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Sample records for reducing peginterferon alfa-2a

  1. Peginterferon Alfa-2a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... interferons. Peginterferon is a combination of interferon and polyethylene glycol, which helps the interferon stay active in ... alpha interferons, any other medications, benzyl alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Ask your doctor if you are ...

  2. Peginterferon Alfa-2a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications to treat chronic (long-term) hepatitis C infection (swelling of the liver caused by a ... Peginterferon works by decreasing the amount of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ...

  3. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) monotherapy: a novel agent for chronic hepatitis C therapy.

    PubMed

    Zeuzem, S; Heathcote, J E; Martin, N; Nieforth, K; Modi, M

    2001-12-01

    Current therapy for hepatitis C remains far from optimal. The modification of IFN by the attachment of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety has produced long-lasting IFNs. A 40 kDa branched peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) (PEG-IFN alfa-2a) has unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PEG-IFN alfa-2a is absorbed in a sustained manner and its clearance is reduced substantially compared with IFN alfa-2a, resulting in sustained serum drug concentrations. These constant serum drug levels stay above the EC(50) values (effective concentration 50%) needed for antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory actions. Sustained virological responses were significantly greater in patients who received PEG-IFN alfa-2a versus IFN alfa-2a, with a similar side effect profile. Histological improvements were seen in patients who achieved sustained virological responses and were frequently observed among patients who did not achieve a virological response. The advantages of PEG-IFN alfa-2a were also seen in patients with cirrhosis or hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. PMID:11772316

  4. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for treating chronic hepatitis C virus infection: analysis of Mexican patients included in a multicenter international clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bosques-Padilla, Francisco; Trejo-Estrada, Rafael; Campollo-Rivas, Octaivio; Cortez-Hernández, Carlos; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor; Pérez-Gómez, Rául; Cabrera-Valdespino, Armando

    2003-01-01

    Treatment with polyethylene glycol-modified interferon alfa-2a (peginterferon) alone produces significantly higher sustained antiviral responses than treatment with interferon alfa-2a alone in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa-2a alone in the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to treatment, and received at least one dose of medication consisting of 180 microg of peginterferon alfa-2a once weekly plus daily ribavirin (1,000 or 1,200 mg, depending on body weight) (n = 14), weekly peginterferon alfa-2a plus daily placebo (n = 6), or three million units of interferon alfa-2b thrice weekly plus daily ribavirin for 48 weeks (n = 12). More patients who received peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin had a sustained virologic response (defined as the absence of detectable HCV RNA 24 weeks after cessation of therapy) than patients who received interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin (7/14 vs. 4/12) or peginterferon alfa-2a plus placebo (0/6). The overall safety profiles of the three treatment regimens were similar. In conclusion, for patients with chronic hepatitis C, once-weekly peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin was tolerated as well as interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin and produced significant improvements in the rate of sustained viral reduction compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin or peginterferon alfa-2a alone. PMID:15115965

  5. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with peginterferon alfa-2a for chronic hepatitis C: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Mumtaz A; Azhar, Ashaur; Tufail, Kashif; Feyssa, Eyob L; Penny, Stephen F; McGregory, Marlene; Araya, Victor; Ortiz, Jorge A

    2010-01-01

    The recommended therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is the combination of a Pegylated interferon and Ribavirin. Almost all such patients on combination therapy experience one or more adverse events during the course of treatment. Significant neurological side effects are rare. A few cases of Bell’s Palsy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and even one case of acute demyelinating polyneuropathy with atypical features for Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) associated with Interferon therapy have been reported but no report of GBS with typical features has been published. We present a case report of typical GBS associated with Peginterferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin used for treatment of CHC infection. PMID:21160989

  6. Benefit of Treatment Individualization in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Receiving Peginterferon Alfa-2a and Ribavirin in a Large Noninterventional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wolf Peter; Mauss, Stefan; Lutz, Thomas; Schober, Andreas; Böker, Klaus; Moog, Gero; Baumgarten, Axel; Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Heike; Alshuth, Ulrich; Hüppe, Dietrich; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Manns, Michael P.; Schott, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Individualization of treatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C showed benefit in controlled trials and was implemented in treatment guidelines to increase response rates and to reduce side effects and costs. However, it is unknown whether individualization was adopted in routine daily practice and whether it translated into improved outcomes. Methods From a large noninterventional cohort study, clinical and virologic response data of 10,262 HCV patients who received peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin between 2003-2007 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. To account for treatment individualization, a matched-pair analysis (2,997 matched pairs) was performed. Variation in treatment duration and dosing of ribavirin were analyzed as indicators for individualization. Results Sustained virological response (SVR) rates were similar between 2003-2007 and 2008-2011 (62.0% vs. 63.7%). Patients with comorbidities were more abundant in the later period, (44.3% vs. 57.1%). The subsequent matched-pair analysis demonstrated higher SVR rates in the 2008-2011 period (64.3%) than in the 2003-2007 period (61.2%, p=0.008). More patients received abbreviated or extended treatment regimens in the later than the earlier period as an indicator of treatment individualization. To the same end, ribavirin doses were higher in the later period (12.6 versus 11.6 mg/kg/day). Factors independently associated with SVR included HCV genotype, low baseline viral load, younger age, route of infection, absence of concomitant diseases, lower APRI score, normal gamma-GT, higher ribavirin doses, no substitution for drug abuse, treatment duration, and treatment in the 2008-2011 period. Conclusions Treatment individualization with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin was implemented in daily routine between 2003-2007 and 2008-2011, SVR rates improved in the same period. These findings may be most relevant in resource-limited settings. PMID:26230998

  7. PHOENIX: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Peginterferon Alfa-2a Plus Ribavirin as a Prophylactic Treatment After Liver Transplantation for Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bzowej, Natalie; Nelson, David R.; Terrault, Norah A.; Everson, Gregory T.; Teng, Lichen L.; Prabhakar, Avinash; Charlton, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy, tolerability, and safety of the prophylactic treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) after liver transplantation (LT) with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin are not known. LT recipients with HCV were randomized to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin treatment or observation 10 to 26 weeks post-LT. Prophylaxis patients received peginterferon alfa-2a (135 μg/week for 4 weeks and then 180 μg/week for 44 weeks) plus ribavirin (the initial dose of 400 mg/day was escalated to 1200 mg/day). Observation patients received the same regimen only upon significant HCV recurrence (histological activity index ≥ 3 and/or fibrosis score ≥ 2). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with histological evidence of significant HCV recurrence 120 weeks after randomization. In all, 115 patients were randomized (prophylaxis arm, n = 55; observation arm, n = 60). Sustained virological response was achieved by 12 of 54 prophylaxis patients (22.2%) and by 3 of 14 observation patients who switched to treatment (21.4%). On an intent-to-treat basis, significant HCV recurrence at 120 weeks was similar in the prophylaxis (61.8%) and observation arms (65.0%, P = 0.725). The patient and graft survival rates and the rates of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection were similar in the 2 study arms. Approximately 70% of the treated patients in both arms had at least one dose reduction for safety reasons. The most common adverse event leading to treatment withdrawal was anemia. Because of the safety profile of peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin and the lack of a clear benefit in terms of HCV recurrence and patient or graft survival, this study does not support the routine use of prophylactic antiviral therapy. PMID:21506241

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment with peginterferon-alfa-2a versus peginterferon-alfa-2b for patients with chronic hepatitis C under the public payer perspective in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C affects approximately 170 million people worldwide, and thus being one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. About 20% of patients with chronic hepatitis C will develop cirrhosis over 20 years, and present an increased risk of developing hepatic complications. Sustained virological response (SVR) is associated with a better prognosis compared to untreated patients and treatment failures. The objective of this analysis was to compare treatment costs and outcomes of pegylated interferon-alfa-2a versus pegylated interferon-alfa-2b, both associated with ribavirin, in the therapeutic scheme of 24 weeks and 48 week for hepatitis C genotypes 2/3 and genotype 1, respectively, under the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) scenario. Methods To project disease progression, a Markov model was built based on clinical stages of chronic disease. A Delphi panel was conducted to evaluate medical resources related to each stage, followed by costing of related materials, services, procedures and pharmaceutical products. The evaluation was made from a public payer perspective. The source used for costing was government reimbursement procedures list (SAI/SIH–SUS). Drug acquisition costs were obtained from the Brazilian Official Gazette and “Banco de Preços em Saúde” (government official source). It was assumed a mean patient weight of 70 kg. Costs were reported in 2011 Brazilian Reais (US$1 ≈ $Brz1.80). A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis of the 7 identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared pegylated interferons, was conducted for obtaining relative efficacy of both drugs: for genotype 2/3, mean rate of SVR was 79.2% for peginterferon-alfa-2a and 73.8% for peginterferon-alfa-2b. For genotype 1, SVR mean rate was 42.09% versus 33.44% (peginterferon-alfa-2a and peginterferon-alfa-2b respectively). Time horizon considered was lifetime. Discount rate for costs and outcomes was 5%, according to Brazilian

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b plus ribavirin in the daily routine treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C in Germany: the PRACTICE study.

    PubMed

    Witthoeft, T; Hueppe, D; John, C; Goelz, J; Heyne, R; Moeller, B; Teuber, G; Wollschlaeger, S; Baumgarten, A; Simon, K-G; Moog, G; Dikopoulos, N; Mauss, S

    2010-07-01

    In randomized clinical trials, treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin (RBV) results in a sustained virological response (SVR) in around half of hepatitis C virus genotype 1-infected and 80% of genotype 2/3-infected individuals. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon alfa-2a plus RBV compared with peginterferon alfa-2b plus RBV for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in routine clinical practice. The intent-to-treat cohort consisted of 3414 patients treated with either peginterferon alfa-2a plus RBV (Group A) or peginterferon alfa-2b plus RBV (Group B) in 23 centres participating in the large, multicentre, observational PRACTICE study. Collected data included baseline characteristics, treatment regimen, RBV dose and outcome. Rates of early virological response, end of treatment response and SVR were 76.6%, 75.7% and 52.9% in Group A, and 70.2%, 65.6% and 50.5% in Group B, respectively. In patients matched by baseline parameters, 59.9% of patients in Group A and 55.9% in Group B achieved an SVR (P < or = 0.051). In genotype 1-infected patients matched by baseline parameters and cumulative RBV dose, SVR rates were 49.6% and 43.7% for Group A and Group B, respectively (P < or = 0.047); when matched by baseline parameters and RBV starting dose, SVR rates were 49.9% and 44.6%, respectively (P = 0.068). Overall, 21.8% of group A and 29.6% of group B patients discontinued treatment (P < or = 0.0001). The efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon plus RBV in this large cohort of patients treated in routine daily practice was similar to that in randomized clinical trials. In matched pairs analyses, more patients achieved an SVR with peginterferon alfa-2a compared with peginterferon alfa-2b. PMID:20158603

  10. Mericitabine and Either Boceprevir or Telaprevir in Combination with Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus Ribavirin for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Infection and Prior Null Response: The Randomized DYNAMO 1 and DYNAMO 2 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wedemeyer, Heiner; Forns, Xavier; Hézode, Christophe; Lee, Samuel S.; Scalori, Astrid; Voulgari, Athina; Le Pogam, Sophie; Nájera, Isabel; Thommes, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection who have had a previous null response (<2-log10 reduction in HCV RNA by treatment week 12) to peginterferon/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) do not achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) when re-treated with a first-generation HCV protease inhibitor (PI) administered in combination with PegIFN/RBV. We studied the incremental benefits associated with adding mericitabine (nucleoside analog inhibitor of HCV polymerase) to PI plus PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV-based therapy in two double-blind randomized multicenter phase 2 trials (with boceprevir in DYNAMO 1, and with telaprevir in DYNAMO 2). The primary endpoint in both trials was SVR, defined as HCV RNA <25 IU/mL 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Overall, the addition of mericitabine to PI plus PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV therapy resulted in SVR12 rates of 60–70% in DYNAMO 1 and of 71–96% in DYNAMO 2. SVR12 rates were similar in patients infected with HCV genotype 1a and 1b in both trials. The placebo control arms in both studies were stopped because of high rates of virological failure. Numerically lower relapse rates were associated with longer treatment with mericitabine (24 versus 12 weeks), telaprevir-containing regimens, and regimens that included 48 weeks of PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV therapy. No mericitabine resistance mutations were identified in any patient in either trial. The addition of mericitabine did not add to the safety burden associated with either telaprevir or boceprevir-based regimens. These studies demonstrate increased SVR rates and reduced relapse rates in difficult-to-treat patients when a nucleoside polymerase inhibitor with intermediate antiviral potency is added to regimens containing a first-generation PI. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01482403 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01482390 PMID:26752189

  11. Age-related differences in response to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, Claudia; Jordan, Sabine; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Heike; Hueppe, Dietrich; Mauss, Stefan; Zehnter, Elmar; Stoll, Sabine; Alshuth, Ulrich; Lohse, Ansgar W; Lueth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin therapy in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. METHODS: Patients characteristics, treatment results and safety profiles of 4859 patients with hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection receiving treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin were retrieved from a large ongoing German multicentre non-interventional study. Recommended treatment duration was 24 wk for GT 2 and GT 3 infection and 48 wk for GT 1 and GT 4 infection. Patients were stratified according to age (< 60 years vs ≥ 60 years). Because of limited numbers of liver biopsies for further assessment of liver fibrosis APRI (aspartate aminotransferase - platelet ratio index) was performed using pre-treatment laboratory data. RESULTS: Out of 4859 treated HCV patients 301 (6.2%) were ≥ 60 years. There were more women (55.8% vs 34.2%, P < 0.001) and predominantly GT 1 (81.4% vs 57.3%, P < 0.001) infected patients in the group of patients aged ≥ 60 years and they presented more frequently with metabolic (17.6% vs 4.5%, P < 0.001) and cardiovascular comorbidities (32.6% vs 6.7%, P < 0.001) and significant fibrosis and cirrhosis (F3/4 31.1% vs 14.0%, P = 0.0003). Frequency of dose reduction and treatment discontinuation were significantly higher in elderly patients (30.9% vs 13.7%, P < 0.001 and 47.8% vs 30.8%, P < 0.001). Main reason for treatment discontinuation was “virological non-response” (26.6% vs 13.6%). Sustained virological response (SVR) rates showed an age related difference in patients with genotype 1 (23.7% vs 43.7%, P < 0.001) but not in genotype 2/3 infections (57.7% vs 64.6%, P = 0.341). By multivariate analysis, age and stage of liver disease were independent factors of SVR. CONCLUSION: Elderly HCV patients differ in clinical characteristics and treatment outcome from younger patients and demand special attention from their practitioner. PMID:25152602

  12. A Predictive Model for Selecting Patients with HCV Genotype 3 Chronic Infection with a High Probability of Sustained Virological Response to Peginterferon Alfa-2a/Ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Thompson, Alex J.; Flisiak, Robert; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Messinger, Diethelm; Bakalos, Georgios; Shiffman, Mitchell L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) is restricted in some settings; thus, the European Association for the Study of the Liver recommends dual peginterferon/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) therapy wherever DAAs are unavailable. HCV genotype (GT) 3 infection is now the most difficult genotype to eradicate and PegIFN/RBV remains an effective option. The goal of this study was to devise a simple predictive score to identify GT3 patients with a high probability of achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR) with PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV therapy. Methods Relationships between baseline characteristics and SVR were explored by multiple logistic regression models and used to develop a simple scoring system to predict SVR using data from 1239 treatment-naive GT3 patients who received PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV for 24 weeks in two large observational cohort studies. Results The score was validated using a database of 473 patients. Scores were assigned for six factors as follows: age (years) (≤40: 2 points; >40 but ≤55: 1); bodyweight (kg) (<70: 2; ≥70 but <90: 1); no cirrhosis/transition to cirrhosis (2); ALT ≤2.5 x ULN (1); platelets (109/L) (>200: 2; ≥100 but <200: 1); HCV RNA (<400,000 IU/mL: 1). The points are summed to arrive at a score ranging from 0‒10 where higher scores indicate higher chances of SVR; 141, 123, 203, 249, 232, and 218 patients had total scores of 0‒4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9–10, respectively, among whom SVR rates were 45%, 62%, 72%, 76%, 84%, and 89%. Among 622 patients who had scores of 6‒10 and HCV RNA <50 IU/mL by treatment week 4 the SVR rate was 86% (532/622). Conclusions A simple baseline scoring system involving age, bodyweight, cirrhosis status, ALT level, platelet count and HCV RNA level can be used to identify treatment-naive Caucasian patients with HCV GT3 infection with a high probability of SVR with PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV therapy. PMID:26991780

  13. Hepatitis B surface antigen clearance in inactive hepatitis B surface antigen carriers treated with peginterferon alfa-2a

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hui; Xie, Yao; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Yao; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chang, Min; Mu, Cai-Qin; Hu, Lei-Ping; Hua, Wen-Hao; Song, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Cheng, Jun; Xu, Dao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between interferon (IFN) therapy and loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in inactive HBsAg carriers. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in inactive HBsAg carriers, who were treatment-naive, with a serum HBsAg level < 100 IU/mL and an undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level (< 100 IU/mL). All the 20 treated patients received subcutaneous PEG-IFN alfa-2a 180 μg/wk for 72 wk and were then followed for 24 wk. There were 40 untreated controls matched with 96 wk of observation. Serum HBsAg, HBV DNA, and alanine aminotransferases were monitored every 3 mo in the treatment group and every 3-6 mo in the control group. RESULTS: Thirteen (65.0%) of 20 treated patients achieved HBsAg loss, 12 of whom achieved HBsAg seroconversion. Mean HBsAg level in treated patients decreased to 6.69 ± 13.04 IU/mL after 24 wk of treatment from a baseline level of 26.22 ± 33.00 IU/mL. Serum HBV DNA level remained undetectable (< 100 IU/mL) in all treated patients during the study. HBsAg level of the control group decreased from 25.72 ± 25.58 IU/mL at baseline to 17.11 ± 21.62 IU/mL at week 96 (P = 0.108). In the control group, no patient experienced HBsAg loss/seroconversion, and two (5.0%) developed HBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: IFN treatment results in HBsAg loss and seroconversion in a considerable proportion of inactive HBsAg carriers with low HBsAg concentrations. PMID:27239256

  14. Sustained Virologic Response to a Dual Peginterferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin in Treating Chronic hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Sitt, Than; Aung, Aye TD; Aung, Kyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In Myanmar, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence is 2%. A combination therapy of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (PEG-IFNa/RBV) is a standard treatment, but the effect of this antiviral therapy needs evaluation as to determine the efficacy and safety of dual PEG-IFNa/RBV therapy in treating patients infected with HCV in Myanmar. This was a retrospective analysis of data from a single clinic exclusively for gastrointestinal diseases in Yangon, Myanmar. We assessed treatment responses at the defined time points and stratified by genotypes of HCV. We also determined incidences of adverse events (AEs). We investigated independent predictors of sustained virologic response (SVR) in the participants. A total of 362 HCV-infected cases were included in this study. The majority were females (51.7%) with mean age of 47.12 years (±11.6) and noncirrhosis patients (82%). Rapid virologic response (RVR), early virologic response (EVR), end of treatment response (ETR), and SVR 24 weeks after completion of the dual treatment were 50.3% (178/362), 88% (314/357), 80.1% (286/357), and 85.6% (167/195), respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were nausea/anorexia (72.8%) and flu-like symptoms (62.4%). In multivariate analysis, 4 factors were independently associated with SVR; SVR to genotype 3 (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% CI: 1.24–4.62), EVR (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.3–0.95), and duration of treatment (OR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18–1.98). Study limitations were acknowledged. The efficacy and safety of the dual therapy in treating HCV-infected patient in Myanmar was acceptable. We recommend a prospective randomized control trial looking at duration of therapy and rates of achieving SVR, which could significantly impact the care of HCV-infected patients in Myanmar and perhaps other countries as well. PMID:26222859

  15. Interferon Stimulated Gene Expression in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients Treated with Nitazoxanide/Peginterferon-Alfa-2a and Ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tess; Lee, Yu-Jin; Osinusi, Anu; Amorosa, Valerianna K; Wang, Crystal; Kang, Minhee; Matining, Roy; Zhang, Xiao; Dou, Diana; Umbleja, Triin; Kottilil, Shyam; Peters, Marion G

    2016-07-01

    A combination of nitazoxanide (NTZ), peginterferon (PegIFN), and ribavirin (RBV) may result in higher sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected patients. This study evaluated the effect of NTZ on interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in vitro and in vivo among HIV/HCV genotype-1 (GT-1) treatment-naive patients. The ability of NTZ to enhance host response to interferon (IFN) signaling using the HCV cell culture system was initially evaluated. Second, ISG expression in 53 patients with treatment outcomes [21 SVR and 32 nonresponders (NR)] in the ACTG A5269 trial, a phase-II study (4-week lead in of NTZ 500 mg daily followed by 48 weeks of NTZ, PegIFN, and weight-based RBV), was assessed. The relative expression of 48 ISGs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured at baseline, week 4, and week 8 of treatment in a blinded manner. In vitro NTZ produced a direct and additive antiviral effect with IFN-alfa, with pretreatment of NTZ resulting in maximal HCV suppression. NTZ augmented IFN-mediated ISG induction in PBMCs from relapsers and SVRs (p < 0.05), but not NR. In ACTG A5269, baseline expression of most ISGs was similar between NR and SVR. NTZ minimally induced 17 genes in NR and 13 genes in SVR after 4 weeks of therapy. However, after initiation of PegIFN and RBV, ISG induction was predominantly observed in the SVR group and not NR group. NTZ treatment facilitates IFN-induced suppression of HCV replication. Inability to achieve SVR with IFN-based therapy in this clinical trial is associated with diminished ISG response to therapy that is refractory to NTZ. PMID:26974581

  16. Triple combination of thymalfasin, peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C who have failed prior interferon and ribavirin treatment: 24-week interim results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Sánchez-Avila, F; Kershenobich, D; García-Samper, X; Gongora, J; Uribe, M

    2004-12-01

    Despite steady progress in antiviral treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), many patients still have detectable serum HCV RNA levels by the end of interferon-based treatment and are known as virological non-responders. Re-treatment of these patients not responding to previous therapy remains challenging. Studies of the dynamics of the HCV population show a marked decline in new cases since 1996; however, the relative proportion of non-responders is expected to increase over time and, similarly, the number of patients eligible for first-line treatment is expected to decrease. The current standard of care for treatment involves the use of pegylated interferons in combination with ribavirin. However, many difficult-to-treat groups still have low response rates. Newer combinations are being investigated to optimize chances of attaining a sustained response in these groups: one such triple therapy regimen is peginterferon alfa-2a, ribavirin and thymalfasin, which was given to 23 previously non-responder patients. Viral response was 60.8% at week 12 and 47.8% at week 24. These preliminary results encourage further evaluation of this promising combination. PMID:15546256

  17. Triple combination of thymalfasin, peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C who have failed prior interferon and ribavirin treatment: 24-week interim results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Sánchez-Avila, F; Kershenobich, D; García-Samper, X; Gongora, J; Uribe, M

    2004-12-01

    Despite steady progress in antiviral treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV), many patients still have detectable serum HCV RNA levels by the end of interferon-based treatment and are known as virological non-responders. Re-treatment of these patients not responding to previous therapy remains challenging. Studies of the dynamics of the HCV population show a marked decline in new cases since 1996; however, the relative proportion of non-responders is expected to increase over time and, similarly, the number of patients eligible for first-line treatment is expected to decrease. The current standard of care for treatment involves the use of pegylated interferons in combination with ribavirin. However, many difficult-to-treat groups still have low response rates. Newer combinations are being investigated to optimize chances of attaining a sustained response in these groups: one such triple therapy regimen is peginterferon alfa-2a, ribavirin and thymalfasin, which was given to 23 previously non-responder patients. Viral response was 60.8% at week 12 and 47.8% at week 24. These preliminary results encourage further evaluation of this promising combination. PMID:15641210

  18. Pharmacokinetics of peginterferons.

    PubMed

    Zeuzem, Stefan; Welsch, Christoph; Herrmann, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified interferons are approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The pharmocokinetic properties of the branched 40 kDa pegylated interferon alfa-2a differ from the linear 12 kDa pegylated interferon alfa-2b. The absorption half-life of standard interferon alfa is 2.3 hours, while absorption half-lives for peginterferon alfa-2a and alfa-2b are 50 hours and 4.6 hours, respectively. The volume of distribution for peginterferon alfa-2a is considerably restricted, while the volume of distribution for peginterferon alfa-2b is only approximately 30% lower than that for conventional interferon. Because of its large size, the 40 kD peginterferon alfa-2a has a more than 100-fold reduction in renal clearance compared with conventional interferon alfa. Clearance of peginterferon alfa-2b is about one-tenth that of unmodified interferon alfa. Although data are limited, both drugs appear to show differences in the initial viral decay pattern in patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, it remains unknown whether these differences in the initial viral decline predict differences in the primary clinical endpoint, sustained virological response. PMID:12934165

  19. CONSORT: Effects of adding adefovirdipivoxil to peginterferon alfa-2a at different time points on HBeAg-positivepatients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ka; Cao, Hong; Liang, Jiayi; Shu, Xin; Sun, Haixia; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of the addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (started at different time points) to pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α2a) and PEG-INF-α2a monotherapy. This prospective, randomized study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of PEG-INF-α2a and ADV at different time points.120 patients were randomized into groups that received PEG-INF-α2a as monotherapy (group A) or in combination with ADV started at week 0 (group B), 12 (group C), or 24 (group D). All patients were followed for 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed. Methods: Patients in group a received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a by subcutaneous injection once weekly for 48 weeks. Patients in the ADV add-on group received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a subcutaneously once weekly and received 10 mg of ADV administered once daily for 48 weeks. HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and hepatitis B e antibody levels were determined. Responses were determined at week 12 (ADV add-on), the end of treatment for PEG-INF-α2a (48weeks) and ADV (EOT) and at the end of 96 weeks of follow-up (EOF). Results: The rate of HBV DNA loss were higher in the combination groups than group A at the week 12, week 48, the EOT and EOF (P < 0.05). The rates of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss were similar among the treatment groups (P>0.05). The alanineaminotransferase (ALT) normalization rate was higher in the combination group than group A only at the EOT (P = 0.007). By the EOF, the patients with ADV added at week 12 achieved higher rates of HBV DNA loss (71.9%), HBeAg seroconversion (50.0%), HBsAg loss (15.6%), and ALT normalization (78.1%). Conclusions: PEG-INF-α2a plus ADV combination therapy is safe and superior to PEG-INF-α2amonotherapyfor decreasing serum HBV DNA and normalizing the ALT level but has no significant impact on the rate of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Adding ADV at week 12 may be an optimal combination strategy. PMID:27495085

  20. Ribavirin improves early responses to peginterferon through enhanced interferon signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Jordan J.; Lutchman, Glen A.; Heller, Theo; Hara, Koji; Pfeiffer, Julie K.; Leff, Richard D; Meek, Claudia; Rivera, Maria; Ko, Myung; Koh, Christopher; Rotman, Yaron; Ghany, Marc G.; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Neumann, Avidan U.; Liang, T. Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims: The therapeutic mechanisms of ribavirin for hepatitis C are unclear. Microarray analyses have shown that ribavirin increases induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). We evaluated viral kinetics, serum cytokine expression, and viral mutagenesis during early stages of peginterferon therapy with and without ribavirin. Methods: Fifty patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection genotype 1 were randomly assigned to groups that were given peginterferon alfa-2a, with or without ribavirin, for 4 weeks; all patients then received an additional 44 weeks of combination therapy. First- and second-phase viral kinetics were evaluated. Serum levels of IP10, MIG, and MCP1 were quantified as measures of the ISG response. NS5A and NS5B were partially sequenced and mutation rates were calculated. Results: The first-phase decrease in HCV RNA was similar between groups. Patients that received ribavirin had a more rapid second-phase decrease, compared with patients that did not receive ribavirin—particularly those with an adequate first-phase decrease (0.61 vs. 0.35 log10 IU/mL/week, p=0.018). At 12 hrs, fold induction of serum IP10 was higher in patients given the combination therapy than those given only peginterferon (7.6- vs. 3.8-fold, p=0.01); however, the difference was greatest in patients with an adequate first-phase decrease in HCV RNA. IP10-induction correlated with first- and second-phase kinetics and with ribavirin serum concentrations on day 3. HCV mutation rates were similar between groups. Conclusion: Ribavirin improves the kinetics of the early response to therapy in patients with an adequate initial response to peginterferon. Induction of interferon-stimulated cytokines correlates with viral kinetics following ribavirin therapy, suggesting that ribavirin promotes interferon signaling. PMID:20303352

  1. Lichen planus induced by pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy in a patient monitored for delta hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Safak; Arslan, Eyup; Baysal, Birol; Baykara, Sule Nergiz; Uzun, Ozlem Ceren; Kaya, Sehmuz

    2015-01-01

    Interferons are used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. They can induce or exacerbate some skin disorders, such as lichen planus. In this study, as we know, we presented the first case developing lichen planus while receiving interferon treatment due to delta hepatitis. A 31-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient clinic with HBsAg positivity. With his analyses, HBV DNA was negative, anti-delta total was positive, ALT was 72 U/L (upper limit 41 U/L), and platelet was 119 000/mm(3). He was therefore started on subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy at 180 mcg/week for delta hepatitis. At month 4 of therapy, the patient developed diffuse eroded lace-like lesions in oral mucosa, white plaques on lips, and itchy papular lesions in the hands and feet. Lichen planus was considered by the dermatology clinic and topical treatment (mometasone furoate) was given. The lesions persisted at month 5 of therapy and biopsy samples were obtained from oral mucosal lesions and interferon dose was reduced to 135 mcg/week. Biopsy demonstrated nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium; epithelial acanthosis, spongiosis, and apoptotic bodies were observed in the epidermis and therefore lichen planus was considered. At month 6 of therapy, lesions did not improve and even progressed and interferon treatment was therefore discontinued. PMID:25821612

  2. Safety and tolerance of recombinant interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A) in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, G J; Itri, L M

    1986-04-15

    Recombinant interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, NJ) has been evaluated in clinical trials of more than 1300 patients with a broad spectrum of oncologic disease. Patients with either solid tumors or hematologic malignancies were treated with daily or three-times-weekly intramuscular injections for induction periods ranging from 8 to 16 weeks. Doses ranged from 1 X 10(6) units to 124 X 10(6) units per injection. When administered in low daily doses (approximately 3 X 10(6) units), Roferon-A was well tolerated, and dose attenuation was rarely required. Change to three-times-weekly treatment regimen at the same dose was usually sufficient to control toxicity when it occurred in this group of low-dose patients. Those patients receiving higher doses frequently required dose attenuation to 50% of the starting dose to improve clinical tolerance. Virtually all patients treated with Roferon-A experienced some degree of acute toxicity manifested as fever, chills, myalgia, and/or headache. These reactions usually occurred with initial dosing and frequently improved spontaneously with continued administration of the drug. Acetaminophen pretreatment was generally useful in ameliorating these symptoms. Common adverse experiences occurring after repeated dosing included fatigue, anorexia, and weight loss. Serious adverse reactions including cardiovascular and neurologic toxicity have occurred infrequently, primarily at higher doses. Hematologic toxicity and elevations in liver function parameters were also observed, but rarely required dose attenuation. Adverse effects were usually reversible after dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy. Approximately 27% of all patients developed antibodies to rHuIFN-alpha 2A during treatment. No adverse clinical sequelae have been associated with antibody development to date. PMID:3948143

  3. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  4. Pericarditis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy during therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Kazuaki; Konndo, Takeshi; Okada, Shunichi; Enchi, Machiko

    2010-09-27

    We report a case of pericarditis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with biological signs of a lupus-like syndrome due to pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy during treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The patient developed moderate weakness in the lower limbs and dyspnea. He was hospitalized for congestive heart failure. An electrocardiogram showed gradual ST-segment elevation in leads V(1) through V(6) without coronary artery disease. A transthoracic cardiac ultrasonographic study revealed moderate pericardial effusion with normal left ventricular function. Anti-DNA antibody and antids DNA IgM were positive. Neurological examination revealed a symmetrical predominantly sensory polyneuropathy with impairment of light touch and pin prick in globe and stoking-like distribution. Treatment with prednisolone improved the pericarditis and motor nerve disturbance and the treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin improved the sensory nerve disturbance. PMID:21161021

  5. Pericarditis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy during therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Kazuaki; Konndo, Takeshi; Okada, Shunichi; Enchi, Machiko

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of pericarditis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with biological signs of a lupus-like syndrome due to pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy during treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The patient developed moderate weakness in the lower limbs and dyspnea. He was hospitalized for congestive heart failure. An electrocardiogram showed gradual ST-segment elevation in leads V1 through V6 without coronary artery disease. A transthoracic cardiac ultrasonographic study revealed moderate pericardial effusion with normal left ventricular function. Anti-DNA antibody and antids DNA IgM were positive. Neurological examination revealed a symmetrical predominantly sensory polyneuropathy with impairment of light touch and pin prick in globe and stoking-like distribution. Treatment with prednisolone improved the pericarditis and motor nerve disturbance and the treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin improved the sensory nerve disturbance. PMID:21161021

  6. High rates of sustained virological response in hepatitis C virus-infected injection drug users receiving directly observed therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a (40KD) (PEGASYS) and once-daily ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Waizmann, Michael; Ackermann, Grit

    2010-06-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of directly observed therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a and once-daily ribavirin (RBV) for chronic hepatitis C in 49 opioid-addicted injection drug users (IDUs) participating in a drug treatment program at a specialized outpatient center. Patients also received prophylactic citalopram to minimize the risk of interferon-induced depression. Patients had daily access to and support from specialist physicians, nurses and counseling services at the center, and a 24-hour helpline. Sustained virological response was achieved by 48 of 49 patients (98%) overall, including 20 of 21 (95%) hepatitis C virus (HCV) Genotype 1/4-infected patients and 28 of 28 (100%) Genotype 2/3-infected patients. Treatment was well tolerated, and no unexpected side effects of peginterferon treatment were seen. The safety profile of once-daily RBV was not different from twice-daily dosing. Decline in hemoglobin levels was similar to those reported in clinical trials including once-daily RBV and did not lead to dose reduction or treatment withdrawal. Our data demonstrate that HCV-infected IDUs on stable L-polamidone (methadone) or buprenorphine maintenance can be successfully and safely treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and RBV in an optimal substitution setting. PMID:20362408

  7. Biological modifiers (etretinate (changed from etetrinate) and alfa 2a) in the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Guzmán, R; García, E L; Díaz-Maqueo, J C

    1996-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and toxicity of biological modifiers in combination etetrinate, 0.8 mg/kg/day, po and interferon alfa 2a 9.0 MU, three times at week) in the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTLC) we began a clinical study on 12 heavily treated patients. After 1 year on treatment 10/12 patients (83%) achieved complete response. Two patients were considered failures with disease progression. After a median follow-up of 3 years, seven patients (56%) remained in complete remission. Toxicity was mild. All patients received 93% of the planned dose of etetrinate and interferon. We feel that biological modifiers, as etetrinate and interferons, are agents with limited hematological toxicity even in higher doses. The combination of two agents, with different mechanisms of action, could improve the outcome in patients with refractory CTCL. Controlled trials are necessary to define the roles of this type of therapy as first line of treatment. PMID:10851517

  8. Peginterferon Alfa-2b (PEG-Intron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... inject into your stomach if you are very thin. Use a different spot for each injection. Do not inject peginterferon alfa-2b into an area where the skin is sore, red, bruised, scarred, irritated, or infected; has stretch marks ...

  9. Peginterferon Alfa-2b Injection (Sylatron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called interferons. It works by stopping the growth of cancer ... allergic to peginterferon alfa-2b injection (PegIntron, Sylatron), interferon alfa-2b (Intron), any other medications, or any ...

  10. Hyperinsulinaemia reduces the 24-h virological response to PEG-interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, G; Scribano, L; Realdon, S; Marcolongo, M; Mirandola, S; Franceschini, L; Bonisegna, S; Noventa, F; Plebani, M; Martines, D; Alberti, A

    2010-07-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) reduces response to pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), but the mechanisms are still undefined. We examined the relationship between baseline insulin levels, the main component affecting homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for assessment of IR in non-diabetic patients, and the 'acute' virological response to PEG-IFN measured 24 h after the first injection and taken as correlate of intracellular interferon signalling. In 62 patients treated with PEG-IFN/Ribavirin, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were assessed at baseline, while hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA was measured at baseline and 24 h, 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks after treatment initiation. Sustained virological response was examined 24 weeks after therapy discontinuation. Mean baseline insulin was 11.52 +/- 8.51 U/L and mean HOMA-IR was 2.65 +/- 2.01 both being significantly higher with advanced liver fibrosis. Hepatitis C virus-RNA decay observed 24 h after the first injection of PEG-IFN was significantly lower (0.7 +/- 0.8 log) in patients with HOMA > or =3 compared with those with HOMA <3 (1.7 +/- 0.8, P = 0.001). A highly significant (r = -0.42) inverse correlation was observed between baseline insulin levels and the 24-h HCV-RNA decay. The difference in early viral kinetics between patients with HOMA > or =3 or <3 resulted in a significant difference in the percentage of patients achieving rapid (week 4) and sustained virological response. Multivariate analysis, inclusive of patient age, HCV genotype and fibrosis stage, identified baseline insulin levels as the main independent variable affecting the 24-h response to PEG-IFN. Hyperinsulinaemia reduces the cellular response to Pegylated-interferon in CHC with IR. Strategies to reduce insulin levels before initiation of treatment should be pursued to improve efficacy of anti-viral treatment. PMID:19878535

  11. Peginterferon beta-1a in multiple sclerosis: 2-year results from ADVANCE

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Douglas L; Balcer, Laura J; Boyko, Alexey A; Pelletier, Jean; Liu, Shifang; Zhu, Ying; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Hung, Serena; Deykin, Aaron; Sheikh, Sarah I; Calabresi, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a over 2 years in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis in the ADVANCE study. Methods: Patients were randomized to placebo or 125 µg peginterferon beta-1a every 2 or 4 weeks. For Year 2 (Y2), patients originally randomized to placebo were re-randomized to peginterferon beta-1a every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. Patients randomized to peginterferon beta-1a in Year 1 (Y1) remained on the same dosing regimen in Y2. Results: Compared with Y1, annualized relapse rate (ARR) was further reduced in Y2 with every 2 week dosing (Y1: 0.230 [95% CI 0.183–0.291], Y2: 0.178 [0.136–0.233]) and maintained with every 4 week dosing (Y1: 0.286 [0.231–0.355], Y2: 0.291 [0.231–0.368]). Patients starting peginterferon beta-1a from Y1 displayed improved efficacy versus patients initially assigned placebo, with reductions in ARR (every 2 weeks: 37%, p<0.0001; every 4 weeks: 17%, p=0.0906), risk of relapse (every 2 weeks: 39%, p<0.0001; every 4 weeks: 19%, p=0.0465), 12-week disability progression (every 2 weeks: 33%, p=0.0257; every 4 weeks: 25%, p=0.0960), and 24-week disability progression (every 2 weeks: 41%, p=0.0137; every 4 weeks: 9%, p=0.6243). Over 2 years, greater reductions were observed with every 2 week versus every 4 week dosing for all endpoints and peginterferon beta-1a was well tolerated. Conclusions: Peginterferon beta-1a efficacy is maintained beyond 1 year, with greater effects observed with every 2 week versus every 4 week dosing, and a similar safety profile to Y1. Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT00906399. PMID:25432952

  12. Phase II trial of fluorouracil and recombinant interferon alfa-2a in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Wadler, S; Lembersky, B; Atkins, M; Kirkwood, J; Petrelli, N

    1991-10-01

    In a pilot clinical trial, treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma with the combination of fluorouracil (5FU) and recombinant interferon alfa-2a (IFN) resulted in objective tumor regression in 62% of patients. To confirm these findings in a multiinstitutional setting, a phase II clinical trial was initiated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) in 1989. The treatment regimen was identical to that used in the earlier study: 5FU 750 mg/m2/d for 5 days as a continuous infusion followed by weekly outpatient bolus therapy and IFN 9MU subcutaneously beginning day 1 and administered three times per week. Doses were modified for gastrointestinal, hematologic, and neurologic toxicity and for fatigue, similarly to those used in the previous pilot trial. Thirty-eight patients were registered; 36 are evaluable for response (one lost to follow-up and one with nonmeasurable disease). All patients had metastatic or locally recurrent disease beyond the scope of resection; 31 of 38 had liver metastases, and 20 of 38 had two or more sites of involvement. Eight patients had grade 4 toxicities, including sepsis (nonneutropenic) (one), watery diarrhea (two), and granulocytopenia (six). Grade 3 neurologic toxicities were observed in two (5%) patients and included slurred speech and gait disturbance. Objective response was 42% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 27% to 58%), including one clinical complete responder and 14 partial responders. Among the responding patients, the median time to treatment failure was 8 months. Two patients remain on treatment at 10+ and 16+ months: median survival has not been reached. The results of this multiinstitutional trial suggest that the addition of IFN to 5FU enhances the objective response rates achieved in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma and that the toxicities of this regimen are acceptable. PMID:1919631

  13. Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a Yields High Rates of Hematologic and Molecular Response in Patients With Advanced Essential Thrombocythemia and Polycythemia Vera

    PubMed Central

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; Manshouri, Taghi; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Estrov, Zeev; Pierce, Sherry; Richie, Mary Ann; Borthakur, Gautam; Konopleva, Marina; Cortes, Jorge; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a phase II study of pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). Patients and Methods Seventy-nine patients (40 with PV and 39 with ET) have been treated. Median time from diagnosis to PEG-IFN-α-2a was 54 months in patients with PV and 33 months in patients with ET. Eighty-one percent of patients had received prior therapy. The first three patients received PEG-IFN-α-2a at 450 μg weekly. As a result of poor tolerance, this dose was decreased in a stepwise manner to a current starting dose of 90 μg weekly. Seventy-seven patients are evaluable and have been observed for a median of 21 months. Results The overall hematologic response rate was 80% in PV and 81% in ET (complete in 70% and 76% of patients, respectively). The JAK2V617F mutation was detected in 18 patients with ET and 38 patients with PV; sequential measurements by a pyrosequencing assay were available in 16 patients with ET and 35 patients with PV. The molecular response rate was 38% in ET and 54% in PV, being complete (undetectable JAK2V617F) in 6% and 14%, respectively. The JAK2V617F mutant allele burden continued to decrease with no clear evidence for a plateau. The tolerability of PEG-IFN-α-2a at 90 μg weekly was excellent. Conclusion PEG-IFN-α-2a resulted in remarkable clinical activity, high rates of molecular response, and acceptable toxicity in patients with advanced ET or PV. The ability of PEG-IFN-α-2a to induce complete molecular responses suggests selective targeting of the malignant clone. PMID:19826111

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of Peginterferon α-2a and Peginterferon α-2b, Both plus Ribavirin, for Chronic Hepatitis C: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Liping; Yang, Lei; Chen, Xiaorong

    2013-01-01

    Background. The efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon α-2a and peginterferon α-2b in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients remain controversial. Methods. PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane libraries were electronically searched until August 30, 2012. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated by two reviewers independently. Results. The overall sustained virologic response (SVR) rate of the peginterferon α-2a group was significantly higher than that of the peginterferon α-2b group (46.7% versus 42.4%, P value = 0.01). The same tendency was observed for naïve, genotype 1/4, and genotype 2/3 patients. The early virologic response (EVR) and end-of-treatment response (ETR) rates were significantly higher in the peginterferon α-2a group than in the peginterferon α-2b group (56.1% versus 49.8%, P < 0.0001; 67.9% versus 56.6%, P < 0.00001, resp.). Peginterferon α-2a had a significantly lower discontinuation rate than peginterferon α-2b (27.9% versus 33.9%, P < 0.0001) in naïve patients. In both naïve CHC and hepatitis C virus genotype 1 patients, peginterferon α-2a had a higher relapse rate than peginterferon α-2b. Conclusions. Peginterferon α-2a has superior efficacy with higher EVR, ETR, and SVR than peginterferon α-2b for CHC patients, both plus ribavirin. Peginterferon α-2a might obtain a similar or even lower discontinuation rate than peginterferon α-2b. However, peginterferon α-2a had a higher relapse rate than peginterferon α-2b. PMID:23662098

