy fringes and fewer layer terminations. An increase in stacking order in reduced nontronite was also suggested by XRD measurements. In particular, the ratio of the valley to peak intensity (v/p) of the 1.7 nm basal 001 peak of ethylene glycolated nontronite was measured at 0.65 (non-reduced) and 0.85 (microbially reduced).

  12. Genotoxicity assessment of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings by tissue DNA damage and micronucleus test, after environmental exposure to fenitrothion.

    PubMed

    Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Sahin, Duygu; Karasu Benli, A Caglan; Sarikaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoc, Figen; Altan, Nilgun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of sublethal doses of fenitrothion, an organophosphothionate insecticide on brain, gill, liver, and muscle tissues as a ratio of 8-OHdG to dG to indicate the DNA damage and erythrocyte micronucleus frequency for genotoxicity of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings. In our study, the mean weights and lengths of the fish (n?=?4-12) were 31.13??14.24?g and 12.53??1.41, respectively. Before the experiment, fish were maintained in aerated dechlorinated tap water at 21.8??1 C and fed daily with commercial feed at a rate of 2% of their body weights. Experiments were conducted under static conditions in the aquaria. Technical grade (95%) fenitrothion was diluted in acetone to give a dosing solution of 10?mg/L. The increased lesions/10? DNA bases (p?damage were detectable in gill and muscle tissues of control groups, and in exposure groups altered levels of damage were detected for gill (0.06??0.05) and muscle (0.16??0.21) tissues. The increased micronucleus frequencies (%) in erythrocytes of carp following the exposure to 48?h fenitrothion (6.43??3.89; p<0.05) was observed when compared to control group (1.29??1.03). The available data indicate that there is still lack of well-established dose-response relationships between occupational or environmental exposures and the induction of 8-OHdG. Such biomarkers may be used in assessing adverse/toxic effects of pesticides as environmental stressors. PMID:21417631

  13. Reduced carbon intensity in highly developed countries: environmental kuznets curves for carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornhuber, Kai; Rybski, Diego; Costa, Luis; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jrgen P.

    2014-05-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) postulates that pollution increases with the income per capita up to a maximum, above which it decreases with the further increase in income per capita, i.e. following an inverse U-shape in the pollution vs. income per capita. It is commonly believed that EKC occurs for "local" pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, but does not hold for CO2 emissions. This is attributed to the fact that while "local" pollutants cause a visible environmental damage on the local/regional scale (which authorities/governments seek to avoid), the consequences of CO2 emission have no immediate attributable local/regional consequences. We review EKC for CO2 exploring its relation between CO2 per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI) between 1990 and 2010 obtained from the World Bank database. We find evidence for a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita in highly developed countries. We propose a model according to which the emissions per capita of a country are composed of a component related to the actual state of development and a component related to the change of development. The model leads to four distinct cases of which two have EKC shape and two imply saturation. This outcome is in line with previously suggested qualitative relations. Our analysis indicates that the EKC shaped cases better describes the empirical values. We explore the less extreme version corresponding to the so-called conventional EKC and study the maximum of the fitted curve, providing a threshold-value for the HDI and a typical maximum value for the emissions per capita. We find that approx. 5 countries have crossed the CO2-HDI maximum, corresponding to approx. 1.5% of the world population.

  14. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: a review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Baoluo

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8-150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. PMID:25644838

  15. Environmentally Induced Damage to Children: A Call for Broadening the Critical Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue

    The incidence of environmentally related illnesses, such as tuberculosis, asthma, allergies, respiratory disease, depression, and violent anger is increasing, particularly in the inner cities. The effects of these illnesses is often overlooked in discussions of educational and social inequity. This article discusses the significance of this…

  16. Effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on reducing resistance to environmental stresses in Cronobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen transmitted exclusively through contaminated infant formula (IFM), and associated with life-threatening infections in infants. C. sakazakii has the ability to tolerate a variety of environmental stress conditions, including heat stress, acidity, high osmotic pressure, and desiccation. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a subinhibitory concentration (750??M) of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), an ingredient in cinnamon, for reducing C. sakazakii's tolerance to these environmental stresses. Three strains of TC-treated C. sakazakii were separately subjected to high temperature (50C, 55C, and 60C), acidic pH (3.3), high osmotic pressure (a(w) 0.81), and desiccation. TC (750??M) substantially (p?reducing C. sakazakii stress tolerance underscores its potential use for controlling the pathogen by increasing its susceptibility to commonly applied hurdles in food processing. PMID:21114424

  17. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area. PMID:22754580

  18. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  19. Reducing the environmental impact of dietary choice: perspectives from a behavioural and social change approach.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Andrew; Dixon, Sarah; Comfort, Jude; Hallett, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area. PMID:22754580

  20. Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ∼28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ∼35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  1. Configuring the mesh size, side taper and wing depth of penaeid trawls to reduce environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Sterling, David J; Millar, Russell B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the '41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or 'long' and ∼28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or 'short' and ∼35o) and wing depths ('deep'-97 T vs 'shallow'-60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings--by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  2. Environmental Pollutant Ozone Causes Damage to Lung Surfactant Protein B (SP-B)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential protein found in the surfactant fluid at the air–water interface of the lung. Exposure to the air pollutant ozone could potentially damage SP-B and lead to respiratory distress. We have studied two peptides, one consisting of the N-terminus of SP-B [SP-B(1–25)] and the other a construct of the N- and C-termini of SP-B [SP-B(1–25,63–78)], called SMB. Exposure to dilute levels of ozone (∼2 ppm) of monolayers of each peptide at the air–water interface leads to a rapid reaction, which is evident from an increase in the surface tension. Fluorescence experiments revealed that this increase in surface tension is accompanied by a loss of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue at the interface. Neutron and X-ray reflectivity experiments show that, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, the peptides are not solubilized upon oxidation but rather remain at the interface with little change in their hydration. Analysis of the product material reveals that no cleavage of the peptides occurs, but a more hydrophobic product is slowly formed together with an increased level of oligomerization. We attributed this to partial unfolding of the peptides. Experiments conducted in the presence of phospholipids reveal that the presence of the lipids does not prevent oxidation of the peptides. Our results strongly suggest that exposure to low levels of ozone gas will damage SP-B, leading to a change in its structure. The implication is that the oxidized protein will be impaired in its ability to interact at the air–water interface with negatively charged phosphoglycerol lipids, thus compromising what is thought to be its main biological function. PMID:26270023

  3. Environmental Pollutant Ozone Causes Damage to Lung Surfactant Protein B (SP-B).

    PubMed

    Hemming, Joanna M; Hughes, Brian R; Rennie, Adrian R; Tomas, Salvador; Campbell, Richard A; Hughes, Arwel V; Arnold, Thomas; Botchway, Stanley W; Thompson, Katherine C

    2015-08-25

    Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential protein found in the surfactant fluid at the air-water interface of the lung. Exposure to the air pollutant ozone could potentially damage SP-B and lead to respiratory distress. We have studied two peptides, one consisting of the N-terminus of SP-B [SP-B(1-25)] and the other a construct of the N- and C-termini of SP-B [SP-B(1-25,63-78)], called SMB. Exposure to dilute levels of ozone (~2 ppm) of monolayers of each peptide at the air-water interface leads to a rapid reaction, which is evident from an increase in the surface tension. Fluorescence experiments revealed that this increase in surface tension is accompanied by a loss of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue at the interface. Neutron and X-ray reflectivity experiments show that, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, the peptides are not solubilized upon oxidation but rather remain at the interface with little change in their hydration. Analysis of the product material reveals that no cleavage of the peptides occurs, but a more hydrophobic product is slowly formed together with an increased level of oligomerization. We attributed this to partial unfolding of the peptides. Experiments conducted in the presence of phospholipids reveal that the presence of the lipids does not prevent oxidation of the peptides. Our results strongly suggest that exposure to low levels of ozone gas will damage SP-B, leading to a change in its structure. The implication is that the oxidized protein will be impaired in its ability to interact at the air-water interface with negatively charged phosphoglycerol lipids, thus compromising what is thought to be its main biological function. PMID:26270023

  4. A supervised vibration-based statistical methodology for damage detection under varying environmental conditions & its laboratory assessment with a scale wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez González, A.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of vibration-based damage detection under varying environmental conditions and uncertainty is considered, and a novel, supervised, PCA-type statistical methodology is postulated. The methodology employs vibration data records from the healthy and damaged states of a structure under various environmental conditions. Unlike standard PCA-type methods in which a feature vector corresponding to the least important eigenvalues is formed in a single step, the postulated methodology uses supervised learning in which damaged-state data records are employed to sequentially form a feature vector by appending a transformed scalar element at a time under the condition that it optimally, among all remaining elements, improves damage detectability. This leads to the formulation of feature vectors with optimized sensitivity to damage, and thus high damage detectability. Within this methodology three particular methods, two non-parametric and one parametric, are formulated. These are validated and comparatively assessed via a laboratory case study focusing on damage detection on a scale wind turbine blade under varying temperature and the potential presence of sprayed water. Damage detection performance is shown to be excellent based on a single vibration response sensor and a limited frequency bandwidth.

  5. Wheat peptides reduce oxidative stress and inhibit NO production through modulating ?-opioid receptor in a rat NSAID-induced stomach damage model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Cai, Hui-Zhen; Wang, Shao-Kang; Yang, Li-Gang; Sun, Gui-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce tissue damage and oxidative stress in animal models of stomach damage. In the present study, the protective effects of wheat peptides were evaluated in a NSAID-induced stomach damage model in rats. Different doses of wheat peptides or distilled water were administered daily by gavage for 30 days before the rat stomach damage model was established by administration of NSAIDs (aspirin and indomethacin) into the digestive tract twice. The treatment of wheat peptides decreased the NSAID-induced gastric epithelial cell degeneration and oxidative stress and NO levels in the rats. Wheat peptides significantly increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and decreased iNOS activity in stomach. The mRNA expression level of ?-opioid receptor was significantly decreased in wheat peptides-treated rats than that in in the control rats. The results suggest that NSAID drugs induced stomach damage in rats, wchih can be prevented by wheat peptides. The mechanisms for the protective effects were most likely through reducing NSAID-induced oxidative stress. PMID:25660285

  6. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment. PMID:23815735

  7. DNA damage-inducible genes as biomarkers for exposures to environmental agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N F; Carpenter, T R; Jaramillo, R J; Liberati, T A

    1997-01-01

    A biodosimetric approach to determine alpha-particle dose to the respiratory tract epithelium from known exposures to radon has been developed in the rat. Cytotoxicity assays have been used to obtain dose-conversion factors for cumulative exposures typical of those encountered by underground uranium miners. However, this approach is not sensitive enough to derive dose-conversion factors for indoor radon exposures. The expression of DNA damage-inducible genes is being investigated as a biomarker of exposure to radon progeny. Exposure of cultures of A549 cells to alpha particles resulted in an increase in the protein levels of the DNA damage-inducible genes, p53, Cip1, and Gadd45. These protein changes were associated with a transient arrest of cells passing through the cell cycle. This arrest was typified by an increase in the number of cells in the G1 and G2 phases and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. The effect of inhaled alpha particles (radon progeny) in rats was examined in the epithelial cells of the lateral well of the anterior nasal cavity. Exposures to radon progeny resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. These cell-cycle changes were concomitant with an increase in the number of cells containing DNA strand breaks. These results suggest a commonality between cell-cycle events in vitro and in vivo following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to ionizing radiation, A549 cells were exposed to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, methyl methanesulphonate, crocidolite asbestos, and glass microfiber. These studies showed that physical and chemical agents induce different expression patterns of p53, Cip1, and Gadd153 proteins and they could be used to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic materials such as asbestos and glass microfiber. The measurement of gene expression in A549 cells may provide a means to identify a broad spectrum of physical and chemical toxicants encountered in the environment. PMID:9255580

  8. Early environmental enrichment affects neurobehavioral development and prevents brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Clarissa Pedrini; Diaz, Ramiro; Deckmann, Iohanna; Rojas, Joseane Jiménez; Deniz, Bruna Ferrary; Pereira, Lenir Orlandi

    2016-03-23

    Our previous results demonstrated improved cognition in adolescent rats housed in environmental enrichment (EE) that underwent neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early EE on neurobehavioral development and brain damage in rats submitted to neonatal HI. Wistar rats were submitted to the HI procedure on the 7th postnatal day (PND) and housed in an enriched environment (8th-20th PND). The maturation of physical characteristics and the neurological reflexes were evaluated and the volume of striatum, corpus callosum and neocortex was measured. Data analysis demonstrated a clear effect of EE on neurobehavioral development; also, daily performance was improved in enriched rats on righting, negative geotaxis and cliff aversion reflex. HI caused a transient motor deficit on gait latency. Brain atrophy was found in HI animals and this damage was partially prevented by the EE. In conclusion, early EE stimulated neurobehavioral development in neonate rats and also protects the neocortex and the corpus callosum from atrophy following HI. These findings reinforce the potential of EE as a strategy for rehabilitation following neonatal HI and provide scientific support to the use of this therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neonatal brain injuries in humans. PMID:26872850

  9. Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.

  10. Environmental enrichment restores CA1 hippocampal LTP and reduces severity of seizures in epileptic mice.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Emanuela; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Pendolino, Valentina; Bagetta, Vincenza; Pignataro, Annabella; Fejtova, Anna; Costa, Cinzia; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    We have analyzed the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) in a seizure-prone mouse model in which the genetic disruption of the presynaptic protein Bassoon leads to structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus and causes early spontaneous seizures mimicking human neurodevelopmental disorders. One-month EE starting at P21 reduced seizure severity, preserved long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse synaptic responses in the hippocampal CA1 neuronal population and prevented the reduction of spine density and dendrite branching of pyramidal neurons. These data demonstrate that EE exerts its therapeutic effect by normalizing multiple aspects of hippocampal function and provide experimental support for its use in the optimization of existent treatments. PMID:24858730

  11. Mitotic delay in lymphocytes from BRCA1 heterozygotes unable to reduce the radiation-induced chromosomal damage.

    PubMed

    Febrer, Emma; Mestres, Marta; Caballn, Mara Rosa; Barrios, Leonardo; Ribas, Montserrat; Gutirrez-Enrquez, Sara; Alonso, Carmen; Ramn y Cajal, Teresa; Francesc Barquinero, Joan

    2008-11-01

    Double strand breaks (DSB) are critical lesions involved in the formation of chromosomal aberrations. In response to DNA damage, the cell has mechanisms of repair and cell-cycle control to maintain the genome integrity in which BRCA1 gene is implicated. In the present study an evaluation of the radio-induced damage in G(2) phase of the cell cycle in lymphocytes from BRCA1 heterozygotes is presented. For this purpose Calyculin-A-based premature chromosome condensation (PCC) combined with mitotic arrest has been applied to examine with conventional cytogenetics the damage in G(2) and M phase cells, and to evaluate the G(2)-to-M phase transition. Irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes from seven heterozygote females (BRCA1(+/-)) and seven control females (BRCA1(+/+)) have been analyzed. The mean proportion of G(2) cells in BRCA1(+/-) was significantly higher than in BRCA1(+/+), indicating a higher G(2) delay after IR exposure in cells from BRCA1(+/-) females. On the other hand, whereas the mean frequency of chromatid breaks (chtb) in G(2) cells was not statistically different between both groups, the mean frequency of chtb in M cells of the BRCA1(+/-) group was significantly higher than in the BRCA1(+/+) one. Moreover, the mean proportion of M cells with aberrations was significantly higher in BRCA1(+/-) than in BRCA1(+/+) suggesting that in spite of the higher G(2) delay of BRCA1(+/-) more damaged cells are able to pass the G(2)-to-M transition. PMID:18765304

  12. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Pregnancy is Associated With Earlier Delivery and Reduced Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel C; Wills, Andrew K; Bernal, Andrs Lpez

    2015-12-01

    The association between maternal smoking and preterm birth (PTB) has been known for more than 50 years but the effect of passive smoking is controversial. This retrospective cohort study in Bristol, United Kingdom, examines the effect of environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE) on gestational age at delivery, birth weight, PTB, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was defined by either self-report or exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels, and exposed women were compared with unexposed controls. Two models were used: The first included all women with adjustment for maternal smoking, and the second considered nonsmokers alone. Both models were further adjusted for maternal age, body mass index, parity, ethnicity, employment status, socioeconomic position, asthma, preeclampsia, and offspring sex. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to test for any association between exposure and the binary outcomes (PTB and SGA), while linear regression and F tests were used to test for associations between exposure and the continuous outcomes. There were 13 359 deliveries in 2012 to 2014, with complete data for 5066 and 4793 women in the self-reported and eCO-measured exposure groups, respectively. Self-reported exposure was associated with earlier delivery (-0.19 weeks; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.32 to -0.05) and reduced birth weight (-56 g, 95% CI: -97 to -16 g) but no increase in the risk of PTB or SGA. There was no evidence for an association between eCO-measured exposure and any of the outcome measures. This information is important when advising women and their families and adds further support to continued public health efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:26507870

  13. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control. PMID:26210774

  14. Environmental Justice Implications of Reduced Reporting Requirements of the Toxics Release Inventory Burden Reduction Rule

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Keating, Martha H.; Edwards, Sharon E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information systems (GIS) methodology for evaluating the environmental justice implications of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Burden Reduction Rule, which was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 2006 under the authority of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. This rule exempts industrial facilities meeting certain higher reporting thresholds from filing detailed reports about the quantities of chemicals used, released, or managed as waste. Our analytical approach examines demographic characteristics within a 1 km, 3 km, and 5 km buffer around a georeferenced facility location, applied on a national, regional, and state scale. The distance-based GIS analysis demonstrates that TRI facilities that are eligible for reduced reporting are more likely to be located in proximity to communities with a higher percentage of minority and low-income residents. The differences are more pronounced for percent minority and percent minority under age 5 in comparison to percent in poverty, and the demographic differences are more apparent at increasingly resolved geographic scales. PMID:18754453

  15. Environmental fate of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and its reduced products.

    PubMed

    Hawari, J; Monteil-Rivera, F; Perreault, N N; Halasz, A; Paquet, L; Radovic-Hrapovic, Z; Deschamps, S; Thiboutot, S; Ampleman, G

    2015-01-01

    Several defense departments intend to replace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in munitions formulations by the less sensitive 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). To help understand environmental behavior and ecological risk associated with DNAN we investigated its key initial abiotic and biotic reaction routes and determined relevant physicochemical parameters (pKa, logKow, aqueous solubility (Sw), partition coefficient (Kd)) for the chemical and its products. Reduction of DNAN with either zero valent iron or bacteria regioselectively produced 2-amino-4-nitroanisole (2-ANAN) which, under strict anaerobic conditions, gave 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN). Hydrolysis under environmental conditions was insignificant whereas photolysis gave photodegradable intermediates 2-hydroxy-4-nitroanisole and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Physicochemical properties of DNAN and its amino products drastically depended on the type and position of substituent(s) on the aromatic ring. Sw followed the order (TNTreduced bioavailability under oxic conditions. Although DNAN is more soluble than TNT, its lower hydrophobicity and its tendency to form aminoderivatives that sorb irreversibly to soil contribute to make it less toxic than the traditional explosive TNT. PMID:25460743

  16. Integrating environmental variables and WorldView-2 image data to improve the prediction and mapping of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (bronze bug) damage in plantation forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumar, Zakariyyaa; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2014-01-01

    This study integrated environmental variables together with high spectral resolution WorldView-2 imagery to detect and map Thaumastocoris peregrinus damage in Eucalypt plantation forests in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The WorldView-2 bands, vegetation indices and environmental variables were entered separately into PLS regression models to predict T. peregrinus damage. The datasets were then integrated to test the collective strength in predicting T. peregrinus damage. Important variables were identified by variable importance (VIP) scores and were re-entered into a PLS regression model. The VIP model was then extrapolated to map the severity of damage and predicted T. peregrinus damage with an R2 value of 0.71 and a RMSE of 3.26% on an independent test dataset. The red edge and near-infrared bands of the WorldView-2 sensor together with the temperature dataset were identified as important variables in predicting T. peregrinus damage. The results indicate the potential of integrating WorldView-2 data and environmental variables to improve the mapping and monitoring of insect outbreaks in plantation forests. The result is critical for plantation health monitoring using a new sensor which contains important vegetation wavelengths.