  15. The Efficacy of Add-on Telbivudine Versus Switching to Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Poor Responses to Adefovir

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Fan, Chao; Zhou, Yun; Kang, Wenzhen; Wang, Jiuping; Sun, Li; Wang, Linxu; Peng, Meijuan; Lian, Jianqi; Jia, Zhansheng; Hao, Chunqiu

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are limited options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who have poor responses to adefovir (ADV). Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding on telbivudine (LdT) or switching to pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-α2a) as alternative rescue therapies for patients with poor responses to the initial ADV treatments. Patients and Methods: Ninety-seven CHB patients with HBV DNA > 2 log10 copies/mL 48 weeks after ADV monotherapy were included in this study. Fifty-nine of these patients were treated with a combination of LdT plus ADV (LdT + ADV) daily, while thirty-eight patients were switched to PEG-IFN-α2a subcutaneous injections weekly for 48 weeks. Results: Both rescue strategies were proven to be safe and the majority of patients tolerated the therapies well. LdT + ADV led to more rapid reductions in viral loads than PEG-IFN-α2a monotherapy, with 2.14 (LdT + ADV) and 0.98 (PEG-IFN-α2a) log10 copies/mL decreases 48 weeks after rescue treatments, respectively (P < 0.00001). The rates corresponding to virological and biochemical responses were also elevated in patients who received the LdT + ADV combination therapy at the end of the observation period (88.1 vs. 68.4% for virological response, P = 0.017; 83.3 vs. 47.2%, P = 0.00045). However, the decline in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was more pronounced in PEG-IFN-α2a treated patients. Moreover, the cumulative rates of serological responses were higher in patients who switched to the PEG-IFN-α2a therapy. Conclusions: Both add-on LdT and switching to PEG-IFN-α2a were satisfactory and optimal treatments for CHB patients with poor responses to ADV. Both rescue strategies resulted in significant reductions in serum viral load and ALT levels, and were associated with high rate of serological outcomes in our hospital. PMID:27110255

  16. Efficacy and safety of peginterferon alpha-2a/ribavirin in treatment-naive Cameroonian patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Njouom, Richard; Sartre, Michèle Tagni; Timba, Isabelle; Nerrienet, Eric; Tchendjou, Patrice; Pasquier, Christophe; Rousset, Dominique

    2008-12-01

    Data were examined from a day-to-day clinical practice in Yaounde, Cameroon to evaluate the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in treatment-naive Cameroonian patients with chronic hepatitis C. Ninety adults with chronic hepatitis C (mean age, 53 +/- 8 years; 79% males; 37.8% genotype 1; 23.3% genotype 2; and 38.9% genotype 4) were given at least 12 weeks of combination therapy between February 2003 and August 2007. Of these, 54 completed the treatment and the 24-week follow up. Subsequently, 18 continued treatment and 18 (20%) discontinued the treatment, 6 (6.7%) due to adverse effects. An intention-to-treat analysis showed that 38 (52.8%) had an end-of-treatment virologic response and 34 (47.2%) had a sustained virologic response. Sustained virologic response were significantly higher among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 (83.4%) than in those with genotype 1 (31%) or genotype 4 (42.3%) (P < 0.05). Non HCV-2 genotype, pretreatment fibrosis score >2, HCV RNA level >8.0 x 10(5) IU/ml and a non-virologic response at 12 weeks of treatment were associated with poor sustained virologic response (P < 0.05). Thus, HCV can be treated in a Sub-Saharan African country. It indicates that Cameroonian HCV-1 and -4 patients have a poorer sustained virologic response than the published results for Western and Middle-East countries. Virus subtype may influence the treatment outcome, since there is a great genetic diversity within Cameroonian HCV-1 and -4 genotypes. PMID:19040282

  17. Treatment Response and Long-Term Outcome of Peginterferon α and Ribavirin Therapy in Korean Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chang Ho; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yim, Sun Young; Suh, Sang Jun; Yim, Hyung Joon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Peginterferon plus ribavirin remains a standard therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Korea. We investigated the efficacy and long-term outcome of peginterferon and ribavirin therapy in Korean patients with CHC, particularly in relation to the stage of liver fibrosis. Methods The incidence of sustained virological response (SVR), hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related death was analyzed in 304 patients with CHC; the patients were followed up for a median of 54 months. Results Among patients with HCV genotype 1, the SVR rate was 36.7% (18/49) and 67% (69/103) for patients with and without cirrhosis, respectively (p<0.001). For patients with non-1 HCV genotypes, the SVR rates were 86.0% (37/43) in cirrhotic patients and 86.2% (94/109) in noncirrhotic patients. SVR significantly reduced the risk of liver-related death, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which had hazard ratios of 0.27, 0.16, and 0.22, respectively (all p<0.05). However, despite the SVR rate, patients with advanced fibrosis were still at risk of developing liver-related complications. Conclusions A relatively high SVR rate was achieved by peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy in Korean patients with CHC, which improved their long-term outcomes. However, all CHC patients with advanced hepatic fibrosis should receive close follow-up observations, even after successful antiviral treatment. PMID:27114417

  18. Incidence, characterization, and clinical impact analysis of peginterferon beta1a immunogenicity in patients with multiple sclerosis in the ADVANCE trial

    PubMed Central

    White, Joleen T.; Newsome, Scott D.; Kieseier, Bernd C.; Bermel, Robert A.; Cui, Yue; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Hung, Serena; Crossman, Mary; Subramanyam, Meena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficacy of interferon beta in multiple sclerosis (MS) can be dampened in patients who develop neutralizing antidrug antibodies (NAbs). Peginterferon beta1a is an interferon conjugated with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety. Pegylation increases a drug’s half life and exposure, and may also reduce immunogenicity. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the incidence and impact of immunogenicity to peginterferon beta1a over 2 years in patients with MS. Methods: Patients with relapsing–remitting MS (N = 1512) were randomized to subcutaneous peginterferon beta1a 125 μg every 2 or 4 weeks, or placebo, for 1 year; patients in the placebo group were rerandomized to active treatment in year 2. The incidence and titers of binding antibodies (BAbs) and NAbs to interferon and antibodies to PEG (anti-PEG) were assessed in analytically validated assays. The clinical impact of immunogenicity on relapse and magnetic resonance imaging endpoints was evaluated. Results: Over 2 years, 6%, less than 1%, and 7% of patients developed anti-interferon BAbs, NAbs, and anti-PEG antibodies, respectively. There was no discernible clinically meaningful effect of antibody status on the pharmacodynamic, efficacy, or safety parameters evaluated, although these analyses were limited by the low incidence of treatment-emergent antibodies. Conclusion: The treatment effect of peginterferon beta1a in patients with relapsing–remitting MS is not expected to be attenuated by immunogenicity. PMID:27366230

  19. HBsAg seroconversion after pegylated interferon alfa 2a rescue in a lamivudine-resistant patient with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and favourable IL28-B genotype.

    PubMed

    Stanzione, Maria; Stornaiuolo, Gianfranca; Rizzo, Viviana; Pontarelli, Agostina; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion to anti-HBs antibody is the best final objective for all available chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatments. Unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved with the currently applied therapeutic approaches. Here we describe the case of an anti-HBe-positive CHB patient who was successfully treated with a particular therapeutic schedule. The patient was initially treated with lamivudine (LAM) for nine years. Breakthrough was observed after eight years of LAM therapy. HBV-DNA was 3x10E4 IU/mL and LAM resistance mutations were present. Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa 2a, 180 mcg/week, was added to LAM and after 4 weeks LAM was discontinued and PEG-IFN alone was continued up to week 52. HBV-DNA became undetectable at week 4 of therapy; serum HBsAg started to decline from week 4 and became undetectable at week 36, with the subsequent appearance of anti-HBs antibodies. IL28-B was genotyped at the polymorphic site rs12979860 and the CC allele was detected. Rescue therapy with Peg-IFN may be an option for selected patients with resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues. PMID:27367326

  20. Protracted anaphylaxis developed after peginterferon α-2a administration for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Akihiko; Doi, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Takaaki; Sasai, Yasutaka; Nishida, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Megumi; Uenoyama, Naoto; Matsumoto, Yoshiya; Kinoshita, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    Peginterferon is a key drug used to treat chronic viral hepatitis that is known for causing various side effects. Side effects occurring immediately after administration include headache, nausea, and influenza-like symptoms, such as fever and joint pain. However, reports of anaphylactic shock are extremely rare. Here we report a patient with protracted anaphylaxis who suffered shock symptoms after peginterferon α-2a administration for chronic hepatitis C. Although the patient improved temporarily with shock treatment, symptoms of anaphylaxis recurred. As peginterferon is often administered on an outpatient basis, it is important to recognize life-threatening side effects that may develop in a protracted manner. PMID:25759556

  1. Peginterferon Alfa-2b Injection (Sylatron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2b injection is used in people with malignant melanoma (a life-threatening cancer that begins in certain ... is used to reduce the chance that malignant melanoma will come back and must be started within ...

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Adding Ribavirin to Interferon or Peginterferon in Treatment of Hepatitis C Infection in Patients With Thalassemia: A Systematic Review on Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Aminizadeh, Ehsan; Alavian, Seyed Moayyed; Akbari Sari, Ali; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Behnava, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Context Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver-morbidity and mortality among patients with thalassemia. Peginterferon plus ribavirin is currently the recommended therapy for hepatitis C infection in patients do not have thalassemia, but using ribavirin in patients with thalassemia is restricted due to its hemolytic effect. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding ribavirin to peginterferon or interferon, authors performed a systematic review on the available literatures. Evidence Acquisition Trials were identified through electronic database, manual searches of journals and bibliographies and approaching authors of trials. Randomized trials that enrolled patients with a diagnosis of thalassemia and chronic hepatitis C infection treated with interferon or peginterferon with or without ribavirin were included. Two investigators independently evaluated the trials for inclusion criteria, risk of bias and data extraction. The primary outcomes were sustained virological response (SVR), liver-related morbidity, mortality and adverse events. The odds ratios from each trial were calculated individually and in the subgroup analysis of trials. Data were analyzed with fixed-effect model. Results Three randomized clinical trials with 92 patients were included. All three trials had unclear risk of bias. Compared with peginterferon monotherapy, adding ribavirin to peginterferon had significant beneficial effect on sustained virological response (OR = 3.44, 95% CI: 1.18 - 10.06). There was no significant difference between combination therapy and monotherapy in the end of treatment achievement response. Other than about 30% increase in blood transfusion due to anemia that returned to normal level 2 - 3 months after treatment, there was no significant increase in side effects followed by adding ribavirin to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN). Data were insufficient to determine the impact of genotype, viral load and age on the response to treatment

  3. The effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C genotype 2 and 3: a prospective cohort study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 50% of patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) do not respond to treatment with conventional interferon (IFN) combined with ribavirin (RBV). The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of retreatment with peginterferon alfa-2a or 2b (PEG-IFN 2a or 2b) concomitantly with RBV in patients with HCV genotype 2 and 3, which were non-responders or relapsers to initial treatment with IFN / RBV and to identify possible predictors of sustained virological response (SVR). Methods From September 2003 to March 2009 a cohort of 216 patients who had previously failed therapy with a regimen of standard interferon and ribavirin, were followed in a specialized service implemented in the Brazilian Unified Health System, Rio Grande do Sul. All patients were retreated with PEG-IFN 2a or 2b per week, associated with RBV, through oral route, with doses determined according to weight (1,000 mg if weight ≤ 75 Kg and 1,250 mg if ≥ 75 Kg) per day for 48 weeks. The HCV-RNA was tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Virological Response (VR) within 48 weeks and SVR in the 72 weeks was considered for evaluation of treatment efficacy. Analyses were performed in patients who received at least one dose of PEG-IFN. Results The SVR rate for non-responders to previous treatment was 34.4% and for relapsers was 50% (p = 0.031). As predictive factors that contribute to improve SVR, were identified the age (p = 0.005), to be relapsers to previous treatment (p = 0.023) and present liver biopsy examination Metavir F0-F2 (p = 0.004). In assessing the safety profile, 51 patients (23.6%) discontinued treatment prematurely. Conclusions This alternative retreatment for patients who have failed prior therapies for anti-HCV, has demonstrated promising SVR rate, provided that it includes a careful selection of patients with predictors of response and adverse events monitored. PMID:23270376

  4. Daclatasvir vs telaprevir plus peginterferon alfa/ribavirin for hepatitis C virus genotype 1

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Ira; Zeuzem, Stefan; Flisiak, Robert; Knysz, Brygida; Lueth, Stefan; Zarebska-Michaluk, Dorota; Janczewska, Ewa; Ferenci, Peter; Diago, Moises; Zignego, Anna Linda; Safadi, Rifaat; Baruch, Yaacov; Abdurakhmanov, Dzhamal; Shafran, Stephen; Thabut, Dominique; Bruck, Rafael; Gadano, Adrian; Thompson, Alexander James; Kopit, Justin; McPhee, Fiona; Michener, Tracy; Hughes, Eric A; Yin, Philip D; Noviello, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate daclatasvir vs telaprevir, each combined with peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin (pegIFN/RBV), in treatment-naive hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 1-infected patients. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomized, open-label, noninferiority study, 602 patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to daclatasvir vs telaprevir, stratified by IL28B rs12979860 host genotype (CC vs non-CC), cirrhosis status (compensated cirrhosis vs no cirrhosis), and HCV GT1 subtype (GT1a vs GT1b). Patients were selected by study inclusion criteria from a total of 793 enrolled patients. Patients received daclatasvir 60 mg once daily or telaprevir 750 mg 3 times daily plus pegIFN/RBV. Daclatasvir recipients received 24 wk of daclatasvir plus pegIFN/RBV; those without an extended rapid virologic response (eRVR; undetectable HCV-RNA at weeks 4 and 12) received an additional 24 wk of pegIFN/RBV. Telaprevir-treated patients received 12 wk of telaprevir plus pegIFN/RBV followed by 12 (with eRVR) or 36 (no eRVR) wk of pegIFN/RBV. The primary objective was to compare for noninferiority of sustained virologic response rates at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12) in GT1b-infected patients. Key secondary objectives were to demonstrate that the rates of anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dL) and rash-related events, through week 12, were lower with daclatasvir + pegIFN/RBV than with telaprevir + pegIFN/RBV among GT1b-infected patients. Resistance testing was performed using population-based sequencing of the NS5A region for all patients at baseline, and for patients with virologic failure or relapse and HCV-RNA ≥ 1000 IU/mL, to investigate any link between NS5A polymorphisms associated with daclatasvir resistance and virologic outcome. RESULTS: Patient demographics and disease characteristics were generally balanced across treatment arms; however, there was a higher proportion of black/African Americans in the daclatasvir groups (6.0% and 8.2% in the GT1b and GT1a groups, respectively) than in the

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of peginterferon beta-1a compared with interferon beta-1a and glatiramer acetate in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis; Guo, Shien; Kinter, Elizabeth; Fay, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Objective Peginterferon beta-1a 125 mcg, administered subcutaneously (SC) every 2 weeks, a new disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of peginterferon beta-1a vs interferon beta-1a (44 mcg SC 3 times per week) and glatiramer acetate (20 mg SC once-daily) in the treatment of RRMS from the perspective of a US payer over 10 years. Methods A Markov cohort economic model was developed for this analysis. The model predicts disability progression, occurrence of relapses and other adverse events and translates them into quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs. Natural history data were obtained from the placebo arm of the ADVANCE trial of peginterferon beta-1a, the London Ontario (Canada) database and a large population-based MS survey. Comparative efficacy of each DMT vs placebo was obtained from a network meta-analysis. Costs (in 2014 US dollars) were sourced from public databases and literature. Clinical and economic outcomes were discounted at 3% per year. Results Over 10 years, peginterferon beta-1a was dominant (i.e., more effective and less costly), with cost-savings of $22,070 and additional 0.06 QALYs when compared with interferon beta-1a 44 mcg and with cost-savings of $19,163 and 0.07 QALYs gained when compared with glatiramer acetate 20 mg. Results were most sensitive to variations in the treatment effect of each DMT, treatment acquisition costs of each DMT and the time horizon. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that peginterferon beta-1a remains dominant in >90% of 5,000 replications compared with either DMTs. Conclusion This analysis suggests that long-term treatment with peginterferon beta-1a improves clinical outcomes at reduced costs compared with interferon beta-1a 44 mcg and glatiramer acetate 20 mg and should be a valuable addition to managed care formularies for treating

  6. [A case of chronic hepatitis C with pancreas divisum and acute pancreatitis during combination treatment with telaprevir/peginterferon/ribavirin].

    PubMed

    Morio, Reona; Imamura, Michio; Fukuhara, Takayuki; Kan, Hiromi; Fujino, Hatsue; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Akira; Aikata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Tamito; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-10-01

    A 47-year-old man developed acute pancreatitis during combination treatment with telaprevir/peginterferon/ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. Cessation of telaprevir, fasting, and gabexate mesilate improved the pancreatitis. Although peginterferon and ribavirin treatment was continued, there was no recurrence of the pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography incidentally showed a pancreas divisum. We definitively diagnosed drug-induced acute pancreatitis due to telaprevir. PMID:25283229

  7. EXCESS MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CHRONIC HEPATITIS C TREATED WITH LONG-TERM PEGINTERFERON

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Dienstag, Jules L.; Shiffman, Mitchell L.; Seeff, Leonard B.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Morishima, Chihiro; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Snow, Kristin K.; Lee, William M.; Fontana, Robert J.; Morgan, Timothy R.; Ghany, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic hepatitis C virus infection can cause chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer. The HALT-C Trial was a prospective, randomized controlled study of long-term, low-dose peginterferon therapy in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C who had failed to respond to a previous course of optimal antiviral therapy. The aim of this follow-up analysis was to describe the frequency and causes of death among this cohort of patients. Methods Deaths occurring during and after the HALT-C Trial were reviewed by a committee of investigators to determine the cause of death and to categorize each death as liver- or non-liver-related and as related or not to complications of peginterferon. Rates of liver transplantation were also assessed. Results Over a median of 5.7 years, 122 deaths occurred among 1,050 randomized patients (12%) of which 76 were considered liver-related (62%) and 46 non-liver-related (38%); 74 patients (7%) underwent liver transplantation. At 7 years, the cumulative mortality rate was higher in the treatment compared to the control group (20% versus 15%, p=0.049); the primary difference in mortality was in patients in the fibrosis compared to the cirrhosis stratum (14% versus 7%, p=0.01); comparable differences were observed when liver transplantation was included. Excess mortality, emerging after 3 years of treatment, was related largely to non-liver-related death; liver-related mortality was similar in the treatment and control groups. No specific cause of death accounted for the excess mortality, and only one death was suspected to be a direct complication of peginterferon. Conclusions Long-term maintenance peginterferon in patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C is associated with an excess overall mortality, which was primarily due to non-liver-related causes among patients with bridging fibrosis. PMID:21480316

  8. Pre-treatment prediction of response to peginterferon plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C genotype 3

    PubMed Central

    Marciano, Sebastián; Borzi, Silvia M; Dirchwolf, Melisa; Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Mendizabal, Manuel; Bessone, Fernando; Sirotinsky, María E; Giunta, Diego H; Trinks, Julieta; Olivera, Pablo A; Galdame, Omar A; Silva, Marcelo O; Fainboim, Hugo A; Gadano, Adrián C

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate pre-treatment factors associated with sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 treated with peginterferon and ribavirin (RBV). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed treatment naive, mono-infected HCV genotype 3 patients treated with peginterferon and RBV. Exclusion criteria included presence of other liver disease, alcohol consumption and African American or Asian ethnicity. The variables collected and compared between patients who achieved an SVR and patients who did not were as follows: gender, age, fibrosis stage, diabetes, body mass index, steatosis, INFL3 polymorphism, pre-treatment HCV-RNA, type of peginterferon, RBV dose and adherence. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients treated between June, 2004 and March, 2013 were included. Mean treatment duration was 25.1 (± 1.8) wk. Overall, 58% (62/107) of the patients achieved an SVR and 42% (45/107) did not. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, pre-treatment HCV-RNA ≥ 600000 UI/mL (OR = 0.375, 95%CI: 0.153-0.919, P = 0.032) and advanced fibrosis (OR = 0.278, 95%CI: 0.113-0.684, P = 0.005) were significantly associated with low SVR rates. In patients with pre-treatment HCV-RNA ≥ 600000 UI/mL and advanced fibrosis, the probability of achieving an SVR was 29% (95%CI: 13.1-45.2). In patients with pre-treatment HCV-RNA < 600000 UI/mL and mild to moderate fibrosis, the probability of achieving an SVR was 81% (95%CI: 68.8-93.4). CONCLUSION: In patients with HCV genotype 3 infections the presence of advance fibrosis and high pre-treatment viral load might be associated with poor response to peginterferon plus RBV. These patients could benefit the most from new direct antiviral agents-based regimes. PMID:25866607

  9. A randomized controlled trial adding fluvastatin to peginterferon and ribavirin for naïve genotype 1 hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Bader, T; Hughes, L D; Fazili, J; Frost, B; Dunnam, M; Gonterman, A; Madhoun, M; Aston, C E

    2013-09-01

    Fluvastatin or simvastatin has demonstrable antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) as monotherapy. The safety and efficacy of adding fluvastatin or simvastatin to peginterferon/ribavirin for 48 weeks was tested in HCV genotype 1 naïve-to-treatment veterans. Thirty-seven naïve-to-treatment genotype 1 HCV patients were randomized to either a control group (n = 20) to receive peginterferon alfa plus ribavirin or an experimental group (n = 18) to similarly receive peginterferon alfa plus ribavirin as well as fluvastatin 20 mg/day. In addition, seven patients who presented for HCV treatment already were on simvastatin and could not be withdrawn. These simvastatin users were not randomized but were entered into a concurrent prospective pilot arm. There were no unique safety issues with fluvastatin or simvastatin when these drugs were given with peginterferon/ribavirin for 48 weeks. Thirteen of 25 statin patients achieved sustained viral response (SVR), while 5 of 20 control patients achieved SVR. Analysis of SVR by intention-to-treat showed P = 0.078. In this phase 2 study, there were no safety issues with the addition of fluvastatin or simvastatin to peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks. There was a trend towards improvement in SVR when fluvastatin or simvastatin was administered with peginterferon/ribavirin. The size of the groups did not reach the prestudy size thought needed to show significant difference (type II error). These results support the significant results of two other larger randomized controlled trials reported using the same dose of fluvastatin in naïve-to-treatment genotype 1 HCV patients. PMID:23910646

  10. Reversible bilateral ototoxicity in a patient with chronic hepatitis B during peginterferon alpha-2a treatment.

    PubMed

    Gozdas, Hasan Tahsin; Karabay, Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Peginterferon alpha-2a (PEG IFN α-2a) is frequently used in chronic hepatitis B (CHB)treatment. Numerous adverse events can be noted during this therapy such as flu-like disease, rash, weight loss and depression. However, PEG IFN α-2a related ototoxicity seems to be an uncommon entity. Ototoxicity can be detected objectively by audiometry. In this paper, we present a case of CHB who developed reversible bilateral ototoxicity during PEG IFN α-2a treatment. Due to ototoxicity detected objectively by audiogram, treatment was ceased at sixth month and ototoxicity completely recovered one month after stopping the drug. PMID:25821325

  11. Simeprevir added to peginterferon and ribavirin lessens time with fatigue, depressive symptoms and functional limitations in patients with chronic hepatitis C compared with peginterferon and ribavirin: results from 1161 patients in the QUEST-1, QUEST-2 and PROMISE studies.

    PubMed

    Scott, J; Gilles, L; Fu, M; Brohan, E; Panter, C; Arbuckle, R; Jessner, W; Beumont, M

    2015-08-01

    The value of adding simeprevir (SMV) vs placebo (PBO) to peginterferon and ribavirin (PR) for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection was examined using patient-reported outcomes (PROs); further, concordance of PROs with virology endpoints and adverse events (AEs) was explored. Patients (n = 768 SMV/PR, n = 393 PBO/PR) rated fatigue (FSS), depressive symptoms (CES-D) and functional impairment (WPAI: Hepatitis C Productivity, Daily Activity and Absenteeism) at baseline and throughout treatment in three randomised, double-blind trials comparing the addition of SMV or PBO during initial 12 weeks of PR. PR was administered for 48 weeks (PBO group) and 24/48 weeks (SMV group) using a response-guided therapy (RGT) approach. Mean PRO scores (except Absenteeism) worsened from baseline to Week 4 to the same extent in both groups but reverted after Week 24 for SMV/PR and only after Week 48 for PBO/PR. Accordingly, there was a significantly lower area under the curve (baseline-Week 60, AUC60 ) and fewer weeks with clinically important worsening of scores in the SMV/PR group at any time point. Incidences of patients with fatigue and anaemia AEs were similar in both groups, but FSS scores showed that clinically important increases in fatigue lasted a mean of 6.9 weeks longer with PBO/PR (P < 0.001). PRO score subgroup analysis indicated better outcomes for patients who met the criteria for RGT or achieved sustained virological response 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12); differences in mean PRO scores associated with fibrosis level were only observed with PBO/PR. Greater efficacy of SMV/PR enabled reduced treatment duration and reduced time with PR-related AEs without adding to AE severity. PMID:25487355

  12. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... B Virus Infection Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B (Recombinant) Vaccine Hepatitis B Vaccine Peginterferon Alfa-2a (HBV, HCV) ... 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) Vaccine, Recombinant Human Papillomavirus Bivalent (types 16 and 18) Vaccine, ...

  13. Pre-existence and Persistence of Resistant Minority Hepatitis C Virus Variants in Genotype 1-Infected Patients Treated With Simeprevir/Peginterferon/Ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Fevery, Bart; Thys, Kim; Van Eygen, Veerle; Verbinnen, Thierry; Van Rossem, Elizabeth; Buelens, Annemie; Aerssens, Jeroen; Witek, James; Picchio, Gaston; De Meyer, Sandra; Lenz, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pre-existence of minority hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants and their impact on treatment outcome, as well as the persistence of emerging resistant variants posttreatment in patients failing treatment with simeprevir/peginterferon/ribavirin (SMV/PR), were assessed by deep sequencing (DS). Methods. Population sequencing (PS) and Illumina DS were performed on HCV genotype 1 isolates from patients treated with SMV/PR in Phase 2b (PILLAR [NCT00882908] and ASPIRE [NCT00980330]) and Phase 3 (QUEST-1 [NCT01289782], QUEST-2 [NCT01290679], and PROMISE [NCT01281839]) trials. Results. Minority polymorphisms (ie, detected pretreatment by DS only) reducing SMV activity in vitro were uncommon (3.6%, 19 of 534 patients). These SMV-resistant minority polymorphisms were detected in similar proportions of patients achieving (3.7%) and not achieving (3.3%) sustained virologic response with SMV/PR and generally did not emerge as major variants at time of failure. SMV-resistant variants emerging at time of failure were no longer detected at end of study in 69.3% and 52.0% of the patients by PS and DS, respectively. Conclusions. Minority polymorphisms did not impact outcome of SMV/PR treatment. The majority of emerging variants that became undetectable at end of study by PS were also undetectable by DS. These results suggest no added value of DS for clinical usage of SMV. PMID:27186579

  14. Impact of Safety-Related Dose Reductions or Discontinuations on Sustained Virologic Response in HCV-Infected Patients: Results from the GUARD-C Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Graham R.; Coppola, Carmine; Derbala, Moutaz; Ferenci, Peter; Orlandini, Alessandra; Reddy, K. Rajender; Tallarico, Ludovico; Shiffman, Mitchell L.; Ahlers, Silke; Bakalos, Georgios; Hassanein, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, peginterferon alfa/ribavirin remains relevant in many resource-constrained settings. The non-randomized GUARD-C cohort investigated baseline predictors of safety-related dose reductions or discontinuations (sr-RD) and their impact on sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients receiving peginterferon alfa/ribavirin in routine practice. Methods A total of 3181 HCV-mono-infected treatment-naive patients were assigned to 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon alfa/ribavirin by their physician. Patients were categorized by time-to-first sr-RD (Week 4/12). Detailed analyses of the impact of sr-RD on SVR24 (HCV RNA <50 IU/mL) were conducted in 951 Caucasian, noncirrhotic genotype (G)1 patients assigned to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin for 48 weeks. The probability of SVR24 was identified by a baseline scoring system (range: 0–9 points) on which scores of 5 to 9 and <5 represent high and low probability of SVR24, respectively. Results SVR24 rates were 46.1% (754/1634), 77.1% (279/362), 68.0% (514/756), and 51.3% (203/396), respectively, in G1, 2, 3, and 4 patients. Overall, 16.9% and 21.8% patients experienced ≥1 sr-RD for peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, respectively. Among Caucasian noncirrhotic G1 patients: female sex, lower body mass index, pre-existing cardiovascular/pulmonary disease, and low hematological indices were prognostic factors of sr-RD; SVR24 was lower in patients with ≥1 vs. no sr-RD by Week 4 (37.9% vs. 54.4%; P = 0.0046) and Week 12 (41.7% vs. 55.3%; P = 0.0016); sr-RD by Week 4/12 significantly reduced SVR24 in patients with scores <5 but not ≥5. Conclusions In conclusion, sr-RD to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin significantly impacts on SVR24 rates in treatment-naive G1 noncirrhotic Caucasian patients. Baseline characteristics can help select patients with a high probability of SVR24 and a low probability of sr-RD with

  15. [Predicting side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A with ribaverin].

    PubMed

    Sarkisiants, N K; Grigorian, É G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the commonest side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A (PEG-IFN) and ribaverin (RBV) and the influence of various factors on their development. The work was done in the Department of Infectious Disease, Erevan State Medical University. Monitoring 16 adverse reactions was carried out with the use of special tables within 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after the onset of therapy in patients with genotypes 2 and 3 and in addition after 8, 10 and 12 months in patients with genotype 1. The influence of independent prognostic factors was estimated by logistic regression analysis. The commonest side effects of PEG-IFN plus RBV therapy were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, weight loss, depression, fatigue, and insomnia that occurred at one time or another in more than half of the patients. Weight loss during therapy amounted to 8.36 kg (95% CI 6.7-10) (maximum 21 kg). Myalgia, anorexia, arthralgia, headache, alopecia, and vomiting were documented in 20-50% of the cases. Anemia, pruritis, eruption, erythema, and hair shedding at injection sites occurred in 1/4 of the patients. It is concluded that logistic regression analysis with matching selected prognostic factors permits to estimate the probability of such side effects as weight loss, flu-like syndrome, and myalgia. PMID:24159787

  16. Regional differences in hepatitis C treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin in Japan: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Masaki, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate regional differences in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin in Japan and to develop and validate statistical models for analysis of regional differences, using generalized linear mixed models. Methods Individuals with chronic HCV infection were identified from the Japanese Interferon Database (registered from December 2009 to April 2013). The total sustained virologic response rate and the rate in each prefecture were calculated. In the analysis using generalized linear mixed models, the following four models were constructed: 1) prefecture as a fixed effect, 2) prefecture and other confounding variables as fixed effects, 3) prefecture as a random effect, and 4) prefecture as a random effect and other confounding variables as fixed effects. The quality of the model fit was assessed using the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS Version 9.4 for Windows. Results From 36 prefectures, 16,349 cases were recorded in the study period. Of these, 4,677 were excluded according to certain criteria. The total sustained virologic response rate was 59.9% (range, 43.9%–71.6%). The statistical model including prefecture as a random effect and other confounding variables as fixed effects showed the best fit based on the Akaike information criterion (13,830.92) and Bayesian information criterion (13,845.17). Conclusion Regional differences may exist in HCV infection treatment in Japan. The model including prefecture as a random effect and other confounding variables as fixed effects was appropriate for analysis of such regional differences. Additional studies considering the medical situations of each patient would provide useful information that could contribute to improve and standardize HCV infection treatment. PMID:27042013

  17. Peginterferon Lambda-1a Is Associated with a Low Incidence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Chronic Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, Paul; Hillson, Jan; Gray, Todd; Shemanski, Lynn; Dimitrova, Dessislava; Srinivasan, Subasree

    2015-11-01

    Peginterferon alfa (alfa) increases the risk of autoimmune disease. Peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda) acts through a receptor with a more liver-specific distribution compared to the alfa receptor. In a phase-2b study, 525 treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection received ribavirin and Lambda interferon (120, 180, or 240 μg) or alfa interferon (180 μg) for 24 (genotypes 2 and 3) or 48 (genotypes 1 and 4) weeks. Retrospective analysis found that adverse events of MedDRA-coded thyroid dysfunction and abnormal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were significantly more frequent with alfa versus Lambda (12% versus 2.6% and 15.2% versus 3.4%, respectively, both P<0.0001). Most Lambda recipients with abnormal TSH had levels below the lower limit of normal; the frequency of low and high TSH was similar in alfa recipients with abnormal TSH. Blinded review by an endocrinologist found that new-onset primary hypothyroidism or painless thyroiditis was less frequent with Lambda versus alfa (0.5% and 1.8% versus 5.3% and 7.5%, respectively, P<0.0001). Most TSH elevations reflected new-onset hypothyroidism requiring treatment, while most markedly suppressed TSH values reflected probable painless thyroiditis and resolved without sequelae. In conclusion, HCV-infected patients treated with Lambda/ribavirin experienced fewer adverse events of thyroid dysfunction compared with patients treated with alfa/ribavirin. PMID:26376344

  18. Highly effective peginterferon α-2a plus ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C in hemophilia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Suh Yoon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Lee, Youn Jae; Park, Sung Jae; Yoo, Ki Young

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a major comorbidity in patients with hemophilia. However, there are no published data on the efficacy of antiviral therapy in Korea. We assessed the safety and efficacy of combination therapy with peginterferon α-2a plus ribavirin for CHC in hemophilia. Methods Patients (n=115) were enrolled between March 2007 and December 2008. Seventy-seven patients were genotype 1 or 6, and 38 patients were genotype 2 or 3. We evaluated rapid virologic responses (RVRs), early virologic response (EVRs), end-of-treatment response (ETRs), sustained virologic response (SVRs), and relapses. Safety evaluations included adverse events and laboratory tests. Results Eleven patients were excluded from the study because they had been treated previously. Among the remaining 104 treatment-naïve patients, RVR was achieved in 64 (60.6%), ETR was achieved in 95 (91.3%), and SVR was achieved in 89 (85.6%). Relapse occurred in eight patients (8.9%). Common adverse events were hair loss (56.7%) and headache (51.0%). Common hematologic adverse events were neutropenia (22.1%), anemia (27.9%), and thrombocytopenia (3.8%). However, there were no serious adverse events such as bleeding. RVR was the only predictor of SVR in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Peginterferon α-2a plus ribavirin combination treatment produced a favorable response rate in CHC patients with hemophilia without serious adverse events. PMID:26157749

  19. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses of annualized relapse rate over 2 years in the ADVANCE trial of peginterferon beta-1a in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Scott D; Kieseier, Bernd C; Arnold, Douglas L; Shang, Shulian; Liu, Shifang; Hung, Serena; Sabatella, Guido

    2016-09-01

    ADVANCE was a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study in 1512 patients aged 18-65 years with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, which demonstrated that peginterferon beta-1a 125 mcg administered subcutaneously every 2 or 4 weeks led to significant reductions in annualized relapse rate (ARR) compared with placebo. This analysis examined ARR over 2 years in ADVANCE across subgroups. Patients were treated with peginterferon beta-1a every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks, or placebo during Year 1. Thereafter, patients on placebo were re-randomized to peginterferon beta-1a every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks (delayed treatment). Subgroup analyses were conducted by demographics and baseline disease characteristics. The following results compared ARR in these subgroups for patients in continuous 2-week treatment versus continuous 4-week treatment. ARR was similar in most demographic and baseline disease characteristic subgroups evaluated within the peginterferon beta-1a every-2-week arm or every-4-week arm over 2 years. Although for both doses some differences in the point estimates for ARR were noted among the subgroups, considerable overlap in the confidence intervals suggested that the efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a is similar in all patients irrespective of gender, age, body weight, geographical region, and disease activity at initiation of treatment. Within each peginterferon beta-1a dosing group, ARR was generally similar across most subgroups. PMID:27314959

  20. Patient education improves adherence to peg-interferon and ribavirin in chronic genotype 2 or 3 hepatitis C virus infection: A prospective, real-life, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cacoub, Patrice; Ouzan, Denis; Melin, Pascal; Lang, Jean-Philippe; Rotily, Michel; Fontanges, Thierry; Varastet, Marina; Chousterman, Michel; Marcellin, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of therapeutic education on adherence to antiviral treatment and sustained virological response (SVR) in a real-life setting in genotype 2/3 hepatitis C, as there are few adherence data in genotype 2/3 infection, even from randomized trials. METHODS: This prospective survey included genotype 2/3 patients who received peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. There was no intervention. Adherence was self-reported over the past 4 wk (peg-interferon) or 7 d (ribavirin). Adherence to bitherapy was defined as adherence to the two drugs for ≥ 20 wk. SVR was defined as undetectable RNA ≥ 12wk after the end of treatment. RESULTS: 370/674 patients received education during the first 3 mo of treatment. After 6 mo, adherence to bitherapy was higher in educated patients (61% vs 47%, P = 0.01). Adherence to peg-interferon was 78% vs 69% (P = 0.06). Adherence to ribavirin was 70% vs 56% (P = 0.006). The SVR (77% vs 70%, P = 0.05) and relapse (10% vs 16%, P = 0.09) rates tended to be improved. After adjustment for baseline differences, education improved adherence [Odds ratio (OR) 1.58, P = 0.04] but not the SVR (OR 1.54, P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: In genotype 2/3 patients, therapeutic education helped maintain real-life adherence to bitherapy. PMID:18985810

  1. Factors associated with early virological response to peginterferon-α-2a/ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    García-Samaniego, Javier; Romero, Miriam; Granados, Rafael; Alemán, Remedios; Jorge Juan, Miguel; Suárez, Dolores; Pérez, Ramón; Castellano, Gregorio; González-Portela, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of sociodemographic/clinical factors on early virological response (EVR) to peginterferon/ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study in Hepatology Units of 91 Spanish hospitals. CHC patients treated with peginterferon α-2a plus ribavirin were included. EVR was defined as undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV)-ribonucleic acid (RNA) or ≥ 2 log HCV-RNA decrease after 12 wk of treatment. A bivariate analysis of sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with EVR was carried out. Independent factors associated with an EVR were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis that included the following baseline demographic and clinical variables: age (≤ 40 years vs > 40 years), gender, race, educational level, marital status and family status, weight, alcohol and tobacco consumption, source of HCV infection, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (≤ 85 IU/mL vs > 85 IU/mL), serum ferritin, serum HCV-RNA concentration (< 400 000 vs ≥ 400 000), genotype (1/4 vs 3/4), cirrhotic status and ribavirin dose (800/1000/1200 mg/d). RESULTS: A total of 1014 patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 44.3 ± 9.8 years, 70% were male, and 97% were Caucasian. The main sources of HCV infection were intravenous drug abuse (25%) and blood transfusion (23%). Seventy-eight percent were infected with HCV genotype 1/4 (68% had genotype 1) and 22% with genotypes 2/3. The HCV-RNA level was > 400 000 IU/mL in 74% of patients. The mean ALT and AST levels were 88.4 ± 69.7 IU/mL and 73.9 ± 64.4 IU/mL, respectively, and mean GGT level was 82 ± 91.6 IU/mL. The mean ferritin level was 266 ± 284.8 μg/L. Only 6.2% of patients presented with cirrhosis. All patients received 180 mg of peginterferon α-2a. The most frequently used ribavirin doses were 1000 mg/d (41

  2. Effect of Peginterferon or Ribavirin Dosing on Efficacy of Therapy With Telaprevir in Treatment-Experienced Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C and Advanced Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Janczewska, Ewa; Flisiak, Robert; Zarebska-Michaluk, Dorota; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Berak, Hanna; Dobracka, Beata; Librant-Suska, Marta; Lojewski, Wladyslaw; Jurczyk, Krzysztof; Musialik, Joanna; Postawa-Klosińska, Barbara; Wroblewski, Jacek; Augustyniak, Krystyna; Dudziak, Marek; Olszok, Iwona; Ruszala, Agata; Pisula, Arkadiusz; Lapinski, Tadeusz; Kryczka, Wieslaw; Horban, Andrzej; Dobracki, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the safety, efficacy, and impact of ribavirin and peginterferon dose reduction on complete early virologic response and sustained virologic response (SVR) to triple therapy with telaprevir in treatment-experienced patients with advanced liver fibrosis. Treatment was initiated for 211 patients who failed treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin, with bridging fibrosis (F3, n = 68) or cirrhosis (F4, n = 143), including 103 (49%) null-responders (NR), 30 (14%) partial responders (PR), and 78 (37%) relapsers (REL). Impaired liver function (ILF) platelets <100,000/mm3 or albumin <35 g/L were present in 40 patients. The distribution of hepatitis C virus subtypes was: 1a, 1b, or 1, with undetermined subtype for 10 (5%), 187 (89%), and 14 (6%) patients, respectively. Treatment was started with peginterferon alpha-2a or alpha-2b, ribavirin, and telaprevir at standard doses. The overall SVR24 rate was 56% and was lower in cirrhotic patients (NR: 35%, PR: 40%, and REL: 63%, respectively) than in patients with bridging fibrosis (NR: 50%, PR: 75%, and REL: 75%, respectively). The lowest probability of SVR24 was in NRs with ILF (26%). The SVR24 rate significantly decreased in NRs receiving <60% vs >60% of the total ribavirin dose (23% vs 44%, respectively) or <80% vs >80% of the total ribavirin dose (33% vs 48%, respectively). A significant SVR24 decrease was noted subsequent to a total peginterferon dose reduction, both when comparing patients who received <60% vs >60% of the total dose (NR: 0% vs 44%; REL: 33% vs 68%) and patients who received <80% vs >80% of the total dose (NR: 17% vs 50%; REL: 46% vs 71%). Serious adverse events were observed in 31 patients (15%). Deaths occurred in 4 patients. All of the deceased subjects were cirrhotic members of the ILF (baseline serum albumin level <35 g/L and/or platelet count <100,000/mm3) group. Ribavirin dose reduction did not affect efficacy in REL but did in NR. Peginterferon dose reduction

  3. Aplastic anemia and severe pancytopenia during treatment with peg-interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lens, Sabela; Calleja, Jose L; Campillo, Ana; Carrión, Jose A; Broquetas, Teresa; Perello, Christie; de la Revilla, Juan; Mariño, Zoe; Londoño, María-Carlota; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose M; Urbano-Ispizua, Álvaro; Forns, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Telaprevir and Boceprevir are the first direct acting antivirals approved for chronic hepatitis C in combination with peg-interferon alfa and ribavirin. Pancytopenia due to myelotoxicity caused by these drugs may occur, but severe hematological abnormalities or aplastic anemia (AA) have not been described. We collected all cases of severe pancytopenia observed during triple therapy with telaprevir in four Spanish centers since approval of the drug in 2011. Among 142 cirrhotic patients receiving treatment, 7 cases of severe pancytopenia (5%) were identified and three were consistent with the diagnosis of AA. Mean age was 59 years, five patients had compensated cirrhosis and two patients had severe hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Severe pancytopenia was diagnosed a median of 10 wk after the initiation of therapy. Three patients had pre-treatment hematological abnormalities related to splenomegaly. In six patients, antiviral treatment was interrupted at the onset of hematological abnormalities. Two patients died due to septic complications and one patient due to acute alveolar hemorrhage. The remaining patients recovered. Severe pancytopenia and especially AA, are not rare during triple therapy with telaprevir in patients with advanced liver disease. Close monitoring is imperative in this setting to promptly detect serious hematological disorders and to prevent further complications. PMID:25954117