  17. CT Imaging Biomarkers of Bone Damage Induced by Environmental Level of Cadmium Exposure in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lirong; Chen, Xiao; Bao, Yizhong; Xu, Weihong; Lv, Yuandong; Wang, Zhongqiu; Wen, Xiaolin

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) can induce bone loss and osteoporosis. Histologic methods have shown that Cd can induce microarchitecture change of the trabecular bone. The aim of this study is to evaluate the imaging biomarkers of osteoporosis induced by Cd using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups that were exposed to Cd via drinking water at concentrations of 0, 2, 10, and 50mg/L for 3months. Before sacrifice, micro-CT scanning was performed on the proximal tibia. Three-dimensional images were analyzed by using commercial software to measure apparent bone mineral density (ABMD), tissue bone mineral density (TBMD), bone volume/total volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), and structural model index (SMI) as imaging biomarkers. Histologic analyses were performed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Goldner's trichrome stain. Exposure to Cd resulted in a marked decrease of ABMD, BV/TV, and Tb.N and an increase of Tb.Sp and SMI compared with control, especially for those treated with 50mg Cd/L (p<0.05). Decreased Tb.N and increased Tb.Sp compared to that of control were also observed in histologic findings. The micro-CT imaging is a promising tool for assessing the bone damage induced by Cd, and Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and SMI may be the potential sensitive imaging biomarkers. PMID:26206562

  18. Application of molecular markers to detect DNA damage caused by environmental pollutants in lichen species.

    PubMed

    Cansaran-Duman, D; Altunkaynak, E; Aslan, A; Byk, I; Aras, S

    2015-01-01

    Pseudevernia furfuracea L. (Zopf), Peltigera praetextata (Flrke ex Sommerf.) Zopf, Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea longissima Ach. lichen species were used as bioindicators to assess the genotoxicity of air pollutants. In the present study, we examined significant environmetal pollutants and investigate how changes may lead to damage in DNA structure using RAPD markers. In the study area (Erzurum, Turkey), poor-quality lignite, which generates a large amount of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle matter, is used for domestic heating, and vehicles also contribute to air pollution. Control lichen samples were collected far from large urban and industrial settlements and transplanted to four polluted sites for 4, 8, or 12 months. The total soluble protein content of the examined four lichen species did not significantly change with exposure time (P < 0.05). The four lichen samples exposed to the pollutants for 8 months had the highest ratio of DNA changes. The ratio of band differences in P. praetextata was higher than that in the other three lichen species, possibly because it has broad leaves that accumulated more pollutants. The average incidences of polymorphism were 64.14, 54.58, 65.76, and 43.06% for P. furfuracea, P. praetextata, L. pulmonaria, and U. longissima, respectively. The genomic template stability (GTS) significantly decreased following exposure to pollutants. GTS ratios revealed that the highest value (98.36%) belonged to U. longissima samples from Site 1 (10 m) after 4 months of exposure, and the lowest values belonged to P. praetextata (73.58%) from Site 3 (100 m) after 8 months of exposure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of P. praetextata as an indicator of genotoxicity. PMID:25966238

  19. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Without c-Myc Ameliorate Retinal Oxidative Damage via Paracrine Effects and Reduced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, I-Mo; Yang, Chung-May

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and mechanisms of non-c-Myc induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) transplantation in a rat model of retinal oxidative damage. Methods: Paraquat was intravitreously injected into SpragueDawley rats. After non-c-Myc iPSC transplantation, retinal function was evaluated by electroretinograms (ERGs). The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by lucigenin- and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1?, and CXCR4 was measured by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. An in vitro study using SH-SY5Y cells was performed to verify the protective effects of SDF-1?. Results: Transplantation of non-c-Myc iPSCs effectively promoted the recovery of the b-wave ratio in ERGs and significantly ameliorated retinal damage. Non-c-Myc iPSC transplantation decreased ROS production and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, thereby reducing retinal oxidative damage and apoptotic cells. Moreover, non-c-Myc iPSC transplantation resulted in significant upregulation of SDF-1?, followed by bFGF, accompanied by a significant improvement in the ERG. In vitro studies confirmed that treatment with SDF-1? significantly reduced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y cells. Most transplanted cells remained in the subretinal space, with spare cells expressing neurofilament M markers at day 28. Six months after transplantation, no tumor formation was seen in animals with non-c-Myc iPSC grafts. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential benefits of non-c-Myc iPSC transplantation for treating oxidative-damage-induced retinal diseases. SDF-1? and bFGF play important roles in facilitating the amelioration of retinal oxidative damage after non-c-Myc iPSC transplantation. PMID:25121987

  20. Quality control in the application of flow cytometry to studies of environmentally-induced genetic damage

    SciTech Connect

    McCreedy, C.D.; Robinson, J.P.; Dallas, C.E.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1999-07-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) has been used to demonstrate altered DNA content in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals exposed to radionuclides, PAHs and other contaminants. However, artifacts resulting from sample preparation, handling, variations in instrument parameters or other factors may confound such measurements. Some artifacts resemble genotoxic responses and so could lead to erroneous positive conclusions. As part of ongoing studies of effects of various pollutants on DNA content in fishes, the authors tested sample handling and preparation methods for the induction of artifacts. The authors describe QA/QC methods, including control of staining, conditions, doublet discrimination by comparison of peak versus integral fluorescence, internal DNA standards, and the use of time versus fluorescence plots. Consistent application of these practices is essential to obtain valid measurements of DNA content in environmental samples, and neglect of these can result in poor quality data and the acceptance of incorrect hypotheses.

  1. Environmental fate of endocrine-disrupting dimethyl phthalate esters (DMPE) under sulfate-reducing condition.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Joseph K H; Lam, Rita K W; Shi, M Y; Gu, J-D

    2007-08-01

    Dimethyl phthalate esters (DMPE) can easily be released into the environment from plastic products. As endocrine disruptors, DMPE mimic estrogenic activities in animals and humans. The metabolites of DMPE are suspected to cause even more serious health problems. Among the common sterilization techniques adopted in the study of DMPE degradation, the average loss of the parent DMPE compounds after autoclaving was as high as 21.26%. In contrast, the loss after 0.2 microm filtration was significantly lower at 2.28%. It is suggested that filtration should be used over autoclaving for sterilizing DMPE. The environmental fate of DMPE under sulfate-reducing condition was simulated and studied in microcosm system. It was observed that dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dimethyl isophthalate (DMI) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) could not be mineralized over an extended period of 6 months, but with the transformation to the respective monomethyl phthalate and/or phthalic acid. The dominant species of microorganisms utilizing individual DMPE isomer as the sole carbon source were isolated and identified as facultative anaerobe Thauera sp., Xanthobacter sp. and Agrobacterium sp. for DMP, DMI and DMT, respectively. This study illustrates that the detrimental DMPE and their natural metabolites may accumulate in the sulfate-reducing environment. Accordingly, proper surveillance program should be devised to monitor both the parent compounds and degradation intermediates of DMPE in order to protect the aquatic ecosystem and human health. PMID:17462710

  2. Long-Term Effects of Chromatin Remodeling and DNA Damage in Stem Cells Induced by Environmental and Dietary Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bariar, Bhawana; Vestal, C. Greer; Richardson, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The presence of histones acts as a barrier to protein access; thus chromatin remodeling must occur for essential processes such as transcription and replication. In conjunction with histone modifications, DNA methylation plays critical roles in gene silencing through chromatin remodeling. Chromatin remodeling is also interconnected with the DNA damage response, maintenance of stem cell properties, and cell differentiation programs. Chromatin modifications have increasingly been shown to produce long-lasting alterations in chromatin structure and transcription. Recent studies have shown environmental exposures in utero have the potential to alter normal developmental signaling networks, physiologic responses, and disease susceptibility later in life during a process known as developmental reprogramming. In this review we discuss the long-term impact of exposure to environmental compounds, the chromatin modifications that they induce, and the differentiation and developmental programs of multiple stem and progenitor cell types altered by exposure. The main focus is to highlight agents present in the human lifestyle that have the potential to promote epigenetic changes that impact developmental programs of specific cell types, may promote tumorigenesis through altering epigenetic marks, and may be transgenerational, for example, those able to be transmitted through multiple cell divisions. PMID:24579784

  3. Isoflavone supplementation reduces DNA oxidative damage and increases O-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activity in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Erba, Daniela; Casiraghi, M Cristina; Martinez-Conesa, Cristina; Goi, Giancarlo; Massaccesi, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to boost the human antioxidant defense system and health; therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that soy isoflavones (IFs) provide antioxidant protection in healthy women by evaluating DNA resistance to oxidative damage and O-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (OGA) activity. An IF supplement (80 mg/d) was given to 9 postmenopausal women and 13 young women for 6 months and then stopped up to the 14th month. The women were allowed to consume their normal diet. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study after 2, 4, and 6 months and then at the 8th and 14th months. Plasma concentrations of genistein and daidzein, total antioxidant capacity, plasma vitamin status, markers of oxidative stress (red blood cell membrane fluidity, activity of the red blood cell cytosolic enzyme OGA and lymphocyte DNA susceptibility to oxidative stress), and serum lipid profile were analyzed. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. Plasma concentrations of IFs rose significantly during the supplementation period, and plasma total antioxidant capacity increased in young women; membrane fluidity and OGA activity increased, and DNA oxidative damage decreased (P < .05) at 4 months, then returned to the basal level. There was a significant inverse correlation between DNA damage and plasma IF concentrations (P < .01). The results indicated a positive effect of IF supplementation on oxidative stress in women, thus suggesting that the healthful action ascribed to soy consumption may be partially related to the antioxidant potential of IFs. PMID:22575035

  4. Two years research on efficiency of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory, to reduce damage caused by onion thrips(Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on leek.

    PubMed

    Gombac, P; Trdan, S

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and 2011, a field experiment was carried out at the Laboratory Field at the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the aim to investigate suitability of two intercrops, birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L) and summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), for reducing damage caused by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) on leek (Allium porrum L.). Four leek cultivars--'Columbus', 'Forrest', 'Lancelot' and 'Lincoln'--were used in the research (Bejo Zaden B.V., Netherlands). In both years, the mean index of damage caused by feeding of the pest on the leek leaves increased from the first evaluation (13 July 2009 and 18 June 2011) in both treatments with intercrops and in control treatment (without intercrop). Leek grown with birdsfoot trefoil as intercrop was in both years statistically the least damaged from thrips. Also summer savory was efficient in the same context in comparison with control treatment. In year 2009 cultivar 'Lancelot' was the least damaged in all treatments, and in year 2011 'Lancelot' and 'Forrest'. In both years intercrop and cultivar also had a significant influence on the yield of leek. The highest yield was obtained on the control plots, meanwhile birdsfoot trefoil and summer savory were pretty competitive and yield of leek grown with them as intercrops was therefore significantly lower. PMID:23885428

  5. Development of a New Mosquito Retention System for the BG-Malaria Trap To Reduce The Damage To Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Moreno S; Silva, Ivoneide M; Leal, Leandro B; Dos Santos, Carlos A C; Eiras, Álvaro E

    2014-09-01

    The BG-Malaria trap was recently modified from the BioGents BG-Sentinel trap to collect Anopheles species, including Anopheles darlingi. However, the captured mosquitoes often lose their hind legs in the collector bag, making them difficult to identify. To develop a new collector system that is capable of maintaining the integrity of the mosquitoes collected in the BG-Malaria trap, we conducted a study in the municipalities of Belém (Pará State [PA]) and Porto Velho (Rondônia State [RO]), Brazil, using carbon dioxide-baited BG-Malaria traps with 4 different mosquito collector systems: standard, no bag, rigid short, and rigid long. Results indicated significant differences among the numbers of mosquitoes captured in the 4 different collectors (P < 0.05). Additionally, significantly fewer insects (P < 0.05) were damaged using the rigid short and rigid long collectors than by using the standard and no-bag collectors. We observed that the longer the insects remained in the collector, the higher the number of damaged insects; this effect was the greatest in the standard collector. The results of this study indicate that rigid long collectors were the best suited for use in the BG-Malaria trap. PMID:25843093

  6. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce neuronal death after transient global cerebral ischemia through prevention of blood-brain barrier disruption and endothelial damage.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Bo Young; Chung, Sung Phil; Kwon, Sung Won; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-02-01

    Global cerebral ischemia (GCI) is the leading cause of a poor prognosis even after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Therapeutic induction of hypothermia (TH) is the only proven therapy-and current standard care-for GCI after cardiac arrest; however, its application has been significantly limited owing to technical difficulties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to suppress neuronal death after cerebral ischemia. The prevention of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has not been suggested as a mechanism of MSC treatment but has for TH. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of MSC administration on BBB disruption and neutrophil infiltration after GCI. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of MSC treatment, rats were subjected to 7 minutes of transient GCI and treated with MSCs immediately after reperfusion. Hippocampal neuronal death was evaluated at 7 days after ischemia using Fluoro-Jade B (FJB). BBB disruption, endothelial damage, and neutrophil infiltration were evaluated at 7 days after ischemia by immunostaining for IgG leakage, Rat endothelial antigen-1, and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Rats treated with MSCs showed a significantly reduced FJB+ neuron count compared with the control group. They also showed reduced IgG leakage, endothelial damage, and MPO+ cell counts. The present study demonstrated that administration of MSCs after transient GCI provides a dramatic protective effect against hippocampal neuronal death. We hypothesized that the neuroprotective effects of MSC treatment might be associated with the prevention of BBB disruption and endothelial damage and a decrease in neutrophil infiltration. PMID:25548390

  7. Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Xiao-Tang; Xing, Guang-Xi; Chen, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xue-Jun; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Yin, Bin; Christie, Peter; Zhu, Zhao-Liang; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2009-01-01

    Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30–60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550–600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service. PMID:19223587

  8. The ecophysiology of sulfur isotope fractionation by sulfate reducing bacteria in response to variable environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavitt, W.; Bradley, A. S.; Johnston, D. T.; Pereira, I. A. C.; Venceslau, S.; Wallace, C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur relative to sulfate. The magnitude of discrimination (fractionation) depends on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR, Kaplan & Rittenberg (1964) Can. J. Microbio.; Chambers et al. (1975) Can. J. Microbio; Sim et al. (2011) GCA; Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS), ii) the ambient sulfate concentration (Harrison & Thode (1958) Research; Habicht et al. (2002) Science; Bradley et al. in review), iii) both sulfate and electron donor availability, or iv) an intrinsic physiological limitation (e.g. cellular division rate). When neither sulfate nor electron donor limits csSRR a more complex function relates the magnitude of isotope fractionation to cell physiology and environmental conditions. In recent and on-going work we have examined the importance of enzyme-specific fractionation factors, as well as the influence of electron donor or electron acceptor availability under carefully controlled culture conditions (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). In light of recent advances in MSR genetics and biochemistry we utilize well-characterized mutant strains, along with a continuous-culture methodology (Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS) to further probe the fractionation capacity of this metabolism under controlled physiological conditions. We present our latest findings on the magnitude of S and D/H isotope fractionation in both wild type and mutant strains. We will discuss these in light of recent theoretical advances (Wing & Halevy (2014) PNAS), examining the mode and relevance of MSR isotope fractionation in the laboratory to modern and ancient environmental settings, particularly anoxic marine sediments.

  9. Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-? oligomers in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-? (A?) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble A? oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain A? oligomers and increased synthesis of the A?-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes. PMID:24478697

  10. Resistance to Bleomycin in Cancer Cell Lines Is Characterized by Prolonged Doubling Time, Reduced DNA Damage and Evasion of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Cheng, Dangxiao; Qiu, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhuo; Moore, Malcolm; Bristow, Robert G.; Xu, Wei; Der, Sandy; Liu, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Background To establish, characterize and elucidate potential mechanisms of acquired bleomycin (BLM) resistance using human cancer cell lines. Seven BLM-resistant cell lines were established by exposure to escalating BLM concentrations over a period of 16-24 months. IC50 values and cell doubling times were quantified using a real time cytotoxicity assay. COMET and ?-H2AX assays, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assessment further investigated the mechanisms of BLM resistance in these cell lines. Results Compared with parental cell lines, real time cytotoxicity assays revealed 7 to 49 fold increases in IC50 and a mean doubling time increase of 147 % (range 64 %-352%) in BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05 for both). Higher maintenance BLM concentrations were associated with higher IC50 and increased doubling times (p<0.05). Significantly reduced DNA damage (COMET and ?-H2AX assays), G2/M arrest, and apoptosis (p<0.05 for each set of comparison) following high-dose acute BLM exposure was observed in resistant sub-clones, compared with their BLM-sensitive parental counterparts. Three weeks of BLM-free culturing resulted in a partial return to BLM sensitivity in 3/7 BLM-resistant sub-clones (p<0.05). Conclusion Bleomycin resistance may be associated with reduced DNA damage after bleomycin exposure, resulting in reduced G2/M arrest, and reduced apoptosis. PMID:24349265

  11. Assessment of NDE methods for detecting cracks and damage in environmental barrier coated CMC tested under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Gorican, Daniel; Rauser, Richard W.

    2015-03-01

    For validating physics based analytical models predicting spallation life of environmental barrier coating (EBC) on fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, the fracture strength of EBC and kinetics of crack growth in EBC layers need to be experimentally determined under engine operating conditions. In this study, a multi layered barium strontium aluminum silicate (BSAS) based EBC-coated, melt infiltrated silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (MI SiC/SiC) specimen was tensile tested at room temperature. Multiple tests were performed on a single specimen with increasing predetermined stress levels until final failure. During loading, the damage occurring in the EBC was monitored by digital image correlation (DIC). After unloading from the predetermined stress levels, the specimen was examined by optical microscopy and computed tomography (CT). Results indicate both optical microscopy and CT could not resolve the primary or secondary cracks developed during tensile loading until failure. On the other hand, DIC did show formation of a primary crack at ~ 50% of the ultimate tensile strength and this crack grew with increasing stress and eventually led to final failure of the specimen. Although some secondary cracks were seen in the DIC strain plots prior to final failure, the existence of these cracks were not confirmed by other methods. By using a higher resolution camera, it is possible to improve the capability of DIC in resolving secondary cracks and damage in coated specimen tested at room temperature, but use of DIC at high temperature requires significant development. Based on the current data, it appears that both optical microscopy and CT do not offer any hope for detecting crack initiation or determining crack growth in EBC coated CMC tested at room or high temperatures after the specimen has been unloaded. Other methods such as, thermography and optical/SEM of the polished cross section of EBC coated CMC specimens stressed to predetermined levels and cycled to certain time at a given stress need to be explored.

  12. Using Planarized p-GaN Layer to Reduce Electrostatic Discharged Damage in Nitride-Based Light-Emitting Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi-Ling; Lee, Wei-I

    2007-05-01

    Electrostatic discharge damage is a serious problem on nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), due to their large lattice mismatch between III-nitride material and the sapphire substrate, which induces high-density threading dislocations. In this study, GaN/GaInN-based LEDs with various thicknesses of the low-temperature planarized p-GaN layer were fabricated. We found that when the V-shaped defects were filled by the planarized p-GaN layer, the survival rate of LEDs under human-body mode -4000 V stress increases from 23 to 93% and the survival rate under machine mode -600 V stress increases from 20 to 67%. Thus the ability to endure higher electrostatic discharge stress will be greatly improved.

  13. Activation of mitochondrial STAT-3 and reduced mitochondria damage during hypothermia treatment for post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Tsai, Min-Shan; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Su, Yu-Jen; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2015-11-01

    While therapeutic hypothermia improves the outcomes of individuals in cardiac arrest, the hemodynamic responses and mechanisms which underlie hypothermia-induced cardioprotection are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism by which induced hypothermia preserves cardiac function and protects against mitochondrial damage following cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced in adult male Wistar rats by asphyxiation for 8.5 min. Following resuscitation, the animals were randomly assigned to a hypothermia (32 °C) or normothermia (37 °C) group. Monitoring results showed that cardiac output at the fourth hour after resuscitation was significantly better in rats treated with hypothermia when compared to rats treated with normothermia (P < 0.01). Examinations by transmission electron microscopy showed that mitochondria in the left ventricle of rats in the hypothermia group were significantly less swollen compared to such mitochondria in the normothermia group (P < 0.001). Additionally, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores occurred less frequently in the hypothermic group. While complex I/III activity in the electron transport reaction was damaged after cardiac arrest and resuscitation, the degree of injury was ameliorated by hypothermia treatment (P < 0.05). The amount of STAT-3 phosphorylated at tyrosine 705 and its expression in mitochondria were significantly higher under hypothermia treatment compared to normothermia treatment. In vitro studies showed that inhibition STAT-3 activation abolished the ability of hypothermia to protect H9C2 cardiomyocytes against injury produced by simulated ischemia and reperfusion. Therapeutic hypothermia treatment can ameliorate cardiac dysfunction and help preserve both mitochondrial integrity and electron transport activity. PMID:26471891

  14. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P < 0.01). A series of preference tests indicated that the taste of CaCl2 was not the factor affecting consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. PMID:25981784

  15. A Randomized, Controlled Community-Wide Intervention to Reduce Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use in low- to middle-income countries is a major public health concern for both smokers and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Egypt has made important strides in controlling tobacco use, but smoking and ETS remain highly prevalent. This randomized intervention sought to improve the target populations knowledge regarding the hazards of smoking and ETS and to change attitudes and smoking behaviors within the community and the household. Methods: In this 20052006 study in Egypts Qalyubia governorate, trained professionals visited schools, households, mosques, and health care centers in rural villages randomly selected for the intervention to discuss the adverse effects of smoking and ETS exposure and ways to reduce ones ETS exposure. Data collected in interviewer-facilitated surveys before and after the intervention period were analyzed in pairwise comparisons with data from control villages to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in achieving its aims. Results: The intervention group showed a greater increase in understanding the dangers associated with smoking cigarettes and waterpipes and became more proactive in limiting ETS exposure by asking smokers to stop, avoiding areas with ETS, and enacting smoking bans in the home. However, the intervention had little to no impact on the number of smokers and the amount of tobacco smoked. Conclusions: Results are consistent with previous studies showing that changing smokers behavior can be difficult, but community-wide efforts to reduce ETS exposure through smoking bans, education, and empowering people to ask smokers to stop are effective. The method can be generalized to other settings. PMID:23328881

  16. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for effective measures can be taken to prevent clinical nephropathies.

  17. Laser Solutions for Reducing the Environmental Risks Associated with Orbital Debris and Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Increasing activity in space is gradually increasing the amount of orbital debris in low earth orbit. As the debris increases, the environmental risk (hypervelocity collisions) associated with spaceflight also increases. Debris larger than 10 cm can typically be detected and tracked sufficiently to allow risk avoidance to be achieved by maneuvering to safe distances. Risk reduction for objects smaller than I cm may be accomplished through shielding. However, intermediate sized debris remains a problem. A convenient risk reduction solution has been identified using modem laser technology. In this approach, a relatively low energy laser facility operating near e equator may significantly reduce the amount of intermediate sized debris (1 - 10 cm) in a few years of operation. A sufficiently intense laser pulse arriving at a debris objects surface will ablate a micro-thin layer of material. As this hot gas rapidly expands away from the object, a small change in momentum is imparted. The momentum change for one pulse is insignificant. However, since the laser can provide 10-1000 pulses per second over several minutes, the cumulative effect is substantive. The object's perigee may be lowered in this manner into atmosphere where it will be vaporized. This same technique may be employed on a larger scale for risk reduction in asteroids, meteoroids, and comets colliding with the Earth at hypervelocities.