  4. Aplastic anemia and severe pancytopenia during treatment with peg-interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lens, Sabela; Calleja, Jose L; Campillo, Ana; Carrión, Jose A; Broquetas, Teresa; Perello, Christie; de la Revilla, Juan; Mariño, Zoe; Londoño, María-Carlota; Sánchez-Tapias, Jose M; Urbano-Ispizua, Álvaro; Forns, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Telaprevir and Boceprevir are the first direct acting antivirals approved for chronic hepatitis C in combination with peg-interferon alfa and ribavirin. Pancytopenia due to myelotoxicity caused by these drugs may occur, but severe hematological abnormalities or aplastic anemia (AA) have not been described. We collected all cases of severe pancytopenia observed during triple therapy with telaprevir in four Spanish centers since approval of the drug in 2011. Among 142 cirrhotic patients receiving treatment, 7 cases of severe pancytopenia (5%) were identified and three were consistent with the diagnosis of AA. Mean age was 59 years, five patients had compensated cirrhosis and two patients had severe hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Severe pancytopenia was diagnosed a median of 10 wk after the initiation of therapy. Three patients had pre-treatment hematological abnormalities related to splenomegaly. In six patients, antiviral treatment was interrupted at the onset of hematological abnormalities. Two patients died due to septic complications and one patient due to acute alveolar hemorrhage. The remaining patients recovered. Severe pancytopenia and especially AA, are not rare during triple therapy with telaprevir in patients with advanced liver disease. Close monitoring is imperative in this setting to promptly detect serious hematological disorders and to prevent further complications. PMID:25954117

  5. Elevated on-treatment levels of serum IFN-gamma is associated with treatment failure of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Ying; Huang, Ching-I; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Liang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Hung; Hou, Nai-Jen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been associated with cytokine imbalance. Cytokine dynamics in response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy have an impact on the treatment efficacy for HCV patients. Ninety-two treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C patients were treated with 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy according to their viral genotypes. Sustained virologic response (SVR) is defined as undetectable HCV RNA throughout a 24-week post-treatment follow-up period. Dynamic serum levels of the following cytokines: (1) Th1-mediated cytokines: IFN-γ, interleukin-2, and TNF-alpha; (2)Th2-mediated cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 and (3)immuno-modulatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interleukin-12 were determined by Fluorescent Bead immunoassay. Serial dynamic cytokine expression demonstrated that not only elevated IFN-γ concentrations at specific time points but also the total IFN-γ amount was strongly linked to non-response in peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. IFN-γ levels could serve as an independent predictor for SVR analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test. The accuracy of discriminating responders from non-responders was acceptable when IFN-γ cut-off levels were set at 180, 120, and 40 pg/ml at the 4th week, 12th week, and end-of-treatment of therapy, respectively. Elevated on-treatment IFN-γ concentration was significantly associated with treatment failure among interleukin-28B rs8099917TT carriers and those patients failed to achieve rapid virologic response. PMID:26965318

  6. Management Strategies for Flu-Like Symptoms and Injection-Site Reactions Associated with Peginterferon Beta-1a

    PubMed Central

    Centonze, Diego; Newsome, Scott D.; Huang, DeRen; Robertson, Christopher; You, Xiaojun; Sabatella, Guido; Evilevitch, Vladimir; Leahy, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Flu-like symptoms (FLSs) and injection-site reactions (ISRs) have been reported with interferon beta treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought to obtain consensus on the characteristics/management of FLSs/ISRs in patients with relapsing-remitting MS based on experiences from the randomized, placebo-controlled ADVANCE study of peginterferon beta-1a. Methods: ADVANCE investigators with a predefined number of enrolled patients were eligible to participate in a consensus-generating exercise using a modified Delphi method. An independent steering committee oversaw the development of two sequential Delphi questionnaires. An average rating (AR) of 2.7 or more was defined as consensus a priori. Results: Thirty and 29 investigators (ie, responders) completed questionnaires 1 and 2, respectively, representing 374 patients from ADVANCE. Responders reported that the incidence/duration of FLSs/ISRs in their typical patient generally declined after 3 months of treatment. Responders reached consensus that FLSs typically last up to 24 hours (AR = 3.17) and have mild/moderate effects on activities of daily living (AR = 3.34). Patients should initiate acetaminophen/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment on a scheduled basis (AR = 3.31) and change the timing of injection (AR = 3.28) to manage FLSs. Injection-site rotation/cooling and drug administration at room temperature (all AR ≥ 3.10) were recommended for managing ISRs. Patient education on FLSs/ISRs was advocated before treatment initiation. Conclusions: Delphi responders agreed on the management strategies for FLSs/ISRs and agreed that patient education is critical to set treatment expectations and promote adherence. PMID:27551246

  7. Nanomedicines in the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in Asian patients: optimizing use of peginterferon alfa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Hua; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2014-01-01

    Asia is endemic for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which is the leading cause of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation worldwide. HCV has six major genotypes and each HCV genotype has its specific geographic distribution. HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 6 are common in Asia. The aim of HCV treatment is to eradicate the virus by effective therapeutic agents; viral clearance is durable after long-term post-treatment follow-up. In most Asian countries, peginterferon alfa (PEG-IFN α) in combination with ribavirin remains the standard of care, and the overall sustained viral response (SVR) rate in Asian HCV patients is higher than that in Western patients. The differences are most significant in patients with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection, which is attributed to the higher frequency of IFN-responsive or favorable interleukin-28B (IL-28B) genotype in Asian populations than in other ethnic populations. In addition, the introduction of response-guided therapy, where the optimized treatment duration is based on the early viral kinetics during the first 12 weeks of treatment, increases the SVR rate. Recently, telaprevir or boceprevir-based triple therapy was found to further improve the SVR rate in treated and untreated HCV-1 patients and has become the new standard of care in Western and some Asian countries. Many novel direct-acting antiviral agents, either in combination with PEG-IFN α plus ribavirin or used as IFN-free regimens are under active investigation. At the time of this writing, simeprevir and sofosbuvir have been approved in the US. Because the SVR rates in Asian HCV patients receiving PEG-IFN α plus ribavirin therapy are high, health care providers should judiciously determine the clinical usefulness of these novel agents on the basis of treatment duration, anticipated viral responses, patient tolerance, financial burdens, and drug accessibility. PMID:24812506

  8. Predictors of psychopathological outcome during peg-interferon and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic HCV-correlated hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Prati, Gianmaria; Palazzo, M Carlotta; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Cavallaro, Flaminia; Aghemo, Alessio; Colombo, Massimo; Altamura, A Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Peg-interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy is reported to induce psychiatric symptoms and syndromes in 20% of patients treated for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. Present study was aimed to quantify the phenomenon and assess the influence of psychiatric counseling over antiviral completion rate and the use of psychometric tools, in terms of prediction of psychopathological outcome. Ninety-six HCV patients were assessed, before antiviral treatment, by means of the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), Symptom Checklist-90, and Internal State Scale (ISS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables and completion rate were collected. Binary logistic regression was performed to evaluate whether scores were predictive of psychiatric visit, development of psychiatric disorders, and need for treatment. Ninety-five patients (99%) completed antiviral treatment; 27 subjects (29%) needed psychiatric visit: among them, mood disorder was diagnosed in 15 (16%) and were pharmacologically treated. Baseline SDS and MDQ higher scores were found to be predictive of psychiatric visit [odds ratio (OR)=1.258, P<0.001 and OR=1.425, P=0.05, respectively]. Furthermore, higher MDQ score (P=0.017) and ISS hostility scores (OR=1.048, P=0.014) at baseline predicted the subsequent development of mood episodes, while ISS activation correlated negatively (OR=0.948, P=0.009). Finally, the need for treatment was predicted by higher scores at the MDQ and ISS activation items (OR=2.467, P=0.030; OR=0.970, P=0.038). Present findings suggest that psychiatric counseling may be needed in almost 30% of HCV patients on antiviral treatment, with positive influence over the completion rate. Baseline higher scores at psychometric questionnaires-MDQ-in particular, predictors of psychopathological outcome during Peg-IFN and RBV therapy in patients with chronic HCV-correlated hepatitis reflecting individual functioning before starting antiviral therapy and positive history

  9. High post-treatment absolute monocyte count predicted hepatocellular carcinoma risk in HCV patients who failed peginterferon/ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Chun-Che; Huang, Pi-Teh; Wen, Chen-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Salient studies have investigated the association between host inflammatory response and cancer. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that peripheral absolute monocyte counts (AMC) could impart an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients after a failed peginterferon/ribavirin (PR) combination therapy. A total of 723 chronic HCV-infected patients were treated with PR, of which 183 (25.3 %) patients did not achieve a sustained virological response (non-SVR). Post-treatment AMC values were measured at 6 months after end of PR treatment. Fifteen (2.8 %) of 540 patients with an SVR developed HCC during a median follow-up period of 41.4 months, and 14 (7.7 %) of 183 non-SVR patients developed HCC during a median follow-up of 36.8 months (log rank test for SVR vs. non-SVR, P = 0.002). Cox regression analysis revealed that post-treatment AFP level (HR 1.070; 95 % CI = 1.024-1.119, P = 0.003) and post-treatment aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥0.5 (HR 4.401; 95 % CI = 1.463-13.233, P = 0.008) were independent variables associated with HCC development for SVR patients. For non-SVR patients, diabetes (HR 5.750; 95 % CI = 1.387-23.841, P = 0.016), post treatment AMC ≥370 mm(-3) (HR 5.805; 95 % CI = 1.268-26.573, P = 0.023), and post-treatment APRI ≥1.5 (HR 10.905; 95 % CI = 2.493-47.697, P = 0.002) were independent risks associated with HCC. In conclusion, post-treatment AMC has a role in prognostication of HCC development in HCV-infected patients who failed to achieve an SVR after PR combination therapy. PMID:26662957

  10. Analysis of peginterferon β-1a exposure and Gd-enhanced lesion or T2 lesion response in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Hang, Yaming; Hu, Xiao; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Shifang; Deykin, Aaron; Nestorov, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of subcutaneous (SC) peginterferon β-1a exposure on reduction of gadolinium-enhanced (Gd+) lesion count over time was evaluated in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in a Phase 3 study (ADVANCE). Patients were randomized to receive SC injections of placebo (n = 500), 125 mcg every-2-weeks (n = 512), or 125 mcg every-4-weeks (n = 500) for 1 year, and then active treatment in the second year. Steady state 4-week AUC (AUCss) was derived for each individual based on sparse pharmacokinetic (PK) sample and a population PK model. Several longitudinal count models, including marginal, mixed effect, and mixture models, were compared to explore the relationship between AUCss and Gd+ lesion count (or T2 lesion count). A mixture model which divided subjects into two subpopulations by low and high baseline lesion activity was found to yield best goodness-of-fit for the data. In this model, the point estimate and 95 % CI for drug effect slope on log(λ) are -0.0256 (-0.0304, -0.0216) for Gd+ lesion and -0.0147 (-0.0170, -0.0124) for T2 lesion. This suggested that reduction of Gd+ lesion (or T2 lesion) count over time is significantly related to SC peginterferon β-1a exposure, and that the increased reduction lesion count with the every-2-week regimen versus the every-4-week regimen was driven by the higher exposure achieved in that treatment arm (mean Gd+ lesion count 0.2 and 0.7 at Year 2, respectively). The every-2-week regimen produced an exposure range that was close to the plateau range of the exposure-response curve, supporting its selection as the regulatory approved dosage. PMID:27299457

  11. Effect of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Core and NS5A Mutations on Response to Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Arai, Makoto; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b core- and NS5A-region mutations are associated with response to peginterferon α-2b plus ribavirin combination therapy. A total of 103 patients with high HCV genotype 1b viral loads (≥ 100 KIU/mL) were treated with the combination therapy. Pretreatment mutations in the core region and interferon sensitivity determining region (ISDR) in the NS5A region were analyzed. In univariate analysis, arginine and leucine at positions 70 and 91 in the core region, defined as double wild (DW)-type, were associated with early virologic response (p = 0.002), sustained virologic response (SVR) (p = 0.004), and non-response (p = 0.005). Non-threonine at position 110 was associated with SVR (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed the following pretreatment predictors of SVR: hemoglobin level ≥ 14 g/dL (odds ratio (OR) 6.2, p = 0.04); platelet count ≥ 14 × 10⁴/mm³ (OR 5.2, p = 0.04); aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio < 0.9 (OR 6.17, p = 0.009); DW-type (OR 6.8, p = 0.02); non-threonine at position 110 (OR 14.5, p = 0.03); and ≥ 2 mutations in the ISDR (OR 12.3, p = 0.02). Patients with non-DW-type, non-threonine at position 110, and < 2 ISDR mutations showed significantly lower SVR rates than others (11/45 (24.4%) vs. 27/37 (73.0%), respectively; p < 0.001). SVR can be predicted through core and NS5A region mutations and host factors like hemoglobin, platelet count, and AST/ALT ratio in HCV genotype 1b-infected patients treated with peginterferon and ribavirin combination therapy. PMID:26370958

  12. Role of hepatitis C virus substitutions and interleukin-28B polymorphism on response to peginterferon plus ribavirin in a prospective study of response-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Liang, C-M; Hu, T-H; Lu, S-N; Hung, C-H; Huang, C-M; Wang, J-H; Yen, Y-H; Chen, C-H; Chang, K-C; Tsai, M-C; Kuo, Y-H; Lee, C-M

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that amino acid (aa) substitutions in the core region and NS5A interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as well as genetic polymorphisms in the interleukin-28B (IL-28B) locus affect the outcome of interferon (IFN)-based therapies. We aimed to investigate the role of these factors on response to peginterferon plus ribavirin in a prospective study of response-guided therapy. The aa sequences in core region and ISDR and rs12979860 genotypes were analysed in 115 HCV-1 patients. The treatment was 24 weeks for patients achieving a rapid virological response (RVR), 48 weeks for those with an early virological response (EVR) and early terminated in those without an EVR. A sustained virological response (SVR) was achieved in 82% of 34 RVR patients, 45% of 74 EVR patients and 0% of seven non-EVR patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that ISDR mutation (≥2) [odds ratio(OR): 6.024], double core 70/91 mutations (OR: 0.136), and platelet counts≥15×10(4) /μL (OR: 3.119) were independent pretreatment factors associated with SVR. Apart from rs12979860 CC genotype, low viral load and ISDR mutation (≥2) were significant factors predictive of RVR. Combination of rs12979860 genotype and baseline viral characteristics (viral load and core/ISDR mutations) could predict RVR and SVR with positive predictive value of 100% and 91%, and negative predictive value of 80% and 54%, respectively. In conclusion, pretreatment screening rs12979860 genotype and aa substitutions in the core region and ISDR could help identifying patients who are good candidates for peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy. PMID:24168255

  13. Effect of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Core and NS5A Mutations on Response to Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Arai, Makoto; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b core- and NS5A-region mutations are associated with response to peginterferon α-2b plus ribavirin combination therapy. A total of 103 patients with high HCV genotype 1b viral loads (≥100 KIU/mL) were treated with the combination therapy. Pretreatment mutations in the core region and interferon sensitivity determining region (ISDR) in the NS5A region were analyzed. In univariate analysis, arginine and leucine at positions 70 and 91 in the core region, defined as double wild (DW)-type, were associated with early virologic response (p = 0.002), sustained virologic response (SVR) (p = 0.004), and non-response (p = 0.005). Non-threonine at position 110 was associated with SVR (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed the following pretreatment predictors of SVR: hemoglobin level ≥ 14 g/dL (odds ratio (OR) 6.2, p = 0.04); platelet count ≥ 14 × 104/mm3 (OR 5.2, p = 0.04); aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio < 0.9 (OR 6.17, p = 0.009); DW-type (OR 6.8, p = 0.02); non-threonine at position 110 (OR 14.5, p = 0.03); and ≥2 mutations in the ISDR (OR 12.3, p = 0.02). Patients with non-DW-type, non-threonine at position 110, and <2 ISDR mutations showed significantly lower SVR rates than others (11/45 (24.4%) vs. 27/37 (73.0%), respectively; p < 0.001). SVR can be predicted through core and NS5A region mutations and host factors like hemoglobin, platelet count, and AST/ALT ratio in HCV genotype 1b-infected patients treated with peginterferon and ribavirin combination therapy. PMID:26370958

  14. Sustained Virologic Response at 24 Weeks after the End of Treatment Is a Better Predictor for Treatment Outcome in Real-World HCV-Infected Patients Treated by HCV NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors with Peginterferon plus Ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Tawada, Akinobu; Arai, Makoto; Mikami, Shigeru; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Direct-acting antiviral agents against HCV with or without peginterferon plus ribavirin result in higher eradication rates of HCV and shorter treatment duration. We examined which is better for predicting persistent virologic response, the assessment of serum HCV RNA at 12 or 24 weeks after the end of treatment for predicting sustained virologic response (SVR12 or SVR24, respectively) in patients treated by HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors with peginterferon plus ribavirin. Methods. In all, 149 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1b treated by peginterferon plus ribavirin with telaprevir or simeprevir were retrospectively analyzed: 59 and 90 patients were treated with telaprevir- and simeprevir-including regimens, respectively. HCV RNA was measured by TaqMan HCV Test, version 2.0, real-time PCR assay. SVR12 or SVR24, respectively, was defined as HCV RNA negativity at 12 or 24 weeks after ending treatment. Results. Total SVR rates were 78.0% and 66.7% in the telaprevir and simeprevir groups, respectively. In the telaprevir group, all 46 patients with SVR12 finally achieved SVR24. In the simeprevir group, 60 (93.8%) of the total 64 patients with SVR12 achieved SVR24, with the other 4 patients all being previous-treatment relapsers. Conclusions. SVR12 was suitable for predicting persistent virologic response in almost all cases. In simeprevir-including regimens, SVR12 could not always predict persistent virologic response. Clinicians should use SVR24 for predicting treatment outcome in the use of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors with peginterferon plus ribavirin for any group of real-world patients chronically infected with HCV. PMID:27076789

  15. An Open-Label Trial of 12-Week Simeprevir plus Peginterferon/Ribavirin (PR) in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 1 (GT1)

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Moreno, Christophe; Sarrazin, Christoph; Gschwantler, Michael; Foster, Graham R.; Craxí, Antonio; Buggisch, Peter; Ryan, Robert; Lenz, Oliver; Scott, Jane; Van Dooren, Gino; Lonjon-Domanec, Isabelle; Schlag, Michael; Buti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortening duration of peginterferon-based HCV treatment reduces associated burden for patients. Primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy against the minimally acceptable response rate 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and safety of simeprevir plus PR in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks. Additional objectives included the investigation of potential associations of rapid viral response and baseline factors with SVR12. Methods In this Phase III, open-label study in treatment-naïve HCV GT1 patients with F0–F2 fibrosis, patients with HCV-RNA <25 IU/mL (detectable/undetectable) at Week 2, and undetectable HCV-RNA at Weeks 4 and 8, stopped all treatment at Week 12. All other patients continued PR for a further 12 weeks. Baseline factors significantly associated with SVR12 were identified through logistic regression. Results Of 163 patients who participated in the study, 123 (75%) qualified for 12-week treatment; of these, 81 (66%) achieved SVR12. Baseline factors positively associated with SVR12 rates in patients receiving the 12-week regimen were: IL28B CC genotype: (94% SVR12); HCV RNA ≤800,000 IU/mL (82%); F0–F1 fibrosis (74%). Among all 163 patients, 94% experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE), 4% a serious AE, and 2.5% discontinued due to an AE. Reduced impairment in patient-reported outcomes was observed in the 12-week vs >12-week regimen. Conclusions Overall SVR12 rate (66%) was below the target of 80%, indicating that shortening of treatment with simeprevir plus PR to 12 weeks based on very early response is not effective. However, baseline factors associated with higher SVR12 rates were identified. Therefore, while Week 2 response alone is insufficient to predict efficacy, GT1 patients with favourable baseline factors may benefit from a shortened simeprevir plus PR regimen. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01846832 PMID:27428331

  16. Rapid Prediction of Treatment Futility of Boceprevir with Peginterferon-Ribavirin for Taiwanese Treatment Experienced Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Chieh; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Su, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chung-Feng; Cheng, Pin-Nan; Lo, Ching-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Mo, Lein-Ray; Wang, Chun-Hsiang; Hsu, Shih-Jer; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Su, Chien-Wei; Liu, Chun-Jen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of the boceprevir (BOC)-containing triple therapy in Taiwanese treatment-experienced patients remains elusive. After 4 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin lead-in therapy, patients with cirrhosis or previous null-response received triple therapy for 44 weeks; whereas others received 32 weeks of triple therapy followed by 12 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. Patients with HCV RNA > 100 IU/mL at week 12 or with detectable HCV RNA at week 24 of treatment were viewed as futile. A total of 123 patients received treatment. The rates of sustained virological response (SVR) and relapse were 66.7% and 8.9%, respectively by using intention-to-treat analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that factors associated with SVR included HCV-1b (odds ratio [OR]/ 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 19.23/1.76-525.15, P = 0.01), BOC adherence (7.69/1.55-48.78, P = 0.01), serum albumin (OR/CI:6.25/1.14-40.07, P = 0.03) levels and HCV RNA levels (OR/CI:0.34/0.12-0.79, P = 0.01). Twenty-six (21.1%) patients experienced severe adverse events (SAEs). Multivariate analysis revealed that APRI > 1.5 was the single factor associated with occurring SAEs (OR/CI: 3.77/ 0.97-14.98, P = 0.05). Merging the cut-off values of HCV RNA > 7 log IU/mL at baseline and HCV RNA > 6 log IU/mL at week 4 provided the earliest and best combing viral kinetics in predicting week 12/24 futility with the PPV of 100% and accuracy of 93.5%. HCV-1 treatment experienced Taiwanese patients treated with boceprevir-containing triple therapy in real world had comparable efficacy and safety profiles with those reported in clinical trials. Early viral kinetics before week 4 of treatment highly predicted futility at week 12 or 24 of treatment. PMID:26368130

  17. Rapid Prediction of Treatment Futility of Boceprevir with Peginterferon-Ribavirin for Taiwanese Treatment Experienced Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chi-Chieh; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Su, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chung-Feng; Cheng, Pin-Nan; Lo, Ching-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Mo, Lein-Ray; Wang, Chun-Hsiang; Hsu, Shih-Jer; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Su, Chien-Wei; Liu, Chun-Jen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of the boceprevir (BOC)-containing triple therapy in Taiwanese treatment-experienced patients remains elusive. After 4 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin lead-in therapy, patients with cirrhosis or previous null-response received triple therapy for 44 weeks; whereas others received 32 weeks of triple therapy followed by 12 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. Patients with HCV RNA > 100 IU/mL at week 12 or with detectable HCV RNA at week 24 of treatment were viewed as futile. A total of 123 patients received treatment. The rates of sustained virological response (SVR) and relapse were 66.7% and 8.9%, respectively by using intention-to-treat analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that factors associated with SVR included HCV-1b (odds ratio [OR]/ 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 19.23/1.76–525.15, P = 0.01), BOC adherence (7.69/1.55–48.78, P = 0.01), serum albumin (OR/CI:6.25/1.14–40.07, P = 0.03) levels and HCV RNA levels (OR/CI:0.34/0.12–0.79, P = 0.01). Twenty-six (21.1%) patients experienced severe adverse events (SAEs). Multivariate analysis revealed that APRI > 1.5 was the single factor associated with occurring SAEs (OR/CI: 3.77/ 0.97–14.98, P = 0.05). Merging the cut-off values of HCV RNA > 7 log IU/mL at baseline and HCV RNA > 6 log IU/mL at week 4 provided the earliest and best combing viral kinetics in predicting week 12/24 futility with the PPV of 100% and accuracy of 93.5%. HCV-1 treatment experienced Taiwanese patients treated with boceprevir-containing triple therapy in real world had comparable efficacy and safety profiles with those reported in clinical trials. Early viral kinetics before week 4 of treatment highly predicted futility at week 12 or 24 of treatment. PMID:26368130

  18. Estimating the likelihood of sustained virological response in chronic hepatitis C therapy.

    PubMed

    Mauss, S; Hueppe, D; John, C; Goelz, J; Heyne, R; Moeller, B; Link, R; Teuber, G; Herrmann, A; Spelter, M; Wollschlaeger, S; Baumgarten, A; Simon, K-G; Dikopoulos, N; Witthoeft, T

    2011-04-01

    The likelihood of a sustained virological response (SVR) is the most important factor for physicians and patients in the decision to initiate and continue therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. This study identified predictive factors for SVR with peginterferon plus ribavirin (RBV) in patients with CHC treated under 'real-life' conditions. The study cohort consisted of patients from a large, retrospective German multicentre, observational study who had been treated with peginterferon alfa-2a plus RBV or peginterferon alfa-2b plus RBV between the years 2000 and 2007. To ensure comparability regarding peginterferon therapies, patients were analysed in pairs matched by several baseline variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the effect of nonmatched baseline variables and treatment modality on SVR. Among 2378 patients (1189 matched pairs), SVR rates were 57.9% overall, 46.5% in HCV genotype 1/4-infected patients and 77.3% in genotype 2/3-infected patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, positive predictors of SVR were HCV genotype 2 infection, HCV genotype 3 infection, low baseline viral load and treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a. Negative predictors of SVR were higher age (≥40 years), elevated baseline gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and low baseline platelet count (<150,000/μL). Among patients treated with peginterferon plus RBV in routine clinical practice, genotype, baseline viral load, age, GGT level and platelet levels all predict the likelihood of treatment success. In patients matched by baseline characteristics, treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a may be a positive predictor of SVR when compared to peginterferon alfa-2b. PMID:20849436

  19. Predictors of viral kinetics to peginterferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in Japanese patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b.

    PubMed

    Akuta, Norio; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Kawamura, Yusuke; Yatsuji, Hiromi; Sezaki, Hitomi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Mariko; Arase, Yasuji; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2007-11-01

    For chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, evaluation of response to peginterferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy based on viral kinetics is useful as an early predictor of treatment efficacy, but the underlying mechanisms of the different viral kinetics to treatment are still unclear. The response to 48-week PEG-IFN-RBV combination therapy was evaluated in 160 Japanese adult patients infected with HCV genotype 1b and determined the rapid virological response (at 4 weeks), early virological response (at 12 weeks), end-of treatment response, and sustained virological response (6 months after end of treatment). The proportion of patients who showed rapid, early and sustained virological, and end-of treatment responses were 50%, 73%, 47%, and 71%, respectively. Furthermore, 66% of patients who achieved early virological response also showed sustained virological response. Multivariate analysis identified substitutions of amino acid (aa) 70 and 91 in the HCV core region (double-wild-type) as a predictor of early HCV-RNA negativity, rapid, early, and sustained virological responses and end-of treatment response, and lipid metabolic factors (high levels of LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol) as predictors of early and rapid virological responses and end-of treatment response. Male sex and low levels of alpha-fetoprotein were other predictors of sustained virological response. Furthermore, female sex and severity of liver fibrosis were determinants of lack of sustained virological response in spite of early virological response. This study identified predictors of efficacy of PEG-IFN-RBV therapy based on viral kinetics in Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1b. PMID:17854035

  20. Regional Differences in Hepatitis C Treatment with Peginterferon and Ribavirin in Japan in Both Genotype 1 and Genotype 2: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ide, Kazuki; Kawasaki, Yohei; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Masaki, Naohiko

    2016-09-01

    There has been no report on the genotype-dependent regional, especially prefectural, differences in hepatitis C treatment in Japan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the nationwide database. The registration period of the database was from December 2009 to April 2013. Individuals with chronic hepatitis C were identified from the database. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in each prefecture were calculated stratified by genotype. Confounding variables were identified using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The range of the point estimate of the adjusted odds ratio explained prefectural differences in treatment outcomes. During the registration period, 36 prefectures registered cases to the database. A total of 16349 cases were registered and 11653 cases were included in the analysis. The mean age was 57.9±10.5 years; 7950 (68.2%) had hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 3703 (31.8%) had HCV genotype 2. The range in SVR rates was 30.0 to 63.0% for genotype 1 and 55.0 to 100.0% for genotype 2. In the multivariate analysis, the ranges of the adjusted odds ratio of each prefecture were 0.658 to 2.125 for genotype 1 and 0.364 to 2.630 for genotype 2. Our results suggest that regional, particularly prefectural, differences in chronic hepatitis C treatment with peg-interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) exist in Japan and that these regional differences may similarly exist both in HCV genotypes 1 and 2. Additional studies using these methods, considering medical situations in each prefecture and new treatments regimens, could greatly contribute to improving and standardizing chronic hepatitis C treatment. PMID:27384444

  1. Sofosbuvir with peginterferon-ribavirin for 12 weeks in previously treated patients with hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 and cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lawitz, Eric; Poordad, Fred; Brainard, Diana M; Hyland, Robert H; An, Di; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Symonds, William T; McHutchison, John G; Membreno, Fernando E

    2015-01-01

    Sofosbuvir (SOF) in combination with ribavirin (RBV) for 12 or 24 weeks is the current standard of care for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 2 and 3, respectively. However, in clinical trials treatment-experienced patients, particularly those with cirrhosis, had suboptimal sustained virological response (SVR) rates. We assessed the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus peginterferon and ribavirin (SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV) administered for 12 weeks to treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, with and without cirrhosis. We enrolled 47 patients in this open-label, nonrandomized, uncontrolled phase 2 study. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with SVR at 12 weeks after cessation of study treatment (SVR12). The overall rate of SVR12 was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77-97). Rates of SVR12 were higher in patients with genotype 2 than in those with genotype 3, 96% (95% CI: 78-100) and 83% (95% CI: 62-95), respectively. Rates of SVR12 were similar in patients with and without cirrhosis: for genotype 2, 93% of patients with cirrhosis and 100% of patients without cirrhosis achieved SVR12, and for genotype 3, the SVR12 rate was 83% in patients both with and without cirrhosis. One patient discontinued study treatment because of an adverse event and four patients experienced serious adverse events. The most common adverse events were influenza-like illness, fatigue, anemia, and neutropenia. Conclusion: In treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3, 12-week administration of SOF+Peg-IFN+RBV provided high SVR rates, irrespective of cirrhosis status. No safety concerns were identified. (Hepatology 2015;61:769–775) PMID:25322962

  2. Unmasking of myasthenia gravis during pegylated Alfa 2 a interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ayesha

    2016-05-01

    Over last few decades, hepatitis C has emerged as a serious infection that has threatened the health and budgets of millions in the world. The objective of health professionals to treat it with recommended therapy of Alfa interferon and Ribavirin combination presents certain risks. One of the alarms is the ability of interferon to stimulate the production of autoantibodies in the body resulting in expression of autoimmune diseases in few who develop these antibodies. The case presented here is about unmasking of myasthenia gravis in a patient who received alfa interferon therapy for her chronic hepatitis C. Alfa interferon probably plays an important role in manifestation of the diseases in susceptible patients and all autoimmune diseases cannot be taken as mere side effects of the therapy. Clinicians need to be alert to pick up these diseases earlier so that the prompt management is possible. PMID:27183950

  3. Co-treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and entecavir for hepatitis D: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Memon, Mohammad Sadik; Umer, Muhammad Amir; Abbas, Minaam; Shazi, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFNα) therapy with and without entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis D. METHODS: Forty hepatitis D virus (HDV) RNA positive patients were randomized to receive either PEG-IFNα-2a 180 μg weekly in combination with entecavir 0.5 mg daily (n = 21) or PEG-IFNα alone (n =19). Patients who failed to show 2 log reduction in HDV RNA level at 24 wk of treatment, or had detectable HDV RNA at 48 wk of therapy were considered as treatment failure. Treatment was continued for 72 wk in the rest of the patients. All the patients were followed for 24 wk post treatment. Intention to treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 26.7 ± 6.8 years, 31 were male. Two log reduction in HDV RNA levels at 24 wk of therapy was achieved in 9 (43%) patients receiving combination therapy and 12 (63%) patients receiving PEG-IFNα alone (P = 0.199). Decline in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels was insignificant. At the end of treatment, HDV RNA was negative in 8 patients (38%) receiving combination therapy and 10 patients (53%) receiving PEG-IFNα-2a alone. Virological response persisted in 7 (33%) and 8 (42%) patients, respectively at the end of the 24 wk follow-up period. One responder patient in the combination arm lost HBsAg and became hepatitis B surface antibody positive. Six out of 14 baseline hepatitis B e antigen reactive patients seroconverted and four of these seroconverted patients had persistent HDV RNA clearance. CONCLUSION: Administration of PEG-IFNα-2a with or without entecavir, resulted in persistent HDV RNA clearance in 37% of patients. The addition of entecavir did not improve the overall response. PMID:27190579

  4. Peginterferon add-on results in more HBsAg decline compared to monotherapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, W P; Sonneveld, M J; Xie, Q; Guo, S; Zhang, N; Zeuzem, S; Tabak, F; Zhang, Q; Simon, K; Akarca, U S; Streinu-Cercel, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on to entecavir (ETV) leads to more HBsAg decline compared to PEG-IFN monotherapy or combination therapy, and whether ETV therapy may prevent HBsAg increase after PEG-IFN cessation. We performed a post hoc analysis of 396 HBeAg-positive patients treated for 72 weeks with ETV + 24 weeks PEG-IFN add-on from week 24 to 48 (add-on, n = 85), 72 weeks with ETV monotherapy (n = 90), 52 weeks with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n = 111) and 52 weeks PEG-IFN + lamivudine (combination, n = 110) within 2 randomized trials. HBsAg decline was assessed at the end of PEG-IFN (EOP) and 6 months after PEG-IFN (EOF) discontinuation. Differences in baseline characteristics were accounted for using inversed probability of treatment weights. At EOP, a HBsAg reduction of ≥1log10 IU/mL was more frequently achieved for patients in the add-on or combination therapy arms (both 36%), compared to PEG-IFN mono (20%) or ETV (8%) (add-on vs PEG-IFN mono P = 0.050). At EOF, the HBsAg reduction ≥1log10 IU/mL was only sustained in patients treated with ETV consolidation (add-on vs combination and PEG-IFN mono: 40% vs 23% and 18%, P = 0.029 and P = 0.003, respectively). For add-on, combination, PEG-IFN mono and ETV, the mean HBsAg-level change at EOF was -0.84, -0.81, -0.68 and -0.33 log10 IU/mL, respectively (P > 0.05 for PEG-IFN arms). HBeAg loss at EOF was 36%, 31%, 33% and 20%, respectively (P > 0.05). PEG-IFN add-on for 24 weeks results in more on-treatment HBsAg decline than does 52 weeks of PEG-IFN monotherapy. ETV therapy may maintain the HBsAg reduction achieved with PEG-IFN. PMID:26403919

  5. Predictors of Virological Response in 3,235 Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients Treated with Peginterferon Alpha-2a Compared with Peginterferon Alpha-2b Using Statistical Methods and Data Mining Techniques.

    PubMed

    El Raziky, Maissa; Fathalah, Waleed Fouad; Zakaria, Zeinab; Eldeen, Hadeel Gamal; Abul-Fotouh, Amr; Salama, Ahmed; Awad, Abubakr; Esmat, Gamal; Mabrouk, Mahasen

    2016-05-01

    Despite the appearance of new oral antiviral drugs, pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)/RBV may remain the standard of care therapy for some time, and several viral and host factors are reported to be correlated with therapeutic effects. This study aimed to reveal the independent variables associated with failure of sustained virological response (SVR) to PEG-IFN alpha-2a versus PEG-IFN alpha-2b in treatment of naive chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) Egyptian patients using both statistical methods and data mining techniques. This retrospective cohort study included 3,235 chronic hepatitis C patients enrolled in a large Egyptian medical center: 1,728 patients had been treated with PEG-IFN alpha-2a plus ribavirin (RBV) and 1,507 patients with PEG-IFN alpha-2b plus RBV between 2007 and 2011. Both multivariate analysis and Reduced Error Pruning Tree (REPTree)-based model were used to reveal the independent variables associated with treatment response. In both treatment types, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >10 ng/mL and HCV viremia >600 × 10(3) IU/mL were the independent baseline variables associated with failure of SVR, while male gender, decreased hemoglobin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were the independent variables associated with good response (P < 0.05). Using REPTree-based model showed that low AFP was the factor of initial split (best predictor) of response for either PEG-IFN alpha-2a or PEG-IFN alpha-2b (cutoff value 8.53, 4.89 ng/mL, AUROC = 0.68 and 0.61, P = 0.05). Serum AFP >10 ng/mL and viral load >600 × 10(3) IU/mL are variables associated with failure of response in both treatment types. REPTree-based model could be used to assess predictors of response. PMID:26859168

  6. 24 versus 48 Weeks of Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 6 Chronically Infected Patients with a Rapid Virological Response: A Non-Inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Min; Huang, Mingshou; Ren, Zefang; Lu, Ling; Mei, Yongyu; Xu, Min; Zhu, Jianyun; Shi, Haiyan; Lin, Guoli; Liu, Ying; Hu, Fengyu; Luo, Qiumin; Lan, Yun; Guo, Fengxia; Zhao, Zhixin; Gao, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The optimal treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 is unclear owing to its limited geographic distribution. Because of a high predictive value of rapid virological response (RVR) for sustained virological response (SVR), we conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial to compare 24- and 48-week peginterferon/ribavirin combination therapy for patients with HCV genotype 6 in Southern China who achieved an RVR. Methods and Findings Treatment-naive, non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 6 were treated with pegylated interferon α-2a (180 μg/week) and ribavirin (800–1,200 mg, according to weight) for 4 weeks. Patients who achieved an RVR, which was defined as HCV RNA negativity at week 4 (<50 IU), were randomized to receive either an additional 20 or 44 weeks of treatment (24- and 48-week treatment groups, respectively). The primary outcome measure was SVR. From January 2011 to June 2014, 152(152/210, 72.4%) patients with HCV genotype 6a and RVR were randomized 1:1 to the 24- or 48-week treatment group. The SVR rates in the 24- and 48-week groups in the intention-to-treat analysis were 90.8% (69/76) and 88.2% (67/76), respectively; those in the per-protocol analysis were 95.7% (67/70) and 97.0% (64/66), respectively. More patients in the 48-week group had anemia (46.1% vs. 28.9%, P = 0.03), but other adverse events were comparable between the groups. The limitation of the present study was that only patients from Southern China were enrolled which may inhibit the extensive application of the findings. Conclusion Twenty-four weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin combination therapy was non-inferior to 48 weeks in patients with HCV genotype 6a in Southern China who achieved an RVR. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01263860 PMID:26509605

  7. Sustained virological response after a 17-day treatment with daclatasvir plus asunaprevir in a cirrhotic patient with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b and null response for peginterferon ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Ishii, Toshiya; Adachi, Kayo; Kumon, Daisuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Youhei; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki

    2016-04-01

    Daclatasvir (DCV) plus asunaprevir (ASV) treatment, an oral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b infection, can achieve a high sustained viral response (SVR) rate within a 24-week treatment period. A 55-year-old Japanese female with cirrhosis and null response for peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy received DCV plus ASV therapy, but she reported a slight fever beginning on treatment day 4. The fever increased to >38.0 °C beginning on treatment day 15 and could not be controlled with antipyretics; thus, the treatment was discontinued on day 17. Although the patient was still positive for HCV RNA 6 days after treatment discontinuation, she achieved an SVR at week 24 after treatment cessation. In some patients with HCV genotype 1b infection, an SVR can be achieved with short-term DCV plus ASV treatment, and HCV RNA positivity at the end of treatment does not always indicate virological failure. PMID:26896968

  8. Sustained Virological Response after 8-Week Treatment of Simeprevir with Peginterferon α-2a plus Ribavirin in a Japanese Female with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b and IL28B Minor Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Masato; Sasaki, Reina; Yasui, Shin; Nakamoto, Shingo; Haga, Yuki; Jiang, Xia; Wu, Shuang; Tawada, Akinobu; Arai, Makoto; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals with or without peginterferon α (PEG-IFN α) plus ribavirin are now available for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Direct-acting antivirals are potent inhibitors of HCV replication, but some of them occasionally possess serious adverse events. We experienced a 64-year-old female with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection who showed elevated alanine aminotransferase of 528 IU/l at week 9 after the commencement of treatment of simeprevir with PEG-IFN α-2a plus ribavirin. However, she achieved sustained virological response at week 24 after the end of treatment. In Japan, we also have to treat elderly patients infected with HCV and/or advanced hepatic fibrosis. Until an effective interferon-free regimen is established, direct-acting antivirals with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin may still play a role in the treatment for certain patients. To avoid serious results from adverse events, careful attention and follow-up will be needed in the treatment course of simeprevir with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. PMID:26269697

  9. Alisporivir with peginterferon/ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection who failed to respond to or relapsed after prior interferon-based therapy: FUNDAMENTAL, a Phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Buti, M; Flisiak, R; Kao, J-H; Chuang, W-L; Streinu-Cercel, A; Tabak, F; Calistru, P; Goeser, T; Rasenack, J; Horban, A; Davis, G L; Alberti, A; Mazzella, G; Pol, S; Orsenigo, R; Brass, C

    2015-07-01

    Alisporivir (ALV) is an oral, investigational host-targeting agent, with pangenotypic activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase II study explored the efficacy and safety of ALV with peginterferon-α2a/ribavirin (PR) in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection in whom prior PR had failed (43% relapsers, 34% null responders and 23% partial responders). Four-hundred-and-fifty-nine patients were randomized (1:1:1:1) to ALV 600 mg once daily (QD), ALV 800 mg QD, ALV 400 twice daily (BID) or placebo plus PR for 48 weeks. When the global ALV trial programme was put on clinical hold, all patients in this study had received ≥31 weeks of randomized treatment; patients completed 48 weeks on PR alone. All ALV groups demonstrated superior rates of complete early virologic response (cEVR; primary endpoint) vs PR alone (P ≤ 0.0131), with highest cEVR rate seen with ALV 400 mg BID (74% vs 36% with PR alone; P < 0.0001). Respective SVR12 rates (key secondary endpoint) were 65% vs 26% in prior relapsers, 63% vs 5% in partial responders and 68% vs 3% in null responders. In patients who received >40 weeks of randomized treatment, the SVR12 rate was 89% for ALV 400 mg BID vs 30% for PR alone (P = 0.0053). Rates of viral breakthrough and relapse were lowest with ALV 400 mg BID. One case of pancreatitis (fully recovered) occurred with ALV/PR. Common AEs were headache, fatigue, anaemia, neutropenia and nausea. Hypertension was infrequent, but more common with ALV. ALV merits further investigation in interferon-free regimens in combination with direct-acting antiviral agents. PMID:25412795

  10. Cost Effectiveness of Daclatasvir/Asunaprevir Versus Peginterferon/Ribavirin and Protease Inhibitors for the Treatment of Hepatitis c Genotype 1b Naïve Patients in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Giglio, Andrés; Soza, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Daclatasvir and Asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) have recently been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. In association, they are more effective and safer than previous available treatments, but more expensive. It is unclear if paying for the additional costs is an efficient strategy considering limited resources. Methods A Markov model was built to estimate the expected costs in Chilean pesos (CL$) and converted to US dollars (US$) and benefits in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in a hypothetic cohort of naive patients receiving DCV/ASV compared to protease inhibitors (PIs) and Peginterferon plus Ribavirin (PR). Efficacy was obtained from a mixed-treatment comparison study and costs were estimated from local sources. Utilities were obtained applying the EQ-5D survey to local patients and then valued with the Chilean tariff. A time horizon of 46 years and a discount rate of 3% for costs and outcomes was considered. The ICERs were estimated for a range of DCV/ASV prices. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results PIs were extendedly dominated by DCV/ASV. The ICER of DCV/ASV compared to PR was US$ 16,635/QALY at a total treatment price of US$ 77,419; US$11,581 /QALY at a price of US$ 58,065; US$ 6,375/QALY at a price of US$ 38,710; and US$ 1,364 /QALY at a price of US$ 19,355. The probability of cost-effectiveness at a price of US$ 38,710 was 91.6% while there is a 21.43% probability that DCV/ASV dominates PR if the total treatment price was US$ 19,355. Although the results are sensitive to certain parameters, the ICER did not increase above the suggested threshold of 1 GDP per capita. Conclusions DCV/ASV can be considered cost-effective at any price of the range studied. These results provide decision makers useful information about the value of incorporating these drugs into the public Chilean healthcare system. PMID:26544203

  11. A randomized clinical trial of peginterferon alpha-2b with or without entecavir in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B: Role of host and viral factors associated with treatment response.

    PubMed

    Tangkijvanich, P; Chittmittraprap, S; Poovorawan, K; Limothai, U; Khlaiphuengsin, A; Chuaypen, N; Wisedopas, N; Poovorawan, Y

    2016-06-01

    Combining peginterferon (PEG-IFN) and a potent nucleoside/nucleotide analogue might improve treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of PEG-IFN alpha-2b with or without entecavir in HBeAg-negative CHB and to investigate predictors of response. A total of 126 treatment-naïve patients were randomly assigned to receive monotherapy (n = 63) or combination therapy (n = 63) for 48 weeks. Virological response (VR) was defined as HBV DNA level <2000 IU/mL at week 96. Baseline factors including polymorphisms in the IFNL3 (rs12979860) and HLA-DPA1 (rs3077) genes and on-treatment viral kinetics were determined. At week 48, rates of undetectable HBV DNA were lower in the monotherapy than combination groups, but rates of HBsAg clearance and decline were comparable. At week 96, there was no difference between the corresponding groups regarding virological response (41.3% vs 38.1%, P = 0.856), HBsAg clearance (9.5% vs 4.8%, P = 0.491) and HBsAg decline. Baseline HBsAg level [odds ratio (OR): 3.14 (1.34-7.69), P = 0.012] and rs3077 polymorphism [OR: 2.78 (1.27-6.11), P = 0.011] were independent predictors of response. Patients carried GG genotype of rs3077 with low baseline HBV (<1000 IU/mL) had high probability of achieving VR (76.5%) and HBsAg clearance (29.4%). None of the patients without decrease in HBsAg combined with <2 log10 HBV DNA decline at week 12 achieved a virological response. In conclusion, the combination therapy lead to greater on-treatment HBV DNA suppression but did not improve virological response and HBsAg clearance/decline over monotherapy. Host and viral factors could help optimize decision-making at baseline and during PEG-IFN-based therapy. PMID:26387494

  12. Concentration-guided ribavirin dosing with darbepoetin support and peg-IFN alfa-2a for treatment of hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ackefors, M; Gjertsen, H; Wernerson, A; Weiland, O

    2012-09-01

    Relapse of hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation is universal. Standard-of-care (SOC) treatment for relapse offers less satisfactory treatment response than in nontransplanted patients. Tolerance for treatment is suboptimal and withdrawals owing to adverse events induced by treatment frequent. To improve tolerance for SOC, and ribavirin (RBV) in particular, concentration-guided RBV dosing calculated by a formula taking renal function and weight into consideration was utilized. A serum RBV concentration of 10 μm was set as the goal. All patients were given maintenance darbepoetin therapy from 2 weeks prior to initiation of treatment. In total, 21 patients with a mean age of 52 (range 25-64) years were included. The mean RBV concentration at week 4 was 10.2 and 7.36 μm in genotype 1/4 and non-1/4 patients, respectively, and 11.7 and 9.42 at week 12. The mean haemoglobin drop was 25 g/L vs 21 g/L in the genotype 1/4 and non-1/4 group, respectively, a nonsignificant difference. With this treatment approach, 80-90% of patients could be kept adherent to treatment. Sustained viral response was achieved 8/16 (50%) with low-grade fibrosis (fibrosis stage ≤ 2) vs in none of five patients with advanced fibrosis (Fibrosis stage 3 and 4), P < 0.05. We conclude that a treatment algorithm utilizing concentration-guided RBV dosing during darbepoetin maintenance therapy substantially improves tolerance and allows high adherence to a SOC treatment schedule, and that therapy needs to be initiated before advanced fibrosis is developed. PMID:22863267

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis following PEG-interferon-alfa-2a plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The combination of Pegylated Interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin is the current standard of care for the treatment of HCV infection. Unfortunately, IFN-α may lead to the induction or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus and, rarely, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Case presentation We report the case of a man affected with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) due to HCV genotype 3a infection, who developed RA after a complete course of PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin. Nine weeks after cessation of antiviral treatment, the patient developed symmetrical polyarthritis, with pain and edema in the wrists, knees, shoulders and metacarpophalangeal joints; magnetic resonance imaging detected initial bone erosions with juxta-articular osteopenia in wrist, knee and hand joints. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies were positive. Conclusions Autoimmune diseases, including RA, may occur when treating chronic hepatitis C with PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin; therefore, a close surveillance for the occurrence of autoimmune phenomena should be suggested in the setting of HCV management. PMID:24171974

  14. Peginterferon Alfa-2b (PEG-Intron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol pad. Remove the protective needle cap and fill the syringe with air by pulling the plunger back to the 0.7 mL mark on the ... protective cap from the needle of the syringe. Fill the syringe with air by pulling the plunger back to the mL mark that matches your prescribed ...

  15. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems. Dropping…

  16. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-04-01

    Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, AMA1-C1/alhydrogel, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Aripiprazole, Artesunate/amodiaquine, Asenapine maleate; Bosentan, Brivaracetam; Carisbamate, Clevudine, Clofarabine, Corticorelin acetate; Dasatinib; Elinogrel potassium, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Etazolate; Fampridine, Fluarix, Fondaparinux sodium, Fulvestrant; Gabapentin enacarbil, GDC-0941, GI-5005, Golimumab; Imatinib mesylate, Lacosamide, Lapatinib ditosylate, Levetiracetam, Liraglutide, LOLA; Mecasermin, Morphine hydrochloride; Natalizumab, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Olmesartan medoxomil, Omacetaxine mepesuccinate; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Poly I:CLC, Pralatrexate, Pregabalin; Ranolazine, Rasagiline mesilate, Retigabine hydrochloride, Rhenium Re-186 etidronate, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine, RTL-1000, Rufinamide; Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, Stiripentol; Tiotropium bromide; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Varenicline tartrate; XL-184; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:20448862

  17. S-adenosyl methionine improves early viral responses and interferon-stimulated gene induction in hepatitis C nonresponders

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Jordan J.; Modi, Apurva A.; El-Diwany, Ramy; Rotman, Yaron; Thomas, Emmanuel; Koh, Christopher; Cherepanov, Vera; Heller, Theo; Ghany, Marc G.; Park, Yoon; Hoofnagle, Jay H.; Liang, T. Jake

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Fewer than half of patients infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve sustained viral clearance after peginterferon and ribavirin therapy. S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) increases interferon signaling in cell culture. We assessed the effect of SAMe on the kinetics of the early anti-viral response and interferon signaling in patients that did not respond to previous therapy (nonresponders) and investigated its mechanisms. Methods Nonresponders with HCV genotype-1 were given 2 weeks of peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (Course A, baseline/control). After a 1-month period, patients received SAMe (1600 mg daily) for 2 weeks and then peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks (Course B; completed by 21 of 24 patients). Viral kinetics and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were compared between courses. Results The decrease in HCV RNA from 0 to 48 hours (phase 1) was similar before and after administration of SAMe. However, the slope increased for the second-phase decrease in HCV between courses A and B (Course A=0.11±0.04 log10IU/mL/week, Course B=0.27±0.06; P=0.009); 11 patients (53%) achieved an early virological response and 10 (48%) had undetectable HCV RNA by week 24. Induction of ISGs in PBMCs was significantly greater after Course B. In cultured cells, SAMe increased induction of ISGs, compared with only peginterferon and ribavirin, and the antiviral effects of interferon by increasing STAT1 methylation, which might promote binding of STAT1 to DNA. Conclusions The addition of SAMe to peginterferon and ribavirin improves the kinetics of the early anti-viral response and induces ISGs in patients with HCV genotype 1 that do not respond to interferon therapy. SAMe might be used with peginterferon-based therapies in patients with chronic HCV infections. PMID:20854821

  18. Work productivity among treatment-naïve patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection receiving telaprevir combination treatment.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, J; Vera-Llonch, M; Donepudi, M; Suthoff, E; Younossi, Z; Goss, T F

    2015-01-01

    Work productivity is impacted in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and has been linked to treatment. In two Phase 3 trials, ADVANCE and ILLUMINATE, treatment-naïve genotype 1 chronic HCV-infected patients received 12-week telaprevir (T) with 24 (T12PR24)- or 48 (T12PR48)-week peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin. The objective of this analysis was to examine the impact of chronic HCV infection and its treatment with combination therapy on work productivity. The 5-item, self-reported work productivity questionnaire (WPQ) was administered in Phase 3 trials to assess unemployment status, days unable to work due to HCV/treatment, reduced hours worked and impact on productivity in prior 4 weeks. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were employed in analyses of pooled trial data. About 1147 patients were included; 22% (n = 255) were unemployed at baseline, with 8% being unemployed due to health reasons. At week 12, there were no differences by treatment regimen in the number of days unable to work. At week 48, improvements were observed earlier among patients receiving the shorter duration of T combination treatment. Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in days unable to work was -0.48 (-0.85, -0.11) days for T12PR24, 1.43 (0.63, 2.24) days for T12PR48 and 1.24 (0.18, 2.30) days for PR48 with placebo. Predictors of days unable to work were identified and include demographic characteristics, pretreatment and on-treatment levels of fatigue, as well regional variation. In post hoc analyses of the ADVANCE and ILLUMINATE trials, work productivity decreased during the initial 12 weeks regardless of treatment group. PMID:24528927

  19. Baseline factors associated with treatment response in patients infected with hepatitis C virus 1b by stratification of IL28B polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qihua; Chen, Jianjie; Zhou, Hua; Zhong, Jun; Chen, Yiyun; Ye, Qingyan; Zhuo, Yunhui; Min, Niehong; Shang, Binyi

    2015-04-01

    Although the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12979860 in the IL28B gene is a better predictor of sustained virological response to treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) than other baseline factors, some CHC patients with the favorable C allele cannot achieve a sustained virological response when treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin. The aim of this study was to examine baseline factors as predictors of rapid virological response (RVR) and complete early virological response (cEVR) to peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin treatment in Chinese CHC patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b, with emphasis on the difference between the rs129860 CC and CT/TT genotypes. A total of 337 treatment-naïve patients participated in this study. All patients were treated with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin at standard dosage. Serum samples from all patients were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 12 for testing of laboratory parameters, and IL28B genotypes were determined. Multivariate analysis showed that among rs12979860 CC genotype patients, glucose level and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activity were inversely associated with RVR, while abnormal platelet count and allergy inversely associated with cEVR. Among rs12979860 CT genotype patients, age below 40 years and short infection duration were associated with RVR, while age below 40 years, short infection duration, high body mass index (BMI), and no history of allergies were associated with cEVR. The baseline factors associated with the response to CHC treatment may depend on the IL28B genotype. Refinement of the baseline predictors based on IL28B genotypes may be useful for management of HCV infection. PMID:25687192

  20. Perspectives on dual hepatitis B and C infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Jen; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Tseng, Tai-Chung; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-05-01

    Dual hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not rare in HBV or HCV endemic areas, and can be found in populations at risk of parenteral viral transmission. Clinical observatory studies suggest a higher risk of liver disease progression in patients with dual HCV/HBV infection than in HBV or HCV monoinfected patients. Recent trials confirmed that combination therapy of peginterferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b and ribavirin was effective and safe in dually infected patients with positive HCV RNA. Moreover, about 30% of the dually infected patients cleared hepatitis B surface antigen within 5 years after the start of peginterferon-based therapy. The optimal treatment strategies for dually infected patients with active hepatitis B, with decompensated cirrhosis, or in other clinical situations should be explored in further studies. Finally, the advent of new direct-acting antiviral-based anti-HCV therapy may lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of dually infected patients with active hepatitis C, particularly for those not tolerating or not eligible for peginterferon-based therapy. Notably, direct-acting antivirals would not have any activity against HBV infection; simultaneous or on-demand nucleos(t)ide analogs would be needed if clinically indicated. PMID:26188762

  1. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-03-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 3-AP, 667-coumate, 9-aminocamptothecin; Ad5CMV-p53, AES-14, alefacept, anecortave acetate, APC-8024, APD-356, asoprisnil; Bevacizumab, bimakalim, bimatoprost, BLP-25, BR-1; Caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, dexanabinol, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, DNA.HIVA; Efaproxiral sodium, ertapenem sodium; Frovatriptan; HuMax-EGFr, HYB-2055, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, Id-KLH vaccine, imatinib mesylate; Lapatinib, lonafarnib, Motexafin lutetium, MVA.HIVA, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Nesiritide, NS-2330; Olmesartan medoxomil; Peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, perifosine, pimecrolimus, pregabalin; QbG-10; Ralfinamide, rasburicase, rFGF-2, Ro-31-7453; Sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib; Tadalafil, TC-1734, telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, thymus nuclear protein, tipifarnib; Vandetanib, vibriolysin, vildagliptin, voriconazole. PMID:15834466

  2. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-12-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abetimus sodium, ademetionine, agalsidase alfa, agalsidase beta, alemtuzumab, alfimeprase, AMG-162, androgel, anidulafungin, antigastrin therapeutic vaccine, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bazedoxifene acetate, bevacizumab, bosentan; Caldaret hydrate, canfosfamide hydrochloride, choriogonadotropin alfa, ciclesonide, combretastatin A-4 phosphate, CY-2301; Darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, degarelix acetate, duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, enclomiphene citrate, eplerenone, epratuzumab, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, ezetimibe; Fingolimod hydrochloride, FP-1096; HMR-3339A, HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy, human insulin, HuOKT3gamma1(Ala234-Ala235); Idursulfase, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, InnoVax C insulin glargine, insulin glulisine, irofulven; Labetuzumab, lacosamide, lanthanum carbonate, LyphoDerm, Lyprinol; Magnesium sulfate, metelimumab, methylphenidate hydrochloride; Natalizumab, NO-aspirin; OROS(R); PC-515, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, posaconazole, pregabalin, PT-141, pyridoxamine; R-744, ramelteon, ranelic acid distrontium salt, rebimastat, repinotan hydrochloride, rhC1, rhGAD65, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride; Sardomozide, solifenacin succinate; Tadalafil, taxus, telavancin, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, testosterone transdermal patch, tetomilast, tirapazamine, torcetrapib; Valspodar, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vildagliptin; Yttrium Y90 epratuzumab; Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:15672123

  3. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-05-01

    O(6)-Benzylguanine; (-)-Gossypol; Abatacept, AC-2592, Adalimumab, AIDSVAX gp120 B/E, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, ALVAC E120TMG, Ambrisentan, Amlodipine, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, Armodafinil, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Avotermin; Bevacizumab, BIBW-2992, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B; Canakinumab, CAT-354, Ciclesonide, CMV gB vaccine, Corifollitropin alfa, Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Denosumab; EndoTAG-1, Eplerenone, Esomeprazole sodium, Eszopiclone, Etoricoxib, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; F-50040, Fesoterodine fumavate, Fondaparinux sodium, Fulvestrant; Gabapentin enacarbil, Golimumab; Imatinib mesylate, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin glargine, Ivabradine hydrochloride; Lercanidipine hydrochloride/enalapril maleate, Levosimendan, Liposomal vincristine sulfate, Liraglutide; MDV-3100, Mometasone furoate/formoterol fumavate, Multiepitope CTL peptide vaccine, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt, Nabiximols, Natalizumab, Nesiritide; Obeticholic acid, Olmesartan medoxomil, Omalizumab, Omecamtiv mecarbil; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Paliperidone, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, Polymyxin B nonapeptide, PORxin-302, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Pridopidine; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Rasagiline mesilate, rDEN4delta30-4995, Recombinant human relaxin H2, rhFSH, Rilonacept, Rolofylline, Rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine; Salcaprozic acid sodium salt, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate, Sitaxentan sodium, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tapentadol hydrochloride, Temsirolimus, Tenofovir, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Teriparatide, Tiotropium bromide, Tocilizumab, Tolvaptan, Tozasertib, Treprostinil sodium; Ustekinumab; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, Varenicline tartrate, Vatalanib succinate, Voriconazole, Vorinostat; Zotarolimus-eluting stent. PMID:20508873

  4. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-11-01

    1-Octanol, 9vPnC-MnCc; Abiraterone acetate, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Aliskiren fumarate, Aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, Aripiprazole, ARRY-520, AS-1404, Asimadoline, Atazanavir sulfate, AVE-0277, Azelnidipine; Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Boceprevir, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B; Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Clevudine, Contusugene ladenovec, CP-751871, Crofelemer, Cypher, CYT006-AngQb; Darbepoetin alfa, Desmopressin, Dexlansoprazole, DG-041; E-5555, Ecogramostim, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Everolimus, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Falecalcitriol, Fampridine, Fesoterodine fumarate, Fingolimod hydrochloride; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GS-7904L, GV-1001; HT-1001; Insulin detemir, ISIS-112989, Istradefylline; Laquinimod sodium, Latanoprost/timolol maleate, Lenalidomide, Levobetaxolol hydrochloride, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liposomal morphine sulfate, Lubiprostone, Lumiracoxib, LY-518674; MEM-1003, Mesna disulfide, Mipomersen sodium, MM-093, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naptumomab estafenatox, Natalizumab; Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Pasireotide, Pazufloxacin mesilate, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimagedine, Pimecrolimus, Pramlintide acetate, Prasterone, Pregabalin, Prulifloxacin; QAE-397; Rec-15/2615, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, rhGAD65, Roflumilast, Romiplostim, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotigotine, Rupatadine fumarate; Safinamide mesilate, SIR-Spheres, Sitagliptin phosphate, Sodium phenylacetate, Sodium phenylacetate/Sodium benzoate, Sorafenib, SSR-244738; Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Teduglutide, Tegaserod maleate, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tigecycline, Tiotropium bromide, Trabectedin, Travoprost

  5. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-12-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131I-chTNT; Abatacept, adalimumab, alemtuzumab, APC-8015, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atomoxetine hydrochloride, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bortezomib, bosentan, buserelin; Caspofungin acetate, CC-4047, ChAGCD3, ciclesonide, clopidogrel, curcumin, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, dapoxetine hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, denosumab, DMXB-Anabaseine, drospirenone, drospirenone/estradiol, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Edodekin alfa, efaproxiral sodium, elaidic acid-cytarabine, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etonogestrel/testosterone decanoate, exenatide; Fulvestrant; Gefitinib, glycine, GVS-111; Homoharringtonine; ICC-1132, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, i.v. gamma-globulin; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, lintuzumab, liposomal nystatin, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Manitimus, mapatumumab, melatonin, micafungin sodium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Oblimersen sodium, OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), pasireotide, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, phVEGF-A165, pimecrolimus, pitavastatin calcium, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PT-141; Quercetin; Ranolazine, rosuvastatin calcium, rubitecan, rupatadine fumarate; Sardomozide, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, talactoferrin alfa, tegaserod maleate, telithromycin, testosterone transdermal patch, TH-9507, tigecycline, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, tocilizumab, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vandetanib

  6. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-11-01

    Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Adalimumab, AdCD40L, Adefovir, Adefovir dipivoxil, Ambrisentan, Amlodipine, Amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil, AN-2728, Apixaban, Aripiprazole, Armodafinil, Atazanavir sulfate, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Atrasentan, Azacitidine, Bevacizumab, Blinatumomab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Carfilzomib, Caspofungin acetate, Cediranib, Cetuximab, Choriogonadotropin alfa, Clevudine, Clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide, Clofarabine, Daidzeol, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Deforolimus, Degarelix acetate, Denenicokin, Dexlansoprazole, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Elacytarabine, Enfuvirtide, Enoxaparin, Entecavir, Eribulin mesilate, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Ezetimibe/simvastatin, Forodesine hydrochloride, Fosamprenavir calcium, Gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Golimumab, Imatinib mesylate, Imetelstat, Insulin gl'argine, Insulin glulisine, Interferon alfa-2b XL, Ivabradine hydrochloride, Lacosamide, Lenalidomide, Lintuzumab, Liposomal adriamycin, Liposomal belotecan, Liposome-encapsulated fentanyl, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lutropin alfa, LY-207320, Maraviroc, Mecasermin, MKC-253, MP-470, NGR-TNF, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, Ofatumumab, Olmesartan medoxomil, Omacetaxine mepesuccinate, PAN-811, Panobinostat, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, Perospirone hydrochloride, PF-734200, Phentermine/topiramate, Pimecrolimus, Pitavastatin calcium, Plerixafor hydrochloride, Pregabalin, Raltegravir potassium, Ramelteon, Ranibizumab, Recombinant Bet V1, Recombinant human insulin, Regadenoson, rhITF, Romidepsin, Rosuvastatin calcium, Ruboxistaurin hydrochloride, Rufinamide, Sapropterin dihydrochloride Saracatinib, SB-73, SC-599, Seliciclib, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate, Tadalafil, Tanespimycin, Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tegaserod maleate, Telbivudine, Tenofovir

  7. Reduce HIV Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... incidence could be reduced if people changed their sexual behaviors. Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Spring 2008 ...

  8. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-10-01

    [Methoxy-11c]PD-153035; Afamelanotide, Agalsidase beta, Alemtuzumab, Alkaline phosphatase, Amlodipine, Anecortave acetate, Apixaban, Aripiprazole, Atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B, Brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate, Brivudine; Canakinumab, Cetuximab, Chlorotoxin, Cinaciguat; Dapagliflozin, Decitabine, Duloxetine hydrochloride; Elagolix sodium, Eplerenone, Eritoran tetrasodium, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib, Ezetimibe; Fospropofol disodium; G-207, Gabapentin enacarbil, Gefitinib, Golimumab; Human plasmin; Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Insulin glargine, Insulin glulisine, Istaroxime, Ixabepilone; KLH; Levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone; Miglustat, Mitumprotimut-T, MP-470; Oblimersen sodium, Olmesartan medoxomil; P53-SLP, PAN-811, Patupilone, Pazopanib hydrochloride, PC-515, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegylated arginine deiminase 20000, Pemetrexed disodium, Plitidepsin, Pregabalin; Rasagiline mesilate, Rotigotine; SCH-697243, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sumatriptan succinate/naproxen sodium, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tapentadol hydrochloride, TMC-207; V-211, Valganciclovir hydrochloride; Zolpidem tartrate. PMID:19967103

  9. Vanadium Nitrogenase Reduces CO*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2011-01-01

    Vanadium nitrogenase not only reduces dinitrogen to ammonia but also reduces carbon monoxide to ethylene, ethane, and propane. The parallelism between the two reactions suggests a potential link in mechanism and evolution between the carbon and nitrogen cycles on Earth. PMID:20689010

  10. Vanadium nitrogenase reduces CO.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2010-08-01

    Vanadium nitrogenase not only reduces dinitrogen to ammonia but also reduces carbon monoxide to ethylene, ethane, and propane. The parallelism between the two reactions suggests a potential link in mechanism and evolution between the carbon and nitrogen cycles on Earth. PMID:20689010

  11. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  12. Reducing Teacher Incompetence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    1988-01-01

    Suggests how administrators may reduce teacher incompetence. Teacher incompetence can be reduced if administrators fully understand and undertake appropriate preventive and remedial measures. Two sections comprise this article. First, a taxonomy of teacher incompetence reveals the magnitude of the problem. Second, preventive and remedial measures…

  13. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  14. Reduced Extended MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  15. Reducing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docking, R. A.; Docking, E.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a case study of inservice training conducted to enhance the teacher/student relationship and reduce teacher anxiety. Found significant improvements in attitudes, classroom management activities, and lower anxiety among teachers. (MD)

  16. REDUCED PROTECTIVE CLOTHING DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, R.L.

    2003-06-13

    This technical basis document defines conditions where reduced protective clothing can be allowed, defines reduced protective clothing, and documents the regulatory review that determines the process is compliant with the Tank Farm Radiological Control Manual (TFRCM) and Title 10, Part 835, of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR835). The criteria, standards, and requirements contained in this document apply only to Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) facilities.

  17. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Shapiro, Charles; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Berkeley

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  18. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  19. Reduced Vector Preisach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

  20. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlman, Howard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the construction of the Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator, which can be used to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena, including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems behave. Presents experiments, appropriate for classroom use, to demonstrate how the behavior of common physical systems change when…

  1. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  2. Reduced Braginskii equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W. )

    1994-07-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite [beta] that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure [del][center dot][bold j]=0 for energy conservation.

  3. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  4. Risk-reducing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Federica; Sacchini, Virgilio S

    2016-10-01

    Mastectomy rates have significantly increased over the last decades, likely due to the rising trend of risk-reducing mastectomies (RRM) in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Growing evidence suggests that aggressive risk-reducing surgical strategies are only justified in high-risk breast cancer situations. Notably, in this selected cohort of women, prophylactic mastectomies offer evident benefit for local and contralateral disease control, and may also provide a survival benefit. Nevertheless, the extent of the increasing frequency of this operation is not explained by the broadening of the medical indications alone. Here we analyze the current evidence regarding RRM, its clinical practice, and possible explanations for the rising phenomenon of aggressive surgical locoregional control strategies. PMID:26785281

  5. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  6. Reducing volcanic risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.

    1991-01-01

    The last two decades have brought major advances in research on how volcanoes work and how to monitor their changing habits. Geologic mapping as well as studies of earthquake patterns and surface deformation associated with underground movement of magma have given scientists a better view of the inner structure and dynamics of active volcanoes. With the next decade, the time has come to focuses more on applying this knowledge toward reducing the risk from volcanic activity on a worldwide basis. 

  7. Gradual extinction reduces reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Shiban, Youssef; Wittmann, Jasmin; Weißinger, Mara; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day 2) were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE) and gradual extinction (GE) procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms). A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli (CS). The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response, SCR and startle response). There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. GE compared to SE significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for SCR or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the GE process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction. PMID:26441581

  8. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Howard L.

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  9. Reduce energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    With the rising costs of utilities, Crystals International, Inc. (Plant City, Fla.), a producer of freeze-dried products for the chemical process industries, was exploring various methods to reduce energy consumption. For years, the firm had been concerned about energy costs, considering that dehydration is energy-intensive, with natural gas a major item in overhead expenses. The gas is used to fire boilers and provide steam to operate jet ejectors supplied by Croll-Reynolds (Westfield, NJ), which in turn supply the vacuum for the dehydration process. In efforts to increase efficiency and save money, Crystals International decided to replace two older boilers with a single, high-capacity unit. Producing 13,800 lb/h of 200-psig steam, the unit`s main purpose was to supply the plant`s two steam ejectors and a variety of other process needs. However, with the new boiler, system pressure would be increased and the ejector nozzles would see steam at 150 psig. This was a problem since the nozzles were designed to operate at 115-psig steam. To solve the problem, a pressure reducer, placed before the steam reached the nozzles was considered. However, Crystals International determined that reducing pressure promoted formation of potentially damaging condensate. The only alternative then, was to redesign the ejectors to accept the new system parameters.

  10. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. PMID:21397005

  11. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  12. Reducing disinfectant wastage.

    PubMed

    Kaye, S B; Graham, R; McCarthy, K; Green, J R; Damjanovic, V; Austin, M

    1991-01-01

    In order to lower departmental costs in an ophthalmological outpatient department by reducing wastage, the stability of available chlorine at levels of 280 ppm and 560 ppm in litre solutions of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was investigated over a three-week period. There was no significant decay in available chlorine at these levels in solutions kept at 20 degrees C. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate may be prepared on a weekly instead of a daily basis with an annual saving of 1200 pounds to 1400 pounds. PMID:2060659

  13. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2002-11-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, abarelix, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AdGVVEGF121.10, anastrozole, anecortave acetate, aripiprazole, asulacrine isethionate, atazanavir, ATL-962, 16-Aza-epothilone B; Bevacizumab, bicalutamide, blonanserin, BMS-188667, bosentan; Celecoxib, celmoleukin, cetuximab, cilomilast, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CNTF(Ax15), colesevelam hydrochloride; Daclizumab, delavirdine mesilate, desogestrel, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, emtricitabine, epalrestat, escitalopram oxalate, examorelin, exendin-4, ezetimibe; Fidarestat, frovatriptan; HIV-1 Immunogen; Iloperidone, insulin detemir, insulin lispro, irinotecan hydrochloride; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lasofoxifene tartrate, levetiracetam, levormeloxifene, levosimendan, lumiracoxib, LY-307161 SR; Memantine hydrochloride, MEN-10755, metformin hydrochloride, metreleptin, motexafin gadolinium; Naratriptan hydrochloride, natalizumab, nesiritide, nicotine, NN-2211, NN-414; Olanzapine, omalizumab; Pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegvisomant, pimecrolimus, pirfenidone, pramlintide acetate prasterone, pregabalin; Quetiapine fumarate; Rabeprazole sodium, raloxifene hydrochloride, raltitrexed, rDNA insulin, rFGF-2, risedronate sodium, rofecoxib, roflumilast, rosiglitazone maleate; SN-22995; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, tiotropium bromide, tomoxetine hydrochloride, trastuzumab, trimegestone; Voglibose, Voriconazole; Ziprasidone hydrochloride. PMID:12616707

  14. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in the current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV-NGFbeta, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; beta-Methyl-6-chloromelatonin, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, CEA-TRICOM, cetuximab, ciclesonide, clofarabine, Cypher; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, desloratadine, Dexamet, drospirenone, drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone; Fenretinide; Gefitinib, gestodene, ghrelin (human); hMaxi-K, human papillomavirus vaccine; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, iodine (i131) tositumomab, irofulven, ISS-1018; Lasofoxifene tartrate, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, liposomal doxorubicin; Nemifitide ditriflutate, nesiritide; Omalizumab; Pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, phVEGF-A165, pimecrolimus, pramlintide acetate; Rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride; Satraplatin, St. John's Wort extract, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, tanaproget, Taxus, tiotropium bromide, treprostinil sodium; Valdecoxib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate; Ximelagatran; Zileuton. PMID:16258596

  15. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-06-01

    (+)-Dapoxetine hydrochloride; Abatacept, Adalimumab, Agalsidase beta, Alemtuzumab, Alglucosidase alfa, Aliskiren fumarate, Ambrisentan, Amlodipine, Aripiprazole, Atrasentan, Azacitidine, Azelnidipine; Belotecan hydrochloride, Bevacizumab, Bilastine, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Caspofungin acetate, CG-100649, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Clindamycin phosphate/ benzoyl peroxide; Dasatinib, Denosumab, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride, Dutasteride/tamsulosin; Ecogramostim, Eculizumab, Eltrombopag olamine, EndoTAG-1, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe; FAHF-2, Fondaparinux sodium; Gefitinib, Golimumab; HEV-239, HSV-TK; Imatinib mesylate, Indium 111 ((111)In) ibritumomab tiuxetan, Influenza vaccine(surface antigen, inactivated, prepared in cell culture), Insulin glargine; Kisspeptin-54; Lidocaine/prilocaine, Lomitapide; Maraviroc, Mirodenafil hydrochloride, MK-8141, MVA-Ag85A; Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Olmesartan medoxomil; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pitavastatin calcium, Prasugrel; Recombinant human relaxin H2, RHAMM R3 peptide, Rivaroxaban, Rosuvastatin calcium, RRz2; Sagopilone, Salinosporamide A, SB-509, Serlopitant, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Temsirolimus, Teriparatide, TG-4010, Tositumomab/iodine (I131) tositumomab; Velusetrag Hydrochloride; Ximelagatran; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:19649342

  16. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-06-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 131-I-chlorotoxin; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, albumin interferon alfa, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, anakinra, AR-C126532, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cangrelor tetrasodium, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cinacalcet hydrochloride, collagen-PVP, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, dasatinib, denosumab, desloratadine, dexosome vaccine (lung cancer), dexrazoxane, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, eel calcitonin, efalizumab, entecavir, etoricoxib; Falciparum merozoite protein-1/AS02A, fenretinide, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib, ghrelin (human); hLM609; Icatibant acetate, imatinib mesylate, ipsapirone, irofulven; LBH-589, LE-AON, levocetirizine, LY-450139; Malaria vaccine, mapatumumab, motexafin gadolinium, muraglitazar, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; nab-paclitaxel, nelarabine; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, orbofiban acetate; Panitumumab, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, pleconaril, prasterone, pregabalin; Ranolazine, rebimastat, recombinant malaria vaccine, rosuvastatin calcium; SQN-400; Taxus, tegaserod maleate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, troxacitabine; Valganciclovir hydrochloride, Val-Tyr sardine peptidase, VNP-40101M, vorinostat. PMID:16845450

  17. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-09-01

    Aclidinium bromide, AE-37, Alemtuzumab, AMA1-C1/ISA 720, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Arachidonic acid, Arbaclofen placarbil, Aripiprazole, ARQ-621, Azelnidipine, Azilsartan medoxomil potassium; Bevacizumab, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib; Choriogonadotropin alfa, CTS-1027; Dapagliflozin, Dasatinib, Deforolimus, Degarelix acetate, Denufosol tetrasodium, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dronedarone hydrochloride, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Enfuvirtide, Entecavir, Etaracizumab, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe; Ferric carboxymaltose, Fludarabine, Foretinib; Gefitinib, GFT-505, GSK-256066; HPV-6/11/16/18, HuM195/rGel, HyperAcute-Lung cancer vaccine; I5NP, Imatinib mesylate, Imexon, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Ivabradine hydrochloride; L2G7, Lacosamide, Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Lidocaine/prilocaine, Liposomal vincristine, Liraglutide, Lixivaptan; Meningococcal (groups A, C, Y and W-135) oligosaccharide diphtheria CRM197 conjugate vaccine, Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-β, Mirabegron, Morphine/oxycodone, MR Vaccine, MSC-1936369B, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Narlaprevir, N-Desmethylclozapine; Ocriplasmin, Olaparib, Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/azelnidipine, ONO-5334, ONO-8539; Palifermin, Panitumumab, Pardoprunox hydrochloride, PCV7, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pexelizumab, PF-337210, Pitavastatin calcium; Raltegravir potassium, Recombinant interleukin-7, Regadenoson, Reniale, Roflumilast, Rosuvastatin calcium; Safinamide mesilate, SB-1518, SCH-527123, Selumetinib, Sipuleucel-T, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Talaporfin sodium, Tanespimycin, Technosphere/Insulin, Telaprevir, Telatinib, Telcagepant, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Teriparatide, Testosterone transdermal gel, TH-302, Tiotropium bromide, Tocilizumab, Trabedersen, Tremelimumab; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Vernakalant hydrochloride, Visilizumab, Voreloxin, Vorinostat. PMID

  18. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2002-12-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abacavir sulfate, adalimumab, AERx morphine sulphate, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alendronic acid sodium salt, alicaforsen sodium, almotriptan, amprenavir, aripiprazole, atenolol, atorvastatin calcium; BSYX-A110; Cantuzumab mertansine, capravirine, CDP-571, CDP-870, celecoxib; Delavirdine mesilate, docetaxel, dofetilide, donepezil hydrochloride, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride, dydrogesterone; Efavirenz, emtricitabine, enjuvia, enteryx, epristeride, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etanercept, etonogestrel, etoricoxib; Fesoterodine, finasteride, flt3ligand; Galantamine hydrobromide, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, genistein, gepirone hydrochloride; Indinavir sulfate, infliximab; Lamivudine, lamivudine/zidovudine/abacavir sulfate, leteprinim potassium, levetiracetam, liposomal doxorubicin, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, losartan potassium; MCC-465, MRA; Nebivolol, nesiritide, nevirapine; Olanzapine, OROS(R)-Methylphenidate hydrochloride; Peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, Pimecrolimus, polyethylene glycol 3350, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, PRO-2000; Risedronate sodium, risperidone, ritonavir, rituximab, rivastigmine tartrate, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium; Saquinavir mesilate, Stavudine; Tacrolimus, tadalafil, tamsulosin hydrochloride, telmisartan, tomoxetine hydrochloride, treprostinil sodium, trimegestone, trimetrexate; Valdecoxib, venlafaxine hydrochloride; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:12616965

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-04-01

    Gateways to clinical trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 5A8; Agomelatine, alefacept, almotriptan, anakinra, APC-8015, atazanavir, atomoxetine hydrochloride, azimilide hydrochloride; Bicifadine; Cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, CAT-213, CGP-51901, ciclesonide, cipamfylline; Darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, dibotermin alfa, DX-9065a; Ecogramostim, efalizumab, eletriptan, eniluracil, EPI-KAL2, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, etilevodopa, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Fosamprenavir calcium, fosamprenavir sodium, fumagillin; Gadofosveset sodium, gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin; HSPPC-96, human papillomavirus vaccine; Icatibant Id-KLH, imatinib mesylate, INS-37217, iodine (I131) tositumomab; LAS-34475, levobupivacaine hydrochloride, levocetirizine, linezolid, 131I-lipiodol, lonafarnib, lopinavir, LY-450108; Magnetites, MBI-594AN, melagatran, melatonin, mepolizumab, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; NC-100100; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, omapatrilat, onercept; PEG-filgrastim, (PE)HRG21, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pleconaril, pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, prasterone; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, rasagiline mesilate, reslizumab, rFGF-2, rhOP-1, rosuvastatin calcium, roxifiban acetate; Sitaxsentan sodium, sodium lauryl sulfate; Tadalafil, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tipranavir, TMC-114, tucaresol; Valdecoxib, voriconazole; Ximelagatran; Zofenopril calcium, zosuquidar trihydrochloride. PMID:12743628

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 3,4-DAP; Adefovir dipivoxil, ADL-10-0101, alefacept, alemtuzumab, alosetron hydrochloride, ALT-711, aprepitant, atazanavir sulfate, atlizumab, atvogen; Bortezomib; CETP vaccine, clevudine, crofelemer; DAC:GLP-1, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DX-9065a; E-7010, edodekin alfa, emivirine, emtricitabine, entecavir, erlosamide, erlotinib hydrochloride, everolimus, exenatide; Fondaparinux sodium, frovatriptan, fulvestrant; Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gestodene; Homoharringtonine, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, indium 111 (111In) ibritumomab tiuxetan, inhaled insulin, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, ivabradine hydrochloride; Lanthanum carbonate, lapatinib, LAS-34475, levetiracetam, liraglutide, lumiracoxib; Maxacalcitol, melagatran, micafungin sodium; Natalizumab, NSC-640488; Oblimersen sodium; Parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2(a), peginterferon alfa-2b, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, pleconaril, pramlintide acetate, pregabalin, prucalopride; rAHF-PFM, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, ranolazine, rDNA insulin, recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin, rhGM-CSF, roxifiban acetate, RSD-1235, rubitecan, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate; SC-51, squalamine; Tegaserod maleate, telbivudine, tesaglitazar, testosterone gel, tezosentan disodium, tipranavir; Vatalanib succinate; Ximelagatran; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Zoledronic acid monohydrate. PMID:14671684

  1. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.; Dilgard, Lemoyne W.

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  2. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  3. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  4. Reducing Penguin Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Bhubanjyoti; Datta, Alakabha; London, David

    2013-06-01

    The most common decay used for measuring 2βs, the phase of B0s--\\bar B0s mixing, is B0s-> J/ψ φ . This decay is dominated by the color-suppressed tree diagram, but there are other contributions due to gluonic and electroweak penguin diagrams. These are often referred to as "penguin pollution" (PP) because their inclusion in the amplitude leads to a theoretical error in the extraction of 2βs from the data. In the standard model (SM), it is estimated that the PP is negligible, but there is some uncertainty as to its exact size. Now, φ sc\\bar {cs} (the measured value of 2βs) is small, in agreement with the SM, but still has significant experimental errors. When these are reduced, if one hopes to be able to see clear evidence of new physics (NP), it is crucial to have the theoretical error under control. In this paper, we show that, using a modification of the angular analysis currently used to measure φ sc\\bar {cs} in B0s-> J/ψ φ , one can reduce the theoretical error due to PP. Theoretical input is still required, but it is much more modest than entirely neglecting the PP. If φ sc\\bar {cs} differs from the SM prediction, this points to NP in the mixing. There is also enough information to test for NP in the decay. This method can be applied to all B0s/\\bar B0s -> V1 V2 decays.

  5. Measuring the reduced shear

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    Neglecting the second order corrections in weak lensing measurements can lead to a few percent uncertainties on cosmic shears, and becomes more important for cluster lensing mass reconstructions. Existing methods which claim to measure the reduced shears are not necessarily accurate to the second order when a point spread function (PSF) is present. We show that the method of Zhang (2008) exactly measures the reduced shears at the second order level in the presence of PSF. A simple theorem is provided for further confirming our calculation, and for judging the accuracy of any shear measurement method at the second order based on its properties at the first order. The method of Zhang (2008) is well defined mathematically. It does not require assumptions on the morphologies of galaxies and the PSF. To reach a sub-percent level accuracy, the CCD pixel size is required to be not larger than 1/3 of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the PSF, regardless of whether the PSF has a power-law or exponential profile at large distances. Using a large ensemble (∼>10{sup 7}) of mock galaxies of unrestricted morphologies, we study the shear recovery accuracy under different noise conditions. We find that contaminations to the shear signals from the noise of background photons can be removed in a well defined way because they are not correlated with the source shapes. The residual shear measurement errors due to background noise are consistent with zero at the sub-percent level even when the amplitude of such noise reaches about 1/10 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source. This limit can in principle be extended further with a larger galaxy ensemble in our simulations. On the other hand, the source Poisson noise remains to be a cause of systematic errors. For a sub-percent level accuracy, our method requires the amplitude of the source Poisson noise to be less than 1/80 ∼ 1/100 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source

  6. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson.

  7. Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660

  8. Reducing medical waste.

    PubMed

    Conrardy, Julie; Hillanbrand, Mary; Myers, Sandra; Nussbaum, George F

    2010-06-01

    Medical waste is a necessary by-product of any hospital environment; however, the majority of regulated medical waste is produced in the OR from the use of disposable surgical supplies (eg, drapes, gowns, basins, gloves, sponges). We conducted a concept comparison project in the ORs of two large medical centers in Bethesda, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to evaluate the effects of using reusable surgical basins, gowns, and table and Mayo stand covers in place of disposable products. Survey results indicated that surgeons and surgical technologists found the reusable products to be preferable to the disposable products currently in use. In addition, using reusable products provided a means to decrease regulated medical waste generated in the OR by an average of 65% as well as reduce the cost of waste disposal. AORN recommends evaluating the environmental effects of using reusable, reposable, and disposable products; our findings provide evidence that may be useful to surgical facilities that seek to adopt a "green" approach. PMID:20510944

  9. Reducing miner absenteeism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R.; Randolph, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines has prepared this report on strategies for maintaining high job attendance among underground coal miners because high absenteeism is a threat to miners' safety and seriously hampers productivity. A substantial number of research studies on the effectiveness of various strategies for reducing absenteeism among the employees of nonmining industries have been reported in the literature. These strategies have aimed at improving job attendance through one or more of the following: (1) improving employment procedures, (2) overcoming problems that adversely affect one's ability to attend work, and (3) increasing miners' motivation to attend work. Many of these strategies appear applicable to the mining industry, and are reviewed in the first half of this report. The second half of this report describes how one could develop and implement a program for maintaining high attendance at underground coal mines. The steps include measuring and evaluating attendance levels, formulating attendance goals and an absenteeism policy, developing and implementing an attendance promotion program and periodically going through the preceding steps (known as recycling).

  10. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  11. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics.