  18. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  19. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP. PMID:25354525

  20. May cause environmental damage the diversion of the Danube in the Szigetkz area, Hungary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Brigitta

    2009-04-01

    Summary The floodplain area between the main channel of Danube and its branch river Mosoni-Duna is called the Szigetkz. This wetland area has special flora and fauna, and it is a natural protection area. Underneath of the Szigetkz, there are a thick (several hundreds meters) sedimentary sequence, the so called Kisalfld Quaternary Aquifer. This aquifer system is fed by the surface river system of Danube and supplies excellent quality drinking water for several hundred thousands of people in Hungary and Slovakia. The Szigetkz Monitoring Network was established in 1991 to describe the environmental effects of the B?s-Nagymaros Dam System, which was partly built in 1992 on the Slovakian part of the Danube. The dam diverts three-quarter of the Danube runoff to a 40 km long artificial concrete channel north of the original river bed. The effect of this diversion is spectacular on the wetland area. Water level in the meandering channels have decreased significantly, part of the wetland area frequently becomes dry. The natural flow pattern has disappeared. As a consequence, the channel characteristics of the river network, therefore the flow pattern, the quantity and quality of surface and subsurface water on the upper region of the Danube have significantly changed. The aim of our research is to describe the relationship between surface water and groundwater and considering the variable geology of the area, to describe trends in chemistry and to find the possible reasons for extreme values. Also to detect possible connection between the extreme values and the changes in flow pattern caused by the human intervention. Water sample pairs from surface water and shallow and deeper ground water were taken in every season at 18 locations. To sample shallow ground-water 1,5 m long, screened metal probes were derived into the sediment at the possible nearest point to the surface water. On the field pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, and in the wells redox potential were measured. Samples were taken for further laboratory analyses (major and trace components, nitrate. The chemical parameters of surface and subsurface water show seasonal changes, due to the changes of temperature, of precipitation, of biological and microbiological activity. At the monitoring points along the main channel the surface and subsurface water is closely related, and the velocity of groundwater can be calculated by the seasonal periodical dislocation. At the monitoring points on the north-western part of the study area (point 1), subsurface water replenished by the rivers, and water level in the probes follow the surface water level changes with short shift. Practically water quality is the same in the probe as in the surface. It is the same on the south-eastern part of the study area, where the diverted channel rejoins to the original river channel (point 10). The middle section (at points 4 and 5) of the study area, water level in the probes is higher than surface water level. Also concentrations of some chemical components are higher in the subsurface water here. These components are typically the results of water - sediment interaction. Based on these observations, the study area can be differentiated by the hydrochemical composition for losing and gaining sections. At the monitoring points along the meandering sub-branch system, water in the probes is reductive, the connection between surface and subsurface water is week, furthermore at some point is non-existent. At some points surface water has slow flow, or it is even stagnant. This means reductive environments, and high concentrations of some components, especially at the monitoring points of 31 and 41. For example, concentrations of ammonium, sulphate, phosphate, magnesium, iron, manganese are extremely high in the shallow groundwater. Originally the Danube supplied fresh, oxygen-rich water to the area, while nowadays at these locations surface water and subsurface water almost has no connection, and these sections of river bed already turned muddy, and organic material

  1. How inhibiting nitrification affects nitrogen cycle and reduces environmental impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen input.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chunlian; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Shuijin; Compton, Jana E; Greaver, Tara L; Li, Quanlin

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities, and in particular the use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer, have doubled global annual reactive N inputs in the past 50-100 years, causing deleterious effects on the environment through increased N leaching and nitrous oxide (N2 O) and ammonia (NH3 ) emissions. Leaching and gaseous losses of N are greatly controlled by the net rate of microbial nitrification. Extensive experiments have been conducted to develop ways to inhibit this process through use of nitrification inhibitors (NI) in combination with fertilizers. Yet, no study has comprehensively assessed how inhibiting nitrification affects both hydrologic and gaseous losses of N and plant nitrogen use efficiency. We synthesized the results of 62 NI field studies and evaluated how NI application altered N cycle and ecosystem services in N-enriched systems. Our results showed that inhibiting nitrification by NI application increased NH3 emission (mean: 20%, 95% confidential interval: 33-67%), but reduced dissolved inorganic N leaching (-48%, -56% to -38%), N2 O emission (-44%, -48% to -39%) and NO emission (-24%, -38% to -8%). This amounted to a net reduction of 16.5% in the total N release to the environment. Inhibiting nitrification also increased plant N recovery (58%, 34-93%) and productivity of grain (9%, 6-13%), straw (15%, 12-18%), vegetable (5%, 0-10%) and pasture hay (14%, 8-20%). The cost and benefit analysis showed that the economic benefit of reducing N's environmental impacts offsets the cost of NI application. Applying NI along with N fertilizer could bring additional revenues of $163 ha(-1)  yr(-1) for a maize farm, equivalent to 8.95% increase in revenues. Our findings showed that NIs could create a win-win scenario that reduces the negative impact of N leaching and greenhouse gas production, while increases the agricultural output. However, NI's potential negative impacts, such as increase in NH3 emission and the risk of NI contamination, should be fully considered before large-scale application. PMID:25380547

  2. Development of Host-Plant Resistance as a Strategy to Reduce Damage from the Major Sunflower Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major insect pests attacking cultivated sunflower include the sunflower stem weevil, the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. Strategies to reduce crop losses for these pests have focused on insecticidal control, but host-plant resist...

  3. Squid ink polysaccharide reduces cyclophosphamide-induced testicular damage via Nrf2/ARE activation pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Le, Xiaoyan; Luo, Ping; Gu, Yipeng; Tao, Yexing; Liu, Huazhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Cyclophosphamide (CP) toxicity on testis was hampered by squid ink polysaccharide (SIP) via restoration of antioxidant ability in our previous investigations. This study investigated roles of Nrf2/ARE signal pathway in testis of treated mice. Materials and Methods: Male Kunming mice were employed to undergo treatment with SIP and/or CP. Protein levels of Nrf2, keap-1, histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and phosphorylation level of protein kinase C (PKC) in testis were evaluated by Western blotting. Results: Data showed that SIP elevated expressions of NQO-1 and HO-1 genes, two downstream target molecules of Nrf2, via activating Nrf2 to play preventive roles on CP-treated testis, and further discovered that upstream regulators of Nrf2, keap-1, HDAC2, and PKC, were concerned with the regulation of Nrf2. Conclusion: These results suggest that SIP could effectively weaken CP-associated testicular damage via Nrf2/ARE signal pathway. PMID:26557973

  4. (1?3)-?-D-Glucan reduces the damages caused by reactive oxygen species induced in human platelets by lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Saluk, Joanna; Bijak, Micha?; Ponczek, Micha? B?a?ej; Nowak, Pawe?; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2013-09-12

    LPS (lipopolysaccharide) induces platelet activation and is a well-known fundamental agent of septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Biological activity of (1?3)-?-D-glucan is related due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. We focus our attention on the (1?3)-?-D-glucan (antiplatelet) properties. The main purpose of our study was to evaluate the influence of (1?3)-?-D-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on destructive activity of LPS (from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) on human blood platelets. We assess biochemically in vitro if (1?3)-?-D-glucan might combat the oxidative stress caused by LPS stroke associated with nitrative and oxidative damages of human platelet biomolecules. We also make an attempt by in silico molecular docking to determine the interactions between the molecules of (1?3)-?-D-glucan and LPS. Our conclusion is that protective mechanism of (1?3)-?-D-glucan against LPS action on blood platelets is due to as well: its antioxidant properties, as to its interaction with LPS-binding region of TLR4-MD-2 complex. PMID:23911506

  5. Environmental concentrations of benz[a]anthracene induce developmental defects and DNA damage and impair photomotor response in Japanese medaka larvae.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Sommard, Vivien; Perrine, de Lansalut; Pichon, Anak; Grasset, Julie; Berrada, Saadia; Budzinski, Hlne; Cousin, Xavier; Morin, Bndicte; Cachot, Jrme

    2015-03-01

    Benz[a]anthracene (BaA) is a ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in numerous aquatic ecosystems. However, ecotoxicological data in aquatic organisms are scarce. To remedy this lack of data, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to BaA and toxic effects were investigated at multiple toxicological endpoints. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated onto BaA-spiked artificial sediment for 9 days at low or moderate environmental concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 12 gg(-1) dw. BaA-exposed embryos exhibited significant tachycardia. BaA exposure was also shown to increase CYP1A activity in the hepato-biliary tissue as well as craniofacial deformities and DNA damage in pro-larvae. The photomotor response of BaA-exposed larvae was reduced in comparison to the control group. According to this set of tests, the lowest tested and observed effect concentration (LOEC) for Japanese medaka early life stages was equivalent to 0.92 gg(-1) dw of BaA. This concentration fall into the range of concentrations frequently encountered in sediments of polluted aquatic ecosystems. Taking into consideration these results, BaA represents a threat for fish early life stages in particular those developing onto or into contaminated sediments. PMID:25528488

  6. Accelerated Repair and Reduced Mutagenicity of DNA Damage Induced by Cigarette Smoke in Human Bronchial Cells Transfected with E.coli Formamidopyrimidine DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Foresta, Mara; Izzotti, Alberto; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Poggi, Alessandro; Vecchio, Donatella; Frosina, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated to a number of pathologies including lung cancer. Its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects are partially linked to the presence of reactive oxygen species and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inducing DNA damage. The bacterial DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) repairs both oxidized bases and different types of bulky DNA adducts. We investigated in vitro whether FPG expression may enhance DNA repair of CS-damaged DNA and counteract the mutagenic effects of CS in human lung cells. NCI-H727 non small cell lung carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid vector expressing FPG fused to the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP). Cells expressing the fusion protein EGFP-FPG displayed accelerated repair of adducts and DNA breaks induced by CS condensate. The mutant frequencies induced by low concentrations of CS condensate to the Na+K+-ATPase locus (ouar) were significantly reduced in cells expressing EGFP-FPG. Hence, expression of the bacterial DNA repair protein FPG stably protects human lung cells from the mutagenic effects of CS by improving cells capacity to repair damaged DNA. PMID:24498234

  7. Melatonin reduces bacterial translocation by preventing damage to the intestinal mucosa in an experimental severe acute pancreatitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuecheng; Shao, Yingying; Jin, Yin; Huai, Jiaping; Zhou, Qiong; Huang, Zhiming; Wu, Jiansheng

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that melatonin significantly decreased all studied acute pancreatitis-associated inflammatory parameters, in addition to reducing apoptosis and necrosis associated with pancreatic injury. However, the effect of melatonin on gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin on intestinal integrity in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) to evaluate whether melatonin prevented intestine barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, with 8 rats in the sham operation (SO) group, 18 rats in the SAP group and 14 SAP rats in the melatonin treatment (MT) group. SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 4% taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Melatonin was administered 30 min prior to taurocholate injection in the melatonin-treated rats. All rats were sacrificed 24 h subsequent to pancreatitis induction. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and quantify Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 in postcava blood. The microvilli structure was also analyzed with transmission electron microscopy. The level of E. coli DNA in the MT group was significantly lower than in rats in the SAP group. No E. coli DNA was detected in the control group. Villus height and crypt depth in the ileum were significantly higher in the MT and control groups compared to the SAP group, and were significantly higher in the MT group than in the SAP group. These results suggested that melatonin prevented gut barrier dysfunction and reduced bacterial translocation, resulting in reduced pancreatic-associated infections and decreased early mortality rates. PMID:24255660

  8. Blockade of CCR2 reduces macrophage influx and development of chronic renal damage in murine renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Sonu; Warner, Gina M; Hartono, Stella P; Boyilla, Rajendra; Knudsen, Bruce E; Zubair, Adeel S; Lien, Karen; Nath, Karl A; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O; Grande, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a common cause of both cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. In renal artery stenosis (RAS), atrophy in the stenotic kidney is associated with an influx of macrophages and other mononuclear cells. We tested the hypothesis that chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) inhibition would reduce chronic renal injury by reducing macrophage influx in the stenotic kidney of mice with RAS. We employed a well-established murine model of RVH to define the relationship between macrophage infiltration and development of renal atrophy in the stenotic kidney. To determine the role of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/CCR2 signaling in the development of renal atrophy, mice were treated with the CCR2 inhibitor RS-102895 at the time of RAS surgery and followed for 4 wk. Renal tubular epithelial cells expressed CCL2 by 3 days following surgery, a time at which no significant light microscopic alterations, including interstitial inflammation, were identified. Macrophage influx increased with time following surgery. At 4 wk, the development of severe renal atrophy was accompanied by an influx of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)+ and CD206+ macrophages that coexpressed F4/80, with a modest increase in macrophages coexpressing arginase 1 and F4/80. The CCR2 inhibitor RS-102895 attenuated renal atrophy and significantly reduced the number of dual-stained F4/80+ iNOS+ and F4/80+ CD206+ but not F4/80+ arginase 1+ macrophages. CCR2 inhibition reduces iNOS+ and CD206+ macrophage accumulation that coexpress F4/80 and renal atrophy in experimental renal artery stenosis. CCR2 blockade may provide a novel therapeutic approach to humans with RVH. PMID:26661648

  9. Coniferyl Aldehyde Reduces Radiation Damage Through Increased Protein Stability of Heat Shock Transcriptional Factor 1 by Phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seo-Young; Lee, Hae-June; Nam, Joo-Won; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: We previously screened natural compounds and found that coniferyl aldehyde (CA) was identified as an inducer of HSF1. In this study, we further examined the protective effects of CA against ionizing radiation (IR) in normal cell system. Methods and Materials: Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests were performed to evaluate expression of HSF1, HSP27, and HSP70 in response to CA. Cell death and cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 were analyzed to determine the protective effects of CA in the presence of IR or taxol. The protective effects of CA were also evaluated using animal models. Results: CA increased stability of the HSF1 protein by phosphorylation at Ser326, which was accompanied by increased expression of HSP27 and HSP70. HSF1 phosphorylation at Ser326 by CA was mediated by EKR1/2 activation. Cotreatment of CA with IR or taxol in normal cells induced protective effects with phosphorylation- dependent patterns at Ser326 of HSF1. The decrease in bone marrow (BM) cellularity and increase of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling–positive BM cells by IR were also significantly inhibited by CA in mice (30.6% and 56.0%, respectively). A549 lung orthotopic lung tumor model indicated that CA did not affect the IR-mediated reduction of lung tumor nodules, whereas CA protected normal lung tissues from the therapeutic irradiation. Conclusions: These results suggest that CA may be useful for inducing HSF1 to protect against normal cell damage after IR or chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave, risk of mortality was higher in the black community, and in those living in certain types of low-income and multi-tenant housing. Interventions in the built environment to promote urban heat island mitigation can reduce ambient temperatures, potentially reducing heat-related mortality rates in vulnerable populations, electricity consumption and air pollutant emissions, and slow ozone formation, an important health stressor. These mitigation measures may also serve as adaptive responses for a range of potential future climate conditions. Here we review current research that assesses the health, air quality, and energy conservation benefits in cities from these interventions in the built environment, and discuss the techniques and research objectives of a new pilot community-based project to mitigate the heat island effect in the South Bronx, New York City through implementation of vegetated and high albedo roofing on residential and institutional buildings. Recent studies use mesoscale climate models and a variety of land-use and land-cover scenarios to project the effects of increasing vegetative fraction and albedo within metropolitan regions and to evaluate the impacts of measures that may serve both as adaptive responses to current conditions and mitigation for future climate variability. Through this perspective, we address the questions: What urban design approaches make for resilient cities in a changing environment? What costs and benefits may be expected by the adoption of heat island mitigation techniques within the New York metropolitan region?

  11. Can environmental purchasing reduce mercury in U.S. health care?

    PubMed Central

    Eagan, Patrick D; Kaiser, Barb

    2002-01-01

    Environmental purchasing represents an innovative approach to mercury control for the health care sector in the United States. The U.S. health care sector creates significant environmental impacts, including the release of toxic substances such as mercury. Our goal in this study was to provide the health care industry with a method of identifying the environmental impacts associated with the products they use. The Health Care Environmental Purchasing Tool (HCEPT) was developed and tested at nine health care facilities in the Great Lakes region of the United States. As a result, more than 1 kg of mercury was removed from four facilities. The complexity of the supply chain inhibits a direct environmental information exchange between health-care decision makers and suppliers. However, a dialogue is starting within the health care supply chain to address environmental issues. The HCEPT has been shown to assist health care facilities with that dialogue by identifying products that have environmental consequences. This promising tool is now available for further experimentation and modification, to facilitate overall environmental improvement, and to provide a systematic method for environmental assessment of health care products. PMID:12204816

  12. Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua

    2013-01-01

    Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes. PMID:23772679

  13. Reduced ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human skin with topical application of a photolyase-containing DNA repair enzyme cream: clues to skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, Enzo; Bertona, Marco; Altabas, Karmela; Altabas, Velimir; Emanuele, Enzo

    2012-02-01

    The exposure of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in the formation of DNA photolesions that give rise to photoaging, mutations, cell death and the onset of carcinogenic events. Photolyase (EC 4.1.99.3) is a DNA repair enzyme that reverses damage caused by exposure to UVR. We sought to investigate whether addition of photolyase enhances the protection provided by a traditional sunscreen (SS), by reducing the in vivo formation of cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and UVR-induced apoptosis in human skin. Ten volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin type II) were exposed to solar-simulated (ss) UVR at a three times minimal erythema dose for 4 consecutive days. Thirty minutes prior to each exposure, the test materials [vehicle, SS (sun protection factor 50) alone, and SS plus photolyase from Anacystis nidulans] were applied topically to three different sites. One additional site was left untreated and one received ssUVR only. Biopsy specimens were taken 72 h after the last irradiation. The amount of CPDs and the extent of apoptosis were measured by ELISA. Photolyase plus SS was superior to SS alone in reducing both the formation of CPDs and apoptotic cell death (both P<0.001). In conclusion, the addition of photolyase to a traditional SS contributes significantly to the prevention of UVR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis when applied topically to human skin. PMID:22086236

  14. The use of an alternative food source (red clover) as a means of reducing slug pest damage to winter wheat: towards field implementation.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Andrew S; Wilcox, Andrew; Cook, Richard T; James, Katherine L; Crook, Mitchell J

    2006-03-01

    Slugs are major pests of many crops in the UK, including winter wheat, yet current methods of control are often unreliable. The aim of this study was to investigate three issues key to the successful field implementation of a control strategy that uses red clover as an alternative food source to reduce the amount of damage caused to winter wheat by the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mller). A series of three experiments was designed to assess this aim. Firstly, under laboratory conditions, red clover was consumed in greater quantities than wheat, even when wheat was presented as a novel food. Secondly, red clover had no significant effects on the emergence and early growth of wheat in a polytunnel experiment. Both these results are crucial to the successful implementation of a strategy that uses red clover as an alternative food source. Lastly, the results of a field experiment were consistent with the results of the polytunnel experiment, in that red clover did not significantly affect wheat emergence. However, plots in which red clover was left to grow until the time of wheat harvest resulted in significantly lower (43%) wheat yields than plots without red clover. These results suggest that red clover must be removed from the field after the wheat has passed its vulnerable seedling stage. Recommendations for the potential use of red clover as an alternative food source for reducing damage to winter wheat in field conditions are discussed and opportunities for further work are suggested. PMID:16475236

  15. Genetic ablation of transcription repressor Bach1 reduces neural tissue damage and improves locomotor function after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Haruo; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Sekiguchi, Akira; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Itoi, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an inducible cytoprotective enzyme that degrades heme to iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin, the latter two of which are thought to mediate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions of HO-1. Bach1 is a transcriptional repressor of the HO-1 gene (Hmox-1). Previous reports have demonstrated that the genetic ablation of Bach1 engenders an increased HO-1 expression and a marked reduction in the degree of oxidative tissue damage in vivo. However, the function of Bach1 in spinal cord injury is still not understood. In the present study, we examined whether Bach1 deficiency increases HO-1 expression and reduces neural tissue damage in a spinal cord injury model using Bach1 knock-out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. The expression of HO-1 protein in the spinal cord was significantly higher in the Bach1 KO mice than in the WT mice before and after injury. The KO mice also had significantly higher Basso mouse scale scores for locomotor function and larger areas of spared white matter than the WT mice at 6 weeks after injury. Neuronal loss and apoptotic cell death in the injured spinal cord was significantly reduced in the KO mice in comparison to the WT mice. These results suggest that Bach1 deficiency engenders a constitutively higher expression of HO-1 and a dramatic increase in cytoprotection against spinal cord injury. PMID:19119918

  16. Rye-corn silage double-cropping reduces corn yield but improves environmental impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent proliferation of large dairies has prompted concern regarding the environmental impacts of associated corn silage production and high rate manure application. Our objectives were to compare forage production and environmental impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) silage and rye (Secale cereal L.)-cor...

  17. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  18. False recall is reduced by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex: implications for understanding the neural correlates of schematic memory.

    PubMed

    Warren, David E; Jones, Samuel H; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-05-28

    Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the "false memory effect" of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

  19. False Recall Is Reduced by Damage to the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex: Implications for Understanding the Neural Correlates of Schematic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Samuel H.; Duff, Melissa C.; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the false memory effect of the DeeseRoedigerMcDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

  20. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with

  1. Vegetative environmental buffers and exhaust fan deflectors for reducing downwind odor and VOCs from tunnel-ventilated swine barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have investigated methods for reducing odor emissions from livestock buildings for decades, yet few technologies have proven effective. Vegetative Environmental Buffers (VEB), which are specially designed combinations of trees, shrubs and grasses, have shown promise in recent years for r...

  2. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

  3. GENUS- AND GROUP-SPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION PROBES FOR DETERMINATIVE AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of six oligonucleotides, complementary to conserved tracts of 16S rRNA from phylogenetically-defined groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was characterized for use as hybridization probes in determinative and environmental microbiology. our probes were genus specific and id...

  4. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

  5. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to

  6. 'Four Seasons' in an animal rescue centre; classical music reduces environmental stress in kennelled dogs.