  12. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-06-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M; Adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, adenosine triphosphate, albumin interferon alfa, alefacept, alemtuzumab, aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, autologous renal tumor vaccine, azimilide hydrochloride; Bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; C340, cantuzumab mertansine, caspofungin acetate, CGP-36742, CHAMPION everolimus-eluting coronary stent, cypher; Dalbavancin, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Efalizumab, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, everolimus, ezetimibe; Flesinoxan hydrochloride, fosamprenavir calcium, FR-901228, frovatriptan; Gadofosveset sodium, gadomer-17, galiximab, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, gefitinib; HuOKT3gamma1(Ala234-Ala235); IDN-6556, imatinib mesylate, iodine (I131) tositumomab, iseganan hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Keratinocyte growth factor; LB-80380, levocetirizine, liposomal doxorubicin, LMB-9, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib, lurtotecan; Mecasermin, midostaurin, morphine hydrochloride; Natalizumab, nelfinavir, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; Olcegepant, omalizumab, oregovomab; Parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, perospirone hydrochloride, pexelizumab, pimecrolimus, prinomastat; Resiquimod, rhIGFBP-3, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3, ritanserin, ro-31-7453, rosuvastatin calcium; SCIO-469, SDZ-SID-791, SU-11248, suberanilohydroxamic acid; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, TER-286, tezosentan disodium, TH-9507, tipifarnib, tipranavir, tolvaptan, tramadol hydrochloride/acetaminophen, travoprost, treprostinil sodium, tucaresol

  13. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-03-01

    ABT-869, Acadesine, Acetylsalicylic acid/omeprazole, Adefovir, Adefovir dipivoxil, AEG-35156, Agatolimod sodium, Albiglutide, Alemtuzumab, Alipogene tiparvovec, Alogliptin benzoate, AMG-386, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Apremilast, Aripiprazole, Asoprisnil, Atorvastatin/fenofibrate, AVN-944, Axitinib; Belinostat, Bevacizumab, BHT-3021, BI-2536, Biapenem, Bilastine, Biphasic insulin aspart, Blinatumomab, Bortezomib, Bosentan; Catumaxomab, CD-NP, Cediranib, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, Ciclesonide, CK-1827452,Clevudine, Clofarabine, CSL-360, CYT-997; Dapagliflozin, Darinaparsin, Denosumab, Densiron 68, Desloratadine, Dulanermin; Edoxaban tosilate, Emtricitabine, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fidaxomicintiacumiv, Fulvestrant; G-207, GCR-8015, Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), Glufosfamide; HPV16L1E7CVLP; Ibutamoren mesilate, Imatinib mesylate, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Iodine (I131) tositumomab, Istaroxime, ITMN-191, Ixabepilone; JZP-4, Lenalidomide; Levetiracetam, Linaclotide acetate, Liposomal cytarabine/daunorubicin, Liposomal doxorubicin, Liraglutide, LY-518674; Milatuzumab, MMR-V, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Niacin/simvastatin; Obatoclax mesylate, Odanacatib; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Pazufloxacin, PBT-2, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, Perampanel, PfCP2.9, Pitavastatin calcium, Poly I:CLC, Pomalidomide, Pralatrexate, Pramlintide acetate, Prucalopride; rhGAD65, Roflumilast; RTS,S/AS02D; SCH-530348, Semagacestat, Sirolimus-eluting coronary stent, Sirolimus-Eluting Stent, SIR-Spheres, Sivelestat sodium hydrate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Tafluprost, Tanespimycin, Teduglutide, Telaprevir, Telbivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tiotropium bromide, TMC-435350, Tositumomab/iodine (I131) tositumomab, Travoprost/timolol, Triciribine

  14. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 101M, 166Ho-DOTMP, 3-AP; Abatacept, abetimus sodium, ACR-16, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, AMD-070, aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester, anatumomab mafenatox, anti-CTLA-4 MAb, antigastrin therapeutic vaccine, AP-12009, AP-23573, APC-8024, aripiprazole, ATL-962, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, bimatoprost, bortezomib, bosentan, BR-1; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clofazimine, colchicine, cold-adapted influenza vaccine trivalent, CRM197; Desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, diethylhomospermine; Edodekin alfa, efalizumab, elcometrine, eletriptan, enfuvirtide, entecavir, EP-2101, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, etoricoxib, everolimus, exherin, ezetimibe; Febuxostat, fluorescein lisicol, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; Hemoglobin raffimer, HSPPC-96, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, IRX-2, istradefylline, IV gamma-globulin, ixabepilone; Kahalalide F; L-759274, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, licofelone, lonafarnib, lopinavir, lurtotecan, LY-156735; MAb G250, mecasermin, melatonin, midostaurin, muraglitazar; Nesiritide, nitronaproxen; O6-Benzylguanine, olmesartan medoxomil, olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide, omapatrilat, oral insulin; Parecoxib sodium, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, peptide YY3-36, PG-CPT, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, posaconazole; Rasagiline mesilate, rDNA insulin, RG228, rimonabant hydrochloride, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; S-3304, safinamide mesilate, salcaprozic acid sodium salt, SDZ-SID-791, SGN-30, soblidotin

  15. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-04-01

    (+)-Dapoxetine hydrochloride, [(123)I]-BZA, 9-Aminocamptothecin; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alemtuzumab, Alvocidib hydrochloride, Ambrisentan, Amsilarotene, Anacetrapib, Anakinra, Apricitabine, Aripiprazole, Arsenic trioxide, Atazanavir sulfate, Atazanavir/ritonavir, Atrasentan, Azacitidine; Banoxantrone, Bazedoxifene acetate, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Bromfenac; Cachectin, Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Canakinumab, Carfilzomib, CAT-354, CCX-282, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, Clevudine, Clofarabine, CNTO-328, Corifollitropin alfa, Crofelemer; Daptomycin, Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Denosumab, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Emtricitabine, Enfuvirtide, Entecavir, Epoetin zeta, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Everolimus, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Farglitazar, Febuxostat, Fosamprenavir calcium, FX-06; Gabapentin enacarbil, Gefitinib; HIVIS DNA; Imatinib mesylate, INCB- 18424, Indacaterol, Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Insulin detemir; JNJ-26854165; Lacosamide, Landiolol, Laromustine, Lenalidomide, Liposomal doxorubicin, L-NAME, Lopinavir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lumiracoxib; Maraviroc, Mepolizumab, Methoxy polyethylene glycol- epoetin-beta, Miglustat, MK-0493, MVA-CMDR, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, Nepafenac, Neratinib, Neridronic acid, Nesiritide, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate; Olmesartan medoxomil, Omacetaxine mepesuccinate, Omalizumab; Paclitaxel poliglumex, Palifermin, Patupilone, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, Pemetrexed disodium, PHA-848125, Pitavastatin calcium, Posaconazole, Povidone-iodine liposome complex, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Prucalopride; Raltegravir potassium, Retigabine, Revaprazan hydrochloride, rhFSH, Rilpivirine, Rivaroxaban, Romidepsin

  16. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abiraterone acetate, Ad5CMV-p53, adefovir dipivoxil, AE-941, ambrisentan, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride, atrasentan; BCH-10618, bimatoprost, BMS-184476, BMS-275183, BMS-387032, botulinum toxin type B, BR-1, BR96-Doxorubicin; Capravirine, caspofungin acetate, cinacalcet hydrochloride; Darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, dextrin sulfate, DJ-927, duloxetine hydrochloride; Elacridar, emtricitabine, eplerenone, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, ESP-24217, etoricoxib, exenatide, ezetimibe; Ferumoxtran-10, fondaparinux sodium, fosamprenavir calcium; GS-7904L, GW-5634; HMN-214, human insulin; IC-14, imatinib mesylate, indiplon, insulin glargine, insulinotropin, iseganan hydrochloride; Lanthanum carbonate, L-Arginine hydrochloride, LEA29Y, lenalidomide, LE-SN38, lestaurtinib, L-MDAM, lometrexol, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir; Magnesium sulfate, maraviroc, mepolizumab, metreleptin, milataxel, MNA-715, morphine hydrochloride; Nesiritide, neutrophil-inhibitory factor, NK-911; Olanzapine/fluoxetine hydrochloride, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ortataxel, oxycodone hydrochloride/ibuprofen; Panitumumab, patupilone, PC-515, PD-MAGE-3 Vaccine, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, prasugrel, pregabalin, PRO-2000; Rosuvastatin calcium, RPR-113090; sabarubicin hydrochloride, safinamide mesilate, SB-715992, sitaxsentan sodium, soblidotin, synthadotin; Tadalafil, taltobulin, temsirolimus, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, testosterone gel, tigecycline, tipranavir, tirapazamine, trabectedin

  17. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-10-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen; Ad.muIFN-beta AD-237, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, agalsidase alfa, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, ALVAC vCP1452, alvimopan hydrate, ambrisentan, anakinra, anti-IFN-gamma MAb; Bimatoprost, BMS-188797, BMS-214662, bortezomib, bosentan, bovine lactoferrin; Caffeine, canertinib dihydrochloride, canfosfamide hydrochloride, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, cH36, ChimeriVax-JE, ciclesonide, cilansetron, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clopidogrel, CpG-7909, Cypher; Daptomycin, darbepoetin alfa, darifenacin hydrobromide, decitabine, denufosol tetrasodium, Dexamet, diindolemethane, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, DX-9065a; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, elacridar, eletriptan, emtricitabine, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fludarabine, fondaparinux sodium; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, gavestinel sodium, gefitinib, granisetron-Biochronomer; Human Albumin, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, interleukin-2 XL, isatoribine, ISS-1018, i.v. gamma-globulin, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Lanthanum carbonate, L-arginine hydrochloride, liposomal doxorubicin, LY-450139; Magnesium sulfate, melatonin, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Natalizumab, nesiritide, niacin/lovastatin; OGX-011, olmesartan medoxomil, omalizumab, ospemifene; PACAP38, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, patupilone, pegfilgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b

  18. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-04-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABX-IL-8, Acclaim, adalimumab, AGI-1067, alagebrium chloride, alemtuzumab, Alequel, Androgel, anti-IL-12 MAb, AOD-9604, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Biphasic insulin aspart, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, bovine lactoferrin, brivudine; Cantuzumab mertansine, CB-1954, CDB-4124, CEA-TRICOM, choriogonadotropin alfa, cilansetron, CpG-10101, CpG-7909, CTL-102, CTL-102/CB-1954; DAC:GRF, darbepoetin alfa, davanat-1, decitabine, del-1 Genemedicine, dexanabinol, dextofisopam, dnaJP1, dronedarone hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, eletriptan, emtricitabine, EPI-hNE-4, eplerenone, eplivanserin fumarate, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Falecalcitriol, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gepirone hydrochloride; HBV-ISS, HSV-2 theracine, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, insulin glargine, ISAtx-247; L612 HuMAb, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine, LL-2113AD, lucinactant, LY-156735; Meclinertant, metelimumab, morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide; Natalizumab, nimotuzumab, NX-1207, NYVAC-HIV C; Omalizumab, onercept, osanetant; PABA, palosuran sulfate, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PBI-1402, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, PINC, pregabalin; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, RO-0098557, rofecoxib, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride; Safinamide mesilate, SHL-749, sitaxsentan sodium, sparfosic acid, SprayGel, squalamine, St. John's Wort

  19. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  20. Reducing Risks of Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Reducing Risks of Birth Defects Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Reducing Risks of Birth Defects FAQ146, February 2016 ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir Plus Dasabuvir With or Without Ribavirin in HCV-Infected Patients Taking Concomitant Acid-Reducing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Mitchell L; Rustgi, Vinod; Bennett, Michael; Forns, Xavier; Asselah, Tarik; Planas Vila, Ramon; Liu, Li; Pedrosa, Marcos; Moller, Jonathan; Reau, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acid-reducing agents (ARAs) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) that increase gastric pH can alter the bioavailability of antiviral drugs, particularly relevant in patients with advanced liver disease caused by chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seeking therapy. Using integrated data from six phase 3 studies, we report the safety and efficacy of the 3-direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen containing ombitasvir (OBV, an NS5A inhibitor), ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir (PTV/r, an NS3/4A protease inhibitor), and dasabuvir (DSV, an NS5B polymerase inhibitor) with or without ribavirin (RBV) for HCV genotype 1 patients taking concomitant ARAs and PPIs. METHODS: Treatment-naïve or peginterferon/RBV treatment-experienced patients with or without compensated cirrhosis received OBV/PTV/r and DSV with or without weight-based RBV. Rates of sustained virologic response (SVR), defined as HCV RNA below the lower limit of quantification, 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) and safety were evaluated in patients who were receiving concomitant ARAs. RESULTS: Among 2,053 patients enrolled and dosed with study drug, 410 (20%) were receiving concomitant ARAs; of these, 308 (15%) were taking concomitant PPIs. Rates of SVR12 were 95.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 93.5–97.4%) among patients receiving an ARA, and 96.3% (95% CI 95.3–97.2%) in patients not receiving a concomitant ARA. Similarly, among patients receiving a PPI or not, SVR12 was achieved in 95.1% (95% CI 92.1–97.0%) and 96.4% (95% CI 95.5–97.2%), respectively. Response rates were high regardless of treatment regimen (with or without RBV), and among patients receiving a standard or high dose of PPIs. Regarding safety, adverse events and serious adverse events were more frequently reported in patients taking concomitant ARAs, though baseline population differences may have played a role. CONCLUSIONS: In phase 3 trials of OBV/PTV/r plus DSV and RBV in HCV genotype 1-infected patients, SVR12 rates were high

  2. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  3. Reducing polypharmacy in extended care.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, R C; Moore, S W; Whalen, K; Donnelly, J P; Compton, R; Testerman, F; Haulsee, P; Hughes, J

    1995-05-01

    In this 5-year prospective study, we determined the feasibility of reducing polypharmacy in a long-term care institution by a systematic review of the pharmacy records. At 6-month intervals, the computer printout of all medications prescribed to patients in a 550-bed institution was reviewed. After patients taking more than 10 different drugs were identified, their physician was notified and was asked to review their medications according to specific guidelines. The number of patients taking 10 or more medications was reduced from 67, when the program was started, to 9. The average number of medications per patient was reduced from 5.5 to 4.6. This program reduced the prevalence of polypharmacy and had long-lasting effects on the physicians' prescribing habits. We also believe it led to improved patient care by reducing the potential for drug interactions and to cost savings for the pharmacy. PMID:7732442

  4. Reducing Cancer Patients' Painful Treatment

    NASA Video Gallery

    A NASA light technology originally developed to aid plant growth experiments in space has proved to reduce the painful side effects resulting from chemotherapy and radiation treatment in bone marro...

  5. Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA'€™s Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program gives students and educators the opportunity to design, build and fly an experiment in microgravity and get a look at what it takes to be a NASA en...

  6. ISS Update: Reduced Gravity Education

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Veronica Seyl, Acting Manager for Reduced Gravity Education. NASA works with students and educators to design experiments for flight testing aboard t...

  7. Reducing Childhood Obesity: We Can!

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity We Can! Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table ... Promotes Healthier Children We Can! is a national childhood obesity prevention program sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, ...

  8. How to Reduce Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, George; Clapp, Leallyn B.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the problem of solid waste disposal in the United States, suggests ways in which solid wastes might be reduced, and proposes a number of related topics for student debate in classes or in science clubs. (JR)

  9. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, Matthew S.; Brake, Matthew R.W.

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  10. Strategies to Reduce Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Glenn, Jeffrey D.; Guy, Gery P.; Watson, Meg; Baker, Katie; Cokkinides, Vilma; Gottlieb, Mark; Lazovich, DeAnn; Perna, Frank M.; Sampson, Blake P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning device use is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including risk of malignant melanoma, and is an urgent public health problem. By reducing indoor tanning, future cases of skin cancer could be prevented, along with the associated morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. On August 20, 2012, the CDC hosted a meeting to discuss the current body of evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning as well as research gaps. Using the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Overarching Goals as a framework, the current paper provides highlights on the topics that were discussed, including (1) the state of the evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning; (2) the tools necessary to effectively assess, monitor, and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of interventions designed to reduce indoor tanning; and (3) strategies to align efforts at the national, state, and local levels through transdisciplinary collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors. Although many challenges and barriers exist, a coordinated, multilevel, transdisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce indoor tanning and prevent future cases of skin cancer. PMID:23683986

  11. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  12. Microbial methods of reducing technetium

    DOEpatents

    Wildung, Raymond E [Richland, WA; Garland, Thomas R [Greybull, WY; Gorby, Yuri A [Richland, WA; Hess, Nancy J [Benton City, WA; Li, Shu-Mei W [Richland, WA; Plymale, Andrew E [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a method for microbial reduction of a technetium compound to form other compounds of value in medical imaging. The technetium compound is combined in a mixture with non-growing microbial cells which contain a technetium-reducing enzyme system, a stabilizing agent and an electron donor in a saline solution under anaerobic conditions. The mixture is substantially free of an inorganic technetium reducing agent and its reduction products. The resulting product is Tc of lower oxidation states, the form of which can be partially controlled by the stabilizing agent. It has been discovered that the microorganisms Shewanella alga, strain Bry and Shewanelia putrifacians, strain CN-32 contain the necessary enzyme systems for technetium reduction and can form both mono nuclear and polynuclear reduced Tc species depending on the stabilizing agent.

  13. Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.

  14. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  15. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  16. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  17. Pressure Reducer for Coal Gasifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, James M., Sr.

    1983-01-01

    Quasi-porous-plug pressure reducer is designed for gases containing abrasive particles. Gas used to generate high pressure steam to drive electric power generators. In giving up heat to steam, gas drops in temperature. Device used for coal gasification plants.

  18. REDUCING INK AND CLEANER WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changing from alcohol-based inks and cleaners can reduce the amount and toxicity of emissions and waste, while also improving product quality and saving money. his article explores how a flexographic printer successfully made the switch without incurring significant capital costs...

  19. Reducing Crime by Eliminating Cash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, David R.

    Ending the use of cash in the United States can provide substantial social and economic gain while requiring only modest levels of investment. One primary benefit is the reduction of cash-related crimes. Because most street crime is committed to obtain cash or uses cash as a transaction medium, elimination of cash will dramatically reduce crime.…

  20. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  1. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOEpatents

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  2. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  3. Reducing Harm in Healthcare Systems.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Tim

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the importance of causation of medical errors is important for determining strategies to reduce the harm that they can cause to patients. This paper discusses how dentistry can learn from medicine as well as other industries when developing approaches designed to deal with the causes of errors, rather than their outcomes. PMID:26556517

  4. Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helenbrook, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    The details: a) Need stable numerical methods; b) Round off error can be considerable; c) Not convinced modes are correct for incompressible flow. Nonetheless, can derive compact and accurate reduced-order models. Can be used to generate actuator models or full flow-field models

  5. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  6. Hindlimb suspension reduces muscle regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Truong, Q.; Macius, A.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of juvenile skeletal muscle to a weightless environment reduces growth and satellite cell mitotic activity. However, the effect of a weightless environment on the satellite cell population during muscle repair remains unknown. Muscle injury was induced in rat soleus muscles using the myotoxic snake venom, notexin. Rats were placed into hindlimb-suspended or weightbearing groups for 10 days following injury. Cellular proliferation during regeneration was evaluated using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) regenerated muscle mass, regenerated myofiber diameter, uninjured muscle mass, and uninjured myofiber diameter compared to weightbearing rats. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) BrdU labeling in uninjured soleus muscles compared to weight-bearing muscles. However, hindlimb suspension did not abolish muscle regeneration because myofibers formed in the injured soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended rats, and BrdU labeling was equivalent (P > 0.10) on myofiber segments isolated from the soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended and weightbearing rats following injury. Thus, hindlimb suspension (weightlessness) does not suppress satellite cell mitotic activity in regenerating muscles before myofiber formation, but reduces growth of the newly formed myofibers.

  7. Child poverty can be reduced.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  8. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period. PMID:12167846

  9. Reduced coking of fuel nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, A.A.; Sager, J.W.; Kobish, T.R.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a fuel nozzle useful for a gas turbine engine and having a nozzle face, the combination of fuel supply means on the nozzle, the fuel supply means including an annular fuel discharge body converging in a downstream direction toward a longitudinal central axis of the nozzle and terminating in a downstream fuel discharge orifice substantially on the central axis for discharging fuel from the orifice for mixing with air downstream of the nozzle face, air supply means on the nozzle for discharging air from the nozzle face, and means on the nozzle around the fuel discharge body cooperating with the air supply means for controllably discharging sufficient air flow with locally reduced swirl strength over the fuel discharge body to establish a recirculation zone spaced away from the nozzle face downstream thereof a sufficient distance to substantially reduce coking on the nozzle face.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide molecular sensors.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jeremy T; Perkins, F Keith; Snow, Eric S; Wei, Zhongqing; Sheehan, Paul E

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate reduced graphene oxide as the active material for high-performance molecular sensors. Sensors are fabricated from exfoliated graphene oxide platelets that are deposited to form an ultrathin continuous network. These graphene oxide networks are tunably reduced toward graphene by varying the exposure time to a hydrazine hydrate vapor. The conductance change of the networks upon exposure to trace levels of vapor is measured as a function of the chemical reduction. The level of reduction affects both the sensitivity and the level of 1/ f noise. The sensors are capable of detecting 10 s exposures to simulants of the three main classes of chemical-warfare agents and an explosive at parts-per-billion concentrations. PMID:18763832

  11. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women. PMID:25642202

  12. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  13. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  14. Reduced modified Chaplygin gas cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianbo; Geng, Danhua; Xu, Lixin; Wu, Yabo; Liu, Molin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we study cosmologies containing the reduced modified Chaplygin gas (RMCG) fluid which is reduced from the modified Chaplygin gas p = Aρ - Bρ -α for the value of α = -1 /2. In this special case, dark cosmological models can be realized for different values of model parameter A. We investigate the viabilities of these dark cosmological models by discussing the evolutions of cosmological quantities and using the currently available cosmic observations. It is shown that the special RMCG model ( A = 0 or A = 1) which unifies the dark matter and dark energy should be abandoned. For A = 1 /3, RMCG which unifies the dark energy and dark radiation is the favorite model according to the objective Akaike information criteria. In the case of A < 0, RMCG can achieve the features of the dynamical quintessence and phantom models, where the evolution of the universe is not sensitive to the variation of model parameters.

  15. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Dimos, Duane B.; Pike, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  16. Structural reducibility of multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Domenico, Manlio; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Arenas, Alexandre; Latora, Vito

    2015-04-01

    Many complex systems can be represented as networks consisting of distinct types of interactions, which can be categorized as links belonging to different layers. For example, a good description of the full protein-protein interactome requires, for some organisms, up to seven distinct network layers, accounting for different genetic and physical interactions, each containing thousands of protein-protein relationships. A fundamental open question is then how many layers are indeed necessary to accurately represent the structure of a multilayered complex system. Here we introduce a method based on quantum theory to reduce the number of layers to a minimum while maximizing the distinguishability between the multilayer network and the corresponding aggregated graph. We validate our approach on synthetic benchmarks and we show that the number of informative layers in some real multilayer networks of protein-genetic interactions, social, economical and transportation systems can be reduced by up to 75%.

  17. MapReduce SVM Game

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently and recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.

  18. MapReduce SVM Game

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently andmore » recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.« less

  19. Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Todd M.; Carr, Lucas J.; King, Abby C.; Marshall, Simon; Robinson, Thomas N.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on presentations and discussion from the working group on “Influences on Sedentary Behavior & Interventions” as part of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities Workshop. Methods Interventions were discussed in the context of targeting sedentary behavior (SB) as a concept distinct from physical activity (PA). It was recommended that interventions targeting SB should consider a life course perspective, a position predicated on the assumption that SB is age and life stage dependent. Additionally, targeting environments where individuals have high exposure to SB— such as workplace sitting— could benefit from new technology (e.g., computer-based prompting to stand or move), environmental changes (e.g., active workstations), policies targeting reduced sedentary time (e.g., allowing employees regular desk breaks), or by changing norms surrounding prolonged sitting (e.g., standing meetings). Results & Conclusions There are limited data about the minimal amount of SB change required to produce meaningful health benefits. In addition to developing relevant scientific and public health definitions of SB, it is important to further delineate the scope of health and quality of life outcomes associated with reduced SB across the life course, and clarify what behavioral alternatives to SB can be used to optimize health gains. SB interventions will benefit from having more clarity about the potential physiological and behavioral synergies with current PA recommendations, developing multi-level interventions aimed at reducing SB across all life phases and contexts, harnessing relevant and effective strategies to extend the reach of interventions to all sectors of society, as well as applying state-of-the-science adaptive designs and methods to accelerate advances in the science of sedentary behavior interventions. PMID:25222818

  20. Reduced and Superreduced Diplatinum Complexes.

    PubMed

    Darnton, Tania V; Hunter, Bryan M; Hill, Michael G; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček, Antonín; Gray, Harry B

    2016-05-01

    A d(8)-d(8) complex [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)4](4-) (abbreviated Pt(pop-BF2)(4-)) undergoes two 1e(-) reductions at E1/2 = -1.68 and Ep = -2.46 V (vs Fc(+)/Fc) producing reduced Pt(pop-BF2)(5-) and superreduced Pt(pop-BF2)(6-) species, respectively. The EPR spectrum of Pt(pop-BF2)(5-) and UV-vis spectra of both the reduced and the superreduced complexes, together with TD-DFT calculations, reveal successive filling of the 6pσ orbital accompanied by gradual strengthening of Pt-Pt bonding interactions and, because of 6pσ delocalization, of Pt-P bonds in the course of the two reductions. Mayer-Millikan Pt-Pt bond orders of 0.173, 0.268, and 0.340 were calculated for the parent, reduced, and superreduced complexes, respectively. The second (5-/6-) reduction is accompanied by a structural distortion that is experimentally manifested by electrochemical irreversibility. Both reduction steps proceed without changing either d(8) Pt electronic configuration, making the superreduced Pt(pop-BF2)(6-) a very rare 6p(2) σ-bonded binuclear complex. However, the Pt-Pt σ bonding interaction is limited by the relatively long bridging-ligand-imposed Pt-Pt distance accompanied by repulsive electronic congestion. Pt(pop-BF2)(4-) is predicted to be a very strong photooxidant (potentials of +1.57 and +0.86 V are estimated for the singlet and triplet dσ*pσ excited states, respectively). PMID:27068652

  1. Combustion at reduced gravitational conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.; Wang, L. S.; Joshi, N.; Pai, C. I.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical structures needed for the predictive analyses and interpretations for flame propagation and extinction for clouds of porous particulates are presented. Related combustion theories of significance to reduced gravitational studies of combustible media are presented. Nonadiabatic boundaries are required for both autoignition theory and for extinction theory. Processes that were considered include, pyrolysis and vaporization of particulates, heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical kinetics, molecular transport of heat and mass, radiative coupling of the medium to its environment, and radiative coupling among particles and volume elements of the combustible medium.

  2. Reducing rattlesnake-human conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    Arizona is home to 11 species of rattlesnakes. As rapidly growing Arizona communities move into formerly undeveloped landscapes, encounters between people and rattlesnakes increase. As a result, the management of nuisance snakes, or snakes found in areas where people do not want them, is increasingly important. Since 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted research on the behavior and ecology of nuisance rattlesnake in Arizona national park units. A decade of research provides important insights into rattlesnake behavior that can be used by national parks and communities to reduce rattlesnake-human conflicts.

  3. Reducing Misanthropic Memory Through Self-Awareness: Reducing Bias.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of self-awareness on misanthropic recall. Misanthropic recall is the tendency to recall more negative behaviors dispositionally attributed and positive behaviors situationally attributed than negative behaviors situationally attributed and positive behaviors dispositionally attributed. It was hypothesized that when one is self-aware, more systematic information processing would occur, thereby reducing misanthropic memory and influencing attitudinal judgments. The first experiment used a mirror and the second experiment used a live video to induce self-awareness. Participants were asked to form an impression of a group. The results of both experiments replicated the previously found pattern of misanthropic memory for non-self-aware participants (Ybarra & Stephan, 1996), and revealed less misanthropic recall bias in self-aware participants. PMID:26442341

  4. Reducing In-Stent Restenosis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert A.; Halliday, Crawford A.; Miller, Ashley M.; Diver, Louise A.; Dakin, Rachel S.; Montgomery, Jennifer; McBride, Martin W.; Kennedy, Simon; McClure, John D.; Robertson, Keith E.; Douglas, Gillian; Channon, Keith M.; Oldroyd, Keith G.; Baker, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug-eluting stents reduce the incidence of in-stent restenosis, but they result in delayed arterial healing and are associated with a chronic inflammatory response and hypersensitivity reactions. Identifying novel interventions to enhance wound healing and reduce the inflammatory response may improve long-term clinical outcomes. Micro–ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are noncoding small ribonucleic acids that play a prominent role in the initiation and resolution of inflammation after vascular injury. Objectives This study sought to identify miRNA regulation and function after implantation of bare-metal and drug-eluting stents. Methods Pig, mouse, and in vitro models were used to investigate the role of miRNA in in-stent restenosis. Results We documented a subset of inflammatory miRNAs activated after stenting in pigs, including the miR-21 stem loop miRNAs. Genetic ablation of the miR-21 stem loop attenuated neointimal formation in mice post-stenting. This occurred via enhanced levels of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages coupled with an impaired sensitivity of smooth muscle cells to respond to vascular activation. Conclusions MiR-21 plays a prominent role in promoting vascular inflammation and remodeling after stent injury. MiRNA-mediated modulation of the inflammatory response post-stenting may have therapeutic potential to accelerate wound healing and enhance the clinical efficacy of stenting. PMID:26022821

  5. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    SciTech Connect

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A < 4) with residual ranges smaller than the physical step-size taken by the code. Accurately resolving the spectrum of low energy light particles is important in assessing risk associated with astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm{sup 2} exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  6. Soldering Tested in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Watson, J. Kevin; Down, Robert S.; Haylett, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    Whether used occasionally for contingency repair or routinely in nominal repair operations, soldering will become increasingly important to the success of future long-duration human space missions. As a result, it will be critical to have a thorough understanding of the service characteristics of solder joints produced in reduced-gravity environments. The National Center for Space Exploration Research (via the Research for Design program), the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole (see the drawing and image on the preceding figure) and surface-mounted devices are being investigated. This effort (the low-gravity portion being conducted on NASA s KC-135 research aircraft) uses the soldering hardware currently available on the International Space Station. The experiment involves manual soldering by a contingent of test operators, including both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews. The experiment uses both flux-cored solder and solid-core solder with an externally applied flux. Other experimental parameters include the type of flux, gravitational level (nominally zero,

  7. Reduced Prefrontal Connectivity in Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Motzkin, Julian C.; Newman, Joseph P.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Koenigs, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in psychopathic and non-psychopathic criminals. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between vmPFC and amygdala as well as between vmPFC and medial parietal cortex. Together, these data converge to implicate diminished vmPFC connectivity as a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy. PMID:22131397

  8. Reducing haemodialysis access infection rates.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Amanda; Dainton, Marissa

    Infections are the second most common cause of vascular access loss in the long-term haemodialysis patient, and recent years have seen an increase in healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) associated with vascular access (Suhail, 2009). There have been a number of drivers including publication guidelines (Department of Health, 2006; 2007) and local protocols providing evidence-based recommendations that, when implemented, can reduce the risk of these infections. In England, the selection of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a significant clinical outcome has led to a vast amount of work in this area. Root cause analysis of individual infections (by the clinical teams when these occur) in many specialities identified areas where practice could be improved, including practice relating to vascular access within the renal setting. Manufacturers have also supported this work by focusing on developing products that are designed to reduce the likelihood of infections occurring. One product identified and used within the NHS is Chloraprep. PMID:21646994

  9. Vaginal douching and reduced fertility.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D D; Weinberg, C R; Voigt, L F; Daling, J R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated douching and reduced fertility. METHODS: The monthly probability of conception for douchers and nondouchers was compared in a sample of 840 married, parous women in King County, Washington. Data on the number of months required to conceive were analyzed. RESULTS: In comparison with nondouchers, women who douched were 30% less likely to become pregnant each month they attempted pregnancy. This relationship remained after adjustment for covariates, and it could not be explained by women douching for medical reasons. The reduction was not related to the type of douching preparation used. Young women who douched had significantly greater reductions in monthly fertility than older women (50% reduction for women 18 to 24 years old, 29% reduction for women 25 to 29 years old, and 6% reduction for women 30 to 39 years old). CONCLUSIONS: Douching was associated with reduced fertility. Further research is needed to determine whether the relationship is casual and, if so, to what extent it is mediated by pelvic infection. In the meantime, women should be informed that douching may have adverse effects. PMID:8659660

  10. FIREhose: Reducing Data from FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fica, Haley Diane; Lambrides, Erini; Faherty, Jackie; Cruz, Kelle L.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are stellar objects that do not have enough mass to ignite hydrogen fusion in their core. Their mass is between 0.08 solar masses and the mass of our sun. Brown dwarfs are very bright in the near-infrared wavelength band (0.8- 2.5 microns). We reduced data from the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) instrument on the Magellan Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. FIRE is a medium-resolution echelle spectrometer, whose data reduction results in a spectrum of a star. When reducing FIRE data, it is important to account for inconsistencies in the data, such as bad pixels, cosmic rays, and the effects of our atmosphere. Using the FIREhose pipeline, these inconsistencies can be accounted for and corrected using a A0 telluric with a known spectrum. After telluric correcting, the data reduction results in a primed spectrum for an object, which can then be used to determine an object's physical properties, such as atmospheric composition, radial velocity, effective temperature and surface gravity.

  11. Reduced gravity multibody dynamics testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sillanpaa, Meija

    1993-01-01

    The Final Report on reduced gravity multibody dynamics testing is presented. Tests were conducted on board the NASA KC-135 RGA in Houston, Texas. The objective was to analyze the effects of large angle rotations on flexible, multi-segmented structures. The flight experiment was conducted to provide data which will be compared to the data gathered from ground tests of the same configurations. The flight and ground tested data will be used to validate the TREETOPS software, software which models dynamic multibody systems, and other multibody codes. The flight experiment consisted of seven complete flights on board the KC-135 RGA during two one-week periods. The first period of testing was 4-9 Apr. 1993. The second period of testing was 13-18 Jun. 1993.

  12. Methods for Reducing Hydrogen Outgassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Changkun; Mehrotra, Parixit; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2003-07-01

    Achieving Ultra High and Extreme High Vacuum without high temperature bakeouts is becoming essential in many applications. In this study, we investigated the use of inexpensive silica and titanium oxide thin film coatings on vacuum chambers/components to reduce the adsorption of water on the chamber walls. Water can be cracked into oxygen and hydrogen in the material and act as one of the sources of hydrogen. The measured outgassing rates of the stainless steel chambers with the thin film barrier coatings are in the range 1×10-12 Torr 1/s cm2 to 2.5×10-13 Torr 1/s cm2. We have also backed the turbo pump with an ion pump to understand and plan for fast pump down of vacuum systems.

  13. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  14. Interventions to reduce school bullying.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen

    2003-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879

  15. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  16. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, Charles J.; Rhudy, Ralph G.; Bushman, Ralph E.

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  17. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  18. Family planning is reducing abortions.

    PubMed

    Clinton, H R

    1997-01-01

    This news brief presents the US President's wife's statement on the association between use of family planning and a decline in abortions worldwide. Hillary Rodham Clinton attended the Sixth Conference of Wives of Heads of State and Government of the Americas held in La Paz, Bolivia. The conference was suitably located in Bolivia, a country with the highest rates of maternal mortality in South America. Bolivia has responded by launching a national family planning campaign coordinated between government, nongovernmental, and medical organizations. Half of Bolivian women experience pregnancy and childbirth without the support of trained medical staff. Mortality from abortion complications account for about half of all maternal deaths in Bolivia. Voluntary family planning workers teach women about the benefits of child spacing, breast feeding, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, and safe deliveries. Bolivia has succeeded in increasing its contraceptive use rates and decreasing the number of safe and unsafe abortions. Bolivia's program effort was supported by USAID. USAID provided technical assistance and funds for the establishment of a network of primary health care clinics. Mrs. Clinton visited one such clinic in a poor neighborhood in La Paz, which in its first six months of operation provided 2200 consultations, delivered 200 babies, registered 700 new family planning users, and immunized 2500 children. Clinics such as this one will be affected by the US Congress's harsh cuts in aid, which reduce funding by 35% and delay program funding by 9 months. These US government cuts in foreign aid are expected to result in an additional 1.6 million abortions, over 8000 maternal deaths, and 134,000 infant deaths in developing countries. An investment in population assistance represents a sensible, cost-effective, and long-term strategy for improving women's health, strengthening families, and reducing abortion. PMID:12293000

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-12-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Intergrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 249553, 2-Methoxyestradiol; Abatacept, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Agalsidase beta, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Aliskiren fumarate, Alovudine, Amdoxovir, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, AQ-13, Aripiprazole, AS-1404, Asoprisnil, Atacicept, Atrasentan; Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B, Brivaracetam; Catumaxomab, Cediranib, Cetuximab, cG250, Ciclesonide, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Curcumin, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, Denosumab, Dihydrexidine; Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Febuxostat, Fenspiride hydrochloride, Fondaparinux sodium; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GSK-1562902A; HSV-tk/GCV; Iclaprim, Imatinib mesylate, Imexon, Indacaterol, Insulinotropin, ISIS-112989; L-Alanosine, Lapatinib ditosylate, Laropiprant; Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-beta, Mipomersen sodium, Motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, Nimotuzumab; OSC, Ozarelix; PACAP-38, Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein-(1-36), Pasireotide, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pertuzumab, Picoplatin, Pimecrolimus, Pitavastatin calcium, Plitidepsin; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranolazine, Recombinant human relaxin H2, Regadenoson, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, RO-3300074, Rosuvastatin calcium; SIR-Spheres, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Talabostat, Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Temsirolimus, Teriparatide, Tiotropium bromide, Tipifarnib, Tirapazamine, Tocilizumab; UCN-01, Ularitide

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-11-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM), the drug discovery and development portal, http://www.thomsonreutersintegrity.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abatacept, Adalimumab, AdCD40L, Adefovir, Aleglitazar, Aliskiren fumarate, AM-103, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Amlodipine, Anakinra, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate, Axitinib; Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bimatoprost, Bortezomib, Bupropion/naltrexone; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Certolizumab pegol, Ciclesonide, CYT-997; Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Desvenlafaxine succinate, Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride cogramostim; Eltrombopag olamine, Emtricitabine, Escitalopram oxalate, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Everolimus-eluting coronary stent, Exenatide, Ezetimibe; Fenretinide, Filibuvir, Fludarabine; Golimumab; Hepatitis B hyperimmunoglobulin, HEV-239, HP-802-247, HPV-16/18 AS04, HPV-6/11/16/18, Human albumin, Human gammaglobulin; Imatinib mesylate, Inotuzumab ozogamicin, Invaplex 50 vaccine; Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Liposomal doxorubicin, Lopinavir, Lumiliximab, LY-686017; Maraviroc, Mecasermin rinfabate; Narlaprevir; Ocrelizumab, Oral insulin, Oritavancin, Oxycodone hydrochloride/naloxone; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Palonosetron hydrochloride, PAN-811, Paroxetine, Pazopanib hydrochloride, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pertuzumab, Pitavastatin calcium, Posaconazole, Pregabalin, Prucalopride succinate; Raltegravir potassium, Ranibizumab, RHAMM R3 peptide, Rosuvastatin calcium; Salclobuzic acid sodium salt, SCY-635, Selenate sodium, Semapimod hydrochloride, Silodosin, Siltuximab, Silybin, Sirolimus-eluting stent, SIR-Spheres, Sunitinib malate; Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tenofovir disoproxil

  1. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-04-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, alefacept, alemtuzumab, 3-AP, AP-12009, APC-8015, L-Arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arundic acid, avasimibe; Bevacizumab, bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, BMS-184476, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, BRL-55730, bryostatin 1; CEP-1347, cetuximab, cinacalcet hydrochloride, CP-461, CpG-7909; D-003, dabuzalgron hydrochloride, darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride, DHA-paclitaxel, diflomotecan, DN-101, DP-b99, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, duramycin; Eculizumab, Efalizumab, EKB-569, elcometrine, enfuvirtide, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, ezetimibe; Fenretinide, fosamprenavir calcium, frovatriptan; GD2L-KLH conjugate vaccine, gefitinib, glufosfamide, GTI-2040; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin, hydroquinone, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium; IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; KRN-5500; LY-544344; MDX-210, melatonin, mepolizumab, motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, NSC-330507, NSC-683864; 1-Octanol, omalizumab, ortataxel; Pagoclone, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, phenoxodiol, pimecrolimus, plevitrexed, polyphenon E, pramlintide acetate, prasterone, pregabalin, PX-12; QS-21; Ragaglitazar, ranelic acid distrontium salt, RDP-58, recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, repinotan hydrochloride, rhEndostatin, rh-Lactoferrin, (R)-roscovitine; S-8184, semaxanib, sitafloxacin hydrate, sitaxsentan sodium, sorafenib, synthadotin

  2. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2008-10-01

    Gateways to clinical trials is a guide to the most recent trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: (+)-Dapoxetine hydrochloride, (S)-Tenatoprazole sodium salt monohydrate 19-28z, Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate, ADV-TK, AE-37, Aflibercept, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Aliskiren fumarate, Asenapine maleate, Axitinib; Bavituximab, Becatecarin, beta-1,3/1,6-Glucan, Bevacizumab, Bremelanotide; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, Casopitant mesylate, Catumaxomab, CDX-110, Cediranib, CMD-193, Cositecan; Darinaparsin, Denosumab, DP-b99, Duloxetine hydrochloride; E75, Ecogramostim, Elacytarabine, EMD-273063, EndoTAG-1, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eplerenone, Eribulin mesilate, Esomeprazole magnesium, Etravirine, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Faropenem daloxate, Febuxostat, Fenretinide; Ghrelin (human); I-131 ch-TNT-1/B, I-131-3F8, Iclaprim, Iguratimod, Iloperidone, Imatinib mesylate, Inalimarev/Falimarev, Indacaterol, Ipilimumab, Iratumumab, Ispinesib mesylate, Ixabepilone; Lapatinib ditosylate, Laquinimod sodium, Larotaxel dehydrate, Linezolid, LOR-2040; Mapatumumab, MKC-1, Motesanib diphosphate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; NK-012; Olanzapine pamoate, Oncolytic HSV, Ortataxel; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Paclitaxel poliglumex, Paliperidone palmitate, Panitumumab, Patupilone, PCV-9, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pertuzumab, Picoplatin, Pimavanserin tartrate, Pimecrolimus, Plerixafor hydrochloride, PM-02734, Poly I:CLC, PR1, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Progesterone caproate, Prucalopride, Pumosetrag hydrochloride; RAV-12, RB-006, RB-007, Recombinant human erythropoietin alfa, Rimonabant, Romidepsin; SAR-109659, Satraplatin, Sodium butyrate; Tadalafil, Talampanel, Tanespimycin, Tarenflurbil, Tariquidar

  3. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-03-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity(R), the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Activated protein C concentrate, Ad-CD154, Adeno-Interferon gamma, alemtuzumab, APC-8024, 9-aminocamptothecin, aprepitant, l-arginine hydrochloride, aripiprazole, arsenic trioxide, asimadoline; O6-Benzylguanine, bevacizumab, Bi-20, binodenoson, biphasic insulin aspart, bivatuzumab, 186Re-bivatuzumab, BMS-181176, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, BQ-123, bryostatin 1; Carboxy- amidotriazole, caspofungin acetate, CB-1954, CC-4047, CDP-860, cerivastatin sodium, clevidipine, CTL-102; 3,4-DAP, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, desloratadine, DHA-paclitaxel, duloxetine hydrochloride; Efalizumab, EGF vaccine, eletriptan, eniluracil, ENMD-0997, eplerenone, eplivanserin, erlosamide, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, eszopiclone, everolimus, exatecan mesilate, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, FR-901228, FTY-720; Gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gepirone hydrochloride; Hexyl insulin M2, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, iodine (I131) tositumomab, ISV-205, ivabradine hydrochloride, ixabepilone; Levetiracetam, levocetirizine, linezolid, liposomal NDDP, lonafarnib, lopinavir, LY-156735; Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt, magnesium sulfate, maxacalcitol, meclinertant, melagatran, melatonin, MENT, mepolizumab, micafungin sodium, midostaurin, motexafin gadolinium; Nesiritide, NS-1209, NSC-601316, NSC-683864; Osanetant; Palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, pegaptanib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegylated OB protein, pemetrexed disodium, perillyl alcohol, picoplatin, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plevitrexed