    PubMed

    Bowman, A; Scottish Spca; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2015-05-01

    On admission to rescue and rehoming centres dogs are faced with a variety of short- and long-term stressors including novelty, spatial/social restriction and increased noise levels. Animate and inanimate environmental enrichment techniques have been employed within the kennel environment in an attempt to minimise stress experienced by dogs. Previous studies have shown the potential physiological and psychological benefits of auditory stimulation, particularly classical music, within the kennel environment. This study determined the physiological/psychological changes that occur when kennelled dogs are exposed to long-term (7 days) auditory stimulation in the form of classical music through assessment of effects on heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol and behaviour. The study utilised a cross over design in which two groups were exposed to two consecutive 7 day treatments; silence (control) and classical music (test). Group A was studied under silent conditions followed by 7 days of test conditions during which a fixed classical music playlist was played from 10:00-16:30 h. Group B received treatment in the reverse order. Results showed that auditory stimulation induced changes in HRV and behavioural data indicative of reduced stress levels in dogs in both groups (salivary cortisol data did not show any consistent patterns of change throughout the study). Specifically, there was a significant increase in HRV parameters such as μRR, STDRR, RMSSD, pNN50, RRTI, SD1 and SD2 and a significant decrease in μHR and LF/HF from the first day of silence (S1) to the first day of music (M1). Similarly, examination of behavioural data showed that dogs in both groups spent significantly more time sitting/lying and silent and less time standing and barking during auditory stimulation. General Regression Analysis (GRA) of the change in HRV parameters from S1 to M1 revealed that male dogs responded better to auditory stimulation relative to female. Interestingly, HRV and behavioural data collected on the seventh day of music (M2) was similar to that collected on S1 suggesting that the calming effects of music are lost within the 7 days of exposure. A small '9-Day' study was conducted in attempt to determine the time-scale in which dogs become habituated to classical music and examination of the results suggests that this occurs within as soon as the second day of exposure. The results of this study show the potential of auditory stimulation as a highly effective environmental enrichment technique for kennelled dogs. However, the results also indicate the requirement for further investigations into the way in which auditory stimulation should be incorporated within the daily kennel management regime in order to harness the full physiological and psychological benefits of music. PMID:25708275

  7. Role of controlled cardiac reoxygenation in reducing nitric oxide production and cardiac oxidant damage in cyanotic infantile hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, K; Ihnken, K; Buckberg, G D; Sherman, M P; Young, H H; Ignarro, L J

    1994-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is used increasingly to correct cyanotic heart defects during early infancy, but myocardial dysfunction is often seen after surgical repair. This study evaluates whether starting CPB at a conventional, hyperoxic pO2 causes an "unintentional" reoxygenation (ReO2) injury. We subjected 2-wk-old piglets to ventilator hypoxemia (FIO2 approximately 0.06, pO2 approximately 25 mmHg) followed by 5 min of ReO2 on CPB before instituting cardioplegia. CPB was begun in hypoxemic piglets by either abrupt ReO2 at a pO2 of 400 mmHg (standard clinical practice) or by maintaining pO2 approximately 25 mmHg on CPB until controlling ReO2 with blood cardioplegic arrest. The effects of abrupt vs. gradual ReO2 without surgical ischemia (blood cardioplegia) were also compared. Myocardial nitric oxide (NO) production (chemiluminescence measurements of NO2- + NO3-) and conjugated diene (CD) generation (spectrophotometric A233 measurements of lipid extracts) using aortic and coronary sinus blood samples were assessed during cardioplegic induction. 30 min after CPB, left ventricular end-systolic elastance (Ees, catheter conductance method) was used to determine cardiac function. CPB and blood cardioplegic arrest caused no functional or biochemical change in normoxic (control) hearts. Abrupt ReO2 caused a depression of myocardial function (Ees = 25 +/- 5% of control). Functional depression was relatively unaffected by gradual ReO2 without blood cardioplegia (34% recovery of Ees), and abrupt ReO2 immediately before blood cardioplegia caused a 10-fold rise in cardiac NO and CD production, with subsequent depression of myocardial function (Ees 21 +/- 2% of control). In contrast, controlled cardiac ReO2 reduced NO production 94%, CD did not rise, and Ees was 83 +/- 8% of normal. We conclude ReO2 injury is related to increased NO production during abrupt ReO2, nullifies the cardioprotective effects of blood cardioplegia, and that controlled cardiac ReO2 when starting CPB to correct cyanotic heart defects may reduce NO production and improve myocardial status postoperatively. Images PMID:8201004

  8. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  9. Intranasal guanosine administration presents a wide therapeutic time window to reduce brain damage induced by permanent ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Denise Barbosa; Muller, Gabriel Cardozo; Rocha, Guilherme Botter Maio; Dellavia, Gustavo Hirata; Almeida, Roberto Farina; Pettenuzzo, Leticia Ferreira; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Hansel, Gisele; Horn, Ângelo Cássio Magalhães; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Ganzella, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    In addition to its intracellular roles, the nucleoside guanosine (GUO) also has extracellular effects that identify it as a putative neuromodulator signaling molecule in the central nervous system. Indeed, GUO can modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, and it can promote neuroprotective effects in animal models involving glutamate neurotoxicity, which is the case in brain ischemia. In the present study, we aimed to investigate a new in vivo GUO administration route (intranasal, IN) to determine putative improvement of GUO neuroprotective effects against an experimental model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Initially, we demonstrated that IN [(3)H] GUO administration reached the brain in a dose-dependent and saturable pattern in as few as 5 min, presenting a higher cerebrospinal GUO level compared with systemic administration. IN GUO treatment started immediately or even 3 h after ischemia onset prevented behavior impairment. The behavior recovery was not correlated to decreased brain infarct volume, but it was correlated to reduced mitochondrial dysfunction in the penumbra area. Therefore, we showed that the IN route is an efficient way to promptly deliver GUO to the CNS and that IN GUO treatment prevented behavioral and brain impairment caused by ischemia in a therapeutically wide time window. PMID:26695181

  10. Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage "FOD" Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James A.; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/ health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite-element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

  11. Reduced-Order Modeling and Wavelet Analysis of Turbofan Engine Structural Response Due to Foreign Object Damage (FOD) Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James; Lawrence, Charles; Litt, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The development of a wavelet-based feature extraction technique specifically targeting FOD-event induced vibration signal changes in gas turbine engines is described. The technique performs wavelet analysis of accelerometer signals from specified locations on the engine and is shown to be robust in the presence of significant process and sensor noise. It is envisioned that the technique will be combined with Kalman filter thermal/health parameter estimation for FOD-event detection via information fusion from these (and perhaps other) sources. Due to the lack of high-frequency FOD-event test data in the open literature, a reduced-order turbofan structural model (ROM) was synthesized from a finite element model modal analysis to support the investigation. In addition to providing test data for algorithm development, the ROM is used to determine the optimal sensor location for FOD-event detection. In the presence of significant noise, precise location of the FOD event in time was obtained using the developed wavelet-based feature.

  12. Strengthening Community Capacity to Participate in Making Decisions to Reduce Disproportionate Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

  13. The Role of PharmEcovigilance in Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The pharmaceutical and healthcare industries have an environmental footprint because the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the environment as contaminants ...

  14. Strengthening community capacity to participate in making decisions to reduce disproportionate environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Pastor, Manuel; Israel, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Environmental exposures impose a disproportionate health burden on low-income populations and communities of color. One contributing factor may be the obstacles such communities face to full participation in making policy decisions about environmental health. This study described and analyzed the characteristics that contributed to communities' capacity to participate in making environmental decisions and suggested steps public agencies could take to achieve more meaningful participation. By strengthening community capacity, advancing authentic participation, and building democratic power, it might be possible to alter current patterns of health inequities. Strengthening participation by working with communities to develop the capacities needed to be effective in such processes is a key role for local, state, and national environmental agencies. PMID:22021323

  15. 76 FR 59731 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the M/V Cosco Busan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... describes proposed alternatives for restoring injured natural resources and compensating recreational losses... under OPA, will pay damages to compensate the public for the injuries to natural resources and lost... accordance with the OPA, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment regulations found in the Code of...

  16. 78 FR 16655 - Draft Damage Assessment, Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for the T/B DBL 152 Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    .... SUMMARY: NOAA, the Natural Resource Trustee for this incident has written a Draft Damage Assessment and... restoring natural resource injuries resulting from the November 11, 2005, T/B DBL 152 oil spill in the Gulf... public's behalf, has conducted a natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) to determine the nature...

  17. Subacute administration of fluoxetine prevents short-term brain hypometabolism and reduces brain damage markers induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiha, Ahmed Anis; de Cristbal, Javier; Delgado, Mercedes; Fernndez de la Rosa, Rubn; Bascuana, Pablo; Pozo, Miguel A; Garca-Garca, Luis

    2015-02-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in epileptogenesis still remains controversial. In this regard, it has been reported that serotonergic drugs can alter epileptogenesis in opposite ways. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the selective 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine administered subacutely (10mg/kg/day7 days) on the eventual metabolic impairment induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy in rats. In vivo 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose ([(18)F] FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was performed to assess the brain glucose metabolic activity on days 3 and 30 after the insult. In addition, at the end of the experiment (day 33), several histochemical and neurochemical assessments were performed for checking the neuronal functioning and integrity. Three days after the insult, a marked reduction of [(18)F] FDG uptake (about 30% according to the brain region) was found in all brain areas studied. When evaluated on day 30, although a hypometabolism tendency was observed, no statistically significant reduction was present in any region analyzed. In addition, lithium-pilocarpine administration was associated with medium-term hippocampal and cortical damage, since it induced neurodegeneration, glial activation and augmented caspase-9 expression. Regarding the effect of fluoxetine, subacute treatment with this SSRI did not significantly reduce the mortality rate observed after pilocarpine-induced seizures. However, fluoxetine did prevent not only the short-term metabolic impairment, but also the aforementioned signs of neuronal damage in surviving animals to lithium-pilocarpine protocol. Finally, fluoxetine increased the density of GABAA receptor both at the level of the dentate gyrus and CA1-CA2 regions in pilocarpine-treated animals. Overall, our data suggest a protective role for fluoxetine against pilocarpine-induced brain damage. Moreover, this action may be associated with an increase of GABAA receptor expression in hippocampus. PMID:25541342

  18. Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions: Environmental Factors Characterization and Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Ruiz, Melany; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and is referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. An Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium named A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, has been identified as being responsible for the Feammox process(1, 2) Feammox process was noted in riparian wetland soils in New Jersey(1,3), in tropical rainforest soils in Puerto Rico (4) and in paddy soils in China (5). In addition to these published locations, Feammox process was also found in samples collected from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments in New Jersey, river sediments from South Carolina, and forested soils near an acid mine drainage (Dabaoshan, Guangdong province) in China. Using primers acm342f - 439r (2), Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in samples where Feammox was observed, after strictly anaerobic incubations. According to a canonical correspondence analysis with environmental characteristics and soil microbial communities, the species-environment relationship indicated that pH and Fe oxides content were the primary factors controlling Feammox process. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. No correlation was found between the distributions of Feammox bacteria and other NH4+ oxidation bacteria. Pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain was isolated in an autotrophic medium, from an active Feammox membrane reactor (A6 was enriched to 65.8% of the total bacteria). A 13C labeled CO2 amendment was conducted, and the 13C in cells of A6 increased from 1.80% to 10.3% after 14 days incubation. In a separate incubation, 15NH4Cl was added with a final concentration of 0.5 mmol L-1, and 0.133 mmol L-1 of 15NO2- was detected, while no 15NO3- was produced. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 were then grown in Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs). While being gently shaken, with a voltage input of 0.7V and a 10Ω resistance between the anode and cathode, the MECs produce currents, increasing from 0.1μA up to ~35μA while NH4+ was available in the medium. Up to 105 copies of DNA/ml have been detected in liquid medium after 3 weeks of operation. Hence, MECs represent an alternative, iron-free form, for optimized biomass production of pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6. References 1. Clement J.C., Shrestha J., Ehrenfeld J.G., Jaffé P.R., 2005. Soil Biol Biochem 37:2323-2328. 2. Huang S., and Jaffé P.R., 2014. Biogeosciences Discussions 11, 12295-12321 3. Shrestha J., Rich J., Ehrenfeld J., Jaffé P.R., 2009. Soil Sci. 174:156-164. 4. Yang W.H., Weber K.A., Silver W.L., 2012. Nat Geosc 5: 538-541. 5. Ding L.J., An X.L., Li S., Zhang G.L., Zhu Y.G., 2014. Environ Sci Technol. 48:10641-7

  19. Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas.

    PubMed

    Sitzlar, M A; Mora, M A; Fleming, J G W; Bazer, F W; Bickham, J W; Matson, C W

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. PMID:18670880

  20. Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sitzlar, M.A.; Mora, M.A.; Fleming, J.G.W.; Bazer, F.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Concomitant administration of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulphonate (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide reduces effectiveness of DMPS in restoring damage induced by mercuric chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Brando, Ricardo; Borges, Lysandro Pinto; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2009-08-01

    The effect of combined therapy with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)(2) and sodium 2,3-dimercapto-propane-1-sulphonate (DMPS) against alterations induced by mercury (Hg(2+)) was evaluated. Mice were exposed to mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) (1mg/kg, subcutaneously) for two weeks. After that, mice received (PhSe)(2) (15.6 mg/kg), or DMPS (12.6 mg/kg), or a combination of both for one week. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), ascorbic acid and Hg(2+) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities were carried out in kidney. Hematological parameters, plasmatic bilirubin, uric acid, urea and creatinine levels as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. (PhSe)(2) or DMPS restored the increase in LDH activity and TBARS, bilirubin, uric acid, urea and creatinine levels caused by HgCl(2). The levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit reduced by HgCl(2) exposure were restored by (PhSe)(2) or DMPS administration in mice. Leukocyte and platelet counts modified by HgCl(2) exposure were restored by (PhSe)(2) or DMPS therapy. DMPS restored the increase in Hg(2+) levels induced by exposure to HgCl(2). Concomitant administration of (PhSe)(2) and DMPS reduced the effectiveness of DMPS in restoring damage induced by HgCl(2). Combined therapy with (PhSe)(2) and DMPS was less effective than isolated therapies in restoring the damage induced by HgCl(2) in mice. PMID:19406194

  2. FINDING SOLVENT REPLACEMENTS TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). The purpose of this tool is to find less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures which may functi...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: REDUCING WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COST IN THE ELECTROPLATING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents the economics of wastewater reduction and materials recovery technologies in the electroplating industry. t serves as a companion publication to the Environmental Regulations and Technology document covering the same industry (625/10-85/001a). apital and op...

  4. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  5. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER LIMITED AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant available water. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water use efficiency result from agricultural activities that sequester soil C and contribute to crop p...

  6. Management technologies can reduce the environmental risk of pesticides in agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide use in agriculture, the potential risk posed by pesticides when they are transported beyond the intended target, and their effects on human and environmental health have been of public concern for many years. We utilized 5 years of field data, quantifying pesticide transport with runoff fr...

  7. REDUCED CRUDE PROTEIN RATIONS FOR HIGH PRODUCING COWS: PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more N in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rumen is the mo...

  8. Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, David; Wallinga, David

    2004-01-01

    Animal agriculture in the United States for the most part has industrialized, with negative consequences for air and water quality and antibiotic use. We consider health and environmental impacts of current US swine production and give an overview of current federal, state, and local strategies being used to address them. PMID:15451736

  9. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

  10. Partnering to Reduce Environmental Hazards Through a Community-Based Healthy Home Museum:Education for Action

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Garrison, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Home environmental hazards can pose health threats, particularly to low-income children living in substandard housing. National agencies urge integrated treatment of such hazards; locally, however, home hazard reduction is often managed issue-by-issue. Helping diverse local groups understand the sources, health impacts, and solutions to home hazards is a critical first step toward action. Rochester's Healthy Home was a hands-on museum operated by a community-university partnership from 20062009 with the goal of supporting community members' and groups' efforts to address key environmental health hazards in high-risk housing. A secondary goal was to build connections between interest groups, government, and academic stakeholders to advance systems changes in support of environmental justice. Rochester's Healthy Home educated nearly 3,500 visitors about reducing home environmental hazards, served as a focal point for community action, and integrated over 30 local groups into the Healthy Home Partnership, which continues to meet regularly. Over 75% of visitors reported taking an action to improve their home's health following their visit. This hands-on and action-oriented training model generated attention and interest in replication in other cities. This collaboration showed that a collaboratively operated, interactive healthy home museum can build residents' capacity to reduce home health hazards while changing local policies and practices to sustainably promote healthier homes. PMID:25897345

  11. An effective, economical method of reducing environmental noise in the vivarium.

    PubMed

    Young, Maggie T; French, Alan L; Clymer, Jeffrey W

    2011-07-01

    High levels of ambient noise can have detrimental effects on laboratory animal wellbeing and may affect experimental results. In addition, excessive noise can reduce technician comfort and performance. This study was performed to determine whether inexpensive, passive acoustic noise abatement measures could meaningfully reduce noise levels. Sound level measurements for various activities were obtained in the incoming processing room for pigs before and after installing gypsum acoustic paneling, covering metal-to-metal contact points with strips of adhesive-backed rubber, and replacing hard plastic wheels on transport carts with neoprene wheels. The modifications reduced the overall average noise level by 8.1 dB. Average noise levels for each activity were all less than 85 dB after the modifications. Average noise levels can be reduced effectively and economically with passive abatement methods. Intermittent spikes in noise are more difficult to control and may require attention to the individual activity. PMID:21838981

  12. Restriction of sponges to an atoll lagoon as a result of reduced environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Ingrid S S; Williams, Gareth J; Carballo, Jos Luis; Cruz-Barraza, Jos Antonio; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Bell, James J

    2013-01-15

    The lagoon at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific was subject to major military modifications during WWII and now the dominant fauna on the lagoon's hard substrate are sponges, not corals. In this study, we quantified the physical and biological factors explaining the variation in sponge distribution patterns across 11 sites to determine the potential for the sponges in the lagoon at Palmyra to invade the surrounding reef systems. Significant differences in sponge assemblages were found among all but three sites. For all the models we examined the strongest environmental relationships were found for variables related to sedimentation/turbidity and food/habitat availability. Our findings suggest that the sponges in Palmyra's lagoon are likely to be restricted to this habitat type where they are associated with conditions resulting from the earlier heavy disturbance and are unlikely to spread to the outer reef environments unless there is a dramatic decline in environmental quality. PMID:23186728

  13. Environmental control in tea fields to reduce infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae.

    PubMed

    Tomihama, T; Nonaka, T; Nishi, Y; Arai, K

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial shoot blight (BSB) disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. theae, is a major bacterial disease of tea plants in Japan. BSB mainly occurs in the low-temperature season, and lesion formation by P. syringae pv. theae is enhanced by both low temperature and the presence of ice nucleation-active Xanthomonas campestris (INAX), which catalyzes ice formation at -2 to -4 degrees C and is frequently co-isolated with P. syringae pv. theae from tea plants. Low temperature is thus the most important environmental factor influencing the incidence of BSB; however, the effects of low temperature on infection of the host by P. syringae pv. theae and of environmental controls in fields on the occurrence of the disease are poorly understood. In this study, we show that ice formation on tea leaves by INAX enhanced P. syringae pv. theae invasion into leaf tissue. The natural incidence of BSB in the field was closely related to early autumn frost. Frost protection in late autumn, which prevented ice formation on tea plants, significantly decreased the incidence of BSB, and frost protection combined with bactericide application held the incidence under the economic threshold level. Our data indicate that environmental control in the field based on microbial interactions in the host offers a new strategy for plant disease control. PMID:19159313

  14. Dieckol isolated from Ecklonia cava protects against high-glucose induced damage to rat insulinoma cells by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Park, Mi-Hwa; Kang, Sung-Myung; Ko, Seok-Chun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Cho, Seungmok; Park, Pyo-Jam; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Kim, Se-Kwon; Han, Ji-Sook; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic ? cells are very sensitive to oxidative stress and this might play an important role in ? cell death with diabetes. The protective effect of dieckol, one of the phlorotannin polyphenol compounds purified from Ecklonia cava (E. cava), against high glucose-induced oxidative stress was investigated by using rat insulinoma cells. A high-glucose (30 mM) treatment induced the death of rat insulinoma cells, but dieckol, at a concentration 17.5 or 70 M, significantly inhibited the high-glucose induced glucotoxicity. Treatment with dieckol also dose-dependently reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the nitric oxide level increased by a high glucose concentration. In addition, the dieckol treatment increased the activities of antioxidative enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in high glucose-pretreated rat insulinoma cells. Dieckol protected rat insulinoma cells damage under high glucose conditions. These effects were mediated by suppressing apoptosis and were associated with increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, and reduced pro-apoptotic cleaved caspase-3 expression. These findings indicate that dieckol might be useful as a potential pharmaceutical agent to protect against the glucotoxicity caused by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress associated with diabetes. PMID:22878185

  15. Xanthohumol, a main prenylated chalcone from hops, reduces liver damage and modulates oxidative reaction and apoptosis in hepatitis C virus infected Tupaia belangeri.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingbo; Li, Na; Li, Fang; Zhu, Qianqian; Liu, Xi; Han, Qunying; Wang, Yawen; Chen, Yanping; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Pingping; Yang, Cuiling; Liu, Zhengwen

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Tupaia belangeri (Tupaia) represents an important model of HCV infection. Xanthohumol (XN), a major prenylated chalcone from hops, has various biological activities including hepatopreventive and anti-viral activities. In this study, Tupaias infected with HCV RNA positive serum were used to evaluate the effects of XN on liver damage, oxidative reaction, apoptosis and viral protein expression in liver tissues. The Tupaias inoculated with HCV positive serum had elevated serum aminotransferase levels and inflammation, especially hepatic steatosis, and HCV core protein expression in liver tissue. In the animals inoculated with HCV positive serum, XN significantly decreased aminotransferase levels, histological activity index, hepatic steatosis score and transforming growth factor ?1 expression in liver tissue compared with the animals without XN intervention. XN reduced HCV core protein expression in liver tissue compared with those without XN intervention but the difference was not significant. XN significantly decreased malondialdehyde, potentiated superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, reduced Bax expression, promoted Bcl-xL and inhibited caspase 3 activity in liver tissues compared with the animals without XN intervention. These results indicate that XN may effectively improve hepatic inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis induced by HCV in Tupaias primarily through inhibition of oxidative reaction and regulation of apoptosis and possible suppression of hepatic stellate cell activation. The anti-HCV potential of XN needs further investigation. PMID:23669332

  16. Reducing the Environmental Risk of Pesticides: Implications of Management Practices in Agricultural Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common management practice for the production of fresh-market vegetables uses polyethylene (plastic) mulch to increase soil temperature, maintain soil moisture and reduce weed pressure. However, multiple applications of fungicides and insecticides are required, and rain events afford more runoff ...

  17. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insecticide levels and application costs supplied by 31 entomological experts, plus estimates of the other costs involved with various insect control strategies, indicate that many insect control strategies that may significantly reduce insecticide use on cotton and corn may be m...

  18. COULOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOTAL SULFUR AND REDUCED INORGANIC SULFUR FRACTIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of the solid-phase partitioning of sulfur is frequently an important analytical component of risk assessments at hazardous waste sites because minerals containing reduced-sulfur can significantly affect the transport and fate of organic and inorganic contaminants in na...

  19. Particle film mechanisms of action that reduce environmental stress in 'Empire' apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress is a limiting factor of plant productivity throughout the world, and kaolin-based particle films (PF) have demonstrated that the reflective nature of the resulting plant surface can increase plant productivity primarily by reducing temperature in fruit, leaf, and canopy. The purpose of ...

  20. Method for reducing the effect of environmental contamination of sol-gel optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ian M.; Burnham, Alan K.; Ertel, J. R.; Frieders, S. C.

    1999-07-01

    Antireflection (AR) coatings prepared form colloidal suspensions of silica have a large surface area because of their porosity. The surface is quite polar and readily absorbs vapor contamination to the detriment of the optical performance and the laser damage threshold. This effect is particularly bad in 'dirty' vacuum systems, such as target chambers. The polar surface is due to residual Si-OH and Si- ethoxyl groups formed as a result of the method of preparation of the coating suspension. We have now found that these groups can be removed by further treatment of the coating after preparation. This involves two steps, the first being exposure to ammonia and water vapor, which hydrolyses the ethoxyl groups to hydroxyl groups with the formation of more Si-OH groups. Some of these react further by self condensation to Si-O-Si linkages. The remaining Si- OH groups are removed in the second step by reaction with hexamethyl-disilazane, which converts them to trimethylsilyl groups. The latter are completely nonpolar and substantially eliminate vapor absorption. We have carried out a series of tests involving exposure of trace and untreated coatings to various types of vapor contamination and followed the degree of contamination by the reduction in optical transmission. In all cases, the treated coating showed a significant reduction in transmission loss. These tests also provide guidance as to which materials are acceptable for use in the NIF.

  1. Species Diversity Improves the Efficiency of Mercury-Reducing Biofilms under Changing Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    von Canstein, Harald; Kelly, Sven; Li, Ying; Wagner-Dbler, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Six mercury-resistant environmental proteobacterial isolates and one genetically modified mercury-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain were analyzed for physiological traits of adaptive relevance in an environment of packed-bed bioreactors designed for the decontamination of mercury-polluted chlor-alkali wastewater. The strains displayed characteristic differences in each trait (i.e., biofilm formation capability, growth rate in mercury contaminated wastewaters, and mercury reduction efficiency). Subsequently, they were immobilized either as a monoculture or as a mixed culture on porous carrier material in packed-bed bioreactors through which different batches of filter-sterilized industrial chlor-alkali wastewater were pumped. In monospecies bioreactors, the mercury retention efficiency was sensitive to rapidly increasing mercury concentrations in the wastewater. Mixed culture biofilms displayed a high mercury retention efficiency that was not affected by rapid increases in mercury or continuously high mercury concentrations. The dynamic in the community composition of the mixed culture bioreactors was determined by ribosomal intergenic spacer polymorphism analysis. Mercury-mediated selective pressure decreased the number of prevalent strains. Microbial diversity was completely restored after easing of the selective pressure. Microbial diversity provides a reservoir of strains with complementary ecological niches that results in a superior bioreactor performance under changing environmental conditions. PMID:12039739

  2. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  3. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-07-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink{sup R} technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO{sup TM} automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated sampler. In addition, automated rain gauges will be tied into this technology for immediate notification of rain at storm-water locations further enhancing the automation of environmental data collection. These technological improvements at SRS have led to data-quality improvements while reducing the field technician time in the field and costs for maintaining the traditional environmental monitoring applications. (authors)

  4. Biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Amazon region - the situation of contemporary period and strategies for reduce these environmental changes

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Aquino, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.

    1997-12-31

    The forest removal is a major contributor to local, regional and global environmental changes. Many of the tropical`s species are gravely threatened Numerous studies suggest that from 1970 to 1990 between 5 and 20 percent of the tropical`s species were committed to extinction. In 1995, the deforested lands in Brazilian Amazon account an amount Superior to 470,000 Km{sup 2}, old deforestation included, for a total surface of tropical`s rain forest of 3.4 and 3.8 million square kilometres. In 1990`s, the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere (as CO{sub 2}) from Brazilian Amazon deforestation was 3.5 % to 4.9 % and 250 % to 360 % of the World and Brazilian annual emission from fossil fuels, respectively. On the other hand, if deforestation is stopped and replaced with a rational forest management, a reuse of degraded lands for agro-forestry and biomass production for energy and industrial purposes, we can reduce the pressure on forests lands and the net carbon flux will be reversed. In this paper, we discuss the relations with biodiversity losses and carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region in the last thirty years and find suggest the principal`s strategies to reduce this environmental`s destruction.

  5. Environmental application of nanomaterials and metal-reducing bacteria to remediate arsenic-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sun, Eun-Young; Kim, Yumi; Park, Byungno; Roh, Yul

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to remediate As-contaminated groundwater using both nanomaterials and metal-reducing bacteria. In the batch experiment, a set of Pd-akaganeite in combination with the bacteria removed 95% of the arsenic from the contaminated groundwater. This result suggested that nanotechnology and biotechnology has the potential to create novel and effective treatment technologies for arsenic-contaminated groundwater. PMID:21456243

  6. Mechanical Properties and Real-Time Damage Evaluations of Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC CMCs Subjected to Tensile Loading Under Thermal Gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew; Zhu, Dongming; Morscher, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require new state-of-the art environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) to withstand increased temperature requirements and high velocity combustion corrosive combustion gasses. The present work compares the response of coated and uncoated SiC/SiC CMC substrates subjected to simulated engine environments followed by high temperature mechanical testing to asses retained properties and damage mechanisms. Our focus is to explore the capabilities of electrical resistance (ER) measurements as an NDE technique for testing of retained properties under combined high heat-flux and mechanical loading conditions. Furthermore, Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were performed to determine material damage onset and accumulation.

  7. Monsanto: Taking the next environmental step; New technologies are key in reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-08-03

    In meeting a 1988 pledge to reduce its worldwide air emissions 90% by the end of 1992, Monsanto completed one of the industry`s most ambitious-and costly-voluntary pollution reduction programs. After $130 million in expenditures and the completion of 250 emission reduction projects, the company had cut its worldwide air emissions 92%, to 5 million lbs, and its U.S. emissions 85%, to 2.7 million lbs. Now Monsanto is looking to take the next step by slashing emission levels of all pollutants. Monsanto has scheduled another round of deadlines that go far beyound regulatory compliance. The company plans on making further reductions, including eliminating the release of waste to underground injection wells, which will likely involve fundamental changes in technology. The company`s goal is to reduce its worldwide toxic chemical releases and transfers to less that 100 million lbs/year by 1995, down 240 million lbs for 1990`s 337 million lbs. Many of Monsanto`s efforts since it made its 1988 pledge have focused on reducing air emissions, because those emissions were the highest. While Monsanto reports about half of its air reductions come from shutdowns of inefficient processes, the 1995 reduction efforts will require increased capital investment for new processes.

  8. The economic value of reducing environmental health risks: Contingent valuation estimates of the value of information

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, D.J.; Hoehn, J.P.

    1999-05-01

    Obtaining economically consistent values for changes in low probability health risks continues to be a challenge for contingent valuation (CV) as well as for other valuation methods. One of the cited condition for economic consistency is that estimated values be sensitive to the scope (differences in quantity or quality) of a good described in a CV application. The alleged limitations of CV pose a particular problem for environmental managers who must often make decisions that affect human health risks. This paper demonstrates that a well-designed CV application can elicit scope sensitive values even for programs that provide conceptually complex goods such as risk reduction. Specifically, it finds that the amount sport anglers are willing to pay for information about chemical residues in fish varies systematically with informativeness--a relationship suggested by the theory of information value.

  9. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  10. Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

    2003-04-01

    Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

  11. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yingchun

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of the schematic method is validated by comparing its benchmark results on 104 chemicals with that from the conventional Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. This dissertation concludes with discussions on environmental impact assessment of nanotechnologies and sustainability management of nano-particles. As nano-manufacturing is emerging for wide industrial applications, improvement and expansion of the system approach would be valuable for use in the environmental management of nano-manufacturing and in the risk control of nano-particles in the interests of public health and the environment.

  12. Glutamine and alanyl-glutamine increase RhoA expression and reduce Clostridium difficile toxin-a-induced intestinal epithelial cell damage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana A Q A; Braga-Neto, Manuel B; Oliveira, Marcelo R; Freire, Rosemeire S; Barros, Eduardo B; Santiago, Thiago M; Rebelo, Luciana M; Mermelstein, Claudia; Warren, Cirle A; Guerrant, Richard L; Brito, Gerly A C

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Glutamine (Gln) is a major fuel for the intestinal cell population. Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) is a dipeptide that is highly soluble and well tolerated. IEC-6 cells were used in the in vitro experiments. Cell morphology was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell proliferation was assessed by WST-1 and Ki-67 and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Cytoskeleton was evaluated by immunofluorescence for RhoA and F-actin. RhoA was quantified by immunoblotting. TcdA induced cell shrinkage as observed by AFM, SEM, and fluorescent microscopy. Additionally, collapse of the F-actin cytoskeleton was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. TcdA decreased cell volume and area and increased cell height by 79%, 66.2%, and 58.9%, respectively. Following TcdA treatment, Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation, significantly increased RhoA by 65.5% and 89.7%, respectively at 24 h. Ala-Gln supplementation increased cell proliferation by 137.5% at 24 h and decreased cell apoptosis by 61.4% at 24 h following TcdA treatment. In conclusion, TcdA altered intestinal cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization, decreased cell proliferation, and increased cell apoptosis. Ala-Gln and Gln supplementation reduced intestinal epithelial cell damage and increased RhoA expression. PMID:23484083

  13. ABSTRACT: The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk Through Stakeholder Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hartwell

    2007-02-28

    Between 1951 and 1992, 928 nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including 100 atmospheric and 828 underground tests. Initial public reaction to the tests was largely supportive, but by the late 1950s this began to change, largely as a result of fear of the potential for adverse health effects to be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from the tests. The nuclear power plant accident at Three Mile Island in 1979 served to heighten these fears, as well as foster a general distrust of the federal agencies involved and low public confidence in monitoring results. Modeled after a similar program that involved the public in monitoring activities around the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the NTS since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah, and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Since assuming administration of the program in 2000, DRI has accomplished significant enhancements to the network's data collection and transmission capabilities. A robust datalogging and communications system allows for the near real-time transmission of data to a platform maintained by DRI's Western Regional Climate Center, where the data are uploaded and displayed on a publicly accessible web site (http://cemp.dri.edu/). Additionally, the CEMP can serve as part of an emergency response network in the event of an unplanned radiological release from the NTS, and also provides an excellent platform for testing new environmental sensor technologies. Finally, the CEMP provides training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs, which help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  14. Reduced grazing pressure delivers production and environmental benefits for the typical steppe of north China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Badgery, Warwick B; Kemp, David R; Chen, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaoya; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Degradation by overgrazing is common in many areas of the world and optimising grassland functions depends upon finding suitable grazing tactics. This four-year study on the northern China steppe investigated combinations of rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure early in the summer growing season, then moderate or heavy grazing in the mid and late season. Results showed that moderate grazing pressure (~550 sheep equivalent (SE) grazing days ha(-1) year(-1)) gave the optimal balance between maintaining a productive and diverse grassland, a profitable livestock system, and greenhouse gas mitigation. Further analyses identified that more conservative stocking (~400 SE grazing days ha(-1) year(-1)) maintained a desirable Leymus chinensis composition and achieved a higher live weight gain of sheep. Early summer rest best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced incomes. These findings demonstrate that reducing grazing pressure to half the current district stocking rates can deliver improved ecosystem services (lower greenhouse gases and improved grassland composition) while sustaining herder incomes. PMID:26553566

  15. Reduced grazing pressure delivers production and environmental benefits for the typical steppe of north China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Badgery, Warwick B.; Kemp, David R.; Chen, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaoya; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Degradation by overgrazing is common in many areas of the world and optimising grassland functions depends upon finding suitable grazing tactics. This four-year study on the northern China steppe investigated combinations of rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure early in the summer growing season, then moderate or heavy grazing in the mid and late season. Results showed that moderate grazing pressure (~550 sheep equivalent (SE) grazing days ha−1 year−1) gave the optimal balance between maintaining a productive and diverse grassland, a profitable livestock system, and greenhouse gas mitigation. Further analyses identified that more conservative stocking (~400 SE grazing days ha−1 year−1) maintained a desirable Leymus chinensis composition and achieved a higher live weight gain of sheep. Early summer rest best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced incomes. These findings demonstrate that reducing grazing pressure to half the current district stocking rates can deliver improved ecosystem services (lower greenhouse gases and improved grassland composition) while sustaining herder incomes. PMID:26553566

  16. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise-management program handbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, T.D.; Shekell, T.K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  17. Make it Fit, evaluating strategies to reduce the environmental impacts of meeting human needs in 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J.; Polasky, S.; Hawthorne, P.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable development requires providing for human well-being by meeting basic demands for food, energy and consumer goods and services, all while maintaining an environment capable of sustaining the provisioning of those demands for future generations. Failure to meet the basic needs of human well-being is not an ethically viable option and strategies for doubling agricultural production and providing energy and goods for a growing population exist. However, the question is, at what cost to environmental quality? We developed an integrated modeling approach to test strategies for meeting multiple objectives within the limits of the earth system. We use scenarios to explore a range of assumptions on socio-economic factors like population growth, per capita income and technological change; food systems factors like food waste, production intensification and expansion, and meat demand; and technological developments in energy efficiency and wastewater treatment. We use these scenario to test the conditions in which we can fit the simultaneous goals of sustainable development.

  18. Damage from dissection is associated with reduced neuro-musclar transmission and gap junction coupling between circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum, in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Simona E.; Wattchow, David A.; Spencer, Nick J.; Hibberd, Timothy J.; Brookes, Simon J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory junction potentials of circular smooth muscle cells in guinea pig ileum and colon are suppressed 3090 min after setting up in vitro preparations. We have previously shown this unresponsive period is associated with a transient loss of dye coupling between smooth muscle cells, which subsequently recovers over the ensuing 3090 min; junction potentials recover in parallel with dye coupling (Carbone et al., 2012). Here, we investigated which components of dissection trigger the initial loss of coupling. Intracellular recordings were made from circular muscle cells of guinea pig ileum with micropipettes containing 5% carboxyfluorescein. After allowing 90120 min for junction potentials to reach full amplitude, we re-cut all 4 edges of the preparation more than 1 mm from the recording sites. This caused a reduction in the amplitude of IJPs from 17.2 0.7 mV to 9.5 1.5 mV (P < 0.001, n = 12) and a significant reduction in dye coupling. Both recovered within 60 min. We repeated this experiment (n = 4), recording both 1 and 4 mm from the cut edge: both sites were equally affected by re-cutting the sides of the preparation. Equilibrated preparations were stretched to 150% of their original length, this had no significant effect on junction potentials or dye coupling. Setting up preparations in low calcium solution did not prevent the initial suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. Application of 3 ?M indomethacin (n = 3), 10 ?M ketotifen (n = 4) or 10 ?M forskolin during dissection did not prevent the suppression of IJPs and dye coupling. If dissection damage was reduced, by leaving the mucosa and submucosa attached to the circular muscle, IJPs showed less initial suppression than in preparations where the layers were dissected off. We conclude that physical damage to the gut wall triggers loss of gap junction coupling and neuromuscular transmission, this is not due to stretch, influx of calcium ions, release of prostaglandins or mast cell degranulation. The mechanisms underlying this potent effect remain to be determined. PMID:25202280

  19. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Qingning; Gao, Shasha; Zhou, Jilin; Qin, Jian; Taylor, Allen; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Tang, Guangwen; Sparrow, Janet R.; Gierhart, Dennis; Shang, Fu

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work is to test the protective effects of lutein and zeaxanthin against photo-oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and oxidation-induced changes in expression of inflammation-related genes. To mimic lipofuscin-mediated photo-oxidation in vivo, we used ARPE-19 cells that accumulated A2E, a lipofuscin fluorophore and photosensitizer, as a model system to investigate the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation. The data show that supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin in the medium resulted in accumulation of lutein or zeaxanthin in the RPE cells. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in the cells were 214-fold of that detected in the medium, indicating that ARPE-19 cells actively take up lutein or zeaxanthin. As compared with untreated cells, exposure of A2E-containing RPE to blue light resulted in a 4060% decrease in proteasome activity, a 5080% decrease in expression of CFH and MCP-1, and an ~ 20-fold increase in expression of IL-8. The photo-oxidation-induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and CFH were similar to those caused by chemical inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting that inactivation of the proteasome is involved in the photo-oxidation-induced alteration in expression of these inflammation-related genes. Incubation of the A2E-containing RPE with lutein or zeaxanthin prior to blue light exposure significantly attenuated the photo-oxidation-induced inactivation of the proteasome and photo-oxidation induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and CFH. Together, these data indicate that lutein or zeaxanthin modulates inflammatory responses in cultured RPE in response to photo-oxidation. Protecting the proteasome from oxidative inactivation appears to be one of the mechanisms by which lutein and zeaxanthin modulate the inflammatory response. Similar mechanisms may explain salutary effects of lutein and zeaxanthin in reducing the risk for AMD. PMID:22732187

  20. Multi-scale path planning for reduced environmental impact of aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Scot Edward

    A future air traffic management system capable of rerouting aircraft trajectories in real-time in response to transient and evolving events would result in increased aircraft efficiency, better utilization of the airspace, and decreased environmental impact. Mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is used within a receding horizon framework to form aircraft trajectories which mitigate persistent contrail formation, avoid areas of convective weather, and seek a minimum fuel solution. Areas conducive to persistent contrail formation and areas of convective weather occur at disparate temporal and spatial scales, and thereby require the receding horizon controller to be adaptable to multi-scale events. In response, a novel adaptable receding horizon controller was developed to account for multi-scale disturbances, as well as generate trajectories using both a penalty function approach for obstacle penetration and hard obstacle avoidance constraints. A realistic aircraft fuel burn model based on aircraft data and engine performance simulations is used to form the cost function in the MILP optimization. The performance of the receding horizon algorithm is tested through simulation. A scalability analysis of the algorithm is conducted to ensure the tractability of the path planner. The adaptable receding horizon algorithm is shown to successfully negotiate multi-scale environments with performance exceeding static receding horizon solutions. The path planner is applied to realistic scenarios involving real atmospheric data. A single flight example for persistent contrail mitigation shows that fuel burn increases 1.48% when approximately 50% of persistent contrails are avoided, but 6.19% when 100% of persistent contrails are avoided. Persistent contrail mitigating trajectories are generated for multiple days of data, and the research shows that 58% of persistent contrails are avoided with a 0.48% increase in fuel consumption when averaged over a year.

  1. Environmentally relevant concentrations of galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) induced oxidative and genetic damage in Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Traversi, Irene; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-03-21

    Synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) are extensively used as fragrances in several personal care products and have been recognized as emerging aquatic pollutants. Among SMCs, galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) are extensively used and have been measured in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. However, their potential risk to organisms remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 21-day exposures to HHCB and AHTN concentrations frequently measured in aquatic ecosystems can induce oxidative and genetic damage in Dreissena polymorpha. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) were measured as oxidative stress indexes, while the DNA precipitation assay and the micronucleus test (MN test) were applied to investigate genetic injuries. HHCB induced significant increases in LPO and PCC levels, while AHTN enhanced only protein carbonylation. Moreover, significant increases in DNA strand breaks were caused by exposure to the highest concentrations of HHCB and AHTN tested in the present study, but no fixed genetic damage was observed. PMID:25462865

  2. Anxious phenotypes plus environmental stressors are related to brain DNA damage and changes in NMDA receptor subunits and glutamate uptake.