  4. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs:(R)-Flurbiprofen, 90Yttrium-DOTA-huJ591; ABT-510, ACP-103, Ad5-FGF4, adalimumab, ademetionine, AG-7352, alemtuzumab, Amb a 1 ISS-DNA, anakinra, apaziquone, aprepitant, aripiprazole, atazanavir sulfate; BAL-8557, bevacizumab, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, brivudine; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, cannabidiol, caspofungin acetate, catumaxomab, CERE-120, cetuximab, ciclesonide, cilomilast, cizolirtine citrate, Cypher, cystemustine; Dalbavancin, darifenacin hydrobromide, dasatinib, deferasirox, denosumab, desmoteplase, dihydrexidine, dimethyl fumarate, dutasteride, DW-166HC; Eculizumab, enfuvirtide, entecavir, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, eszopiclone, etoricoxib, everolimus; Fallypride, febuxostat, fenretinide, fesoterodine, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gabapentin enacarbil, gefitinib; hMaxi-K, human papillomavirus vaccine, HYAL-CT1101; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, inolimomab, ISAtx-247; J591; Lacosamide, landiolol, lasofoxifene tartrate, lestaurtinib, lidocaine/prilocaine, linezolid, lixivaptan, lonafarnib, lopinavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, lumiracoxib; Natalizumab, nesiritide; OC-108, omalizumab, onercept, OSC; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PD-MAGE-3 vaccine, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegsunercept, pelitinib, pitavastatin calcium, plerixafor hydrochloride, posaconazole, prasterone sulfate, pregabalin; Ramelteon, ranelic acid distrontium salt, rasburicase, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine, RSD-1235, rufinamide, rupatadine fumarate; Sarizotan hydrochloride, SHL-749

  5. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: A-007, A6, adalimumab, adenosine triphosphate, alefacept, alemtuzumab, AllerVax Ragweed, amphora, anakinra, angiotensin-(1-7), anidulafungin, apomine, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride, avanafil; BAL-8557, becatecarin, bevacizumab, biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-188797, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, brivudine; Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, caspofungin acetate, catumaxomab, certolizumab pegol, cetuximab, CG-0070, ciclesonide, cinacalcet hydrochloride, clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide, cryptophycin 52, Cypher; Dabigatran etexilate, darapladib, darbepoetin alfa, decitabine, deferasirox, desloratadine, dexanabinol, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, DMF, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride; E-7010, edaravone, efalizumab, emtricitabine, entecavir, eplerenone, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, estradiol valerate/dienogest, eszopiclone, exenatide, ezetimibe; Fondaparinux sodium, fulvestrant; Gefitinib, gestodene, GYKI-16084; Hyaluronic acid, hydralazine hydrochloride/isosorbide dinitrate; Imatinib mesylate, indiplon, insulin glargine; Juzen-taiho-to; Lamivudine/zidovudine/abacavir sulfate, L-arginine hydrochloride, lasofoxifene tartrate, L-BLP-25, lenalidomide, levocetirizine, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lexatumumab, lidocaine/prilocaine, lubiprostone, lumiracoxib; MAb-14.18, mitoquidone; Natalizumab, neridronic acid, neuradiab; Olpadronic acid sodium salt, omalizumab; p53-DC vaccine, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pemetrexed disodium, perifosine, pimecrolimus, prasterone, prasugrel, PRO-2000

  6. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2010-12-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM), the drug discovery and development portal, http://www.thomsonreutersintegrity.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Aclidinium bromide, Adalimumab, Adefovir, Alemtuzumab, Alkaline phosphatase, Amlodipine, Apilimod mesylate, Aripiprazole, Axitinib, Azacitidine; Belotecan hydrochloride, Berberine iodide, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Bryostatin 1; Calcipotriol/hydrocortisone, Carglumic acid, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Cixutumumab, Coumarin, Custirsen sodium; Darbepoetin alfa, Darifenacin hydrobromide, Darunavir, Dasatinib, Denibulin hydrochloride, Denosumab, Diacetylmorphine, Dulanermin, Duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, Enfuvirtide, Entecavir, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eplerenone, Escitalopram oxalate, Esomeprazole sodium, Etravirine, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Fenofibrate/pravastatin sodium, Ferric carboxymaltose, Flavangenol, Fondaparinux sodium; Glutamine, GSK-1024850A; Hepatitis B hyperimmunoglobulin, Hib-MenC, HIV-LIPO-5; Immunoglobulin intravenous (human), Indacaterol maleate, Indibulin, Indium 111 (¹¹¹In) ibritumomab tiuxetan, Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent vaccine, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin glulisine; Lapatinib ditosylate, Leucovorin/UFT; Maraviroc, Mecasermin, MMR-V, Morphine hydrochloride, Morphine sulfate/naltrexone hydrochloride, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium, Natalizumab; Oncolytic HSV; Paliperidone, PAN-811, Paroxetine, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimecrolimus, Posaconazole, Pregabalin; Raltegravir potassium, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Rasburicase, Rilpivirine

  7. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-09-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV1/SERCA2a, Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Adalimumab, Aliskiren fumarate, Ambrisentan, Aripiprazole, AT-7519, Atazanavir sulfate, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Azacitidine, Azelnidipine; Besifloxacin hydrochloride, Bevacizumab, Bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting coronary stent, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Budesonide/formoterol fumarate; CAIV-T, Carisbamate, Casopitant mesylate, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, Ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone, CTCE-9908; Dalcetrapib, Darunavir, Deferasirox, Desloratadine, Disitertide, Drotrecogin alfa (activated), DTA-H19, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Ecogramostim, Efalizumab, Emtricitabine, Eribulin mesilate, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, EUR-1008, Everolimus-eluting coronary stent, Exenatide; Fampridine, Fluticasone furoate, Formoterol fumarate/fluticasone propionate, Fosamprenavir calcium, Fulvestrant; Gabapentin enacarbil, GS-7904L; HPV-6/11/16/18, Human Secretin, Hydralazine hydrochloride/isosorbide dinitrate; Imatinib mesylate, Imexon, Inalimarev/Falimarev, Indacaterol, Indacaterol maleate, Inhalable human insulin, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Ixabepilone; L-Alanosine, Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, Liraglutide, Lisdexamfetamine mesilate, Lopinavir, Loratadine/montelukast sodium, Lutropin alfa; MeNZB, Mepolizumab, Micafungin sodium, Morphine hydrochloride; Nabiximols, Nikkomycin Z; Olmesartan medoxomil, Omalizumab; Paclitaxel-eluting stent, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Perifosine, PF-489791, Plitidepsin, Posaconazole, Pregabalin; QAX-576; Raltegravir potassium, Ramelteon, Rasagiline

  8. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-10-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, [188Re]-P2045, 12B75, 89-12; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, Abatacept, Abiraterone acetate, ABT-869, Adalimumab, Ad-rh Endostatin, AI-700, Alemtuzumab, Alvimopan hydrate, Amrubicin hydrochloride, AP-12009, Apomab 7.3, Arformoterol tartrate, Aripiprazole, AS-1404, Azacitidine, AZD-0530; Bevacizumab, BHT-3009, Biapenem, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Bremelanotide; CA9-SCAN, Calcitonin gene-related peptide, Canertinib dihydrochloride, Cannabidiol, Carboxyamidotriazole, Caspofungin acetate, Celgosivir, Certolizumab pegol, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Clevudine, CP-751871, Curcumin, Cx-401, Cypher; Darunavir, Decitabine, Deforolimus, Dexamet, Dipyridamole/prednisolone, Drospirenone, Drospirenone/estradiol, DTPw-HepB-Hib, Duloxetine hydrochloride; Efalizumab, Emtricitabine, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone; Ferumoxtran-10, Ferumoxytol, Fondaparinux sodium, Fosaprepitant dimeglumine; gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, Gefitinib, Genistein, Ghrelin (human), Gimatecan, GM-CSF PMED, Golimumab, gp100 PMED; Imatinib mesylate, Immunoglobulin intravenous (human), IV Gamma-globulin; LA-419, Laropiprant, L-BLP-25, Levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, Lidocaine/prilocaine, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lumiracoxib, LY-2076962; Mepolizumab, Methylnaltrexone bromide, Mitiglinide calcium hydrate, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt, Myristyl nicotinate; Natalizumab, Nesiritide, Niacin/lovastatin; Oblimersen sodium, Ofatumumab, Olmesartan medoxomil, Olmesartan medoxomil/hydrochlorothiazide, Ozarelix; Palonosetron hydrochloride, Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), Pazopanib hydrochloride, Pegaptanib octasodium, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa- 2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pexelizumab, Picoplatin, Pimecrolimus, Posaconazole, Pregabalin, PRO-1762, Progesterone caproate, Prulifloxacin; Ramelteon, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Reparixin, Rosuvastatin calcium; Rotigotine; Satraplatin, Sertraline, Sipuleucel-T, SLIT-cisplatin, SNDX-275

  9. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2007-09-01

    , Panitumumab, Panobinostat, Parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), Parecoxib sodium, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pegvisomant, PI-88, Pimecrolimus, Pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal 9-valent conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Poloxamer-188, Prasugrel, Pregabalin, Prulifloxacin; R-109339, Ramipril/amlodipine, Ranolazine, Rasburicase, rHA influenza vaccine, Ro-50-3821, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rotavirus vaccine, Rotigotine, Ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate; Satavaptan, SC-75416, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Sugammadex sodium, Sunitinib malate, Synthetic conjugated estrogens B; Tadalafil, Talnetant, Taxus, Tegaserod maleate, Telbivudine, Temsirolimus, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tetomilast, Tiotropium bromide, Tipifarnib, Tofimilast, Tremelimumab, Trimethoprim; Udenafil, Urocortin 2; Valdecoxib, Vernakalant hydrochloride; XP-828L. PMID:17982511

  10. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2004-01-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abetimus sodium, Ad5-FGF4, adeno-Interferon gamma, AE-941, AERx, alemtuzumab, alicaforsen sodium, almotriptan, alpharadin, anakinra, anatumomab mafenatox, ANG-453, anti-CTLA-4 Mab, AP-12009, aprepitant, aripiprazole, arsenic trioxide, astemizole, atlizumab, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, BG-9928, BMS-188667, botulinum toxin type B, BufferGel; Caffeine, CDP-870, cetuximab, cilomilast, ciluprevir, clofarabine, continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator, CP-461; Darbepoetin alfa, deferasirox, desloratadine, desoxyepothilone B, diflomotecan, dolasetron, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride; ED-71, efalizumab, efaproxiral sodium, EKB-569, eletriptan, EMD-72000, enfuvirtide, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etoricoxib; Fampridine, ferumoxytol, fondaparinux sodium; Gadofosveset sodium, gastrazole, gefitinib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gepirone hydrochloride glutamine; hLM609, HSPPC-96, human insulin; IDD-1, imatinib mesylate, indisulam, inhaled insulin, ixabepilone; Keratinocyte growth factor; Lapatinib, laquinimod, LDP-02, LE-SN38, levetiracetam, levosimendan, licofelone, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal NDDP, lopinavir, lumiracoxib, LY-156735; Morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide, motexafin gadolinium, MS-27-275, MVA-5T4, MVA-Muc1-IL-2; Nemifitide ditriflutate, neridronic acid nitronaproxen, NSC-683864, NSC-703940, NVP-LAF-237; Oblimersen sodium, ocinaplon, oncomyc-NG, OPC-28326, ortataxel, ospemifene; Palonosetron hydrochloride, PEG-filgrastim peginterferon alfa-2(a), peginterferon alfa-2b, pegsunercept, pemetrexed disodium, pregabalin, prilocaine, pyridoxamine; RDP

  11. Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

    PubMed Central

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The low proportion of intrapartum stillbirths in high-income countries suggests that intrapartum stillbirths are largely preventable with quality intrapartum care, including prompt recognition and management of intrapartum complications. The evidence for impact of intrapartum interventions on stillbirth and perinatal mortality outcomes has not yet been systematically examined. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the published literature, searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, of trials and reviews (N = 230) that reported stillbirth or perinatal mortality outcomes for eight interventions delivered during labour. Where eligible randomised controlled trials had been published after the most recent Cochrane review on any given intervention, we incorporated these new trial findings into a new meta-analysis with the Cochrane included studies. Results We found a paucity of studies reporting statistically significant evidence of impact on perinatal mortality, especially on stillbirths. Available evidence suggests that operative delivery, especially Caesarean section, contributes to decreased stillbirth rates. Induction of labour rather than expectant management in post-term pregnancies showed strong evidence of impact, though there was not enough evidence to suggest superior safety for the fetus of any given drug or drugs for induction of labour. Planned Caesarean section for term breech presentation has been shown in a large randomised trial to reduce stillbirths, but the feasibility and consequences of implementing this intervention routinely in low-/middle-income countries add caveats to recommending its use. Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is effective in preventing eclamptic seizures, but studies have not demonstrated impact

  12. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Michael; Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  13. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  14. Regulating environments to reduce obesity.

    PubMed

    Hayne, Cheryl L; Moran, Patricia A; Ford, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The marked increase in the prevalence of obesity appears to be attributable to environmental conditions that implicitly discourage physical activity while explicitly encouraging the consumption of greater quantities of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. In the United States food environment, consumers are bombarded with advertising for unhealthy food, and receive inadequate nutritional information, especially at restaurants. In the US school environment children have access to sugary sodas and unhealthy a la carte foods in their cafeterias, at the same time getting inadequate physical activity and nutrition education. In the built environment, sprawl has reduced active living. We describe these environments and explore the potential effects of regulatory measures on these environments. In the United States, regulatory opportunities exist at the national, state and local levels to mandate action and to allocate funds for promising health-promoting strategies. Regulatory approaches, much like litigation, can transform the entire environment in which corporations operate. Even with incomplete enforcement of rules, they send a public message about what is acceptable behavior for corporations and individuals. Additionally, because the United States is party to many multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and is an active participant in the GATT/WTO framework, US regulatory actions promise to have a beneficial impact both domestically and globally. PMID:15683074

  15. Reduce costs with vacuum excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, S.A.

    1983-09-01

    Although vacuum excavation equipment and methods are in their infancy, this developing technology offers tremendous promise for the future. The author explains Brooklyn Union Gas Co.'s experience with five vacuum trucks and the procedures that are used. In recent years, the higher cost of natural gas has increased the need for gas utilities to reduce their operating expenses. One way, which has been successful at Brooklyn Union Gas, is the use of vacuum excavation. Although vacuum excavation equipment and techniques are in their infancy, this developing technology offers substantial savings today and tremendous promise for the future. Brooklyn Union started its vacuum digging program by locating keyhole cutoffs--small surface openings ranging from 1 ft by 1 ft to 1 1/2 ft by 1 1/2 ft (0.3 m to 0.45 m square). It is no easy task to accurately locate a service that was installed 60 years ago. Reading the street indications, locating an existing curb valve or repair opening, gaining access to the building, making a physical lineup, and using an M-scope, plus any other tools available, have produced a high success rate.

  16. Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

  17. 40 CFR 1500.4 - Reducing paperwork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reducing paperwork. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.4 Reducing paperwork. Agencies shall reduce excessive paperwork by: (a) Reducing the length of...

  18. Reduced fidelity in the Kitaev honeycomb model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhi; Ma, Tianxing; Gu, Shi-Jian; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2010-06-15

    We study reduced fidelity and reduced fidelity susceptibility in the Kitaev honeycomb model. It is shown that the nearest-two-site reduced fidelity susceptibility manifests itself as a peak at the quantum phase transition point, although the one-site reduced fidelity susceptibility vanishes. Our results directly reveal that the reduced fidelity susceptibility can be used to characterize the quantum phase transition in the Kitaev honeycomb model, which suggests that, despite its local nature, the reduced fidelity susceptibility is an accurate marker of the topological phase transition when it is properly chosen.

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-05-01

    (-)-Gossypol; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, ACAM-1000, ACE-011, Agomelatine, AGS-004, Alemtuzumab, Alvocidib hydrochloride, AMG-317, Amlodipine, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate, Azacitidine; Becatecarin, Belinostat, Bevacizumab, BMS-387032, BMS-690514, Bortezomib; Casopitant mesylate, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, CK-1827452, Clofarabine, Conivaptan hydrochloride; Dabigatran etexilate, DADMe-Immucillin-H, Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, DC-WT1, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Degarelix acetate, Denenicokin, Denosumab, Dienogest, Duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, Eculizumab, Edoxaban tosilate, Elacytarabine, Elesclomol, Eltrombopag olamine, Enfuvirtide, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eribulin mesilate, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine; Flibanserin, Fludarabine, Fondaparinux sodium, Fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, Genistein; I-131-L19-SIP, Idrabiotaparinux sodium, Imatinib mesylate, IMGN-901, Ipilimumab; Laromustine, Lenalidomide, Liposomal cisplatin, Liraglutide, Lisdexamfetamine mesilate, Lopinavir, Lopinavir/ritonavir; Maraviroc, MDV-3100, Mecasermin rinfabate, MP-470, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naproxcinod, NB-002, Nesiritide, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, NK-012; Palonosetron hydrochloride, Panobinostat, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pitavastatin calcium, PL-3994, Plerixafor hydrochloride, Plitidepsin, PM-10450; Raltegravir potassium, Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin, ReoT3D, RHAMM R3 peptide, Rivaroxaban, Romiplostim, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rozrolimupab; Sabarubicin hydrochloride, Salinosporamide A, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live, Sorafenib; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Teriparatide, Tipifarnib, Tipranavir, Trabectedin, Trifluridine/TPI; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, Vinflunine, Volociximab, Vorinostat; Ximelagatran; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Ziprasidone hydrochloride, Zoledronic acid monohydrate

  20. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-01-01

    [90Y-DOTA-Tyr3]octreotate, Abatacept, ABT-888, ACE-011, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alosetron hydrochloride, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Amlodipine, Apaziquone, Aripiprazole, AS-101, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Atrasentan, Azacitidine; Bevacizumab, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Brivanib alaninate; CERE-120, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Combretastatin A-1 phosphate, Conatumumab, CT-322; Dabigatran etexilate, Darunavir, Deforolimus, Desloratadine, Doripenem, Doxorubicin eluting beads, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fluticasone furoate, Fondaparinux sodium; Gabapentin enacarbil, Ghrelin (human), Golimumab; IC-51, IDM-2, JX-594; Lidocaine/prilocaine, Liraglutide, Lopinavir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lumiracoxib; Men ACWY, MxdnG1; Naproxcinod; OBP-301, Omalizumab; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Pasireotide, Pazopanib hydrochloride, Pegaptanib octasodium, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimecrolimus, Prasterone, Pregabalin; Raclopride, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranibizumab, RB-006, Recombinant human relaxin H2, REG1, Regadenoson, Reximmune-C, Rilonacept; Saxagliptin, SCH-697243, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib; Tadalafil, Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Tipifarnib, Tolvaptan; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, Vicriviroc, Volociximab, Vorinostat; WB-1001; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan. PMID:19798455

  1. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-12-01

    [Methoxy-(11)C]PD-153035, 2-Methoxyestradiol; Adalimumab, Adecatumumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, ADX-10059, Aflibercept, AIR-human growth hormone, Aliskiren fumarate, AMG-221, Amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil, Aprepitant; Bavituximab, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BIBW-2992, BMS-690514, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Briakinumab; Capecitabine, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cholecalciferol, Choline fenofibrate, Chorionic gonadotropin (human), Cixutumumab, Clopidogrel, CP-690550 citrate; Dabigatran, Dacetuzumab, Daclizumab, Dapagliflozin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Denosumab; Efavirenz, Elisidepsin, Enoxaparin, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eribulin mesilate, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide; Fenobam, Figitumumab, Filibuvir, Fondaparinux sodium, Fresolimumab; Gefitinib, Golimumab, Golnerminogene pradenovec; Ifosfamide, Imatinib mesylate, Ipilimumab, Ivabradine hydrochloride, Ixabepilone; Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, Liposomal vincristine, Liraglutide; M-118, Masitinib mesylate, Metformin hydrochloride, Micafungin sodium, Moxifloxacin hydrochloride; Neratinib; Oblimersen sodium, Ofatumumab, Olmesartan medoxomil; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Palifosfamide lysine, Panobacumab, Panobinostat, Patupilone, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegylated arginine deiminase 20000, Piclozotan hydrochloride hydrate, Pixantrone maleate, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Prednisone, Progesterone, Prucalopride, pVGI.1 (VEGF-2); Retigabine, rhFSH, Rituximab, Rivaroxaban, Rosuvastatin calcium; Salinosporamide A, Selumetinib, Sipuleucel-T, Somatropin, Sorafenib, SSR-244738, Sunitinib malate; Tamoxifen citrate, Teduglutide, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telmisartan, Telmisartan/amlodipine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Temsirolimus, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tipifarnib, Tolvaptan, Trastuzumab, Trastuzumab-MCC-DM1, Travoprost, Tremelimumab; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Valsartan/amlodipine besylate/hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Vandetanib

  2. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2003-12-01

    Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: Abetimus sodium, adalimumab, alefacept, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, AMGN-0007, anakinra, anti-CTLA-4 Mab, L-arginine hydrochloride, arzoxifene hydrochloride, astemizole, atazanavir sulfate, atlizumab; Belimumab, BG-9928, binodenoson, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, bovine lactoferrin, BufferGel; Caspofungin acetate, ciclesonide,cilomilast, ciluprevir, clofarabine, CVT-3146; Darbepoetin alfa, desloratadine, diflomotecan, doripenem, dronedarone hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), DT388-GM-CSF, duloxetine hydrochloride, E-5564, efalizumab, enfuvirtide, esomeprazole magnesium, estradiol acetate, ETC-642, exenatide, exisulind, ezetimib; Febuxostat; Gallium maltolate, ganirelix acetate, garenoxacin mesilate, gefitinib; H11, HuMax; IL-15, IDD-1, IGIV-C, imatinib mesylate, ISIS-14803, ITF-1697, ivabradine hydrochloride; KRN-5500; L-365260, levetiracetam, levosimendan, licofelone, linezolid, LJP-1082, lopinavir lumiracoxib; MCC-478, melatonin, morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide, moxidectin; N-Acetylcarnosine, natalizumab, NM-702, NNC-05-1869, NSC-703940; Ocinaplon OM-89, omalizumab, omeprazole/ sodium bicarbonate, OPC-28326, ospemifene; PEG-filgrastim peginterferon alfa-2a, pegsunercept, pirfenidone, pralmorelin, pregabalin; Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide, repifermin, RSD-1235; S-8184, selodenoson, sodium dichloroacetate, suberanilohydroxamic acid; TAS-102, terfenadine, teriparatide, tipranavir troxacitabine; Ximelagatran; YM-337. PMID:14735233

  3. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-11-01

    5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, (R)-flurbiprofen; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, alefacept, alemtuzumab, Alequel, alicaforsen sodium, almotriptan, anakinra, aprepitant, aripiprazole, armodafinil; Bevacizumab, bortezomib, bosentan; Canfosfamide hydrochloride, ciclesonide, clofarabine, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, diclofenac potassium, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride; Eel calcitonin, eletriptan, eplerenone, everolimus, ezetimibe; Frovatriptan; Gefitinib, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium; HKI-272, HYB-165; Ibutamoren mesylate, imatinib mesylate, interleukin-21, ixabepilone; KRN-951; L-Arginine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone; Micafungin sodium, motexafin gadolinium, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Nesiritide; Peginterferon alfa-2a, pitavastatin calcium, pralatrexate, pregabalin, pVAX/L523S-Ad.L523S; Rasagiline mesylate, recombinant human nerve growth factor, regadenoson, rF-PSA, rimonabant, rizatriptan, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium, rV-B7.1, rV-PSA; Sipuleucel-T, sirolimus-eluting stent, solifenacin succinate, sorafenib, sunitinib malate; Talactoferrin alfa, Taxus, tegaserod maleate, teriparatide, tipifarnib; Valdecoxib, vandetanib, vatalanib succinate; WT1-peptide vaccine; Xaliproden hydrochloride. (c) 2006 Prous Science. All rights reserved. PMID:17200730

  4. Interstitial pneumonia associated to peginterferon alpha-2a: A focus on lung function.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Telles, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a during treatment of hepatitis C infections is rare; nonetheless, some cases with fatal outcomes have been reported. Evaluating patients' pulmonary function is a key to diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of several respiratory diseases, but case reports of respiratory manifestations related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a have limited their findings to only baseline measurements. This paper examines the case of a 65-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who developed interstitial pneumonitis associated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. Initial lung function evaluation revealed a marked reduction compared to an earlier assessment; the results were consistent with a moderate restricted pattern. Fortunately, over the ensuing 8 weeks of follow-up after discontinuing the drug, the patient recovered her lung function and experienced an overall improvement in her respiratory symptoms. PMID:27051119

  5. Interstitial pneumonia associated to peginterferon alpha-2a: A focus on lung function

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Telles, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a during treatment of hepatitis C infections is rare; nonetheless, some cases with fatal outcomes have been reported. Evaluating patients’ pulmonary function is a key to diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of several respiratory diseases, but case reports of respiratory manifestations related to the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2a have limited their findings to only baseline measurements. This paper examines the case of a 65-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who developed interstitial pneumonitis associated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. Initial lung function evaluation revealed a marked reduction compared to an earlier assessment; the results were consistent with a moderate restricted pattern. Fortunately, over the ensuing 8 weeks of follow-up after discontinuing the drug, the patient recovered her lung function and experienced an overall improvement in her respiratory symptoms. PMID:27051119

  6. Comparison of peg-interferon, ribavirin plus telaprevir vs simeprevir by propensity score matching

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hideki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Umemura, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Sumida, Yoshio; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Yokomizo, Chihiro; Tanaka, Saiyu; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Nishioji, Kenichi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Takami, Shiro; Nagao, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Takayuki; Shima, Toshihide; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Minami, Masahito; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare efficacy of telaprevir (TVR) and simeprevir (SMV) combined with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) while treating chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: In all, 306 CHC patients were included in this study. There were 159 patients in the TVR combination therapy group and 147 patients in the SMV combination therapy group. To evaluate pretreatment factors contributing to sustained virological response at 12 wk (SVR12), univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in TVR and SMV groups. To adjust for patient background between TVR and SMV groups, propensity score matching was performed. Virological response during treatment and SVR12 were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall rates of SVR12 [undetectable serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels] were 79.2% and 69.4% in TVR and SMV groups, respectively. Patients in the SMV group were older, had higher serum HCV RNA levels, lower hemoglobin, higher prevalence of unfavorable interleukin-28B (IL28B) genotype (rs8099917), and poorer response to previous PEG-IFN and RBV treatment. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for backgrounds (n = 104) and demonstrated SVR12 rates of 74.0% and 73.1% in the TVR and SMV groups, respectively. In the TVR group, discontinuation rates were higher because of adverse events; however, breakthrough and nonresponse was more frequent in the in SMV group. Multivariate analysis revealed IL28B genotype (rs8099917) as the only independent predictive factor of SVR12 in both groups. CONCLUSION: SVR12 rates were almost identical following propensity score matching. PMID:26668696

  7. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  8. Microwave Antenna With Reduced Noise Leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, A. G.

    1986-01-01

    Gain or gain-to-temperature ratio of dual-shaped subreflector receiving antenna increased when illumination is tapered near aperture edge. Taper imposed in antenna feed reduces spillover in transmitting mode and reduces noise pickup in receiving mode.

  9. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  10. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the NEPA process into early planning (§...

  11. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the NEPA process into early planning (§...

  12. 40 CFR 1500.4 - Reducing paperwork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental issues deserving of study, but also to deemphasize insignificant issues, narrowing the scope of... 1500.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.4 Reducing paperwork. Agencies shall reduce excessive paperwork by: (a) Reducing the length of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5375 - Iron reduced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron reduced. 582.5375 Section 582.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5375 Iron reduced. (a) Product. Iron reduced. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5375 - Iron reduced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron reduced. 582.5375 Section 582.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5375 Iron reduced. (a) Product. Iron reduced. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5375 - Iron reduced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron reduced. 582.5375 Section 582.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5375 Iron reduced. (a) Product. Iron reduced. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5375 - Iron reduced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron reduced. 582.5375 Section 582.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5375 Iron reduced. (a) Product. Iron reduced. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5375 - Iron reduced.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron reduced. 582.5375 Section 582.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5375 Iron reduced. (a) Product. Iron reduced. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2006-03-01

    , mycophenolate mofetil, mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Nitisinone; Omalizumab, omapatrilat, ONYX-015, oxaliplatin; Paclitaxel, paclitaxel nanoparticles, panitumumab, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pertuzumab, phosphatidylcholine-rich phospholipid mixture, pimecrolimus, pioglitazone hydrochloride, pramlintide acetate, prasterone; QR-333; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, ranolazine, rasagiline mesilate, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, ribavirin, rifabutin, risperidone, rituximab, rofecoxib, rosiglitazone maleate, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride, rotavirus vaccine; S-236, salmeterol xinafoate, sarizotan hydrochloride, sildenafil, sildenafil citrate, sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, tegaserod maleate, temozolomide, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipifarnib, trabectedin, treprostinil sodium; Vandetanib, vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, vatalanib succinate, vinflunine, virosome influenza vaccine, voriconazole; Zidovudine. PMID:16636723

  19. Gateways to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bayes, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R

    2005-01-01

    4; NBI-56418, NCX-4016, nesiritide, nicotine conjugate vaccine, NSC-330507; Oglufanide, omalizumab, oxipurinol; Palifermin, palonosetron hydrochloride, parecoxib sodium, PEG-filgrastim, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, PEGylated interferon alfacon-1, perospirone hydrochloride, pimecrolimus, pixantrone maleate, plerixafor hydrochloride, PowderJect lidocaine, pradefovir mesylate, prasterone, pregabalin, Prostvac VF, PT-141, PTC-124, pyridoxamine; QS-21, quercetin; R-126638, R-411, ralfinamide, rasagiline mesilate, rF-PSA, RG-2077, rhThrombin, rimonabant hydrochloride, rofecoxib, rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride, rV-PSA; S-18886, S-303, seocalcitol, SGN-40, sitaxsentan sodium, SPP-301, St. John's Wort extract; Tadalafil, taxus, telithromycin, tenatoprazole, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, testosterone MDTS, testosterone transdermal patch, tgAAC-09, TH-9507, thioacetazone, tipifarnib, TQ-1011, trabectedin, travoprost, trimethoprim; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, valopicitabine, voriconazole; Xcellerated T cells. PMID:16179960

  20. Hepatitis C virus: A global view

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amal Ahmed; Elbedewy, Tamer A; El-Serafy, Magdy; El-Toukhy, Naglaa; Ahmed, Wesam; Ali El Din, Zaniab

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global challenge; 130-175 million are chronically infected. Over 350000 die each year from HCV. Chronic HCV is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and end-stage liver disease. Management of chronic HCV is aimed at preventing cirrhosis, reducing the risk of HCC, and treating extra hepatic complications. New treatments for chronic HCV has been devoted based on direct-acting antivirals, as pegylated interferon (peginterferon) is responsible for many side effects and limits treatment access. Sofosbuvir is the first compound to enter the market with Peginterferon-free combination regimens. PMID:26609344

  1. Hepatitis C virus: A global view.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal Ahmed; Elbedewy, Tamer A; El-Serafy, Magdy; El-Toukhy, Naglaa; Ahmed, Wesam; Ali El Din, Zaniab

    2015-11-18

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global challenge; 130-175 million are chronically infected. Over 350000 die each year from HCV. Chronic HCV is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and end-stage liver disease. Management of chronic HCV is aimed at preventing cirrhosis, reducing the risk of HCC, and treating extra hepatic complications. New treatments for chronic HCV has been devoted based on direct-acting antivirals, as pegylated interferon (peginterferon) is responsible for many side effects and limits treatment access. Sofosbuvir is the first compound to enter the market with Peginterferon-free combination regimens. PMID:26609344

  2. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  3. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  4. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2016-08-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates. PMID:27364687

  5. Reducing energy costs in nursing homes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The handbook presents ideas and techniques for energy conservation in nursing homes. Case studies were developed of nursing homes located in different parts of the US. The typical nursing home assessed was proprietary, of intermediate-care level, medicaid-certified, and had less than 200 beds. Specific energy conservation measures were analyzed to determine the energy and dollar savings that could be realized. These include reducing heat loss through the building shell; reducing hot water costs; recovering the heat generated by dryers; reducing lighting costs; reducing heating and cooling costs, and analyzing fuels and fuel rates. A case for converting electric clothes dryers to gas was analyzed. (MCW)

  6. The Consumer's Handbook for Reducing Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This profusely illustrated and informally written booklet describes how people can help solve a growing problem--garbage. The following 12 tips are presented: (1) Reduce the amount of unnecessary packaging; (2) Adopt practices that reduce waste toxicity; (3) Consider reusable products; (4) Maintain and repair durable products; (5) Reuse bags,…

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Murine Atherosclerosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Frodermann, Vanessa; van Duijn, Janine; van Pel, Melissa; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative properties, but recently they were also found to have immunomodulatory capacities. We therefore investigated whether MSCs could reduce atherosclerosis, which is determined by dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. We adoptively transferred MSCs into low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout mice and put these on a Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. Initially after treatment, we found higher levels of circulating regulatory T cells. In the long-term, overall numbers of effector T cells were reduced by MSC treatment. Moreover, MSC-treated mice displayed a significant 33% reduction in circulating monocytes and a 77% reduction of serum CCL2 levels. Most strikingly, we found a previously unappreciated effect on lipid metabolism. Serum cholesterol was reduced by 33%, due to reduced very low-density lipoprotein levels, likely a result of reduced de novo hepatic lipogenesis as determined by a reduced expression of Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and lipoprotein lipase. MSCs significantly affected lesion development, which was reduced by 33% in the aortic root. These lesions contained 56% less macrophages and showed a 61% reduction in T cell numbers. We show here for the first time that MSC treatment affects not only inflammatory responses but also significantly reduces dyslipidaemia in mice. This makes MSCs a potent candidate for atherosclerosis therapies. PMID:26490642

  8. Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

  9. 49 CFR 609.23 - Reduced fare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reduced fare. 609.23 Section 609.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS § 609.23 Reduced fare. Applicants for...

  10. 49 CFR 609.23 - Reduced fare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reduced fare. 609.23 Section 609.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS § 609.23 Reduced fare. Applicants for...

  11. 49 CFR 609.23 - Reduced fare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reduced fare. 609.23 Section 609.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS § 609.23 Reduced fare. Applicants for...

  12. NATURAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SULFATE-REDUCING EUBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phylogenetic relationships among 20 nonsporeforming and two endospore-forming species of sulfate-reducing eubacteria were inferred from comparative 16S rRNA seguencing. ll genera of mesophilic sulfate-reducing eubacteria except the new genus Desulfomicrobium and the gliding Desul...

  13. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  14. Methods To Reduce Soil Fumigation Emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests in many high value crops including almonds. Reducing atmospheric emissions is necessary to minimize the environmental impact of soil fumigation. Water seals (sprinkling water on soil surface) to reduce fumigant emissions...

  15. Tools to Reduce Waste in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This guide was produced to help schools and school districts reduce the amount of waste they generate It shows how to start a waste reduction program or expand an existing one. The booklet shows how such programs can benefit schools, communities, and the environment by reducing, reusing, and recycling waste. Each section--schools, school…

  16. Sludge displacement verification for reducing grout report

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1997-04-10

    To support the closure of HLW tanks at SRS, a reducing grout was developed that is formulated to reduce the mobility of radionuclides left in each tank. During non-radioactive flow tests of the grout, it was discovered that, in addition to its desired properties, the grout has the ability to move residual waste a considerable distance across the tank floor.

  17. Reducing Class Size To Increase Student Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottes, Christine R.

    Reducing class size was considered an important element in a revised health course at Gettysburg College (Pennsylvania). However, reducing class size to approximately 15 students per class would require 38 sections, more than the health faculty could handle. To recruit additional instructors, the course was marketed to faculty and administrators…

  18. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing... do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (§ 1508.4)...

  19. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing... do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (§ 1508.4)...

  20. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing... do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment (§ 1508.4)...

  1. [Discussion on twirling reinforcing-reducing method].

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Li

    2014-01-01

    The essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is discussed to provide theoretical guidance for clinical application of reinforcing-reducing method. Through retrospection on historical literature of twirling reinforcing-reducing method, records and explanatory notes are thoroughly explored. Several existing opinions are analyzed and explained for instance twirling method has connection with circulation direction of channels; twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot; twriling method is related to quantity of stimulus and operation time; twriling method belongs to spiral motion and so on. As a result, it is found that the key of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is the posture of needle-holding hand that defines three-dimensional motion. If twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot and so on, steric effects of lifting-thrusting movement that come along with twirling method could be ignored at the same time. It is that the essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is close to the principle of lifting-thrusting reinforcing-reducing method, enriching effect with slow insertion and fast withdrawal of needle while reducing effect with fast insertion and slow withdrawal, which is recorded in Miraculous Pivot: Nine needle and Twelve Yuan. With this principle as guide, manipulation could be avoided to become a mere formality and illusory metaphysics during clinical application of twirling reinforcing-reducing method. PMID:24673057

  2. Soluble calcium amendments: reducing pathogen losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. Its application to agricultural fields may increase water infiltration, reduce soil erosion, and decrease nutrient losses from applications of animal manures. It may also reduce fecal bacterial contamination of surface ...

  3. Reduced hydrogen permeability at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Klopp, W. D.; Misencik, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    CO and CO2 reduce hydrogen loss through iron, nickel, and cobalt based alloy tubes. Method is based on concept that oxide film on metal surface reduces hydrogen permeability through metal; adding CO or CO2 forms oxide films continuously during operation, and hydrogen containment is improved. Innovation enhances prospects for Stirling engine system utilization.

  4. Uranium reduction and resistance to reoxidation under iron-reducing and sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Nayak, Dipti; Du, Xin; Criddle, Craig S

    2009-10-01

    Oxidation and mobilization of microbially-generated U(IV) is of great concern for in situ uranium bioremediation. This study investigated the reoxidation of uranium by oxygen and nitrate in a sulfate-reducing enrichment and an iron-reducing enrichment derived from sediment and groundwater from the Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Both enrichments were capable of reducing U(VI) rapidly. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of the two enrichments revealed that Desulfovibrio spp. are dominant in the sulfate-reducing enrichment, and Clostridium spp. are dominant in the iron-reducing enrichment. In both the sulfate-reducing enrichment and the iron-reducing enrichment, oxygen reoxidized the previously reduced uranium but to a lesser extent in the iron-reducing enrichment. Moreover, in the iron-reducing enrichment, the reoxidized U(VI) was eventually re-reduced to its previous level. In both, the sulfate-reducing enrichment and the iron-reducing enrichment, uranium reoxidation did not occur in the presence of nitrate. The results indicate that the Clostridium-dominated iron-reducing communities created conditions that were more favorable for uranium stability with respect to reoxidation despite the fact that fewer electron equivalents were added to these systems. The likely reason is that more of the added electrons are present in a form that can reduce oxygen to water and U(VI) back to U(IV). PMID:19651424

  5. Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.

  6. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    PubMed

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25585767

  7. Reduced Baroclinicity During Martian Global Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battalio, Joseph; Szunyogh, Istvan; Lemmon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The eddy kinetic energy equation is applied to the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset during the pre-winter solstice period for the northern hemisphere of Mars. Traveling waves are triggered by geopotential flux convergence, grow baroclinically, and decay barotropically. Higher optical depth increases the static stability, which reduces vertical and meridional heat fluxes. Traveling waves during a global dust storm year develop a mixed baroclinic/barotropic growth phase before decaying barotropically. Baroclinic energy conversion is reduced during the global dust storm, but eddy intensity is undiminished. Instead, the frequency of storms is reduced due to a stabilized vertical profile.

  8. A Home Visit Checklist to Reduce Rehospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sharon L

    2015-09-01

    Hospital readmission rates have become the subject of national attention among healthcare providers. Home healthcare agencies work to bridge the gap between hospital and home/community, and share a vested interest in reducing hospital readmissions. Evidence supports the use of checklists to improve safety and decrease risk by reducing errors of omission, facilitating communication and improving clinician accountability. This article proposes that the use of checklists in home healthcare agencies may reduce rehospitalizations, and presents the experience of a large home healthcare agency's creation and implementation of a pilot study to introduce a home visit checklist. PMID:26323007

  9. 49 CFR 609.23 - Reduced fare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS § 609.23 Reduced fare. Applicants for financial... Administrator may prescribe, that the rates charged elderly and handicapped persons during non-peak hours...

  10. Weight Loss Might Reduce Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence in the jigsaw of the benefits of losing weight, and how important weight loss is to ... Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. In general, losing weight reduces the risk of breast, colon and ...

  11. 76 FR 6123 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... achieving its regulatory objectives. DATES: Written comments and information are requested on or before... the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining the regulatory objectives, taking into account... approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility. Regulations be guided by objective...

  12. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K.; Biedermann, Sarah V.; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner

    2015-01-01

    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach. PMID:26057198

  13. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  14. Galvanic corrosion reduced in aluminum fabrications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Titanium alloy fasteners dipped at zinc chromate primer are installed while wet in protective coated aluminum panels to reduce galvanic corrosion. Moisture tight seals at fastener points are also provided.

  15. Sting of Shingles: Vaccine, Treatments Reduce Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe The Sting of Shingles Vaccine, Treatments Reduce Risks If you’ve ever had ... someone who’s never had chickenpox or a chickenpox vaccine. If that happens, the other person would get ...

  16. 49 CFR 609.23 - Reduced fare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS § 609.23 Reduced fare. Applicants for financial... Administrator may prescribe, that the rates charged elderly and handicapped persons during non-peak hours...

  17. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  18. Spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof fracture.

    PubMed

    Itinteang, Tinte; Lambe, Gerald Francis; MacKinnon, Craig; Agir, Hakan

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of a spontaneously reduced isolated orbital roof blow-in fracture with resolution of associated diplopia and blepharoptosis highlighting the need for a low threshold for reimaging this cohort of facial fracture patients. PMID:22801127

  19. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  20. Reducing redundancy in wireless capsule endoscopy videos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Choi, Min-Kook; Shin, Byeong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Chul

    2013-07-01

    We eliminate similar frames from a wireless capsule endoscopy video of the human intestines to maximize spatial coverage and minimize the redundancy in images. We combine an intensity correction method with a method based an optical flow and features to detect and reduce near-duplicate images acquired during the repetitive backward and forward egomotions due to peristalsis. In experiments, this technique reduced duplicate image of 52.3% from images of the small intestine. PMID:23668342

  1. HSCT design for reduced sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, George T.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: low sonic boom design perspective; design approach for reduced sonic boom; target sonic boom waveforms; airplane design for reduced sonic boom loudness; design procedure for low sonic boom; wing design and nacelle lift effects; area distributions and F-functions due to volume; fuselage area distributions; low sonic boom design, configuration 3B; sonic boom characteristics; sizing, performance, and noise characteristics; a summary of phase 3 configurations; impact of sonic boom design constraints; and wing loading considerations.

  2. Laser welding in a reduced gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results on the effects of reduced gravity on laser welding of stainless steel and other materials are reported. Laser welding experiments using a low power (10-18 watts) Nd-YAG laser have been performed on the NASA KC-135, which flies parabolic maneuvers to simulate reduced gravity conditions. Experiments on 0.005-0.010 inch thick stainless steel samples displayed a pronounced change in weld bead width, depth of penetration and surface ripple with changes in gravity level.

  3. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation. PMID:22049674

  4. New approaches to reduce radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with a long-term risk of health effects, including cancer. Radiation exposure to the U.S. population from cardiac imaging has increased markedly over the past three decades. Initiatives to reduce radiation exposure have focused on the tenets of appropriate study "justification" and "optimization" of imaging protocols. This article reviews ways to optimally reduce radiation dose across the spectrum of cardiac imaging. PMID:25962784

  5. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yung-Yi; Sadhukhan, Pasupati; Fraley, Lowell D.; Hsiao, Keh-Hsien

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  6. Quantitative analysis of cellulose-reducing ends.

    PubMed

    Kongruang, Sasithorn; Han, Myung Joo; Breton, Claudia Isela Gil; Penner, Michael H

    2004-01-01

    Methods for the quantification of total and accessible reducing ends on traditional cellulose substrates have been evaluated because of their relevance to enzyme-catalyzed cellulose saccharificaion. For example, quantification of accessible reducing ends is likely to be the most direct measure of substrate concentration for the exo-acting, reducing end-preferring cellobiohydrolases. Two colorimetric assays (dinitrosalicylic acid [DNS] and bicinchoninic acid [BCA] assay ) and a radioisotope approach (NaB3H4 labeling) were evaluated for this application. Cellulose substrates included microcrystalline celluloses, bacterial celluloses, and filter paper. Estimates of the number of reducing ends per unit mass cellulose were found to be dependent on the assay system (i.e. the DNS and BCA assays gave strikingly different results). DNS-based values were several-fold higher than those obtained using the BCA assay, with fold-differences being substrate specific. Sodium borohydride reduction of celluloses, using cold or radiolabeled reagent under relatively mild conditions, was used to assess the number of surface (solvent-accessible) reducing ends. The results indicate that 30-40% of the reducing ends on traditional cellulose substrates are not solvent accessible; that is, they are buried in the interior of cellulose structures and thus not available to exo-acting enzymes. PMID:15054208

  7. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, C J; Cremer, M A; Heap, M P; Chen, J -Y; Westbrook, C K; Maurice, L Q

    1999-12-10

    Using CARM (Computer Aided Reduction Method), a computer program that automates the mechanism reduction process, a variety of different reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for ethylene and n-heptane have been generated. The reduced mechanisms have been compared to detailed chemistry calculations in simple homogeneous reactors and experiments. Reduced mechanisms for combustion of ethylene having as few as 10 species were found to give reasonable agreement with detailed chemistry over a range of stoichiometries and showed significant improvement over currently used global mechanisms. The performance of reduced mechanisms derived from a large detailed mechanism for n-heptane was compared to results from a reduced mechanism derived from a smaller semi-empirical mechanism. The semi-empirical mechanism was advantageous as a starting point for reduction for ignition delay, but not for PSR calculations. Reduced mechanisms with as few as 12 species gave excellent results for n-heptane/air PSR calculations but 16-25 or more species are needed to simulate n-heptane ignition delay.

  8. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Agonists Reduce Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Ebefors, Kerstin; Johansson, Martin E.; Stefánsson, Bergur; Granqvist, Anna; Arnadottir, Margret; Berg, Anna-Lena; Nyström, Jenny; Haraldsson, Börje

    2010-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Recent reports suggest that treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) reduces proteinuria, but the mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we identified gene expression of the melanocortin receptor MC1R in podocytes, glomerular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and tubular epithelial cells. Podocytes expressed most MC1R protein, which colocalized with synaptopodin but not with an endothelial-specific lectin. We treated rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) with MS05, a specific MC1R agonist, which significantly reduced proteinuria compared with untreated PHN rats (P < 0.01). Furthermore, treatment with MC1R agonists improved podocyte morphology and reduced oxidative stress. In summary, podocytes express MC1R, and MC1R agonism reduces proteinuria, improves glomerular morphology, and reduces oxidative stress in nephrotic rats with PHN. These data may explain the proteinuria-reducing effects of ACTH observed in patients with membranous nephropathy, and MC1R agonists may provide a new therapeutic option for these patients. PMID:20507942

  9. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  10. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  11. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  12. Mistake proofing: changing designs to reduce error

    PubMed Central

    Grout, J R

    2006-01-01

    Mistake proofing uses changes in the physical design of processes to reduce human error. It can be used to change designs in ways that prevent errors from occurring, to detect errors after they occur but before harm occurs, to allow processes to fail safely, or to alter the work environment to reduce the chance of errors. Effective mistake proofing design changes should initially be effective in reducing harm, be inexpensive, and easily implemented. Over time these design changes should make life easier and speed up the process. Ideally, the design changes should increase patients' and visitors' understanding of the process. These designs should themselves be mistake proofed and follow the good design practices of other disciplines. PMID:17142609

  13. Hazmat review reduces risk and improves operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, P.W.; Trecha, S.J.; Patterson, P.

    1996-07-01

    Through its hazardous materials (hazmat) review initiative, Wisconsin Power and Light Co. (WP and L) repositioned itself for better plant operations while reducing the overall risks and costs associated with hazmats. The utility focused on two primary hazmat improvement objectives: (1) ensure plant hazmat operations are meeting regulatory requirements, optimizing the use, storage, and disposal of hazmats; (2) reduce the overall risk and investment associated with hazmat substances on the plant properties. ``Hazardous materials management is often overlooked as an integral component of the overall purchasing and materials management process``, emphasized Jill Doucette, WP and L Strategic Sourcing Initiative manager. ``Improved performance in this area can significantly reduce personnel and company risks, improve customer service and save dollars.``

  14. Arbuscular Mycorrhizas Reduce Nitrogen Loss via Leaching

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Hamid R.; Cavagnaro, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less) via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone. PMID:22253790

  15. Infrared photoemitting diode having reduced work function

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1982-05-06

    In electro-optical detectors which include as elements a photoemitting photocathode and anode, a photoemitting diode is fabricated which lowers the diode's work function, thus reducing the cooling requirement typically needed for this type of device. The work function is reduced by sandwiching between the photocathode and anode a liquid meidum of the formula NR/sub 3/ and having an electron affinity for the electrons of the photocathode, which liquid medium permits free electrons leaving the photocathode to remain as stable solvated species in the liquid medium. Thus, highly light-absorbent, and therefore thin, metallic layers can be used for detection, thereby reducing dark current at a given temperature, with a consequent reduction in cooling requirements at constant detector performance.

  16. Study examines sulfate-reducing bacteria activity

    SciTech Connect

    McElhiney, J.E.; Hardy, J.A.; Rizk, T.Y.; Stott, J.F.D.; Eden, R.D.

    1996-12-09

    Low-sulfate seawater injection can reduce the potential of an oil reservoir turning sour because of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) convert sulfate ions in seawater used in waterflooding into sulfide with the concomitant oxidation of a carbon source. A recent study at Capcis investigated the efficiency of SRB under various conditions of sulfate limitation. This study was conducted in a flowing bioreactor at 2,000 psia with different temperature zones (mesophilic 35 C and thermophilic 60--80 C). The study mixed microfloral populations derived from real North Sea-produced fluids, and included an active population of marine methanogenic bacteria present to provide competition for the available carbon sources. In general, results showed that SRB continue to convert sulfate to sulfide in stoichiometric quantities without regard to absolute concentrations. The paper discusses the results and recommends nanofiltration of seawater for ``sweet`` reservoirs.

  17. Infrared photoemitting diode having reduced work function

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    In electro-optical detectors which include as elements a photoemitting photocathode and anode, a photoemitting diode is fabricated which lowers the diode's work function, thus reducing the cooling requirement typically needed for this type of device. The work function is reduced by sandwiching between the photocathode and anode a liquid medium of the formula NR.sub.3 and having an electron affinity for the electrons of the photocathode, which liquid medium permits free electrons leaving the photocathode to remain as stable solvated species in the liquid medium. Thus, highly light-absorbent, and therefore thin, metallic layers can be used for detection, thereby reducing dark current at a given temperature, with a consequent reduction in cooling requirements at constant detector performance.

  18. Reducing the convective losses of cavity receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesch, Robert; Grobbel, Johannes; Stadler, Hannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Convective losses reduce the efficiency of cavity receivers used in solar power towers especially under windy conditions. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce these losses. In this paper two different measures are analyzed: an air curtain and a partial window which covers one third of the aperture opening. The cavity without modifications and the usage of a partial window were analyzed in a cryogenic wind tunnel at -173°C. The cryogenic environment allows transforming the results from the small model cavity to a large scale receiver with Gr≈3.9.1010. The cavity with the two modifications in the wind tunnel environment was analyzed with a CFD model as well. By comparing the numerical and experimental results the model was validated. Both modifications are capable of reducing the convection losses. In the best case a reduction of about 50 % was achieved.

  19. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. PMID:24161300

  20. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men. PMID:24320065

  1. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-10-07

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  2. Outcomes of a program to reduce depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyung Hee; Kim, Kyeha; Park, Hyojung

    2011-06-01

    Depression is increasing among Korean college students. Moreover, it is common for depressed individuals to consider attempting suicide. The purpose of this study therefore was to develop and examine the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce suicidal ideation and depression among female college students. Study participants were assigned to either an intervention (n = 27) or control (n = 31) group. The intervention group received a depression-reducing program in eight 1-hr weekly sessions. Measures of suicidal ideation and depression were administered. The program has effects on suicidal ideation and depression among female college students. The findings suggest that the study program may be useful in reducing suicidal ideation and depression among female college students. PMID:21078916

  3. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  4. Alternatives for reducing hot-water bills

    SciTech Connect

    Bennington, G.E.; Spewak, P.C.

    1981-06-01

    A two stage approach to reducing residential water heating bills is described. In Stage I, simple conservation measures were included to reduce the daily hot water energy consumption and the energy losses from the water tank. Once these savings are achieved, Stage II considers more costly options for further reducing the water heating bill. Four alternatives are considered in Stage II: gas water heaters; solar water heaters (two types); heat pump water heaters; and heat recovery from a heat pump or air conditioner. To account for variations within the MASEC region, information on water heating in Rapid City, Minneapolis, Chicago, Detroit, and Kansas City is presented in detail. Information on geography, major population centers, fuel prices, climate, and state solar incentives is covered. (MCW)

  5. Reducing human exposure to Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2013-08-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of Mycobacterium avium pulmonary disease and the challenges of treating patients with M. avium infection, consideration of measures to reduce exposure is warranted. Because M. avium inhabits water and soil, humans are surrounded by that opportunistic pathogen. Because infection has been linked to the presence of M. avium in household plumbing, increasing hot water temperature, reducing aerosol (mist) exposures in bathrooms and showers, and installing filters that prevent the passage of mycobacteria will likely reduce M. avium exposure. Granular activated carbon (charcoal) filters support the growth of M. avium and should be avoided. When gardening, avoid the inhalation of soil dusts by using a mask or wetting the soil because peat-rich potting soils have high numbers of mycobacteria. PMID:23952861

  6. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  7. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  8. Reduced pressure quenching oil and distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Asada, S.; Ogino, M.

    1996-12-31

    Cooling process observed in a quenching oil`s cooling curve determination by JIS silver probe method, has been divided into three stages, vapor blanket stage, boiling stage and convection stage. Under reduced pressure vaporization is accelerated and extend the vapor blanket stage which shift the position of boiling stage the fastest of cooling speed among the cooling process toward low temperature side. Taking advantage of this behavior in quenching under reduced pressure, it is possible to improve quench hardenability by controlling reduced pressure. Vapor pressure of quenching oil increases under very high vacuum and accelerates vapor blanket formation and covers the material with more vapor blanket, resulting in reduction of cooling speed. Excessive vapor blanket covering the material will lead to partially uneven quenching of the treated material caused by uneven conditions by partial decomposition. Making vapor blanket distribution more even and to optimize uniform coating condition enables to prevent heat treatment distortion caused by uneven quenching conditions.

  9. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  10. Reduced Basis Method for Nanodevices Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pau, George Shu Heng

    2008-05-23

    Ballistic transport simulation in nanodevices, which involves self-consistently solving a coupled Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations, is usually computationally intensive. Here, we propose coupling the reduced basis method with the subband decomposition method to improve the overall efficiency of the simulation. By exploiting a posteriori error estimation procedure and greedy sampling algorithm, we are able to design an algorithm where the computational cost is reduced significantly. In addition, the computational cost only grows marginally with the number of grid points in the confined direction.

  11. Does Formal Employment Reduce Informal Caregiving?

    PubMed

    He, Daifeng; McHenry, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine the impact of formal employment on informal caregiving. We instrument for individual work hours with state unemployment rates. We find that, among women of prime caregiving ages (40-64 years), working 10% more hours per week reduces the probability of providing informal care by about 2 percentage points. The effects are stronger for more time-intensive caregiving and if care recipients are household members. Our results imply that work-promoting policies have the unintended consequence of reducing informal caregiving in an aging society. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26017375

  12. Viscous damped space structure for reduced jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James F.; Davis, L. Porter

    1987-01-01

    A technique to provide modal vibration damping in high performance space structures was developed which uses less than one once of incompressible fluid. Up to 50 percent damping can be achieved which can reduce the settling times of the lowest structural mode by as much as 50 to 1. This concept allows the designers to reduce the weight of the structure while improving its dynamic performance. Damping by this technique is purely viscous and has been shown by test to be linear over 5 orders of input magnitude. Amplitudes as low as 0.2 microinch were demonstrated. Damping in the system is independent of stiffness and relatively insensitive to temperature.

  13. Reducing the cost of HIV antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Tamashiro, H; Maskill, W; Emmanuel, J; Fauquex, A; Sato, P; Heymann, D

    1993-07-10

    Available tests to detect antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a range of applications, and injudicious selection and inappropriate use can add a significant financial burden to budgets for AIDS programmes in developing countries. There are several ways by which the cost of HIV antibody testing can be reduced; they include use of tests appropriate for existing laboratory capabilities; adoption of cost-effective testing strategies; pooling of serum samples before testing; and ensuring best possible purchase prices. Each approach can significantly reduce the cost of HIV antibody testing alone or in combination, which increases the potential sustainability of antibody testing programmes, even in settings of limited resources. PMID:8100916

  14. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors.

    PubMed

    González, Martín G; Sorichetti, Patricio A; Santiago, Guillermo D

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N(2), whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design. PMID:27131698

  15. Method of reducing drag in aerodynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrach, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In the present method, boundary layer thickening is combined with laminar flow control to reduce drag. An aerodynamic body is accelerated enabling a ram turbine on the body to receive air at velocity V sub 0. The discharge air is directed over an aft portion of the aerodynamic body producing boundary layer thickening. The ram turbine also drives a compressor by applying torque to a shaft connected between the ram turbine and the compressor. The compressor sucks in lower boundary layer air through inlets in the shell of the aircraft producing laminar flow control and reducing drag. The discharge from the compressor is expanded in a nozzle to produce thrust.

  16. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Martín G.; Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N2, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  17. Reducing admissions with patient group directions.

    PubMed

    Wat, Dennis; Glossage, Elaine; Hampson, Onnor; Sibley, Sarah

    In times of financial restrictions and reform impediments, health services need to invest in resources that provide value for money and reduce hospital admissions. Improving disease management in the community is a primary target for those trying to reduce costs. The second most common cause of emergency admissions to hospital is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and it has been suggested that more effective treatments and better management of the condition would likely result in an estimated 5% fewer admissions to hospital, saving around pound 15.5m each year. This article discusses how savings could be made by improving care provided in the community. PMID:24834601

  18. Vacancy ordering in reduced barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, David I.; Reaney, Ian M.; Yang, Gaiying Y.; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Randall, Clive A.

    2004-06-01

    A crystal structure is proposed for reduced barium titanate, BaTiO3-δ, δ≈0.33, formed during the degradation of Ni-BaTiO3 X7R multilayer ceramic capacitors. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction have been used in combination with computer simulations to show that oxygen vacancies accrete on every third pseudocubic {111} plane, resulting in a cell with space group P3m1. Additionally, from electron energy loss spectroscopy, it is proposed that Ti4+ is reduced to Ti3+ as a mechanism of charge compensation within oxygen-deficient octahedra.

  19. Scientist Researches Way to Reduce Global Warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the last four years, scientists at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory have been searching for alternative soil and crop management practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon and nitrogen sequestration. “If we can redu...

  20. Teachers: Recognize Important Steps to Reduce Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supon, Viola

    2008-01-01

    Teachers must walk the steps and live the steps if reducing cheating is going to occur. Teachers begin this process by being cognizant and vigilant relative to administering means of measurement and assigning written work. This process includes skill acquisition in regards to: (1) acknowledging cheating, (2) purposeful planning, (3) electronic…

  1. Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.

  2. Heat recovery reduces process energy losses

    SciTech Connect

    Anon

    1981-09-01

    After evaluation of process and plant operation losses, a pharmaceutical plant found heat recovery a viable means of reducing energy losses. One of the first applications of air-to-air heat recovery was in a recirculation/dehumidification process. Heat exchangers were used to recover heat from the air used to generate or dry the dehumidification material.

  3. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  4. Reduced No.sub.x combustion method

    DOEpatents

    Delano, Mark A.

    1991-01-01

    A combustion method enabling reduced NO.sub.x formation wherein fuel and oxidant are separately injected into a combustion zone in a defined velocity relation, combustion gases are aspirated into the oxidant stream prior to intermixture with the fuel, and the fuel is maintained free from contact with oxygen until the intermixture.

  5. Reduced-Bandwidth Coding for Mobile Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    1986-01-01

    Fade-resistant mobile systems use power and spectrum efficiently. Transmission system employs tone-calibrated technique (TCT). Residual carrier used in technique to reduce fading-induced effects and coherently demodulate received signal. TCT potentially efficient in use of power and of frequency spectrum. Coding technique, intended for residual-carrier transmission system, alleviates fading and spectrum crowding that hamper mobile communications.

  6. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  7. Coatings to reduce wood preservative leaching.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Mojgan; Cooper, Paul

    2010-08-15

    The efficiency of semitransparent penetrating stains to reduce leaching of wood preservative components was evaluated. Five commercial wood deck finishes were applied to untreated and chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quat (ACQ), and copper azole (CA) treated wood, and leachates were collected and analyzed during 3 years of natural weathering exposure in Toronto, Canada. All stains evaluated effectively reduced the cumulative leaching of all inorganic preservative components by about 60% on average. Although most coatings showed significant film degradation starting around 12 months, the reduced leaching persisted even after 3 years. This suggests that temporary protection of wood with a coating during the early stages of use resulted in long-term reduction in preservative leaching potential. A two-week screening leaching test was able to predict the long-term leaching performance of different coatings reasonably well. Cured coating glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid coating viscosity were the most important variables affecting a leaching prediction model. To effectively reduce leaching of preservative components from treated wood, coatings should have Tg low enough to withstand stresses caused by freezing in winter and have adequate viscosity to form a barrier film layer on the wood surface. PMID:20704213

  8. Reducing exhaust gas emissions from Citydiesel busses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Seppo

    The effect of fuel composition and exhaust gas aftertreatment on the emissions was measured from truck and bus engines. Possibilities to measure unregulated emissions (aldehydes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, mutagenicity) were built. A reformulated diesel fuel 'Citydiesel' was developed. Citydiesel was able to reduce emissions compared to standard diesel fuel as follows: particulates by 10 to 30%, nitrogen oxides by 2 to 10%, sulphur dioxide by 97%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) over 50%, mutagenicity of the exhaust particulates clearly, odor of the exhaust, and smoke after a cold start. The use of Citydiesel fuel reduces emissions of the existing vehicles immediately which is a remarkable benefit. The very low sulphur content (below 50 ppm) makes it possible to use oxidation. catalytic converters to reduce emissions of diesel vehicles. The new Euro 2 exhaust regulations coming into force during 1996 can be met with a modern diesel engine, Citydiesel fuel, and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Properties of Citydiesel fuel were verified in a three year field test with 140 city buses. Experience was good; e.g., engine oil change interval could be lengthened. Total value of the exhaust was estimated with different fuels and aftertreatment device in order to find out cheap ways to reduce emissions.

  9. Reflecting layers reduce weight of insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. D.; Schlessinger, E. D.; Rockoff, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    Metalized films placed between layers of fibrous material maintain equivalent thermal conductivity while cutting blanket density in half. Tests indicate that insulation with 1 lb/cu ft density with goldized films has thermal conductivity equal to 2 lb/cu ft of conventional insulation. Concept reduces weight in commercial aircraft and increases cargo space.

  10. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  11. Reduced Tillage in an Irrigated Potato Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production in irrigated regions typically occurs on soils low in organic matter that are highly susceptible to agri-chemical leaching under poor irrigation scheduling, and wind erosion when soils are left bare. Reduced tillage has had limited testing in potato production. The objective of thi...

  12. Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.

  13. Reducing pharmacy costs through improved utilization.

    PubMed

    Bates, Cinda; Richards, Barton S

    2013-06-01

    Strategies Trinity Regional Health System in Rock Island, III., used to reduce pharmacy expenses included: Leveraging benchmarking information to identify opportunities for cost savings. Implementing change management techniques, bolstered by well-presented and coherent data, to promote acceptance of change. Forming a multidisciplinary team of clinical and financial leaders to address quality, outcomes, and cost issues and collaborate on solutions. PMID:23795386

  14. PRACTICAL PROBLEMS REDUCING RADON IN HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses practical problems encountered during efforts to reduce radon concentrations in houses. The 10 problems identified represent only a few of the many daily problems encountered by diagnosticians and mitigators. Nonetheless, they are some of the current common pr...

  15. Strategies for Reducing Text Book Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the price of college textbooks has become a growing concern for students and others who care about keeping college costs affordable. As policymakers and higher education systems explore the issue further, there are actions that can be taken immediately on college campuses to reduce the cost of textbooks. This brief presents…

  16. A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. To date, four flights have been completed during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated lunar gravity.

  17. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  18. Reducing Thermal Conduction In Acoustic Levitators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lierke, Ernst G.; Leung, Emily W.; Bhat, Balakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic transducers containing piezoelectric driving elements made more resistant to heat by reduction of effective thermal-conductance cross sections of metal vibration-transmitting rods in them, according to proposal. Used to levitate small objects acoustically for noncontact processing in furnaces. Reductions in cross sections increase amplitudes of transmitted vibrations and reduce loss of heat from furnaces.

  19. Reducing Vandalism by Changing the School Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Geraldine

    1987-01-01

    One South Bronx (New York) school is untouched by vandalism because the teachers have made a commitment to the school and its students, expressing their concern and approval. The extensive costs of vandalism in other schools could be reduced if teachers were trained to develop positive school climates. (PGD)

  20. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  1. Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

  2. Reducing Dogmatism among Undergraduate Counselor Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkay, Forrest W.

    Previous research has emphasized the significant negative correlation between counselor effectiveness and dogmatism, or closemindedness. To reduce levels of dogmatism in counselor trainees, a program was developed and tested at Southwest Texas State University. The new course, "Guidance to Meet the Needs of Multicultural Students," gave counseling…

  3. Reduced alphabet for protein folding prediction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin

    2015-04-01

    What are the key building blocks that would have been needed to construct complex protein folds? This is an important issue for understanding protein folding mechanism and guiding de novo protein design. Twenty naturally occurring amino acids and eight secondary structures consist of a 28-letter alphabet to determine folding kinetics and mechanism. Here we predict folding kinetic rates of proteins from many reduced alphabets. We find that a reduced alphabet of 10 letters achieves good correlation with folding rates, close to the one achieved by full 28-letter alphabet. Many other reduced alphabets are not significantly correlated to folding rates. The finding suggests that not all amino acids and secondary structures are equally important for protein folding. The foldable sequence of a protein could be designed using at least 10 folding units, which can either promote or inhibit protein folding. Reducing alphabet cardinality without losing key folding kinetic information opens the door to potentially faster machine learning and data mining applications in protein structure prediction, sequence alignment and protein design. PMID:25641420

  4. Reduced Redundancy as a Language Testing Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard

    Redundancy in language reduces the possiblity of error and permits communication where there is interference in the communicating channel. The relationship between creativity (the basic distinction between language-like behavior and knowing a language) and redundancy has been clearly established. Knowledge of rules is the key factor in creativity…

  5. Perioperative Interventions to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ian; Hah, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean; Ottestad, Einar; Kong, Jiang Ti; Lahidji, Sam; Tawfik, Vivianne; Younger, Jarred; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients following a variety of surgeries develop chronic postsurgical pain. Reducing chronic postoperative pain is especially important to reconstructive surgeons because common operations such as breast and limb reconstruction have even higher risk for developing chronic postsurgical pain. Animal studies of posttraumatic nerve injury pain demonstrate that there is a critical time frame before and immediately after nerve injury in which specific interventions can reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic neuropathic pain behaviors–so called “preventative analgesia.” In animal models, perineural local anesthetic, systemic intravenous local anesthetic, perineural clonidine, systemic gabapentin, systemic tricyclic antidepressants, and minocycline have each been shown to reduce pain behaviors days to weeks after treatment. The translation of this work to humans also suggests that brief perioperative interventions may protect patients from developing new chronic postsurgical pain. Recent clinical trial data show that there is an opportunity during the perioperative period to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain. The surgeon, working with the anesthesiologist, has the ability to modify both early and chronic postoperative pain by implementing an evidence-based preventative analgesia plan. PMID:23463498

  6. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Reducing Test Anxiety: A Right Brain Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ruth I.

    Methods of helping students reduce test anxiety are discussed, including guided fantasy which leads students to imagine a setting in which they feel competent and relaxed. Catastrophic-anastrophic expectations teach that different expectations create different feelings and make students aware that they are in charge of their own attitudes. Anxiety…

  8. Reducing Research Anxiety among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbinder, Susan Dana

    2014-01-01

    Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…

  9. 76 FR 68295 - Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ....) THE WHITE HOUSE, October 31, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-28728 Filed 11-2-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13588 of October 31, 2011 Reducing Prescription Drug Shortages By the... hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Shortages of pharmaceutical drugs pose a serious...

  10. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  11. Reducing the White-Nonwhite Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Madelaine

    It is well documented that there continues to be a gap between white and nonwhite student achievement. A study develops and tests a measure of white-nonwhite achievement gap reduction. The ultimate purpose is to use the measure as the dependent variable in a qualitative study of what works in reducing the gap. The strategy used in addressing this…

  12. Fluidized-bed combustion reduces atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonke, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Method of reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxides released during combustion of fossil fuels is described. Fuel is burned in fluidized bed of solids with simultaneous feeding of crushed or pulverized limestone to control emission. Process also offers high heat transfer rates and efficient contacting for gas-solid reactions.

  13. Finding Strategic Solutions to Reduce Truancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on recent developments to find strategic solutions to the problem of truancy. It considers issues related to defining truancy and why reducing truancy matters before considering what causes truancy. The article concentrates upon seven areas where further work is needed: the role of parents (and carers); early intervention,…

  14. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  15. 40 CFR 1500.4 - Reducing paperwork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reducing paperwork. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.4... effect on the human environment and which are therefore exempt from requirements to prepare...

  16. 40 CFR 1500.4 - Reducing paperwork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reducing paperwork. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.4... effect on the human environment and which are therefore exempt from requirements to prepare...

  17. How to reduce your fire insurance rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubain, M.

    1971-01-01

    Construction procedures and utilization of materials to reduce the cost of insuring large buildings against losses from fire are discussed. Examples of good and bad techniques in building construction and fire safety management are provided. The inadequacies of building codes and the hazards resulting from improper construction are examined.

  18. Cost-reducing multipurpose microfilm card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. V.

    1970-01-01

    Microfilm-aperture card is printed in the same format on both sides which enables the use of one card for mounting films that are ''right reading'' on both the base side and the emulsion side. This reduces the number of microfilm-card formats.

  19. Reducing Alcohol Consumption through Television Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…

  20. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  1. Attributional Retraining: Reducing the Likelihood of Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes Stewart, Tara L.; Clifton, Rodney A.; Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Chipperfield, Judith G.; Ruthig, Joelle C.

    2011-01-01

    Failing a course is an acutely negative event for first-year university students, and a major contributor to high attrition rates at North American universities. Despite its prevalence, course failure receives relatively little research attention. What can be done to reduce course failure and help first-year students remain in university? This…

  2. Sliding, Insulating Window Panel Reduces Heat Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A new sliding insulated panel reduces window heat loss up to 86 percent, and infiltration 60-90 percent, paying for itself in 3-9 years. This article discusses the panel's use and testing in the upper Midwest, reporting both technical characteristics and users' reactions. (MCG)

  3. 40 CFR 1500.4 - Reducing paperwork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reducing paperwork. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.4... effect on the human environment and which are therefore exempt from requirements to prepare...

  4. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  5. Reducing Children's Littering on a Nature Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.; Bailey, Jon S.

    1975-01-01

    This study compared incentives and educational methods to motivate children to pick up litter and to prevent littering. Incentives did aid in getting litter picked up. One-sentence anti-litter statements, educational materials, and lectures reduced littering, but incentives did not. (MR)

  6. Reducing Depression in Pregnancy: Designing Multimodel Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Maddy; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    High levels of stress on low-income, inner-city women from ethnic minority groups often causes both poor maternal functioning and infant development outcomes. This article reviews literature that proposes using several social work treatment options instead a single approach to reduce maternal depression, expand mothers' social networks, and…

  7. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOEpatents

    Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-06-09

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

  8. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOEpatents

    Laabs, Gary W.; Funk, David J.; Asay, Blaine W.

    1998-01-01

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

  9. Reducing the diameters of computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Three methods of reducing the diameters of computer networks by adding additional processor to processor links under the constraint that no more than one I/O port be added to each processor are discussed. This is equivalent to adding edges to a given graph under the constraint that the degree of any node be increased, at most, by one.

  10. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  11. UVC LIGHT TREATMENT REDUCES DECAY OF BLUEBERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultraviolet light treatment has been used successfully to reduce postharvest fungal decay in tomatoes, strawberries, peaches, and citrus, presumably through elevated spore death and/or increased phytoalexins. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of UV-C light as a posth...

  12. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  13. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  14. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot was constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors were found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  15. 76 FR 75798 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 5 CFR Chapter XXIII 10 CFR Chapters II, III, X Reducing Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Office... its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' issued by... General Counsel for Legislation, Regulation, and Energy Efficiency, U.S. Department of Energy, Office...

  16. Device and Method for Reducing Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, Craig L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A noise abatement device that is positioned adjacent to a body. The noise abatement device generally includes tabs or cavities which thicken the shear layer created by fluid flow over, around, or near the body, by creating horseshoe-shaped vortices; this thickening of the shear layer reduces the strength of fluctuations in the flow which produce noise.

  17. Using Technology To Reduce Public School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John A.; Brown, Robert C.; Ledford, Bruce R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes technology-driven strategies for reducing school violence: (1) commitment communicated by newsletters and cable television; (2) elimination of weapons using metal detectors, surveillance cameras, breathalyzers, student passes, alarm systems, and school emergency plans; (3) two-way communications and low technology; (4) educational…

  18. Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

  19. A Health Plan to Reduce Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Noting that the failures of the U.S. health care system are compounding the problems faced by low-income Americans, Alan Weil argues that any strategy to reduce poverty must provide access to health care for all low-income families. Although nearly all children in families with incomes under 200 percent of poverty are eligible for either Medicaid…

  20. Reducing Mathematics Anxiety with Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert L.; Harris, Jacqueline M.

    1987-01-01

    Student, teacher, and teaching causes of mathematics anxiety are discussed. Computer-assisted instruction can reduce mathematics anxieties due to lack of confidence, negative attitudes, teacher bias, authoritarian teaching, lack of variety, lack of relationship with the real world, emphasis on memorization or on speed, or computer phobia. (MNS)

  1. On reduced density matrices for disjoint subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglói, F.; Peschel, I.

    2010-02-01

    We show that spin and fermion representations for solvable quantum chains lead in general to different reduced density matrices if the subsystem is not singly connected. We study the effect for two sites in XX and XY chains as well as for sublattices in XX and transverse Ising chains.

  2. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  3. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  4. Understanding Uranium Behavior in a Reduced Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot, N.; Lezama-Pacheco, J. S.; Williams, K. H.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Long, P. E.; Davis, J. A.; Fox, P. M.; Yang, L.; Giammar, D.; Cerrato, J. M.; Bargar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwater is a concern at several US Department of Energy sites, such Old Rifle, CO. Uranium transport in the environment is mainly controlled by its oxidation state, since oxidized U(VI) is relatively mobile, whereas U(IV) is relatively insoluble. Bio-remediation of contaminated aquifers aims at immobilizing uranium in a reduced form. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown that adding electron donor (lactate, acetate, ethanol) to groundwater stimulates the activity of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which promotes U(VI) reduction in contaminated aquifers. However, obtaining information on chemical and physical forms of U, Fe and S species for sediments biostimulated in the field, as well as kinetic parameters such as U(VI) reduction rate, is challenging due to the low concentration of uranium in the aquifers (typically < 10 ppm) and the expense of collecting large number of cores. An in-situ technique has been developed for studying uranium, iron and sulfur reduction dynamics during such bioremediation episodes. This technique uses in-well columns to obtain direct access to chemical and physical forms of U(IV) produced in the aquifer, evolving microbial communities, and trace and major ion groundwater constituents. While several studies have explored bioreduction of uranium under sulfate-reducing conditions, less attention has been paid to the initial iron-reducing phase, noted as being of particular importance to uranium removal. The aim of this work was to assess the formation of U(IV) during the early stages of a bio-remediation experiment at the Old Rifle site, CO, from early iron-reducing conditions to the transition to sulfate-reducing conditions. Several in-well chromatographic columns packed with sediment were deployed and were sampled at different days after the start of bio-reduction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy were used to obtain information on Fe, S and U speciation and distribution

  5. Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in humans

    PubMed Central

    Soravia, Leila M.; Heinrichs, Markus; Aerni, Amanda; Maroni, Caroline; Schelling, Gustav; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roozendaal, Benno; de Quervain, Dominique J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    Phobias are characterized by excessive fear, cued by the presence or anticipation of a fearful situation. Whereas it is well established that glucocorticoids are released in fearful situations, it is not known whether these hormones, in turn, modulate perceived fear. As extensive evidence indicates that elevated glucocorticoid levels impair the retrieval of emotionally arousing information, they might also inhibit retrieval of fear memory associated with phobia and, thereby, reduce phobic fear. Here, we investigated whether acutely administrated glucocorticoids reduced phobic fear in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 40 subjects with social phobia and 20 subjects with spider phobia. In the social phobia study, cortisone (25 mg) administered orally 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation, exposure, and recovery phase of the stressor. Moreover, the stress-induced release of cortisol in placebo-treated subjects correlated negatively with fear ratings, suggesting that endogenously released cortisol in the context of a phobic situation buffers fear symptoms. In the spider phobia study, repeated oral administration of cortisol (10 mg), but not placebo, 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again 2 days after the last cortisol administration, suggesting that cortisol may also have facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. Cortisol treatment did not reduce general, phobia-unrelated anxiety. In conclusion, the present findings in two distinct types of phobias indicate that glucocorticoid administration reduces phobic fear. PMID:16567641

  6. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  7. Simulation of sediment settling in reduced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Kuhn, Brigitte; Rüegg, Hans-Rudolf; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Gravity has a non-linear effect on the settling velocity of sediment particles in liquids and gases due to the interdependence of settling velocity, drag and friction. However, Stokes' Law or similar empirical models, the common way of estimating the terminal velocity of a particle settling in a gas or liquid, carry the notion of a drag as a property of a particle, rather than a force generated by the flow around the particle. For terrestrial applications, this simplifying assumption is not relevant, but it may strongly influence the terminal velocity achieved by settling particles on other planetary bodies. False estimates of these settling velocities will, in turn, affect the interpretation of particle sizes observed in sedimentary rocks, e.g. on Mars and the search for traces of life. Simulating sediment settling velocities on other planets based on a numeric simulation using Navier-Stokes equations and Computational Fluid Dynamics requires a prohibitive amount of time and lacks measurements to test the quality of the results. The aim of the experiments presented in this study was therefore to quantify the error incurred by using settling velocity models calibrated on Earth at reduced gravities, such as those on the Moon and Mars. In principle, the effect of lower gravity on settling velocity can be achieved by reducing the difference in density between particle and liquid. However, the use of such analogues creates other problems because the properties (i.e. viscosity) and interaction of the liquids and sediment (i.e. flow around the boundary layer between liquid and particle) differ from those of water and mineral particles. An alternative for measuring the actual settling velocities of particles under reduced gravity, on Earth, is offered by placing a settling tube on a reduced gravity flight and conduct settling velocity measurements within the 20 to 25 seconds of Martian gravity that can be simulated during such a flight. In this presentation, the results

  8. Improve protective clothing and reduce radwaste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, G.A.; Fryer, J.

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear power plants have been reducing radioactive waste production through aggressive volume reduction and control at the point of generation. Waste reduction efforts may, however, have reached a plateau. Certain items, such as protective clothing, are a necessary part of plant operations and cannot be eliminated. There are more than 800,000 sets of protective clothing currently in use at U.S. nuclear plants. Since up to 25% of these garments are removed from service each year, spent protective wear accounts for {approximately}100,000 ft{sup 3} of prevolume reduced waste annually. Furthermore, up to 10% of dry active waste produced at commercial power reactor sites is comprised of exhausted protective clothing and related goods. This report describes the design of protective clothing which lasts longer and is lighter than traditional fabrics.

  9. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  10. Cleaning optimization for reduced chemical usage

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, P.J.; Simonson, G.C.; Matlock, C.A.; Kelly, M.J.

    1996-11-01

    The use of dilute SC-1 (NH40H:H202:H20) chemistry cleaning processes for particle removal from silicon surfaces has been investigated. Dilute chemistries can be highly effective, especially when high- frequency acoustic energy (megasonics) is applied. The high particle removal efficacy of the dilute chemistry processes presumably arises due to increased double layer effects caused by reduced ionic strength. Dilute chemistry SC- I solutions exhibit somewhat reduced efficacy for removal of certain light organics; however, when dilute SC-1 is used along with other pre-gate cleaning steps (e.g. HF, SC-2, and piranha), then the overall cleaning sequence is quite effective. In addition to providing robust cleaning processes, dilute chemistries also result in significantly lower chemical and rinse water usage. Waste water treatment requirements are also lessened when dilute chemistry cleaning solutions are employed.

  11. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  12. Reducing stillbirths in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Saleem, Sarah; Pasha, Omrana; Harrison, Margo S; Mcclure, Elizabeth M

    2016-02-01

    Worldwide, 98% of stillbirths occur in low-income countries (LIC), where stillbirth rates are ten-fold higher than in high-income countries (HIC). Although most HIC stillbirths occur prenatally, in LIC most stillbirths occur at term and during labor/delivery. Conditions causing stillbirths include those of maternal origin (obstructed labor, trauma, antepartum hemorrhage, preeclampsia/eclampsia, infection, diabetes, other maternal diseases), and fetal origin (fetal growth restriction, fetal distress, cord prolapse, multiples, malpresentations, congenital anomalies). In LIC, aside from infectious origins, most stillbirths are caused by fetal asphyxia. Stillbirth prevention requires recognition of maternal conditions, and care in a facility where fetal monitoring and expeditious delivery are possible, usually by cesarean section (CS). Of major causes, only syphilis and malaria can be managed prenatally. Targeting single conditions or interventions is unlikely to substantially reduce stillbirth. To reduce stillbirth rates, LIC must implement effective modern antepartum and intrapartum care, including fetal monitoring and CS. PMID:26577070

  13. Generating a Reduced Gravity Environment on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, Larry K.; Cunningham, Tom; Poncia, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1950s several reduced gravity simulators have been designed and utilized in preparing humans for spaceflight and in reduced gravity system development. The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is the newest and most realistic gravity offload simulator. ARGOS provides three degrees of motion within the test area and is scalable for full building deployment. The inertia of the overhead system is eliminated by an active motor and control system. This presentation will discuss what ARGOS is, how it functions, and the unique challenges of interfacing to the human. Test data and video for human and robotic systems will be presented. A major variable in the human machine interaction is the interface of ARGOS to the human. These challenges along with design solutions will be discussed.

  14. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout.

    PubMed

    Lukens, Wayne W; Bucher, Jerome I; Shuh, David K; Edelstein, Norman M

    2005-10-15

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to stabilize nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U. S. Department of Energy. Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs because of the high solubility and mobility of Tc(VII), pertechnetate (TcO4-), the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively stabilize 99Tc if they contain additives that chemically reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. The 99Tc leach rate of reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much lower than that for CWFs that contain TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure studies showed that Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be of concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, referred to as "permeable samples", the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were sealed in cuvettes made of polystyrene, which has a relatively large O2 diffusion coefficient. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as a Tc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The EXAFS data is consistent with a structure consisting of triangular clusters of Tc(IV) centers linked together through a combination of disulfide and sulfide bridges as in MoS3. From the EXAFS model, the stoichiometry of TcSx is TC3S10, which is presumably the compound generally referred to as "Tc2S7". The TcSX initially present in the permeable samples was steadily

  15. Hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide as a supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johra, Fatima Tuz; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2015-12-01

    The supercapacitance behavior of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was investigated for the first time. The capacitive behavior of RGO was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. The specific capacitance of hydrothermally reduced RGO at 1 A/g was 367 F/g in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte, which was higher than that of RGO synthesized via the hydrazine reduction method. The RGO-modified glassy carbon electrode showed excellent stability. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitance was 107.7% of that achieved in the 1st cycle, which suggests that RGO has excellent electrochemical stability as a supercapacitor electrode material. The energy density of hydrothermal RGO reached 44.4 W h/kg at a power density of 40 kW/kg.

  16. Dihydrolipoic acid reduces cytochrome b561 proteins.

    PubMed

    Bérczi, Alajos; Zimányi, László; Asard, Han

    2013-03-01

    Cytochrome b561 (Cyt-b561) proteins constitute a family of trans-membrane proteins that are present in a wide variety of organisms. Two of their characteristic properties are the reducibility by ascorbate (ASC) and the presence of two distinct b-type hemes localized on two opposite sides of the membrane. Here we show that the tonoplast-localized and the putative tumor suppressor Cyt-b561 proteins can be reduced by other reductants than ASC and dithionite. A detailed spectral analysis of the ASC-dependent and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA)-dependent reduction of these two Cyt-b561 proteins is also presented. Our results are discussed in relation to the known antioxidant capability of DHLA as well as its role in the regeneration of other antioxidant compounds of cells. These results allow us to speculate on new biological functions for the trans-membrane Cyt-b561 proteins. PMID:22526465

  17. Evaluating State Options for Reducing Medicaid Churning

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Katherine; Short, Pamela Farley; Graefe, Deborah R.; Uberoi, Namrata

    2015-01-01

    Medicaid churning - the constant exit and re-entry of beneficiaries as their eligibility changes - has long been a problem for both Medicaid administrators and recipients. Churning will continue under the Affordable Care Act, because despite new federal rules, Medicaid eligibility will continue to be based on current monthly income. We developed a longitudinal simulation model to evaluate four policy options for modifying or extending Medicaid eligibility to reduce churning. The simulations suggest that two options, extending Medicaid eligibility either to the end of a calendar year or for twelve months after enrollment, would be far more effective in reducing churning than the other options of a three-month extension or eligibility based on projected annual income. States should consider implementation of the option that best balances costs, including both administration and services, with improved health of Medicaid enrollees. PMID:26153313

  18. Gratitude: a tool for reducing economic impatience.

    PubMed

    DeSteno, David; Li, Ye; Dickens, Leah; Lerner, Jennifer S

    2014-06-01

    The human mind tends to excessively discount the value of delayed rewards relative to immediate ones, and it is thought that "hot" affective processes drive desires for short-term gratification. Supporting this view, recent findings demonstrate that sadness exacerbates financial impatience even when the sadness is unrelated to the economic decision at hand. Such findings might reinforce the view that emotions must always be suppressed to combat impatience. But if emotions serve adaptive functions, then certain emotions might be capable of reducing excessive impatience for delayed rewards. We found evidence supporting this alternative view. Specifically, we found that (a) the emotion gratitude reduces impatience even when real money is at stake, and (b) the effects of gratitude are differentiable from those of the more general positive state of happiness. These findings challenge the view that individuals must tamp down affective responses through effortful self-regulation to reach more patient and adaptive economic decisions. PMID:24760144

  19. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    SciTech Connect

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  20. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B

    2000-01-01

    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  1. Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sara B

    2014-12-01

    Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. PMID:25477459

  2. Distraction from emotional information reduces biased judgements.

    PubMed

    Lench, Heather C; Bench, Shane W; Davis, Elizabeth L

    2016-06-01

    Biases arising from emotional processes are some of the most robust behavioural effects in the social sciences. The goal of this investigation was to examine the extent to which the emotion regulation strategy of distraction could reduce biases in judgement known to result from emotional information. Study 1 explored lay views regarding whether distraction is an effective strategy to improve decision-making and revealed that participants did not endorse this strategy. Studies 2-5 focused on several established, robust biases that result from emotional information: loss aversion, desirability bias, risk aversion and optimistic bias. Participants were prompted to divert attention away from their feelings while making judgements, and in each study this distraction strategy resulted in reduced bias in judgement relative to control conditions. The findings provide evidence that distraction can improve choice across several situations that typically elicit robustly biased responses, even though participants are not aware of the effectiveness of this strategy. PMID:25787937

  3. New system reduces sludge management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Roll, R.R. ); Koser, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    This article describes a recently completed a $2.7-million project to upgrade the sludge dewatering and stabilizing system at a 48-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Niagara Fall, New York. The work was necessitated by the deteriorated condition of the plant's original vacuum filters and increasing costs to landfill the dewatered sludge. The new equipment has restored sludge production capacity while reducing the final material's moisture content. The Niagara Falls plant is one of the few municipal physical-chemical treatment plants built in this country, and is the largest still functioning. Constructed in the mid-1970s, it was designed to treat a combination of domestic sewage and industrial wastes. One third of the flow and one half of the solids are industrial in nature. The changes made reduced electrical power consumption and sanitary landfill costs.