    PubMed

    Rus, Gislaine Z; Abaleira, Helena M; Michels, Monique; Tomaz, Dbora B; dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Carlessi, Anelise S; Matias, Beatriz I; Leffa, Daniela D; Damiani, Adriani P; Gomes, Vitor de C; Andrade, Vanessa M; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Landeira-Fernadez, Jesus; Quevedo, Joo

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of chronic mild stress on DNA damage, NMDA receptor subunits and glutamate transport levels in the brains of rats with an anxious phenotype, which were selected to represent both the high-freezing (CHF) and low-freezing (CLF) lines. The anxious phenotype induced DNA damage in the hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAc). CHF rats subjected to chronic stress presented a more pronounced DNA damage in the hippocampus and NAc. NMDAR1 were increased in the prefrontal cortex (PC), hippocampus and amygdala of CHF, and decreased in the hippocampus, amygdala and NAc of CHF stressed. NMDAR2A were decreased in the amygdala of the CHF and stressed; and increased in CHF stressed. NMDRA2A in the NAc was increased after stress, and decreased in the CLF. NMDAR2B were increased in the hippocampus of CLF and CHF. In the amygdala, there was a decrease in the NMDAR2B for stress in the CLF and CHF. NMDAR2B in the NAc were decreased for stress and increased in the CHF; in the PC NMDAR2B increased in the CHF. EAAT1 increased in the PC of CLF+stress. In the hippocampus, EAAT1 decreased in all groups. In the amygdala, EAAT1 decreased in the CLF+stress and CHF. EAAT2 were decreased in the PC for stress, and increased in CHF+control. In the hippocampus, the EAAT2 were increased for the CLF and decreased in the CLF+stress. In the amygdala, there was a decrease in the EATT2 in the CLF+stress and CHF. These findings suggest that an anxious phenotype plus stress may induce a more pronounced DNA damage, and promote more alterations in the glutamatergic system. These findings may help to explain, at least in part, the common point of the mechanisms involved with the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety. PMID:25772108

  3. The Fate and Environmental Consequences of Reduced gas Mixtures Resulting from Magmatic Intrusion into Carbonaceous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono-Marziano, Giada; Marecal, Virginie; Pirre, Michel; Arndt, Nicolas; Ganino, Clment; Gaillard, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    Recent developments on the impacts of Large Igneous Provinces on climate changes and extinction rates emphasize the fundamental role of country rocks in gas emissions. Contact metamorphism of country rocks intruded by sills and dikes of mafic melts can be particularly important due to their long exposure to high temperatures. When the host rocks are composed of carbonates, sulphates, salts, or organic-compounds such as bituminous shales or coals, their heating can inject into the atmosphere a quantity of volatiles that greatly exceeds the amount delivered by purely magmatic degassing. We focus here on the interaction between magma and carbonaceous rocks. Recent studies have estimated the gas released by contact metamorphism of bituminous shales in the Karoo Province; we calculate the composition of the volcanic gases which results on this interaction, taking into account the magmatic contribution too. We then present an evaluation of the fate of such gases during their diffusion in the atmosphere. The modelling of the composition of the modified volcanic gases is based on gas-melt thermodynamic calculations that take into account S-H-O-C gaseous species at temperatures and pressures in equilibrium with basaltic liquids. We simulate the incorporation into the gas-melt system of organic compounds as CH or CH2, depending on the maturity of the carbonaceous rocks (coal or oil). Addition of C and H has a dramatic effect on the amount and the redox state of the gas in equilibrium with the basalt. With the incorporation of only 0.2 wt% CH, the gas composition changes from CO2-H2O dominated (typical of basaltic gases on Earth), to CO-H2 dominated (a strongly reduced mixture, which resembles Martian volcanic gases). Addition of more than 0.2 wt% CH can trigger graphite saturation, such as reported in few locations where carbonaceous rocks have been ingested by basalts. In the famous Disko Island location, for example, we calculate that an incorporation of 1 wt% CH led to saturation in metal iron. These "modified" volcanic gases are injected into the atmosphere at a rate directly proportional to the eruption rates and then disseminated. Using a 3D atmospheric algorithm coupling convective dynamics and chemistry, we model the expansion of the gas at a continental scale. Our simulations show that, at reasonable gas emission rates, no significant oxidation of CO occurs because the OH-radical concentration is strongly reduced due to the large concentration of CO and H2. This allows the gas to propagate faraway from the emission centre. The lateral propagation of the gas is significant at the scale of a continent within 2 weeks, which might reveal a new mechanism for mass extinctions.

  4. Reducing Uncertainty in Estimates of Environmental Parameters From Ambient Noise Using Statistical Array Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Ravishankar

    In recent years, extracting environmental information from diffuse ambient noise has become an increasingly viable alternative to traditional active source methods. Due to uncontrollable factors such as noise field directionality, presence of spatially compact sources and unknown medium properties, results from ambient noise processing are often biased and need careful interpretation. Thus it is important to develop robust approaches that can perform well in the presence of such detriments. The first part of the dissertation focuses on interpreting the coherence and attenuation estimates from seismic arrays. Adaptive array processing using stations from the Southern California Seismic Network is used to identify the presence of multiple seismic waves, namely the fundamental and first mode Rayleigh wave, and body waves. The spatial coherence function (SCF) is modeled as a linear superposition of these waves, with the proportions estimated from data. The SCF shows beating and phase cancellation effects due to the interactions between wavenumbers, which could be misinterpreted as attenuation. The array geometry is also shown to limit the ranges at which the coherence can be estimated well. The second part of the dissertation focuses on developing statistical techniques to mitigate the effects of spatially compact sources on the noise processing. Analytical expressions are derived for the asymptotic eigenvalues of the true spatial covariance matrix (CM) for a uniform line array in three and two dimensional isotropic noise fields with and without attenuation. Using random matrix theory, the asymptotic probability density of the eigenvalues of the sample covariance matrix (SCM) also is derived in each of these scenarios. These analytical results provide upperbounds for the noise eigenvalues of the SCM. In the third part of the dissertation, the analytical results are combined with a sequential hypothesis testing framework. This then is used to identify the outliers (which correspond to strong and spatially compact sources) in shallow water ocean acoustic data. The cross-correlation results after rejecting these outliers are shown to be unbiased and converge faster with a higher signal-to-noise ratio. The performance of the eigenvalue rejection technique under different noise model assumptions also is investigated.

  5. Extended exposure to environmental cues, but not to sucrose, reduces sucrose cue reactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Harkness, John H; Wells, Jason; Webb, Sierra; Grimm, Jeffrey W

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of extinction of sucrose-predictive contextual cues and/or sucrose satiation on the expression of sucrose cue reactivity in a rat model of relapse. Context extinction was imposed by housing rats in their home cage or in the operant conditioning chamber for 17 h prior to testing. For sucrose satiation, rats were allowed unlimited access to water or sucrose for 17 h prior to testing. Cue reactivity was assessed after either one (Day 1) or 30 (Day 30) days of forced abstinence from sucrose self-administration. An abstinence-dependent increase in sucrose cue reactivity was observed in all conditions ("incubation of craving"). Context extinction dramatically reduced lever responding on both Day 1 and Day 30. Sucrose satiation had no significant effect on cue reactivity in any condition. These results demonstrate that the context in which self-administration occurs maintains a powerful influence over cue reactivity, even after extended forced abstinence. In contrast, the primary reinforcer has little control over cue reactivity. These findings highlight the important role of conditioned contextual cues in driving relapse behavior. PMID:26169836

  6. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium.

    PubMed

    Batool, Rida; Yrjl, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 ?gmL(-1) caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology. PMID:25242944

  7. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Rida; Yrjälä, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 μgmL−1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology. PMID:25242944

  8. Impairment of vitamin D metabolism due to environmental cadmium exposure, and possible relevance to sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuritani, Ikiko; Honda, Ryumon; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamada, Yuichi ); Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji )

    1992-12-01

    To determine whether depleted serum 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) concentrations are associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced renal damage, the relationships between four indices of renal function and two indicators of bone metabolism, that is, serum VD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, were analyzed in 30 male and 44 female subjects exposed to environmental Cd. Also, these associations were compared in male and female subjects to evaluate sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage observed in Cd-exposed persons. Serum VD decreased significantly with declines in creatinine clearance and percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and with increases in serum creatinine and serum [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]m) concentrations in the female subjects exposed to Cd, but not in the male subjects. The correlation between serum VD and PTH levels was also significant only in the females. Correlation coefficients between serum [beta][sub 2]m and VD and those between serum PTH and VD in both sexes were significantly different. These results suggest that renal damage due to Cd exposure leads to the decreases in the serum VD level and increases in serum PTH level, and that the more marked changes in serum VD and PTH in the women may play a role in the development of sex-related differences in Cd-induced bone injury.

  9. An efficient Foxtail mosaic virus vector system with reduced environmental risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant viral vectors offer high-yield expression of pharmaceutical and commercially important proteins with a minimum of cost and preparation time. The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been introduced to deliver the viral vector as a transgene to each plant cell via a simple, nonsterile infiltration technique called "agroinoculation". With agroinoculation, a full length, systemically moving virus is no longer necessary for excellent protein yield, since the viral transgene is transcribed and replicates in every infiltrated cell. Viral genes may therefore be deleted to decrease the potential for accidental spread and persistence of the viral vector in the environment. Results In this study, both the coat protein (CP) and triple gene block (TGB) genetic segments were eliminated from Foxtail mosaic virus to create the "FECT" vector series, comprising a deletion of 29% of the genome. This viral vector is highly crippled and expresses little or no marker gene within the inoculated leaf. However, when co-agroinoculated with a silencing suppressor (p19 or HcPro), FECT expressed GFP at 40% total soluble protein in the tobacco host, Nicotiana benthamiana. The modified FoMV vector retained the full-length replicase ORF, the TGB1 subgenomic RNA leader sequence and either 0, 22 or 40 bases of TGB1 ORF (in vectors FECT0, FECT22 and FECT40, respectively). As well as N. benthamiana, infection of legumes was demonstrated. Despite many attempts, expression of GFP via syringe agroinoculation of various grass species was very low, reflecting the low Agrobacterium-mediated transformation rate of monocots. Conclusions The FECT/40 vector expresses foreign genes at a very high level, and yet has a greatly reduced biohazard potential. It can form no virions and can effectively replicate only in a plant with suppressed silencing. PMID:21162736

  10. 75 FR 17132 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for... Reaches, St. Johns County, FL AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District, intends to prepare...

  11. The Nexus between ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessment under CERCLA: introduction to a Society of Environmental Toxicology and ChemistryTechnical Workshop.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Ralph G; Gouguet, Ron; Charters, David; Clements, Will; Gala, Will; Haddad, Robert; Helm, Roger; Landis, Wayne; Maki, Al; Munns, Wayne R; Young, Dale

    2009-10-01

    A SETAC Technical Workshop titled "The Nexus Between Ecological Risk Assessment and Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under CERCLA: Understanding and Improving the Common Scientific Underpinnings," was held 18-22 August 2008 in Gregson, Montana, USA, to examine the linkage, nexus, and overlap between ecological risk assessment (ERA) and natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Experts from a broad range of relevant scientific, legal, and policy disciplines convened to 1) ascertain the potential for improved scientific harmonization of the processes of ERA and NRDA; 2) identify where statutory, regulatory, or scientific constraints might exist that would constrain or preclude the harmonization of the 2 processes; 3) determine approaches that might overcome these constraints; and 4) recommend research or potential changes in regulatory policies that might serve to improve both processes. This is the introduction to a series of 3 papers that describe the findings and conclusions of this workshop. Although unanimity was not achieved on all technical, legal, or policy questions posed to the participants, some consensus areas did arise. First, there appear to be few if any legal constraints to using the environmental data collected for ERA or NRDA for both processes. Second, although it is important to recognize and preserve the distinctions between ERA and NRDA, opportunities for data sharing exist, particularly for the characterization of environmental exposures and derivation of ecotoxicological information. Thus, effective coordination is not precluded by the underlying science. Where a cooperative, interactive process is involved among the response agencies, the natural resource trustees, and the responsible party(s), technical, legal or regulatory constraints can be minimized. Finally, one approach that might enhance the potential applicability of data collected for the ERA is to consider ecosystem services in the development of assessment endpoints. These points are explained in greater detail in the series of papers published herein. PMID:19545185

  12. Base damage within single-strand DNA underlies in vivo hypermutability induced by a ubiquitous environmental agent.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kin; Sterling, Joan F; Roberts, Steven A; Bhagwat, Ashok S; Resnick, Michael A; Gordenin, Dmitry A

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA must be in single-strand form for important transactions such as replication, transcription, and recombination to occur. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA) is more prone to damage than double-strand DNA (dsDNA), due to greater exposure of chemically reactive moieties in the nitrogenous bases. Thus, there can be agents that damage regions of ssDNA in vivo while being inert toward dsDNA. To assess the potential hazard posed by such agents, we devised an ssDNA-specific mutagenesis reporter system in budding yeast. The reporter strains bear the cdc13-1 temperature-sensitive mutation, such that shifting to 37C results in telomere uncapping and ensuing 5' to 3' enzymatic resection. This exposes the reporter region, containing three closely-spaced reporter genes, as a long 3' ssDNA overhang. We validated the ability of the system to detect mutagenic damage within ssDNA by expressing a modified human single-strand specific cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G induced a high density of substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in frequent, simultaneous inactivation of two reporter genes. We then examined the mutagenicity of sulfites, a class of reactive sulfur oxides to which humans are exposed frequently via respiration and food intake. Sulfites, at a concentration similar to that found in some foods, induced a high density of mutations, almost always as substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in simultaneous inactivation of at least two reporter genes. Furthermore, sulfites formed a long-lived adducted 2'-deoxyuracil intermediate in DNA that was resistant to excision by uracil-DNA N-glycosylase. This intermediate was bypassed by error-prone translesion DNA synthesis, frequently involving Pol ?, during repair synthesis. Our results suggest that sulfite-induced lesions in DNA can be particularly deleterious, since cells might not possess the means to repair or bypass such lesions accurately. PMID:23271983

  13. Base Damage within Single-Strand DNA Underlies In Vivo Hypermutability Induced by a Ubiquitous Environmental Agent

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kin; Sterling, Joan F.; Roberts, Steven A.; Bhagwat, Ashok S.; Resnick, Michael A.; Gordenin, Dmitry A.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA must be in single-strand form for important transactions such as replication, transcription, and recombination to occur. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA) is more prone to damage than double-strand DNA (dsDNA), due to greater exposure of chemically reactive moieties in the nitrogenous bases. Thus, there can be agents that damage regions of ssDNA in vivo while being inert toward dsDNA. To assess the potential hazard posed by such agents, we devised an ssDNAspecific mutagenesis reporter system in budding yeast. The reporter strains bear the cdc13-1 temperature-sensitive mutation, such that shifting to 37C results in telomere uncapping and ensuing 5? to 3? enzymatic resection. This exposes the reporter region, containing three closely-spaced reporter genes, as a long 3? ssDNA overhang. We validated the ability of the system to detect mutagenic damage within ssDNA by expressing a modified human single-strand specific cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G induced a high density of substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in frequent, simultaneous inactivation of two reporter genes. We then examined the mutagenicity of sulfites, a class of reactive sulfur oxides to which humans are exposed frequently via respiration and food intake. Sulfites, at a concentration similar to that found in some foods, induced a high density of mutations, almost always as substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in simultaneous inactivation of at least two reporter genes. Furthermore, sulfites formed a long-lived adducted 2?-deoxyuracil intermediate in DNA that was resistant to excision by uracilDNA N-glycosylase. This intermediate was bypassed by error-prone translesion DNA synthesis, frequently involving Pol ?, during repair synthesis. Our results suggest that sulfite-induced lesions in DNA can be particularly deleterious, since cells might not possess the means to repair or bypass such lesions accurately. PMID:23271983

  14. Loss of p21{sup Sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage accompanied with increase of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 interaction with p21{sup Sdi1} gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ok Ran; Lim, In Kyoung

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin or X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.

  15. Reducing the staggering costs of environmental disease in children, estimated at $76.6 billion in 2008.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Liu, Yinghua

    2011-05-01

    A 2002 analysis documented $54.9 billion in annual costs of environmentally mediated diseases in US children. However, few important changes in federal policy have been implemented to prevent exposures to toxic chemicals. We therefore updated and expanded the previous analysis and found that the costs of lead poisoning, prenatal methylmercury exposure, childhood cancer, asthma, intellectual disability, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were $76.6 billion in 2008. To prevent further increases in these costs, efforts are needed to institute premarket testing of new chemicals; conduct toxicity testing on chemicals already in use; reduce lead-based paint hazards; and curb mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. PMID:21543421

  16. Using Community Advisory Boards to Reduce Environmental Barriers to Health in American Indian Communities, Wisconsin, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jamie R.; Prince, Ron; Williamson, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Background American Indian communities have a high prevalence of chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Innovative community-based approaches are needed to identify, prioritize, and create sustainable interventions to reduce environmental barriers to healthy lifestyles and ultimately improve health. Community Context Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based and community-based intervention to increase healthy lifestyles on Wisconsin American Indian reservations. This intervention arose from a long-standing partnership between University of Wisconsin researchers and 3 of these American Indian communities. Methods In each community, community advisory boards (CABs) were established by the residents and university partners. CAB meetings were open and held at various times and locations to increase member participation. CABs featured continual, snowball recruitment; internal and external expert consultation; and coordination with standing tribal committees. Meetings initially focused on understanding community supports for and barriers to healthy lifestyles but quickly turned toward community action for change. Outcome CAB interventions decreased environmental barriers to health at each site and improved options for healthy lifestyle choices. Over 5 years, 71 CAB meetings occurred with a total of 1,070 participants. Successful CAB interventions included planting community gardens and an apple orchard, conducting gardening and canning workshops, instituting food-related policies and dog control regulations, building an environmentally friendly playground, and providing access to recreational facilities. The CABs are now self-sustaining. Interpretation CABs can be highly effective action teams capable of improving community environments. Our experience shows that academic researchers can partner with community residents to generate programs and policies that will expand access to local food, increase people’s choices for engaging in physical activity, and encourage local policy changes that improve overall community health. PMID:25232747

  17. An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Tainio, Marko

    2005-01-01

    Background Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems. Methods We performed a decision analysis in a poorly studied area, trip aggregation, and studied decisions from the perspective of two different stakeholders, the passenger and society. We modelled the impact and potential of composite traffic, a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, where a centralised system would collect the information on all trip demands online, would merge the trips with the same origin and destination into public vehicles with eight or four seats, and then would transmit the trip instructions to the passengers' mobile phones. Results We show here that in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health, environmental, and other detrimental impacts of car traffic typically by 5070%, and if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, and within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies. Conclusion Composite traffic provides new degrees of freedom in urban decision-making in identifying novel solutions to the problems of urban traffic. PMID:16309549

  18. REC-2006—A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10 Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7 ± 0.47, 12.96 ± 1.64 and 3.3 ± 0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of β-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15 mg kg−1 body weight) 1 h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156 ± 0.576, 1.647 ± 0.534 and 0.496 ± 0.012, and an increase in β-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair. PMID:20008078

  19. Examining a home environmental strategy to reduce availability of legal products that can be misused by youth.

    PubMed

    Collins, David A; Johnson, Knowlton W; Shamblen, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    This article presents results from a study of a home environmental strategy (HES) designed to reduce availability of harmful legal products (HLPs) in the home that can be used by youth to get high. HLPs include inhalants, prescription and nonprescription drugs, and household products that can be ingested to get high. Availability is one of the most consistent predictors of substance use among youth. Parents of 5th- to 7th-grade students in four Alaskan communities participated in telephone interviews as part of a larger study of a multicomponent community prevention model (CPM) that included a HES. The strategy was designed to encourage parents to reduce availability of HLPs by removing them from the home, and by locking up and monitoring the supplies of HLPs in the home. Data from 402 parents at Wave 1 and 371 parents at Wave 2 were analyzed using hierarchical non-Linear modeling (HNLM). Results show there was a significant decrease in HLPs in the home from Wave 1 to Wave 2, mostly inhalants and prescription and nonprescription drugs. Parents also reported a significant increase in locking up prescription and nonprescription drugs in the home. Parents' direct exposure to the HES was marginally associated with the change over time in HLP availability in the home. Indirect exposure through others and media was not associated with this change. Study lessons learned and conclusions are highlighted. PMID:22943304

  20. Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD/VCD players and copiers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Li, Tienan; Li, Aizhen; Zhang, Guoqing

    2004-06-01

    With the popularization of household electrical appliances and the rapid development of office automation and networking, a huge number of consumer electronic devices, computers, copiers, and fax machines have been put into use in China over the last two decades. These products almost all use a certain amount of standby power--the power that is consumed when a device is connected but not performing its primary function. The rapid growth of standby energy consumption due to these products--and the consequent environmental problems--has attracted more and more attentions from researchers and from many government and international agencies. Numerous countries have developed policies and measures to restrict and reduce standby energy consumption (US EPA, 2004, IEA, 2001, and GEEA, 2004). However, standby energy consumption is still a new concept for Chinese consumers and the phenomenon of ''unconscious waste of energy'' is still very common in the people's daily life and work. With the goal of reducing China's standby energy consumption, China Certification Center for Energy Conservation Products (CECP) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have, under the sponsorship of the Energy Foundation (EF), entered into a collaboration to develop technical requirements for CECP's labeling program for consumer electronics and office equipment. These technical requirements will be used to qualify products for CECP's energy efficiency endorsement label in China. In the phase I of this collaborative project, CECP and LBNL conducted technical and economic research on televisions and printers in China. Based on the results of this research, CECP developed specifications for, and carried out corresponding energy conservation certifications for these two products. CECP's standby power certification program has made impressive gains in China. Leading manufacturers, such as Haier, Hesons, TCL, Chuangwei, Lenovo, EPSON, Fujitsu, and Brother have participated in CECP's certification activities. Media events organized by CECP have greatly improved the country's awareness of standby power loss. Reducing standby power loss has been formally incorporated into China's energy efficiency policy portfolio and in China's collaboration with the international community on the subject of energy efficiency (IEA, 2001). In phase II of the program, CECP's main task was to assess the market for DVD/VCD (Digital Versatile/Video Disc and Video Compact Disc) players and copiers to analyze the economic and technical benefits of energy conservation potential, and to develop technical specifications for DVD/VCD players and copiers, with technical assistance from LBNL. Having built on the success of Phase I, CECP paid great attention to the appraisal of market conditions and the economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power loss in DVD/VCD players and copiers, and solicited inputs from stakeholders before finalizing the product certification requirements. This paper summarizes the expected energy conservation and environmental benefits due to the implementation of certification programs for DVD/VCD players and copiers in China.