  4. Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE{sup 3} grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and input chlorine is adjusted continuously. This optimization of chlorine use results in substantially less waste because less chlorine has to be bought or produced by aluminum manufacturers. This innovation is a significant improvement over conventional aluminum treatments, in which chlorine is injected in a more costly and wasteful manner. By the year 2010, the new technology has the potential to reduce the energy it takes to create chlorine by 8.4 billion Btu per year and to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 1,377 tons per year.

  5. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  6. Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  7. Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Microbiology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sulfate reducing bacteria, the first nonphotosynthetic anaerobic bacteria demonstrated to contain c type cytochromes, perform electron transfer coupled to phosphorylation. A new bioenergetic scheme for the formation of a proton gradient for growth of Desulfovibrio on organic substrates and sulfate involving vectors electron transfer and consistent with the cellular localization of enzymes and electron transfer components was proposed. Hydrogen is produced in the cytoplasm from organic substrates and, as a permease molecule diffuses rapidly across the cytoplasmic membrane, it is oxidized to protons and electrons by the periplasmic hydrogenase. The electrons only are transferred across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cytoplasm where they are used to reduce sulfate to sulfide. The protons are used for transport or to drive a reversible ATPOSE. The net effect is the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane with the intervention of a proton pump. This type of H2 cycling is relevant to the bioenergetics of other types of anaerobic microorganisms.

  8. Analysis of driver performance under reduced visibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaeppler, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical models describing vehicle dynamics as well as human behavior may be useful in evaluating driver performance and in establishing design criteria for vehicles more compatible with man. In 1977, a two level model of driver steering behavior was developed, but its parameters were identified for clear visibility conditions only. Since driver performance degrades under conditions of reduced visibility, e.g., fog, the two level model should be investigated to determine its applicability to such conditions. The data analysis of a recently performed driving simulation experiment showed that the model still performed reasonably well under fog conditions, although there was a degradation in its predictive capacity during fog. Some additional parameters affecting anticipation and lag time may improve the model's performance for reduced visibility conditions.

  9. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2005-08-01

    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approximately 10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negative afterimage of an adaptor was reduced by half when it was perceptually suppressed by input from the other eye. The more completely the adaptor was suppressed, the more strongly the afterimage intensity was reduced. Paradoxically, trial-to-trial visibility of the adaptor did not correlate with the degree of reduction. Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness. PMID:15995700

  10. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOEpatents

    Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

    1998-03-24

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

  11. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOEpatents

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Chau, Hoi Fung

    1998-01-01

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

  12. Drag reducing properties of microalgal exopolymers.

    PubMed

    Ramus, J; Kenney, B E; Shaughnessy, E J

    1989-01-25

    Dilute aqueous solutions of polymers released by marine phytoplankton (microalgae) were shown to effectively reduce drag in capillary pipe flow. Tests were performed in a capillary turbulent flow viscometer which extruded small samples under high pressures. In all, 22 species were screened, and the products of one chlorophyte and four rhodophyte species proved especially effective. The viscoelastic polymers produced by these species delayed the transition from laminar to turbulent flow to significantly higher Re. In general, polymeric regime segments come off the maximum drag reduction asymptote at characteristic retro-onset points, and come to lie approximately parallel to, but displaced upwards from the Prandtl-von Karman line. The delay to transition was shown to be dependent on additive polymer concentration, capillary diameter, and temperature. Ionic concentration, ionic composition, or pH had little effect on drag reducing properties. PMID:18587950

  13. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  14. Reducing Neuronal Networks to Discrete Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Terman, David; Ahn, Sungwoo; Wang, Xueying; Just, Winfried

    2008-01-01

    We consider a general class of purely inhibitory and excitatory-inhibitory neuronal networks, with a general class of network architectures, and characterize the complex firing patterns that emerge. Our strategy for studying these networks is to first reduce them to a discrete model. In the discrete model, each neuron is represented as a finite number of states and there are rules for how a neuron transitions from one state to another. In this paper, we rigorously demonstrate that the continuous neuronal model can be reduced to the discrete model if the intrinsic and synaptic properties of the cells are chosen appropriately. In a companion paper [1], we analyze the discrete model. PMID:18443649

  15. Leveraging Technology to Reduce Patient Transaction Costs.

    PubMed

    Edlow, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Medical practices are under significant pressure to provide superior customer service in an environment of declining or flat reimbursement. The solution for many practices involves the integration of a variety of third-party technologies that conveniently interface with one's electronic practice management and medical records systems. Typically, the applications allow the practice to reduce the cost of each patient interaction. Drilling down to quantify the cost of each individual patient interaction helps to determine the practicality of implementation. PMID:26665478

  16. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  17. Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts

    SciTech Connect

    Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M.

    2007-06-15

    Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  18. 'Reduced' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, David

    1992-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of 'reduced' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs.

  19. Reducing inappropriate accident and emergency department attendances:

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Sharif A; Gibbons, Daniel C; Gnani, Shamini

    2013-01-01

    Background Inappropriate attendances may account for up to 40% of presentations at accident and emergency (A&E) departments. There is considerable interest from health practitioners and policymakers in interventions to reduce this burden. Aim To review the evidence on primary care service interventions to reduce inappropriate A&E attendances. Design and setting Systematic review of UK and international primary care interventions. Method Studies published in English between 1 January 1986 and 23 August 2011 were identified from PubMed, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database, the Cochrane Collaboration, and Health Technology Assessment databases. The outcome measures were A&E attendances, patient satisfaction, clinical outcome, and intervention cost. Two authors reviewed titles and abstracts of retrieved results, with adjudication of disagreements conducted by the third. Studies were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklist system where applicable. Results In total, 9916 manuscripts were identified, of which 34 were reviewed. Telephone triage was the single best-evaluated intervention. This resulted in negligible impact on A&E attendance, but exhibited acceptable patient satisfaction and clinical safety; cost effectiveness was uncertain. The limited available evidence suggests that emergency nurse practitioners in community settings and community health centres may reduce A&E attendance. For all other interventions considered in this review (walk-in centres, minor injuries units, and out-of-hours general practice), the effects on A&E attendance, patient outcomes, and cost were inconclusive. Conclusion Studies showed a negligible effect on A&E attendance for all interventions; data on patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness are limited. There is an urgent need to examine all aspects of primary care service interventions that aim to reduce inappropriate A&E attendance. PMID:24351497

  20. Reduced Boil-Off System Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, Monica C.; Plachta, David W.; Feller, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is currently developing cryogenic propellant storage and transfer systems for future space exploration and scientific discovery missions by addressing the need to raise the technology readiness level of cryogenic fluid management technologies. Cryogenic propellants are baselined in many propulsion systems due to their inherently high specific impulse; however, their low boiling points can cause substantial boil-off losses over time. Recent efforts such as the Reduced Boil-off Testing and the Active Thermal Control Scaling Study provide important information on the benefit of an active cooling system applied to LH2 propellant storage. Findings show that zero-boil off technologies can reduce overall mass in LH2 storage systems when low Earth orbit loiter periods extend beyond two months. A significant part of this mass reduction is realized by integrating two stages of cooling: a 20 K stage to intercept heat at the tank surface, and a 90 K stage to reduce the heat entering the less efficient 20 K stage. A missing element in previous studies, which is addressed in this paper, is the development of a direct method for sizing the 90 K cooling stage. Such a method requires calculation of the heat entering both the 90 K and 20 K stages as compared to the overall system masses, and is reliant upon the temperature distribution, performance, and unique design characteristics of the system in question. By utilizing the known conductance of a system without active thermal control, the heat being intercepted by a 90 K stage can be calculated to find the resultant lift and mass of each active thermal control stage. Integral to this is the thermal conductance of the cooling straps and the broad area cooling shield, key parts of the 90 K stage. Additionally, a trade study is performed to show the ability of the 90 K cooling stage to reduce the lift on the 20 K cryocooler stage, which is considerably less developed and efficient than 90 K cryocoolers.

  1. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  2. Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow

    SciTech Connect

    Uberman, R.; Pierce, B.; Lazecki, A.

    1994-06-01

    This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options.

  3. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  4. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOEpatents

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Johnson, Mitchell E.; Keller, Richard A.; Petty, Jeffrey T.; Schecker, Jay A.; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  5. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Sean C.

    2005-02-15

    A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.

  6. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan

    2013-05-29

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  7. Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Marc Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An innovative experiment to study the thermosyphon flooding limits was designed and flown on aparabolic flight campaign to achieve the Reduced Gravity Environments (RGE) needed to obtainempirical data for analysis. Current correlation models of Faghri and Tien and Chung do not agreewith the data. A new model is presented that predicts the flooding limits for thermosyphons inearths gravity and lunar gravity with a 95 confidence level of +- 5W.

  8. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  9. Reduced Martian Carbon: Evidence from Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, SImon J.; Pillinger, COlin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Verchovsky, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of indigenous reduced carbon species on Mars has been a challenge since the first hypotheses about life on Mars were proposed. Ranging from the early astronomical measurements to analyses of samples from the Martian surface in the form of Martian meteorites. The first direct attempt to analyze the carbon species on the surface was in 1976 with the Viking GC-MS in-situ experiment which gave inconclusive results at two sites on Mars [1]. With the recognition in 1983 that samples of the Martian surface were already present on Earth in the form of Martian meteorites by Bogard and Johnson [2] new opportunities became available for direct study of Mars's samples in te rlraesbtrioalratories. Carbon isotopic compositional information suggested a reduced carbon component was present in the Martian meteorites [3-5]. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with carbonate globules in ALH84001 were later identified [6,7]. Jull et al [8] noted that an insoluble component was present within Nakhla and more than 75% of its C lacked any 14C, which is modern-day carbon contaminant. This carbon fraction was believed to be either indigenous (i..e. Martian) or ancient meteoritic carbon phase. Within the fractures of Nakhla and ALH84001, Fisk et al [9,10] identified reduced carbon-enriched areas. Gibson et al. [11] using a combination of NanoSIMS, Focused Electron microscopy, Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Stepped-Combustion Static Mass Spectrometry analyses the presence of possible indigenous reduced carbon components within the 1.3 Ga old Nakhla.

  10. Using PGD to reduce surgical infection risk.

    PubMed

    Archyangelio, Annesha; Shakhon, Amritpal

    Patients with spinal injuries are at increased risk of surgical site infection due to increased numbers of comorbidities and prolonged surgical procedures. This article describes the impact of a patient group direction that was used in a pre-operative assessment clinic to provide Staphylococcus aureus decolonisation to patients with a spinal injury who required prophylaxis. A post-implementation audit revealed that, in the main, staff and patients adhered to the direction, and infection rates were reduced. PMID:27089755

  11. Reducing the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushov, G. G.; Zakharevich, A. M.; Pichkhidze, S. Ya.; Koshuro, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is established that a decrease in the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon, a pyrolytic glassy composite material of interest for manufacturing prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), can be achieved via impregnation of articles with an alcohol solution of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and subsequent thermal treatment. The maximum roughness height and linear size of open pores on the surface of PHV parts made of pyroboroncarbon can additionally be reduced by final mechanical processing of a silicon oxide film formed on the surface.

  12. Gold Nanoparticle Hyperthermia Reduces Radiotherapy Dose

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lynn; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Vadas, Timothy M.; Smilowitz, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can absorb near infrared light, resulting in heating and ablation of tumors. Gold nanoparticles have also been used for enhancing the dose of X-rays in tumors during radiotherapy. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy is synergistic, importantly allowing a reduction in X-ray dose with improved therapeutic results. Here we intratumorally infused small 15 nm gold nanoparticles engineered to be transformed from infrared-transparent to infrared-absorptive by the tumor, which were then heated by infrared followed by X-ray treatment. Synergy was studied using a very radioresistant subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII) in mice. It was found that the dose required to control 50% of the tumors, normally 55 Gy, could be reduced to <15 Gy (a factor of >3.7). Gold nanoparticles therefore provide a method to combine hyperthermia and radiotherapy to drastically reduce the X-ray radiation needed, thus sparing normal tissue, reducing the side effects, and making radiotherapy more effective. PMID:24990355

  13. Does semantic preactivation reduce inattentional blindness?

    PubMed

    Kreitz, Carina; Schnuerch, Robert; Furley, Philip A; Gibbons, Henning; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We are susceptible to failures of awareness if a stimulus occurs unexpectedly and our attention is focused elsewhere. Such inattentional blindness is modulated by various parameters, including stimulus attributes, the observer's cognitive resources, and the observer's attentional set regarding the primary task. In three behavioral experiments with a total of 360 participants, we investigated whether mere semantic preactivation of the color of an unexpected object can reduce inattentional blindness. Neither explicitly mentioning the color several times before the occurrence of the unexpected stimulus nor priming the color more implicitly via color-related concepts could significantly reduce the susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Even putting the specific color concept in the main focus of the primary task did not lead to reduced inattentional blindness. Thus, we have shown that the failure to consciously perceive unexpected objects was not moderated by semantic preactivation of the objects' most prominent feature: its color. We suggest that this finding reflects the rather general principle that preactivations that are not motivationally relevant for one's current selection goals do not suffice to make an unexpected object overcome the threshold of awareness. PMID:25537740

  14. Reducing transfusion requirements in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Ciara I; Mallett, Susan V

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) was historically associated with massive blood loss and transfusion. Over the past two decades transfusion requirements have reduced dramatically and increasingly transfusion-free transplantation is a reality. Both bleeding and transfusion are associated with adverse outcomes in LT. Minimising bleeding and reducing unnecessary transfusions are therefore key goals in the perioperative period. As the understanding of the causes of bleeding has evolved so too have techniques to minimize or reduce the impact of blood loss. Surgical “piggyback” techniques, anaesthetic low central venous pressure and haemodilution strategies and the use of autologous cell salvage, point of care monitoring and targeted correction of coagulopathy, particularly through use of factor concentrates, have all contributed to declining reliance on allogenic blood products. Pre-emptive management of preoperative anaemia and adoption of more restrictive transfusion thresholds is increasingly common as patient blood management (PBM) gains momentum. Despite progress, increasing use of marginal grafts and transplantation of sicker recipients will continue to present new challenges in bleeding and transfusion management. Variation in practice across different centres and within the literature demonstrates the current lack of clear transfusion guidance. In this article we summarise the causes and predictors of bleeding and present the evidence for a variety of PBM strategies in LT. PMID:26722645

  15. Electrohydrodynamic Pool Boiling in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.; Stahl, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research is concerned with studying the effects of applied electric fields on pool boiling in a reduced-gravity environment. Experiments are conducted at the NASA Lewis 2.2 sec Drop tower using a drop rig constructed at UC Davis. In the experiments, a platinum wire is heated while immersed in saturated liquid refrigerants (FC-72 and FC-87), or water, causing vapor formation at the wire surface. Electric fields are applied between the wire surface and an outer screen electrode that surrounds the wire. Preliminary normal-gravity experiments with water have demonstrated that applied electric fields generated by the rig electronics can influence boiling characteristics. Reduced-gravity experiments will be performed in the summer of 1996. The experiments will provide fundamental data on electric field strengths required to disrupt film boiling (for various wire heat generation input rates) in reduced gravity for a cylindrical geometry. The experiments should also shed light on the roles of characteristic bubble generation times and charge relaxation times in determining the effects of electric fields on pool boiling. Normal-gravity comparison experiments will also be performed.

  16. Improved reduced-resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, James; Milstein, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    The resolution of satellite imagery is often traded-off to satisfy transmission time and bandwidth, memory, and display limitations. Although there are many ways to achieve the same reduction in resolution, algorithms vary in their ability to preserve the visual quality of the original imagery. These issues are investigated in the context of the Landsat browse system, which permits the user to preview a reduced resolution version of a Landsat image. Wavelets-based techniques for resolution reduction are proposed as alternatives to subsampling used in the current system. Experts judged imagery generated by the wavelets-based methods visually superior, confirming initial quantitative results. In particular, compared to subsampling, the wavelets-based techniques were much less likely to obscure roads, transmission lines, and other linear features present in the original image, introduce artifacts and noise, and otherwise reduce the usefulness of the image. The wavelets-based techniques afford multiple levels of resolution reduction and computational speed. This study is applicable to a wide range of reduced resolution applications in satellite imaging systems, including low resolution display, spaceborne browse, emergency image transmission, and real-time video downlinking.

  17. Swimming Motility Reduces Deposition to Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Nanxi; Massoudieh, Arash; Liang, Xiaomeng; Hu, Dehong; Kamai, Tamir; Ginn, Timothy R.; Zilles, Julie L.; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2015-01-01

    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 μm/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 μm/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 μm from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  18. Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-08-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  20. Reduced TIMP-2 in hypoxia enhances angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Nitza; Bitterman, Haim; Engelmayer-Goren, Miri; Rosenzweig, Doron; Weiss-Cerem, Lea; Rahat, Michal A

    2011-03-01

    Hypoxia, which characterizes ischemia, trauma, inflammation, and solid tumors, recruits monocytes, immobilizes them, and alters their function, leading to an anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic phenotype. Monocyte extravasation from the circulation and their migration in tissues are partially mediated by the balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). The mechanisms evoked by hypoxia that regulate monocyte migration and activation are not entirely clear. Specifically, the effect of hypoxia on TIMPs in these cells has hardly been investigated. We show that hypoxia reduces TIMP-2 secretion from human primary monocytes and from the monocyte-like cell lines U937 and THP-1 by three- to fourfold (P < 0.01), by inhibiting TIMP-2 transcription through mechanisms that involve the transcription factor SP-1. Hypoxia also lowers TIMP-2 protein secretion from human endothelial cells (by 2-fold, P < 0.05). TIMP-2 levels do not influence the reduced migration of THP-1 cells in hypoxia; however, low TIMP-2 levels enhance endothelial cell migration/proliferation, their ability to form tubelike structures in vitro, and the appearance of mature blood vessels in a Matrigel plug assay in vivo. Thus we conclude that reduced TIMP-2 levels secreted from both hypoxic monocytes and endothelial cells are proangiogenic. PMID:21148412

  1. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world". PMID:22993714

  2. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function. PMID:18498507

  3. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762

  4. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  5. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.

    2011-07-01

    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ˜1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells’ normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  6. Reoxidation of Bioreduced Uranium Under Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larson, Joern; Zheng, Zuoping; Brodie, Eoin; Wang, Zheming; Herman, Don; Hazen, Terry C.; Firestone,Mary K.; Sutton, Stephen R.

    2005-02-05

    Uranium mining and processing for nuclear weapons and fuel have left thousands of sites with toxic levels of this actinide in soil and ground water. An emerging strategy for remediating such environments involves using organic carbon to promote microbially-mediated reduction and precipitation of insoluble U(IV) minerals. Although previous U bioreduction studies have shown promising results, they were of short duration (up to a few months). Our longer-term (20 months) laboratory study using historically contaminated sediment has alarmingly shown that microbial reduction of U was transient even under reducing (methanogenic) conditions. Uranium was reductively immobilized during the first 100 days, but later (150 to 600 days) reoxidized and mobilized, although a microbial community capable of reducing U(VI) remained through the end of the experiment. The formation of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complexes (caused by the elevated carbonate concentration from microbial respiration and presence of calcium) drove the U(IV)/U(VI) reduction potential to much more reducing conditions. Fe(III) and Mn(IV) were found to be likely terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) for U reoxidation. Thus, U remediation by organic carbon based reductive precipitation is not sustainable in calcareous, neutral to alkaline soils and ground waters.

  7. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert J; Workman, Alan D; Carey, Ryan M; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Kennedy, David W; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6-12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  8. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria Having Ability to Reduce Polysulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yui; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro; Chida, Tadashi

    2006-05-15

    To find an efficient bacterium, which has the strong capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide from polysulfide as the waste of process generating hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide by photocatalytic reaction using sun light, is very important for constructing hydrogen producing system. 10 strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which can reduce polysulfide directly, have been isolated from various natural samples such as TCE contaminated soil, soil and sludge around hot spring environment, and the cooling tower of a geothermal plant. This study describes physiological and phylogenetic characterization of SRB which can reduce polysulfide. All of isolates had the ability to reduce polusulfide but these reduction rates were difference depend on isolates. Phylogetetically, all of isolates located difference position for general SRB including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, which is used standard strain in this study, so they do not belong to Proteobacteria. These have close relation to the genus Desulfotomaculum which can reduce elemental sulfur. It suggests that the ability of reducing elemental sulfur is important for reducing polysulfide to hydrogen sulfide.

  9. Phylogenetic Characteristics of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria Having Ability to Reduce Polysulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yui; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro; Chida, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    To find an efficient bacterium, which has the strong capacity to produce hydrogen sulfide from polysulfide as the waste of process generating hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide by photocatalytic reaction using sun light, is very important for constructing hydrogen producing system. 10 strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which can reduce polysulfide directly, have been isolated from various natural samples such as TCE contaminated soil, soil and sludge around hot spring environment, and the cooling tower of a geothermal plant. This study describes physiological and phylogenetic characterization of SRB which can reduce polysulfide. All of isolates had the ability to reduce polusulfide but these reduction rates were difference depend on isolates. Phylogetetically, all of isolates located difference position for general SRB including Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, which is used standard strain in this study, so they do not belong to Proteobacteria. These have close relation to the genus Desulfotomaculum which can reduce elemental sulfur. It suggests that the ability of reducing elemental sulfur is important for reducing polysulfide to hydrogen sulfide.

  10. Reducing Spatial Data Complexity for Classification Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ruta, Dymitr; Gabrys, Bogdan

    2007-11-29

    Intelligent data analytics gradually becomes a day-to-day reality of today's businesses. However, despite rapidly increasing storage and computational power current state-of-the-art predictive models still can not handle massive and noisy corporate data warehouses. What is more adaptive and real-time operational environment requires multiple models to be frequently retrained which further hinders their use. Various data reduction techniques ranging from data sampling up to density retention models attempt to address this challenge by capturing a summarised data structure, yet they either do not account for labelled data or degrade the classification performance of the model trained on the condensed dataset. Our response is a proposition of a new general framework for reducing the complexity of labelled data by means of controlled spatial redistribution of class densities in the input space. On the example of Parzen Labelled Data Compressor (PLDC) we demonstrate a simulatory data condensation process directly inspired by the electrostatic field interaction where the data are moved and merged following the attracting and repelling interactions with the other labelled data. The process is controlled by the class density function built on the original data that acts as a class-sensitive potential field ensuring preservation of the original class density distributions, yet allowing data to rearrange and merge joining together their soft class partitions. As a result we achieved a model that reduces the labelled datasets much further than any competitive approaches yet with the maximum retention of the original class densities and hence the classification performance. PLDC leaves the reduced dataset with the soft accumulative class weights allowing for efficient online updates and as shown in a series of experiments if coupled with Parzen Density Classifier (PDC) significantly outperforms competitive data condensation methods in terms of classification performance at the

  11. Simvastatin Reduces Capsular Fibrosis around Silicone Implants.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu Jin; Park, Ki Rin; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Gon; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2016-08-01

    Capsular fibrosis and contracture occurs in most breast reconstruction patients who undergo radiotherapy, and there is no definitive solution for its prevention. Simvastatin was effective at reducing fibrosis in various models. Peri-implant capsular formation is the result of tissue fibrosis development in irradiated breasts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on peri-implant fibrosis in rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to an experimental group (9 rats, 18 implants) or a control group (9 rats, 18 implants). Two hemispherical silicone implants, 10 mm in diameter, were inserted in subpanniculus pockets in each rat. The next day, 10-Gy of radiation from a clinical accelerator was targeted at the implants. Simvastatin (15 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage in the experimental group, while animals in the control group received water. At 12 weeks post-implantation, peri-implant capsules were harvested and examined histologically and by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The average capsular thickness was 371.2 μm in the simvastatin group and 491.2 μm in the control group. The fibrosis ratio was significantly different, with 32.33% in the simvastatin group and 58.44% in the control group (P < 0.001). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 gene expression decreased significantly in the simvastatin group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). This study shows that simvastatin reduces radiation-induced capsular fibrosis around silicone implants in rats. This finding offers an alternative therapeutic strategy for reducing capsular fibrosis and contracture after implant-based breast reconstruction. PMID:27478339

  12. Reducing HPV-associated Cancer Globally

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a major worldwide public health concern. Virtually all cervical cancer is HPV-related, with 70% caused by HPV16 and -18. Variable proportions of certain non-cervical cancers (e.g., anal, vulvar, oropharyngeal) are HPV-related; over 90% of the HPV-related ones are related to HPV16, -18. The HPV-related cancers are dominated by cervical cancer in the developing world, where cervical cancer screening is limited. In this setting, widespread uptake of current HPV vaccines by adolescent girls could reduce this cancer's incidence and mortality by approximately two-thirds, with cost-effective screening programs of adult women having the potential to reduce mortality more rapidly. In the industrialized world, non-cervical HPV-related cancers, especially oropharyngeal, are rapidly increasing, and now rival the incidence of cervical cancer, whose rates continue to decline thanks to established cervical screening programs. Therefore, reducing HPV-associated non-cervical cancers with HPV vaccination has greater importance in the industrialized world, especially since there are no approved screening programs for these cancers. Preventing the substantial number of non-cervical HPV cancers in men will require either “herd” immunity through high vaccination rates in females or male vaccination. Current HPV vaccination can complement cervical screening in protecting against cervical cancer and may permit the safe reduction of screening intensity in industrialized countries. Second-generation HPV vaccines (active against a broader array of cervical cancer–related HPV types) could prevent an even higher proportion of cervical precancer and cancer and might permit further reductions in screening intensity. PMID:22219162

  13. Reducing Financing Costs for Federal ESPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    2005-01-28

    This report documents the recommendations of a working group commissioned by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in 2002 to identify ways to reduce financing costs in federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. The working group is part of continuing efforts launched by FEMP since the award of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Super ESPCs in 1998 and 1999 to ensure that practical, flexible, and cost-effective alternative financing for energy-efficiency improvements is available to all federal agencies. During FY 2002-2004, the working group pursued extensive fact finding, consulted with government and private-sector finance experts, and analyzed data from federal and local government ESPC programs. The working group observed that both competition and transparency were lacking in federal ESPCs. The working group also found that the government often falls short of full compliance with certain provisions of the final rule that codifies the federal ESPC authority into regulation (10 CFR 436), which speak to due diligence in determining fair and reasonable pricing. Based on these findings, the working group formulated their short-term recommendations of actions that agencies can take immediately to reduce ESPC financing costs. The working group recommended requiring competitive solicitation of offers from prospective financiers of ESPC projects, standardization of processes to keep the playing field level and reduce energy service companies (ESCOs) project development costs, and assuring transparency by specifying that the government will see and review all bids. The reforms are intended to enable the government to determine quickly and reliably whether the portion of price related to financing is fair and reasonable and to provide auditable records of the transaction. The working group's recommendations were incorporated into modifications to the Super ESPCs and requirements to be included in the Super ESPC delivery order request for proposal

  14. Reducing Spatial Data Complexity for Classification Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, Dymitr; Gabrys, Bogdan

    2007-11-01

    Intelligent data analytics gradually becomes a day-to-day reality of today's businesses. However, despite rapidly increasing storage and computational power current state-of-the-art predictive models still can not handle massive and noisy corporate data warehouses. What is more adaptive and real-time operational environment requires multiple models to be frequently retrained which further hinders their use. Various data reduction techniques ranging from data sampling up to density retention models attempt to address this challenge by capturing a summarised data structure, yet they either do not account for labelled data or degrade the classification performance of the model trained on the condensed dataset. Our response is a proposition of a new general framework for reducing the complexity of labelled data by means of controlled spatial redistribution of class densities in the input space. On the example of Parzen Labelled Data Compressor (PLDC) we demonstrate a simulatory data condensation process directly inspired by the electrostatic field interaction where the data are moved and merged following the attracting and repelling interactions with the other labelled data. The process is controlled by the class density function built on the original data that acts as a class-sensitive potential field ensuring preservation of the original class density distributions, yet allowing data to rearrange and merge joining together their soft class partitions. As a result we achieved a model that reduces the labelled datasets much further than any competitive approaches yet with the maximum retention of the original class densities and hence the classification performance. PLDC leaves the reduced dataset with the soft accumulative class weights allowing for efficient online updates and as shown in a series of experiments if coupled with Parzen Density Classifier (PDC) significantly outperforms competitive data condensation methods in terms of classification performance at the

  15. Did Medicare Part D Reduce Disparities?

    PubMed Central

    Zissimopoulos, Julie; Joyce, Geoffrey F.; Scarpati, Lauren M.; Goldman, Dana P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed whether Medicare Part D reduced disparities in access to medication. Study Design Secondary data analysis of a twenty percent sample of Medicare beneficiaries, using Parts A and B medical claims from 2002–2008 and Part D drug claims from 2006–2008. Methods We analyzed medication use of Hispanics, blacks and whites beneficiaries with diabetes before and after reaching the Part D coverage gap, and compared it to race-specific reference groups not exposed to the loss in coverage. Unadjusted difference-indifference results were validated with multivariate regression models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and ZIP code-level household income used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Results The rate at which Hispanics reduced use of diabetes-related medications in the coverage gap was twice as high as whites, while blacks decreased use of diabetes-related medications by thirty-three percent more than whites. The reduction in medication use was correlated with drug price. Hispanics and blacks were more likely than whites to discontinue a therapy after reaching the coverage gap but more likely to resume once coverage restarted. Hispanics without subsidies and living in low income areas reduced medication use more than similar blacks and whites in the coverage gap. Conclusions We find that the Part D coverage gap is particularly disruptive to minorities and those living in low-income areas. The implications of this work suggest that protecting the health of vulnerable groups requires more than premium subsidies. Patient education may be a first step, but more substantive improvements in adherence may require changes in health care delivery. PMID:25880361

  16. Carbon storage in the deep reducing mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, A.; Ghosh, S.; Schmidt, M. W.; Wijbrans, C. H.; Klemme, S.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the storage and cycling of carbon in/through Earth's deep mantle it is vital to examine carbon speciations at relevant pressure, temperature, and oxygen fugacity (fO2). In particular redox conditions of the mantle critically influence the mobility of carbon bearing phases in the silicate matrix; oxidized species are generally more mobile (carbonatites, carbonated silicate melts) or have a larger impact on silicate solidi (carbonated peridotite/eclogite) than reduced species (diamond, carbides, metals). Within garnet bearing mantle lithologies, fO2 can be expected to decrease with depth [1], eventually reaching values similar to the iron-wüstite equilibrium which implies the precipitation of a Fe-Ni metal phase at pressures corresponding to the base of the upper mantle [2]. Because Ni is more noble than Fe, Ni partitions strongly into the reduced phases such that at low metal fractions the metal phase reaches XNi > 0.5. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the mantle contains ~0.1 wt.% Fe,Ni metal at ~300 km depth [3], increasing to ~1 wt% in the lower mantle [4]. To understand the nature of carbon bearing reduced phases in the Earth mantle, we examine experimentally phase relations and melting behavior in the system Fe-Ni-C at 10 and 23 GPa. Dependent on Fe-Ni ratio and related fO2, C content, P and T we observe a variety of phases, namely (Fe,Ni)3C and (Fe,Ni)7C3 carbides, carbon bearing Fe-Ni metal, diamond and carbon rich metal-melt. In the subsolidus, mantle bulk C contents of 50 to 500 ppm [5] would result in the phase association (Fe,Ni)3C + metal + diamond at 10 GPa. In the uppermost lower mantle, about 1 wt.% metal would dissolve ca. 100 ppm C, any further C would lead to (Fe,Ni)3C carbide saturation. The solidus temperatures of theses phase assemblages however are considerably lower than the geotherm at upper and lower mantle pressures. We therefore suggest that reduced carbon bearing phases in the deep mantle are largely molten [6]. [1

  17. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    PubMed Central

    Thornicroft, Graham; Brohan, Elaine; Kassam, Aliya; Lewis-Holmes, Elanor

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance), attitudes (prejudice) and behaviour (discrimination). From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i) direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii) social marketing at the population level. PMID:18405393

  18. Improving Realism in Reduced Gravity Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvil, Lauren; Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Since man was first determined to walk on the moon, simulating the lunar environment became a priority. Providing an accurate reduced gravity environment is crucial for astronaut training and hardware testing. This presentation will follow the development of reduced gravity simulators to a final comparison of environments between the currently used systems. During the Apollo program era, multiple systems were built and tested, with several NASA centers having their own unique device. These systems ranged from marionette-like suspension devices where the subject laid on his side, to pneumatically driven offloading harnesses, to parabolic flights. However, only token comparisons, if any, were made between systems. Parabolic flight allows the entire body to fall at the same rate, giving an excellent simulation of reduced gravity as far as the biomechanics and physical perceptions are concerned. While the effects are accurate, there is limited workspace, limited time, and high cost associated with these tests. With all mechanical offload systems only the parts of the body that are actively offloaded feel any reduced gravity effects. The rest of the body still feels the full effect of gravity. The Partial Gravity System (Pogo) is the current ground-based offload system used to training and testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The Pogo is a pneumatic type system that allows for offloaded motion in the z-axis and free movement in the x-axis, but has limited motion in the y-axis. The pneumatic system itself is limited by cylinder stroke length and response time. The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is a next generation groundbased offload system, currently in development, that is based on modern robotic manufacturing lines. This system is projected to provide more z-axis travel and full freedom in both the x and y-axes. Current characterization tests are underway to determine how the ground-based offloading systems perform, how they compare to parabolic

  19. Reducing quasilinear systems to block triangular form

    SciTech Connect

    Tunitsky, Dmitry V

    2013-03-31

    The paper is concerned with systems of n quasilinear partial differential equations of the first order with 2 independent variables. Using a geometric formalism for such equations, which goes back to Riemann, it is possible to assign a field of linear operators on an appropriate vector bundle to this type of quasilinear system. Several tests for a quasilinear system to be reducible to triangular or block triangular form are obtained in terms of this field; they supplement well known results on diagonalization and block diagonalization due to Haantjes and Bogoyavlenskij. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  20. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  1. Generating a Reduced Gravity Environment on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, L. K.; Valle, P.; Shy, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is designed to simulate reduced gravity environments, such as Lunar, Martian, or microgravity using a vertical lifting hoist and horizontal motion system. Three directions of motion are provided over a 41 ft x 24 ft x 25 ft tall area. ARGOS supplies a continuous offload of a portion of a person's weight during dynamic motions such as walking, running, and jumping. The ARGOS system tracks the person's motion in the horizontal directions to maintain a vertical offload force directly above the person or payload by measuring the deflection of the cable and adjusting accordingly.

  2. Pretreatment for reducing oxidative reactivity of baseoils

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G.B.

    1989-11-28

    This patent describes a method of producing lubricating oil baseoil having a reduced coking tendency. It comprises: subjecting the baseoil to conditions which accelerate formation of asphaltene coking precursors in the baseoil. The conditions comprising oxidizing the baseoil by sparging the baseoil with an oxidizing gas selected from the group consisting of air, oxygen; ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and mixtures thereof; and removing the asphaltene formed from the baseoil by contacting the baseoil with a liquid antisolvent. The liquid antisolvent being miscible with the baseoil and having a higher insolubility for the asphaltene than the baseoil has for the asphaltene whereby the asphaltene is precipitated.

  3. Singlet fission in reduced dimensions of crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichen, Paul; Eaves, Joel

    2014-03-01

    In some molecular systems the decay of an initially excited singlet into two independent triplets, a process called singlet fission, is highly efficient. Organic crystals are among the most promising candidates for increasing yields in next-generation photovoltaics. Although excitons are known to exist in reduced dimensions of crystals the role of dimensionality in the entanglement of two triplets born out of singlet fission remains unclear. We develop a quantum lattice model for singlet fission to examine the role of quantum entanglement and exciton delocalization.

  4. Segmented electrode hall thruster with reduced plume

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2004-08-17

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes along the channel, which make the acceleration region as localized as possible. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to minimize erosion and arcing. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to produce a substantial reduction in plume divergence. The use of electrodes made of emissive material will reduce the radial potential drop within the channel, further decreasing the plume divergence. Also disclosed is a method of arranging and powering these electrodes so as to provide variable mode operation.

  5. Polymer Coatings Reduce Electro-osmosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Blair J.; Snyder, Robert; Shafer, Steven G.; Harris, J. Milton; Van Alstine, James M.

    1989-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) film controls electrostatic potential. Electro-osmosis in quartz or glass chambers reduced or reversed by coating inside surface of chambers with monomacromolecular layers of poly(ethylene glycol). Stable over long times. Electrostatic potential across surface of untreated glass or plastic chamber used in electro-phoresis is negative and attracts cations in aqueous electrolyte. Cations solvated, entrains flow of electrolyte migrating toward cathode. Electro-osmotic flow interferes with desired electrophoresis of particles suspended in electrolyte. Polymer coats nontoxic, transparent, and neutral, advantageous for use in electrophoresis.

  6. Reduced gravity fecal collector seat and urinal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A waste collection system for use in a reduced gravity including a seat having an opening centrally located with a pair of opposed depressed valleys on opposite sides of said opening for accommodating the ischial tuberosities of a user. The seat has contoured surfaces for providing support of the user's body and includes a prominent ridge towards the rear, which provides forward-aft positioning cue to the user. A curved recess is provided adjacent the forward portion of the seat for accommodating a tubular urinal having an enlarged open mouth.

  7. Apparatus for reducing shock and overpressure

    DOEpatents

    Walter, C.E.

    1975-01-28

    An apparatus for reducing shock and overpressure is particularly useful in connection with the sequential detonation of a series of nuclear explosives under ground. A coupling and decoupling arrangement between adjacent nuclear explosives in the tubing string utilized to emplace the explosives is able to support lower elements on the string but yields in a manner which absorbs energy when subjected to the shock wave produced upon detonation of one of the explosives. Overpressure is accomodated by an arrangement in the string which provides an additional space into which the pressurized material can expand at a predetermined overpressure. (10 claims)

  8. Apparatus for reducing shock and overpressure

    DOEpatents

    Walter, C.E.

    1975-10-21

    The design is given of an apparatus for reducing shock and overpressure particularly useful in connection with the sequential detonation of a series of nuclear explosives underground. A coupling and decoupling arrangement between adjacent nuclear explosives in the tubing string utilized to emplace the explosives is able to support lower elements on the string but yields in a manner which absorbs energy when subjected to the shock wave produced upon detonation of one of the explosives. Overpressure is accommodated by an arrangement in the string which provides an additional space into which the pressurized material can expand at a predetermined overpressure.

  9. Reducing Truncation Error In Integer Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. Brooks; Berner, Jeffrey B.; Graham, J. Scott

    1995-01-01

    Improved method of rounding off (truncation of least-significant bits) in integer processing of data devised. Provides for reduction, to extremely low value, of numerical bias otherwise generated by accumulation of truncation errors from many arithmetic operations. Devised for use in integer signal processing, in which rescaling and truncation usually performed to reduce number of bits, which typically builds up in sequence of operations. Essence of method to alternate direction of roundoff (plus, then minus) on alternate occurrences of truncated values contributing to bias.

  10. Reducing patient suffering through compassionate connected care.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Christina; Wojciechowski, Sharyl; McConville, Elizabeth; Drain, Maxwell

    2014-10-01

    Patient experience continues to play an increasingly critical role in quality outcomes and reimbursement. Nurse executives are tasked with helping direct-care nurses connect with patients to improve care experiences. Connecting with patients in compassionate ways to alleviate inherent patient suffering and prevent avoidable suffering is key to improving the patient experience. The Compassionate Connected Care framework identifies strategies for meeting the challenges of connecting with patients and reducing suffering. Methods integrate clinical, operational, cultural, and behavioral aspects of care to target patient needs based on condition. Caregivers learn to better express empathy and compassion to patients, and nurse leaders are better equipped to engage nurses at the bedside. PMID:25208270

  11. Complete reconstruction of reduced density matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2000-08-01

    Different from traditional electronic structure methods, the contracted Schrödinger equation with reduced-density-matrix (RDM) reconstruction may be exact when only the 2-particle RDM is employed as the fundamental parameter. Although Rosina's theorem indicates that the 3 and the 4-RDMs are functionals of the 2-RDM, cumulant theory generates only those terms expressible as antisymmetrized products of lower RDMs. We present a formal solution for reconstruction where the approximate cumulant formulas are systematically corrected through contraction conditions. Using a part of the formal 3-RDM reconstruction, the CSE is compared with other methods through a quasi-spin model containing as many as eight-hundred fermions.

  12. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.; DAVINO,D.

    2002-06-02

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit.

  13. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V. S.; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability. PMID:24790576

  14. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, Georg F.; Comaskey, Brian; Sutton, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends.

  15. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, G.F.; Comaskey, B.; Sutton, S.B.

    1994-04-19

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends. 11 figures.

  16. Reducing background neutron rates in NERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Eric

    2003-10-01

    The experimental study of neutron rich nuclei can provide important data to better model the production and abundances of heavy elements from the r-process. In order to measure low emission rates of neutrons in certain nuclei, efforts have been made to reduce background rates in NERO (1). Simulations were done to calculate effective passive shielding and testing was carried out to evaluate it. Also, an active shielding system was designed to detect cosmic ray muons in an effort to create a veto in the data acquisition. The results of these efforts are presented here. 1. http://www.nscl.msu.edu/tech/devices/nero/

  17. Lubrication system with tolerance for reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor); McCune, Michael E. (Inventor); Dobek, Louis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A lubrication system includes an auxiliary lubricant tank 48, a supply conduit 58 extending from a source of lubricant 26 to the auxiliary lubricant tank. A reduced-G bypass line 108 branches from the conduit and enters the auxiliary tank at a first elevation E.sub.1. The system also includes an auxiliary tank discharge conduit 116, a portion of which resides within the tank. The resident portion has an opening 122 at least partially at a second elevation E.sub.2 higher than the first elevation.

  18. Lubrication System with Tolerance for Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor); McCune, Michael E. (Inventor); Dobek, Louis J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A lubrication system includes an auxiliary lubricant tank 48, a supply conduit 58 extending from a source of lubricant 26 to the auxiliary lubricant tank. A reduced-G bypass line 108 branches from the conduit and enters the auxiliary tank at a first elevation E.sub.1. The system also includes an auxiliary tank discharge conduit 116, a portion of which resides within the tank. The resident portion has an opening 122 at least partially at a second elevation E.sub.2 higher than the first elevation.

  19. Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

  20. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.

    2006-03-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.