  1. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and DNA damage as an indicator of environmental stress in fish of different feeding habits of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Mille, Donaji J; Ilizaliturri-Hernndez, Csar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Daz-Barriga, Fernando; Ize-Lema, Irina; Meja-Saavedra, Jess

    2010-10-01

    The region of Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz hosts one of the largest and most important industrial areas of Mexico and Latin America. Industrial development and rapid population growth, have triggered a severe impact on aquatic ecosystems of the region. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of POPs in sediment and in muscle tissue of five fish species from different trophic levels in downstream residents of the Coatzacoalcos River, and their integration with DNA damage in the fish, evaluated with the comet assay in whole blood as a biological indicator of stress, in order to obtain a baseline of the ecological condition of the region. The compounds detected in sediment and in muscle tissue were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-, ?-, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), mirex and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sediment concentrations of these pollutants (except for mirex) exceeded the values of protection provided by international guidelines, suggesting a potential risk to aquatic life in the region. DNA damage recorded in the fish species is evidence of exposure to a mix of genotoxic pollutants, which combined with exposure to POPs, reflects the degree of environmental stress of aquatic organisms in the region. The results of this study show the importance of determining the presence of contaminants in the environment, the bioaccumulation in tissues and their effects on exposed organisms, providing an integrated approach in assessing the health of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:20563841

  2. Reduced brown adipose tissue thermogenesis during environmental interactions in transgenic rats with ataxin-3-mediated ablation of hypothalamic orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mazher; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Blessing, William

    2014-10-15

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to substantial increases in body temperature evoked by threatening or emotional stimuli. BAT thermogenesis also contributes to increases in body temperature that occur during active phases of the basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC), as part of normal daily life. Hypothalamic orexin-synthesizing neurons influence many physiological and behavioral variables, including BAT and body temperature. In conscious unrestrained animals maintained for 3 days in a quiet environment (24-26C) with ad libitum food and water, we compared temperatures in transgenic rats with ablation of orexin neurons induced by expression of ataxin-3 (Orx_Ab) with wild-type (WT) rats. Both baseline BAT temperature and baseline body temperature, measured at the onset of BRAC episodes, were similar in Orx_Ab and WT rats. The time interval between BRAC episodes was also similar in the two groups. However, the initial slopes and amplitudes of BRAC-related increases in BAT and body temperature were reduced in Orx_Ab rats. Similarly, the initial slopes and amplitudes of the increases in BAT temperatures induced by sudden exposure to an intruder rat (freely moving or confined to a small cage) or by sudden exposure to live cockroaches were reduced in resident Orx_Ab rats. Constriction of the tail artery induced by salient alerting stimuli was also reduced in Orx_Ab rats. Our results suggest that orexin-synthesizing neurons contribute to the intensity with which rats interact with the external environment, both when the interaction is "spontaneous" and when the interaction is provoked by threatening or salient environmental events. PMID:25324552

  3. Organoclays as soil amendments to increase the efficacy and reduce the environmental impact of the herbicide fluometuron in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Gmiz, Beatriz; Celis, Rafael; Hermosn, Mara C; Cornejo, Juan

    2010-07-14

    The use of pesticides in agriculture has become a source of pollution of soil and water in the last decades. Extensive pesticide transport losses due to leaching and runoff produce nonpoint source contamination of soils and water. One of the soil processes that reduce pesticide transport losses is adsorption by soil particles; therefore, enhancement of pesticide retention by soil can be used as a strategy to attenuate the environmental impact of pesticides. In this work, organoclays were prepared by treating Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-2) and Arizona montmorillonite (SAz-1) with different organic cations and were assayed as soil amendments to enhance the retention and reduce the leaching losses of the herbicide fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] urea] in soils. Two agricultural soils from Southern Spain were selected for being high-risk scenarios of ground and surface water contamination. First, a batch adsorption study was conducted to identify organoclays with high affinity for fluometuron. Among the different organoclays assayed, spermine-treated Wyoming montmorillonite (SW-SPERM) displayed high and reversible adsorption of fluometuron and was selected as an amendment for subsequent persistence, leaching, and herbicidal activity experiments of fluometuron with unamended and amended soils. Amendment of the soils with SW-SPERM at rates of 1%, 2%, and 5% greatly enhanced fluometuron retention by the soils and retarded fluometuron leaching through soil columns. Incubation experiments revealed that the persistence of the herbicide in the amended soils was similar to that in unamended soils and that most of the herbicide was ultimately available for degradation. Bioassays demonstrated that the reduced leaching losses of fluometuron in soils amended with SW-SPERM may result in increased herbicide efficacy if heavy rainfall events occur shortly after herbicide application. PMID:20545302

  4. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work w...

  5. Potential role of reduced environmental UV exposure as a driver of the current epidemic of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Zirwas, Matthew J; Elias, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    The basis for the sudden and dramatic increase in atopic dermatitis (AD) and related atopic diseases in the second half of the 20th century is unclear. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the transition from rural to urban living leads to reduced childhood exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. Hence instead of having the normal TH1 bias and immune tolerance because of repeated exposure to pathogens, urban dwellers have TH2 cell immune activity and atopic disease in a more sterile environment. Various other environmental exposures have been implicated in the explosion of AD (and atopic disorders in general), including breast-feeding, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to domesticated furry pets. Notably, the key role of a compromised barrier of neonatal skin as a predisposing factor in the development of childhood AD has recently been demonstrated. In this article we review the salubrious effects of suberythemogenic doses of UVB irradiation for the skin barrier. We then discuss how the lack of sufficient UVB exposure could have contributed to the rapid increase in the incidence of AD in developed countries. This hypothesis offers a separate but not competing partial explanation, which should be viewed as not discounting the role of the etiopathogenic factors that also could influence the prevalence of atopic disorders. PMID:26298230

  6. Progesterone reduces inflammation and apoptosis in neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic brain damage through the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Junhe; Zhu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiaoyin; Li, Dongliang

    2015-01-01

    A neonatal rat model with hypoxic ischemic brain damage (HIBD) was established. Forty 7-day-old neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation, model, progesterone and Akt inhibitor. Electron microscopy revealed that the neonatal rats with HIBD showed neuronal changes. The protein expression levels of pAkt, Nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The neuronal structure was normal in the sham operation group after HIBD for 24 h. Cavitation change due to hypoxic ischemic brain damage was observed in the neurons of the model group. Progesterone treatment improved neuronal damage and cavitation. Neuronal cavitation was clearly changed in the Akt inhibitor group. The protein expression levels of hippocampal pAkt and Bcl-2 did not significantly change after HIBD, whereas that of NF-?B increased. Progesterone pre-treatment increased the expression levels of pAkt and Bcl-2 but decreased that of NF-?B. The protein expression levels of pAkt and Bcl-2 decreased in the Akt inhibitor group, whereas that of NF-?B increased. This result indicates that progesterone can decrease inflammation in HIBD, inhibit apoptosis and protect the brain by activating the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signalling pathway. PMID:26221393

  7. ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - SUPPLEMENT 1: DETAILED DATA FOR STATIC AND LINEAR ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING INSECTICIDES ON COTTON AND CORN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report lists the expected insect control costs and insecticide use per acre for each insect control method on corn and cotton in each region discussed in Alternatives for Reducing Insecticides on Cotton and Corn: Economic and Environmental Impact. All the runs used in the lin...

  8. Environmental Education in Small Business: The Owner-Manager's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, environmental education has been aimed at the community or in primary schools and governmental pressure to reduce environmental damage has focussed on large businesses. More recently, the role and importance of small business and how to engage them in the environmental debate has come under scrutiny. Researchers have identified

  9. Environmental exposure to arsenic may reduce human semen quality: associations derived from a Chinese cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent observations in in vitro and in vivo models suggest that arsenic (As) is an endocrine disruptor at environmentally-relevant levels. When exposed to As, male rats and mice show steroidogenic dysfunction that can lead to infertility. However, the possible effects of As on human male semen quality remain obscure. Methods We monitored the profile of As species in the urine of a reproductive-age human cohort and assessed its association with semen quality. Men (n = 96) were recruited in an infertility clinic from July 2009 to August 2010 in the Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Institute for Population and Family Planning. Five urinary As species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Clinical information on the semen volume, sperm concentration and motility was employed to catalogue and evaluate semen quality according to WHO guidelines. As species concentrations in addition to other continuous variables were dichotomized by the medians and modelled as categorical variables in order to explore using the binary logistic regression possible associations between As exposure and semen quality. Results Urinary concentrations (geometric mean ± SD, μg g-1 creatinine) of different As species were 7.49 (±24.8) for AsB, 20.9 (±13.7) for DMA, 2.77 (±3.33) for MMA, and 4.03 (±3.67) for Asi (AsiIII and AsiV). DMA concentrations above the median were significantly associated with below-reference sperm concentrations (P =0.02) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), abstinence, smoking and drinking habits. In addition, smoking was positively associated with MMA. Conclusion Reduced parameters in human semen quality are positively associated with As exposure in a reproductive-age Chinese cohort. PMID:22776062

  10. Novel flashlamp-based time-resolved fluorescence microscope reduces autofluorescence for 30-fold contrast enhancement in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connally, Russell; Veal, Duncan; Piper, James A.

    2003-07-01

    The abundance of naturally fluorescing components (autofluorophors) encountered in environmentally sourced samples can greatly hinder the detection and identification of fluorescently labeled target using fluorescence microscopy. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy (TRFM) is a technique that reduces the effects of autofluorescence through precisely controlled time delays. Lanthanide chelates have fluorescence lifetimes many orders of magnitude greater than typical autofluorophors, and persist in their luminescence long after autofluorescence has ceased. An intense short pulse of (UV) light is used to excite fluorescence in the sample and after a short delay period the longer persisting fluorescence from the chelate is captured with an image-intensified CCD camera. The choice of pulsed excitation source for TRFM has a large impact on the price and performance of the instrument. A flashlamp with a short pulse duration was selected for our instrument because of the high spectral energy in the UV region and short pulse length. However, flash output decays with an approximate lifetime of 18?s and the TRFM requires a long-lived chelate to ensure probe fluorescence is still visible after decay of the flash plasma. We synthesized a recently reported fluorescent chelate (BHHCT) and conjugated it to a monoclonal antibody directed against the water-borne parasite Giardia lamblia. Fluorescence lifetime of the construct was determined to be 339?s +/- 14?s and provided a 45-fold enhancement of labeled Giardia over background using a gate delay of 100?s. Despite the sub-optimal decay characteristics of the light pulse, flashlamps have many advantages compared to optical chopper wheels and modulated lasers. Their low cost, lack of vibration, ease of interface and small footprint are important factors to consider in TRFM design.

  11. Antioxidant Treatments Recover the Alteration of Auditory-Evoked Potentials and Reduce Morphological Damage in the Inferior Colliculus after Perinatal Asphyxia in Rat.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Miren; Arteaga, Olatz; Montalvo, Haizea; Alvarez, Antonia; Hilario, Enrique; Martinez-Ibargüen, Agustin

    2016-03-01

    Maturation of the auditory pathway is dependent on the central nervous system myelination and it can be affected by pathologies such as neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Our aim was to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway and to visualize, by histological and cellular methods, the damage to the brainstem using a neonatal rat model of HI brain injury. To carry out this morphofunctional evaluation, we studied the effects of the administration of the antioxidants nicotine, melatonin, resveratrol and docosahexaenoic acid after hypoxia-ischemia on the inferior colliculus and the auditory pathway. We found that the integrity of the auditory pathway in the brainstem was altered as a consequence of the HI insult. Thus, the auditory brainstem response (ABR) showed increased I-V and III-V wave latencies. At a histological level, HI altered the morphology of the inferior colliculus neurons, astrocytes and oligodendricytes, and at a molecular level, the mitochondria membrane potential and integrity was altered during the first hours after the HI and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity is increased 12 h after the injury in the brainstem. Following antioxidant treatment, ABR interpeak latency intervals were restored and the body and brain weight was recovered as well as the morphology of the inferior colliculus that was similar to the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that antioxidant treatments have a protective effect on the functional changes of the auditory pathway and on the morphological damage which occurs after HI insult. PMID:25990815

  12. Brassica oleracea L. Var. costata DC and Pieris brassicae L. aqueous extracts reduce methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage in V79 hamster lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Carla; Fernandes, Ftima; Valento, Patrcia; Rodrigues, Antnio Sebastio; Coelho, Marta; Teixeira, Joo P; Silva, Susana; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-05-30

    Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC leaves and Pieris brassicae L. larvae aqueous extracts were assayed for their potential to prevent/induce DNA damage. None of them was mutagenic at the tested concentrations in the Ames test reversion assay using Salmonella His(+) TA98 strains, with and without metabolic activation. In the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase mutation assay using mammalian V79 fibroblast cell line, extracts at 500 ?g/mL neither induced mutations nor protected against the mutagenicity caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). In the comet assay, none of the extracts revealed to be genotoxic by itself, and both afforded protection, more pronounced for larvae extracts, against MMS-induced genotoxicity. As genotoxic/antigenotoxic effects of Brassica vegetables are commonly attributed to isothiocyanates, the extracts were screened for these compounds by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No sulfur compound was detected. These findings demonstrate that both extracts could be useful against damage caused by genotoxic compounds, the larvae extract being the most promising. PMID:22582708

  13. Landowner and permit-holder perceptions of wildlife damage around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A survey of INEEL neighbors about elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, and depredation

    SciTech Connect

    Roush, D.E. Jr.; Beaver, D.E.

    1998-06-01

    Property-owners (N = 220) around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho were surveyed about depredation, control methods and economic issues related to use of the area by elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana). Depredation was defined as damage to privately-owned crops, forage, and fences and irrigation equipment by these animals. The focus on the three ungulate species was prompted by concerns that elk, which had recolonized the INEEL since 1984, were responsible for an inordinate amount of unprecedented damage to agricultural operations. As the INEEL is a US Department of Energy (DOE) reserve with little public hunting access, there have been calls for removal of elk from this land. This study`s objective was to quantify the wildlife damage occurring on agricultural operations adjacent to the INEEL and to characterize the damage attributed to each big game species. Responses from 70.2% of the target population indicate an evenness of opinion, by which the authors mean that various opinions were represented equitably, toward these animals and wildlife damage Total estimated wildlife damage in 1996 was between $140,000 and $180,000 It was attributed foremost to elk, although pronghorn antelope were viewed nearly as damaging. Respondents placed high values in big game animals and wished to see them continue to inhabit these lands. For managing depredation, adjusting hunting seasons was preferred.

  14. Evaluation of Community Action Against Asthma: A Community Health Worker Intervention to Improve Children’s Asthma-Related Health by Reducing Household Environmental Triggers for Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Edith A.; Israel, Barbara A.; Robins, Thomas G.; Mentz, Graciela; Lin, Xihong; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Ramirez, Erminia; Edgren, Katherine K.; Salinas, Maria; Lewis, Toby C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) community health worker (CHW) intervention to improve children’s asthma-related health by reducing household environmental triggers for asthma. After randomization to an intervention or control group, 298 households in Detroit, Michigan, with a child, aged 7 to 11, with persistent asthma symptoms participated. The intervention was effective in increasing some of the measures of lung function (daily nadir Forced Expiratory Volume at one second [p = .03] and daily nadir Peak Flow [p = .02]), reducing the frequency of two symptoms (“cough that won’t go away,” “coughing with exercise”), reducing the proportion of children requiring unscheduled medical visits and reporting inadequate use of asthma controller medication, reducing caregiver report of depressive symptoms, reducing concentrations of dog allergen in the dust, and increasing some behaviors related to reducing indoor environmental triggers. The results suggest a CHW environmental intervention can improve children’s asthma-related health, although the pathway for improvement is complex. PMID:17761540

  15. The Antiepileptic Drug Levetiracetam Suppresses Non-Convulsive Seizure Activity and Reduces Ischemic Brain Damage in Rats Subjected to Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Ornella; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Leo, Antonio; Politi, Giovanni Bosco; Vinciguerra, Antonio; di Renzo, Gianfranco; Cataldi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    The antiepileptic drug Levetiracetam (Lev) has neuroprotective properties in experimental stroke, cerebral hemorrhage and neurotrauma. In these conditions, non-convulsive seizures (NCSs) propagate from the core of the focal lesion into perilesional tissue, enlarging the damaged area and promoting epileptogenesis. Here, we explore whether Lev neuroprotective effect is accompanied by changes in NCS generation or propagation. In particular, we performed continuous EEG recordings before and after the permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO) in rats that received Lev (100 mg/kg) or its vehicle immediately before surgery. Both in Lev-treated and in control rats, EEG activity was suppressed after pMCAO. In control but not in Lev-treated rats, EEG activity reappeared approximately 30-45 min after pMCAO. It initially consisted in single spikes and, then, evolved into spike-and-wave and polyspike-and-wave discharges. In Lev-treated rats, only rare spike events were observed and the EEG power was significantly smaller than in controls. Approximately 24 hours after pMCAO, EEG activity increased in Lev-treated rats because of the appearance of polyspike events whose power was, however, significantly smaller than in controls. In rats sacrificed 24 hours after pMCAO, the ischemic lesion was approximately 50% smaller in Lev-treated than in control rats. A similar neuroprotection was observed in rats sacrificed 72 hours after pMCAO. In conclusion, in rats subjected to pMCAO, a single Lev injection suppresses NCS occurrence for at least 24 hours. This electrophysiological effect could explain the long lasting reduction of ischemic brain damage caused by this drug. PMID:24236205

  16. EVALUATION OF IMMOBILIZED REDOX INDICATORS AS REVERSIBLE, IN SITU REDOX SENSORS FOR DETERMINING FE(III)-REDUCING CONDITIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES. (R828772)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in situ methodology based on immobilized redox indicators has been developed to determine when Fe(III)-reducing conditions exist in environmental systems. The redox indicators thionine (Thi, formal potential at pH 7 (E70') equals 66 mV), tol...

  17. Assisting People with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Actively Reducing Limb Hyperactive Behavior with a Gyration Air Mouse through a Controlled Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the gyration air mouse into a high performance limb movement detector, and have assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control an environmental stimulation using limb movement. This study extends gyration air mouse functionality by actively reducing

  18. Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kosko, Nancy; Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie

    2007-07-01

    The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

  19. Aircraft conceptual design study of the canard and threesurface unconventional configurations for the purposes of reducing environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desharnais, Olivier

    With a constant increase in the demand for air transport and today's high fuel price, the aerospace industry is actively searching for new operation methods and technologies to improve efficiency and to reduce the impact it has on the environment. Aircraft manufacturers are exploring many different ways of designing and building better airplanes. One of the considered methods is the use of unconventional aircraft configurations. The objective of this research is to study two configurations, the canard and three-surface, by applying them into a typical high-speed jet aircraft using the conceptual design tools for conventional aircraft available at Bombardier Aerospace (some of them have been modified and validated for the two configurations of interest). This included a weight estimation of the foreplane, an extensive validation of the aerodynamic tool, AVL, and a modification of a physics-based tail-sizing tool. The last tool was found necessary for an accurate foreplane/tailplane sizing, aircraft balancing, establishing the CG envelope and for the assessment of all stability and control requirements. Then, a canard aircraft comparable to the Bombardier research platform aircraft was designed. Final solutions were not obtained from a complete optimization because of some limitations in the design process. The preliminary results show an increase of fuel burn of 10%, leading to an increase of the environmental impacts. The theoretical advantage of not generating any download lift is clearly overwhelmed by the poor effectiveness of the high-lift system. The incapacity to reach a level of high-lift performance close to the one of conventional high-speed aircrafts mostly explains why the canard configuration was found to have no true benefits in this application. Even if no final solution of a three-surface aircraft was obtained in this research, this configuration was identified as being better than the canard case according to the information found in the literature. Some past studies concluded that there's a small improvement in fuel burn over the conventional configuration depending on the application. This unconventional configuration is recognized to have lower trim drag and the capability to fly at minimum drag for all CGs. For this reason, it's worth continuing the work started in this project to see if a three-surface high-speed jet aircraft could eventually be more efficient.

  20. Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anderson E S; Grillo, Renato; Mello, Nathalie F S; Rosa, Andre H; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2014-03-15

    Nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) containing the herbicide atrazine were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in terms of their herbicidal activity and genotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of three months, considering the variables: size, polydispersion index, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. Tests on plants were performed with target (Brassica sp.) and non-target (Zea mays) organisms, and the nanoparticle formulations were shown to be effective for the control of the target species. Experiments using soil columns revealed that the use of nanoparticles reduced the mobility of atrazine in the soil. Application of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay demonstrated that the nanoparticle systems were able to reduce the genotoxicity of the herbicide. The formulations developed offer a useful means of controlling agricultural weeds, while at the same time reducing the risk of harm to the environment and human health. PMID:24508945

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN, 17 B TRENBOLONE, CAUSES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND REDUCED REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT IN FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, studies have detected environmental androgen-active chemicals in effluents from pulp mills and animal feedlot operations. One such chemical present in feedlot discharge is the growth promoter, trenbolone acetate. A primary metabolite of trenbolone acetate, 17ß trenbolon...

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN, 17 B TRENBOLONE, CAUSES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND REDUCED REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT IN FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, studies have detected environmental androgen-active chemicals in effluents from pulp mills and animal feedlot operations. One such chemical present in feedlot discharge is the growth promoter, trenbolone acetate. A primary metabolite of trenbolone acetate, 17 trenbolon...

  3. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    PubMed Central

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  4. DNA damage and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Aracely-Garcia-Garcia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as the ultraviolet (UV), ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response. PMID:21419786

  5. Old males reduce melanin-pigmented traits and increase reproductive outcome under worse environmental conditions in common kestrels.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Idiaquez, David; Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan Antonio; Martinez-Padilla, Jess

    2016-02-01

    Secondary sexual traits displayed by males and females may have evolved as a signal of individual quality. However, both individual quality and investment on producing or maintaining enhanced sexual traits change as individuals age. At the same time, the costs associated to produce sexual traits might be attenuated or increased if environmental conditions are benign or worse respectively. Accordingly, environmental conditions are expected to shape the association between the expression of sexual traits and their reproductive outcome as individuals age. Nonetheless, little is known about the environmental influence on the co-variation between sexual traits and reproductive outcome throughout the life of individuals. We studied the age-dependency of the number and size of back spots, a melanin-based and sexual trait in adults of common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus). We analysed the age-dependence of reproductive traits and the environmental influence, defined as vole abundance, using a 10-year individual-based dataset. We broke down age-related changes of reproductive traits into within- and between-individual variation to assess their contribution to population-level patterns. Our results showed a within-individual decrease in the number, but not the size, of back spots in males. The size of back spots was positively correlated with food availability in males. Reproductive performance of males increased as they aged, in agreement with the life-history theory but depending of vole abundance. Remarkably, we found that having fewer back spots was positively associated with clutch size only for old individuals under low-food conditions. We suggest that environmental variation may shape the association between the expression of a sexual signal and reproductive outcome. We speculate that the reliability of sexual traits is higher when environmental conditions are poor only for old individuals. Within an evolutionary context, we suggest that the expression of sexual traits might be constrained by environmental conditions at later stages of life. PMID:26941948

  6. Inhibition of small HA fragment activity and stimulation of A2A adenosine receptor pathway limit apoptosis and reduce cartilage damage in experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Micali, Antonio; Avenoso, Angela; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Pisani, Antonina; Bruschetta, Antongiulio; Calatroni, Alberto; Puzzolo, Domenico; Campo, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have found that the inactivation of small hyaluronan (HA) fragments originating from native HA during inflammation reduced the inflammatory response in models of experimental arthritis. The stimulation of adenosine receptors A2A reduced inflammation by inhibiting NF-kB activation. The combination of both treatments was significantly more effective than either of the individual treatments. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of a combined treatment using the HA inhibitor Pep-1 and a selective A2AR agonist (CV-1808) on the structure and ultrastructure of the articular cartilage and on apoptosis in a model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Arthritic mice were treated with Pep-1 and/or CV-1808 intraperitoneally daily for 20 days. At day 35, the hind limbs were processed for light microscopy (hematoxylin/eosin and Safranin-O-Fast Green) and for transmission and scanning electron microscopy. CIA increased IL-6, caspase-3 and caspase-7 mRNA expression and the related protein levels in arthritic articular cartilage, and significantly increased concentrations of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), while B cell-lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2) was markedly reduced. The combined Pep-1/CV-1808 treatment significantly reduced CIA injury, particularly at the highest doses, demonstrated by the presence of Safranin-O-positive cartilage, with a smooth surface and normal chondrocytes in the superficial, intermediate and deep zones. Morphological data and histological scoring were strongly supported by the reduction in inflammation and apoptotic markers. The results further support the role of HA degradation and A2A receptors in arthritis. PMID:25511416

  7. Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) regulates autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells: A potential role for reducing UVB light-induced retinal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chao-Peng; Yao, Jin; Tao, Zhi-Fu; Li, Xiu-Miao; Jiang, Qin Yan, Biao

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •UVB irradiation induces RPE autophagy. •EGCG treatment represses UVB-mediated autophagy. •EGCG regulates UVB-mediated autophagy through mTOR signaling pathway. •EGCG sensitizes RPE cells to UVB-induced damage in an autophagy-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process involved in protein and organelle degradation via the lysosomal pathway that has been linked in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). UVB irradiation-mediated degeneration of the macular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is an important hallmark of AMD, which is along with the change in RPE autophagy. Thus, pharmacological manipulation of RPE autophagy may offer an alternative therapeutic target in AMD. Here, we found that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound from green tea, plays a regulatory role in UVB irradiation-induced autophagy in RPE cells. UVB irradiation results in a marked increase in the amount of LC3-II protein in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG administration leads to a significant reduction in the formation of LC3-II and autophagosomes. mTOR signaling activation is required for EGCG-induced LC3-II formation, as evidenced by the fact that EGCG-induced LC3-II formation is significantly impaired by rapamycin administration. Moreover, EGCG significantly alleviates the toxic effects of UVB irradiation on RPE cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Collectively, our study reveals a novel role of EGCG in RPE autophagy. EGCG may be exploited as a potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of pathological conditions associated with abnormal autophagy.

  8. Resistance to DNA-damaging treatment in non-small cell lung cancer tumor-initiating cells involves reduced DNA-PK/ATM activation and diminished cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, L; Hg, P; Zong, D; Juntti, T; Mrk, B; Lewensohn, R; Viktorsson, K

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that tumor-initiating cells (TICs), also called cancer stem cells, are partly responsible for resistance to DNA-damaging treatment. Here we addressed if such a phenotype may contribute to radio- and cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We showed that four out of eight NSCLC cell lines (H125, A549, H1299 and H23) possess sphere-forming capacity when cultured in stem cell media and three of these display elevated levels of CD133. Indeed, sphere-forming NSCLC cells, hereafter called TICs, showed a reduced apoptotic response and increased survival after irradiation (IR), as compared with the corresponding bulk cell population. Decreased cytotoxicity and apoptotic signaling manifested by diminished poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase 3 activity was also evident in TICs after cisplatin treatment. Neither radiation nor cisplatin resistance was due to quiescence as H125 TICs proliferated at a rate comparable to bulk cells. However, TICs displayed less pronounced G2 cell cycle arrest and S/G2-phase block after IR and cisplatin, respectively. Additionally, we confirmed a cisplatin-refractory phenotype of H125 TICs in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. We further examined TICs for altered expression or activation of DNA damage repair proteins as a way to explain their increased radio- and/or chemotherapy resistance. Indeed, we found that TICs exhibited increased basal ?H2AX (H2A histone family, member X) expression and diminished DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), Krppel-associated protein 1 (KAP1) and monoubiquitination of Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2 (FANCD2). As a proof of principle, ATM inhibition in bulk cells increased their cisplatin resistance, as demonstrated by reduced PARP cleavage. In conclusion, we show that reduced apoptotic response, altered DNA repair signaling and cell cycle perturbations in NSCLC TICs are possible factors contributing to their therapy resistance, which may be exploited for DNA damage-sensitizing purposes. PMID:23370278

  9. Modelling cortical cataractogenesis 21: in diabetic rat lenses taurine supplementation partially reduces damage resulting from osmotic compensation leading to osmolyte loss and antioxidant depletion.

    PubMed

    Mitton, K P; Linklater, H A; Dzialoszynski, T; Sanford, S E; Starkey, K; Trevithick, J R

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of taurine and the amino acids, glutathione, cysteine, ascorbate and ATP were determined in the lenses of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In the clear lenses, prior to vacuole formation after 1 or 2 weeks of diabetes, the increase in concentration of sorbitol and the total decrease of all these osmolytes were not significantly different. The major components of the osmolytes lost were taurine and amino acids, which together accounted for over 75% of the total osmolyte loss. Since glutathione, ascorbate, taurine and cysteine have been reported to have antioxidant activity, it appears that their loss may potentiate damage occurring as a result of free radicals generated by nonenzymic glycation by the Maillard reaction. Amino acids also lost as a result of the osmotic compensation, are estimated to be responsible for almost half of the antioxidant activity lost. To test this hypothesis, normal and streptozotocin diabetic female Wistar rats were given taurine at 0.05% or 0.10% (w/w) in the diet. This treatment resulted in small only marginally significant increases in serum taurine levels. At the end of 6 weeks the rats were examined for weight gain or loss and at the time of killing, blood was collected for measurement of serum glucose. gamma-Crystallin levels were determined in vitreous and aqueous humours using a radioimmunoassay. A lens from each rat was homogenized in 8 m guanidinium chloride for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis. In normal rats, a small amount of gamma-crystallin was found in the vitreous humour, and an even smaller amount in the aqueous humour. Diabetes caused a 4- to 5-fold increase in the vitreous humour and a 4-fold increase in gamma-crystallin in the aqueous humour. Diabetes also led to a significant worsening in general body condition, loss of body weight, formation of cataracts, and decrease in lens ATP levels. Addition of taurine to the diet of diabetic animals resulted in a significant decrease of gamma-crystallin leakage into the vitreous but not the aqueous humour. Taurine had no effect on the lens ATP levels. Neither streptozotocin diabetes nor taurine in the diet appeared to affect the weight of the lenses. PMID:10471336

  10. Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

  11. Refinement of the Microstructure of Sn-Ag-Bi-In Solder, by Addition of SiC Nanoparticles, to Reduce Electromigration Damage Under High Electric Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngseok; Nagao, Shijo; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Ueshima, Minoru; Albrecht, Hans-Juergen; Wilke, Klaus; Strogies, Joerg

    2014-09-01

    The trends of miniaturization, multi-functionality, and high performance in advanced electronic devices require higher densities of I/O gates and reduced area of soldering of interconnections. This increases the electric current density flowing through the interconnections, increasing the risk of interconnection failure caused by electromigration (EM). Accelerated directional atomic diffusion in solder materials under high current induces substantial growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the anode, and also void and crack formation at the cathode. In the work discussed in this paper, addition of SiC nanoparticles to Sn-Ag-Bi-In (SABI) lead-free solder refined its microstructure and improved its EM reliability under high current stress. Electron backscattering diffraction analysis revealed that the added SiC nanoparticles refined solder grain size after typical reflow. Under current stress, SABI joints with added nano-SiC had lifetimes almost twice as long as those without. Comparison of results from high-temperature aging revealed direct current affected evolution of the microstructure. Observations of IMC growth indicated that diffusion of Cu in the SiC composite solder may not have been reduced. During current flow, however, only narrow voids were formed in solder containing SiC, thus preventing the current crowding caused by bulky voids in the solder without SiC.

  12. Adverse effects of reduced oxygen tension on the proliferative capacity of rat kidney and insulin-secreting cell lines involve DNA damage and stress responses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jianhua Jones, R. Huw; Tarry-Adkins, Jane; Smith, Noel H.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2008-10-01

    Standard cell culture conditions do not reflect the physiological environment in terms of oxygen tension (20% vs 3%). The effects of lowering oxygen tension on cell proliferation in culture can be beneficial as well as detrimental depending on the cell line studied, but the molecular mechanism underlying such effects is not fully understood. We observed that the proliferative capacity of the rat cell lines NRK and INS-1 was inhibited when cultured under 3% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen. Suppression of proliferation in NRK cells was accompanied by induction of DNA double strand breaks whereas in INS-1 cells it was accompanied by up-regulation of p53 and p27. Although Sirt1 was up-regulated in both cell lines by 3% oxygen the effects on antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, CuZnSOD and catalase) were cell line specific. Marked up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was detected in both NRK and INS-1 cells when cultured in 3% oxygen. HO-1 expression can be readily induced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide in culture. These results suggest that reduced oxygen tension suppresses the proliferative capacity of these two cell lines through a stress response that is similar to an oxidative stress response but the molecular events that lead to the reduced cell proliferation are cell line specific.

  13. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...

  14. Environmental protection in China

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. Univ. of Knoxville, TN )

    1990-01-01

    Environmental conditions in China are dramatically worse than those in the USA, but the Chinese are acting with commendable vigor in attempting to contain and ultimately reverse the damage. The Chinese have air, water and soil contamination, along with garbage and trash problems. They are also experiencing deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, destruction of wildlife habitat and wetlands, and the depletion of ground water. Attempts are being made to reduce the pollutants being produced, but economic factors weigh heavily against cleaning up current pollution.

  15. Microhabitat amelioration and reduced competition among understorey plants as drivers of facilitation across environmental gradients: towards a unifying framework

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Eldridge, David J.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Tighe, Matthew; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Studies of facilitative interactions as drivers of plant richness along environmental gradients often assume the existence of an overarching stress gradient equally affecting the performance of all the species in a given community. However, co-existing species differ in their ecophysiological adaptations, and do not experience the same stress level under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, these studies assume a unimodal richness-biomass curve, which is not as general as previously thought. We ignored these assumptions to assess changes in plant-plant interactions, and their effect on local species richness, across environmental gradients in semi-arid areas of Spain and Australia. We aimed to understand the relative importance of direct (microhabitat amelioration) and indirect (changes in the competitive relationships among the understorey species: niche segregation, competitive exclusion or intransitivity) mechanisms that might underlie the effects of nurse plants on local species richness. By jointly studying these direct and indirect mechanisms using a unifying framework, we were able to see how our nurse plants (trees, shrubs and tussock grasses) not only increased local richness by expanding the niche of neighbouring species, but also by increasing niche segregation among them, though the latter was not important in all cases. The outcome of the competition-facilitation continuum changed depending on the study area, likely because the different types of stress gradient considered. When driven by both rainfall and temperature, or rainfall alone, the community-wide importance of nurse plants remained constant (Spanish sites), or showed a unimodal relationship along the gradient (Australian sites). This study expands our understanding of the relative roles of plant-plant interactions and environmental conditions as drivers of local species richness in semi-arid environments. These results can also be used to refine predictions about the response of plant communities to environmental change, and to clarify the relative importance of biotic interactions as a driver of such responses. PMID:25914601

  16. The role of feed protein quality in reducing environmental pollution by lowering nitrogen excretion. I. Survey of principles in protein evaluation for monogastrics: a review.

    PubMed

    Hegeds, M

    1993-01-01

    Environmental pollution by faecal nitrogen excretion motivates a renewed interest in optimising protein utilization of growing-finishing pigs in intensive pig production areas. The importance of digestibility of proteins, availability of amino acids, and the extent of protein retention is emphasized for reducing nitrogen excretion. The principles of various chemical, microbiological, biochemical and biological methods in feed protein quality evaluation offering a better adjustment of protein supply to the requirements of the animal are surveyed. PMID:8017231

  17. Treatment with the reactive oxygen species scavenger EUK-207 reduces lung damage and increases survival during 1918 influenza virus infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kash1, John C.; Xiao, Yongli; Davis, A. Sally; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Chertow, Daniel S.; Easterbrook, Judith D.; Dunfee, Rebecca L.; Sandouk, Aline; Jagger, Brett W.; Schwartzman, Louis M.; Kuestner, Rolf E.; Wehr, Nancy B.; Huffman, Karl; Rosenthal, Rosalind A.; Ozinsky, Adrian; Levine, Rodney L.; Doctrow, Susan R.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2014-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic caused over 40 million deaths worldwide with 675,000 deaths in the US alone. Studies in several experimental animal models showed that 1918 influenza virus infection resulted in severe lung pathology associated with dysregulated immune and cell death responses. To determine if reactive oxygen species produced by host inflammatory responses play a central role in promoting severity of lung pathology, we treated 1918 influenza virus infected mice with the catalytic catalase/superoxide dismutase mimetic, salen-manganese complex EUK-207 beginning 3 days post-infection. Post-exposure treatment of mice infected with a lethal dose of the 1918 influenza virus with EUK-207 resulted in significantly increased survival and reduced lung pathology without a reduction in viral titers. In vitro studies also showed that EUK-207 treatment did not affect 1918 influenza viral replication. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a reduction in the detection of the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3 and the oxidative stress marker 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine in lungs of EUK-207 treated animals compared to vehicle controls. High-throughput sequencing and RNA expression microarray analysis revealed that treatment resulted in decreased expression of inflammatory response genes and increased lung metabolic and repair responses. These results directly demonstrate that 1918 influenza virus infection leads to an immunopathogenic immune response with excessive inflammatory and cell death responses that can be limited by treatment with the catalytic antioxidant, EUK-207. PMID:24140866

  18. Mild hypothermia in combination with minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma reduces inflammatory damage in patients via the nuclear factor-?B pathway

    PubMed Central

    BI, YANPING; HUAN, YING; CAI, WEIDONG; WANG, XIA; LIANG, ZHIGANG; LIU, ZHAOKONG; DUAN, RUISHENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma on the brain function of patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Seventy-six patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were divided into the minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MIHE) and mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MHMIHE) groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on the day of admission of the patient and one, three and seven days after the procedure were recorded. Perihematoma brain tissue morphology was observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) level was detected by ELISA. NIHSS scores in the MHMIHE group were significantly lower than those in the MIHE group on days three and seven. TNF-? and NF-?B levels peaked on day three, and the MHMIHE group had significantly lower levels of TNF-? and NF-?B than the MIHE group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma can effectively reduce inflammation and improve the brain function of patients. PMID:25371721

  19. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  20. Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cunniffe, Siobhan; O’Neill, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; Lomax, Martine E.

    2014-04-01

    A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repairmore » is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase β, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL.« less

  1. Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual

    PubMed Central

    Vu?i? Lovren?i?, Marijana; Pibernik-Okanovi?, Mirjana; ekerija, Mario; Praek, Manja; Ajdukovi?, Dea; Kos, Jadranka; Hermanns, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A), physical exercise (B), and enhanced treatment as usual (C) was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome) and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F = 12.51, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.07). Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG) decreased (F = 10.66, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.06), as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F = 84.57, ?2 = 0.32 and F = 12.61, ?2 = 0.07, resp.; p < 0.0001), while uric acid increased (F = 12.53, p < 0.0001, ?2 = 0.07) in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (? = 0.15, p = 0.044). Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017. PMID:26347775

  2. GSE4, a Small Dyskerin- and GSE24.2-Related Peptide, Induces Telomerase Activity, Cell Proliferation and Reduces DNA Damage, Oxidative Stress and Cell Senescence in Dyskerin Mutant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iarriccio, Laura; Manguán-García, Cristina; Pintado-Berninches, Laura; Mancheño, José Miguel; Molina, Antonio; Perona, Rosario; Sastre, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita is an inherited disease caused by mutations in genes coding for telomeric components. It was previously reported that expression of a dyskerin-derived peptide, GSE24.2, increases telomerase activity, regulates gene expression and decreases DNA damage and oxidative stress in dyskeratosis congenita patient cells. The biological activity of short peptides derived from GSE24.2 was tested and one of them, GSE4, that probed to be active, was further characterized in this article. Expression of this eleven amino acids long peptide increased telomerase activity and reduced DNA damage, oxidative stress and cell senescence in dyskerin-mutated cells. GSE4 expression also activated c-myc and TERT promoters and increase of c-myc, TERT and TERC expression. The level of biological activity of GSE4 was similar to that obtained by GSE24.2 expression. Incorporation of a dyskerin nuclear localization signal to GSE24.2 did not change its activity on promoter regulation and DNA damage protection. However, incorporation of a signal that increases the rate of nucleolar localization impaired GSE24.2 activity. Incorporation of the dyskerin nuclear localization signal to GSE4 did not alter its biological activity. Mutation of the Aspartic Acid residue that is conserved in the pseudouridine synthase domain present in GSE4 did not impair its activity, except for the repression of c-myc promoter activity and the decrease of c-myc, TERT and TERC gene expression in dyskerin-mutated cells. These results indicated that GSE4 could be of great therapeutic interest for treatment of dyskeratosis congenita patients. PMID:26571381

  3. Bioenhanced dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase of trichloroethylene as affected by iron reducing conditions: model systems and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Paul, Laiby; Smolders, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic biotransformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) can be affected by competing electron acceptors such as Fe (III). This study assessed the role of Fe (III) reduction on the bioenhanced dissolution of TCE dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). Columns were set up as 1-D diffusion cells consisting of a lower DNAPL layer, a layer with an aquifer substratum and an upper water layer that is regularly refreshed. The substrata used were either inert sand or sand coated with 2-line ferrihydrite (HFO) or two environmental Fe (III) containing samples. The columns were inoculated with KB-1 and were repeatedly fed with formate. In none of the diffusion cells, vinyl chloride or ethene was detected while dissolved and extractable Fe (II) increased strongly during 60 d of incubation. The cis-DCE concentration peaked at 4.0 cm from the DNAPL (inert sand) while it was at 3.4 cm (sand+HFO), 1.7 cm and 2.5 cm (environmental samples). The TCE concentration gradients near the DNAPL indicate that the DNAPL dissolution rate was larger than that in an abiotic cell by factors 1.3 (inert sand), 1.0 (sand+HFO) and 2.2 (both environmental samples). This results show that high bioavailable Fe (III) in HFO reduces the TCE degradation by competitive Fe (III) reduction, yielding lower bioenhanced dissolution. However, Fe (III) reduction in environmental samples was not reducing TCE degradation and the dissolution factor was even larger than that of inert sand. It is speculated that physical factors, e.g. micro-niches in the environmental samples protect microorganisms from toxic concentrations of TCE. PMID:25460750

  4. Reducing asthma disparities by addressing environmental inequities: a case study of regional asthma management and prevention's advocacy efforts.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lamb AK; Ervice J; Lorenzen K; Prentice B; White S

    2011-01-01

    Regional Asthma Management and Prevention describes its collaborative approach to address a social determinant of health--air quality--and the associated inequities that have led to asthma disparities impacting African American and Latino communities in the San Francisco Bay Area. The strategies, aimed at decreasing diesel pollution in disproportionately impacted communities, span the levels of the socioecological model, with an emphasis on policy outcomes. Regional Asthma Management and Prevention describes how this work fits within a larger comprehensive approach to address asthma disparities encompassing several components, ranging from clinical management to environmental protection.

  5. Structural damage detection based on stochastic subspace identification and statistical pattern recognition: I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, W. X.; Lin, Y. Q.; Fang, S. E.

    2011-11-01

    One of the key issues in vibration-based structural health monitoring is to extract the damage-sensitive but environment-insensitive features from sampled dynamic response measurements and to carry out the statistical analysis of these features for structural damage detection. A new damage feature is proposed in this paper by using the system matrices of the forward innovation model based on the covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification of a vibrating system. To overcome the variations of the system matrices, a non-singularity transposition matrix is introduced so that the system matrices are normalized to their standard forms. For reducing the effects of modeling errors, noise and environmental variations on measured structural responses, a statistical pattern recognition paradigm is incorporated into the proposed method. The Mahalanobis and Euclidean distance decision functions of the damage feature vector are adopted by defining a statistics-based damage index. The proposed structural damage detection method is verified against one numerical signal and two numerical beams. It is demonstrated that the proposed statistics-based damage index is sensitive to damage and shows some robustness to the noise and false estimation of the system ranks. The method is capable of locating damage of the beam structures under different types of excitations. The robustness of the proposed damage detection method to the variations in environmental temperature is further validated in a companion paper by a reinforced concrete beam tested in the laboratory and a full-scale arch bridge tested in the field.

  6. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  7. Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

  8. Reduction in fiber damage